115 results for 1980, ResearchCommons@Waikato

  • Empathic understanding : mythical or mystical an exploratory study into the nature of empathy and the relationship between empathy, perceived similarity and compatibility

    Yeoman, Lynette A. (1984)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The objectives of this exploratory study into the nature of empathy were two-fold. First, to investigate the association between two measures of counsellor empathy, the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (BLRI), rated from the perspectives of counsellors and clients and the Truax/Carkhuff Accurate Empathy Scale (TCAE) rated from the perspectives of observers, counselling supervisors and counsellors. Secondly, to investigate whether there was a relationship between empathy and dyadic compatibility (as measured by the FIRO-F scales), or empathy and the occasions, nature and degree of counsellor and client perceived similarity to the other (as described in post-counselling interviews). Sixty counsellor-client dyads (24 dyads across 1 - 3 sessions per dyad) were videotaped during counselling. Counsellors and clients were then interviewed independently, subsequent to each counselling session. The results of the study were described in three sections. Part 1 reported that while the BLRI and the TCAE scale both exhibited a high degree of reliability, they appeared to be measures of different constructs. Results of a factor analysis suggested that not only must the two instruments be treated as independent measures of empathy, but that ratings made from differing counselling perspectives (counsellor, client, external judge) using the same instrument, must also be treated independently. Client ratings of perceived similarity to their counsellors, and client ratings of counsellor (BLRI) empathy were highly correlated although there was no correlation between counsellors' perceived similarity to clients, and counsellor, observer or supervisor ratings of empathy. There was no correlation between FIRO-F dyadic compatibility and either perceived similarity or empathy. Part II involved an intensive case 3tudy comparison of specific dyadic rating patterns across measures of empathy, with patterns obtained from a content analysis of counsellor interview responses to questions on the occasions, nature and degree of similarity perceived between self and other. A complex matrix of findings was obtained which suggested that the link between empathy and counsellor perceived similarity to clients was not uniform and differed across both levels of empathy and perceived similarity. Part III presented an historical review of the nature of empathy, undertaken in order to clarify and interpret earlier reported findings. It was suggested that conceptualizations of empathy have altered markedly over time, largely as a result of researcher's and counselling trainer's need for observable, measurable and trainable processes within counselling. An eight phase model of the process by which empathic understanding may occur was presented, and the manner and extent to which the model could be deemed accountable for the findings of the present study was discussed. It was suggested that the divergent state of research associated with empathy may be largely attributable to the emphasis placed on one or several phases of the process to the exclusion of other phases. Suggestions for further research were offered, and the question was raised as to whether either the BLRI or the TCAE scale were in fact tapping any of the phases of empathy described in the present study.

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  • Sappers of the south: the origins and impact of the Corps of the Royal New Zealand Engineers

    Berry, Peter Edwin (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis traces the growth, leadership, changes in role, and strategic employments of the Royal New Zealand Engineers from their formation in 1902 until the present day. The writer has deliberately chosen to make his major concern the Corps development since the Second World War. However, because there was a military engineer presence in New Zealand prior to the Corps formation, indeed from the establishment of the first 'Redcoats' fighting force in New Zealand in the1840’s, a preliminary study has been done of the British and Volunteer New Zealand Sappers of the period prior to 1902. This thesis is intended as a contribution to New Zealand's sparse military history. Concentration on the post-war World War two period has seemed fitting in that, it is in this period that the Corps of the Royal New Zealand Engineers has provided specialist service, in diverse roles through the new regions of New Zealand’s strategic interest – South East Asia, the pacific and Antarctica.

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  • Sediment transport, river morphology and bottom sediments of the lower Waikato River

    Fenton, J. A. (1989)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Sand extraction from the bed of the lower Waikato River has occurred over the past three decades, primarily to meet the demands of the Auckland construction industry. The extraction has affected bed levels over large areas of the river. From analysis of the Waikato Catchment Board's periodic river channel cross sectional surveys degradation of river bed levels is seen to be occurring in the Puni to Huntly reach as a result sand extraction and river training, and in the Karapiro to Hamilton reach as a result of construction of the Karapiro dam. Noticeable degradation has occurred since 1964, and the rate has increased between the most recent bed level surveys, 1981 to 1987. The river level has lowered to an extent where further lowering will hinder the operation of water intake structures at the Huntly Power Station, and promote drainage of the Whangamarino wetlands. From the interpretation of echo sounding traces, aerial photographs and field observations it is seen that sand bar, dune and ripple bedforms exist in the lower Waikato River. Two distinct dune populations exist, a short steep group with a ripple index (λ/h) of about 24 and a long flat group with a ripple index of about 40. Sand bar bedforms, which have previously been loosely referred to as 'dunes', dominate the Huntly to Mercer reach and are related to a sinuous thalweg pattern. The bars also exist in two forms, with straight or strongly curved crests. A relationship between flow discharge and the rate of bar migration exists. However, at high flows(~> 600 m³/s) the bars become rounded and the crests undefineable. The river bed is devoid of detectable bedform (h < 0.1 m) immediately downstream of sand extraction sites. Using the relationship between bedload transport and discharge determined from bar migration in the present study, and a similar relationship developed previously (Finley, 1974), an estimate of medium term (for the period 1975 - 1989) bedload transport is 180 000 m³/yr. Several bedload transport functions were applied to the lower Waikato River. Colby's Relations (1964) was found to be the most applicable mathematical approach as it provided estimates of bedload transport comparable to those estimated from bar migration. The Karapiro dam has blocked the major supply of bedload, so the bedload transport rate can be expected to drop in future. The bottom sediments of the lower Waikato River are predominantly coarse poorly sorted pumiceous sands. There is no significant difference in textural statistics between the Mercer and Puni areas. The Puni area has a shallow pre-fluvial basal unit, thereby limiting the useful resource to 7- 9 m³/ m² of river bed. No pre-fluvial unit was found in the Mercer area. A sedimentation rate of 2.8 mm/yr since the Taupo eruption was inferred from stratigraphic data. From the results and interpretations in this study, continued sand extraction at the present rate at Mercer will promote further bed level lowering, and operations would be better concentrated in the tidally influenced areas around Puni. It is recommended that future cross sectional surveys should be conducted more regularly (2-3 yrs) and each survey should be completed over a shorter period (4-6 weeks), and regular future assessment of bedload transport should be made. A need exists for further research into the effects of sand extraction and management of the lower Waikato River.

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  • The Chronology of the Ross Sea II glaciation, an Antarctic glaciation of Illinoian Age

    Judd, Fiona Mary (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    A meltwater stream in the Marshall Valley, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica has revealed a stratigraphy of glacial drift and lacustrine lake beds. The sequence has been differentiated by U/Th dating into the Ross Sea I Glaciation (15-30,000 years B.P.), represented by a gypsum bed and the Ross Sea II(?) Glaciation (130-180,000 years B.P.), represented by three calcium carbonate and gypsum beds. The three Ross Sea II(?) lake beds may be differentiated from one another by an increasing calcite content with age, and a systematic change in the crystal type and morphology of the carbonates. Chemical analysis of the lake beds reveals that their components have differing sources. The freezing on of seawater and/or frozen out seawater precipitates can quantitatively provide the salts required. However U isotope studies shows that a weathered crustal component is present in the lake beds. Stable isotope analysis indicates that the meltwaters were formed at high altitudes of 1,900 m (Ross Sea I) and 2,500 m (Ross Sea II(?)), and originated as snow, precipitated approximately 5,000 km to the south. Ice sheet incursion into the valley created a proglacial lake. Calcium carbonate and gypsum were precipitated due to increased lake saturation conditions. Stable isotope studies show that the calcium carbonate deposition was triggered biologically by phytoplankton. The morphology of the calcium carbonate and the presence of gypsum indicates that evaporitic conditions were also necessary for lake bed deposition, with the distribution of gypsum and calcium carbonate within the lake being controlled by depth of water. Correlation of lake bed geochronology and geochemistry, together with the stratigraphy of the stream sections provides a glacial history of Marshall Valley for the last 180,000 years B.P. The last two Ross Sea glacial sequences rest upon an unconformably eroded glacial surface. The Ross Sea II(?) Glaciation commenced at 180,000 years with a glacial ice incursion into the valley, a stillstand, proglacial lake occupation and deposition of a lake bed. The ice front then advance farther up the valley, depositing large terminal loop moraines between Sections III and IV. The ice then retreated at least 2 km. A second glacial advance commenced prior to 160,000 years, stillstanded and produced the 160,000 year lake bed, before retreating. A minor fluctuation and readvance, deposited another lake bed (160,000 years) or reworked the previous lake bed into the overlying stratigraphy, before the ice retreat. The deposition of the 130,000 year lake bed was also a the result of a stillstand, before the retreat and cessation of the Ross Sea II(?) glaciation. The Ross Sea I Glaciation involved the advance of a glacier front from an ice sheet occupying the McMurdo Sound and the deposition of a gypsum lake bed (15-30,000 years B.P.). With the retreat of the ice front, downwasting of ice-cored moraines in the mouth of the valley began, and currently continues. The geochronology of the Ross Sea II(?) Glaciation correlates with eustatic sea level lowering in the Illinoian (Isotope Stage 6). Subsurface drilling indicates that the calcium carbonate deposition was a unique event but at least 8 earlier glacial incursions had occurred in the Marshall Valley. The geochronology of the Ross Sea I Glaciation correlates with the eustatic sea level lowering in the Wisconsin (Isotope Stage 2). The chronology and isotopic composition of the proglacial lake deposits can be matched to those in other ice-free valleys exposed to McMurdo Sound.

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  • Joseph W. Kemp and the impact of American fundamentalism in New Zealand

    Simpson, Jane Mary Ramsay (1987)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The contemporary rise of within conservative Christianity observers puzzled. Although the group, the Coalition of Concerned with the American 'Moral Majority', politically-active fundamentalism in New Zealand has left many New Zealand fundamentalist action Citizens, has denied direct links it is clear that the contemporary fundamentalist resurgence in New Zealand owes much to politicoreligious movements i n the United States of America. Some Christians who see fundamentalism as a distortion of the Christian faith have been quick to point out this American connection. In so doing, they implicitly reject the movement as being alien to more recent developments and attempts to create a distinctly indigenous theology in New Zealand. Can fundamentalism be ejected thus as a foreign body?

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  • Programming for concurrency control in database systems

    Tan, Puay Hiang (1989)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Concurrency control problems in centralized Database Management Systems have been actively studied in past two decades. Various types of concurrency control mechanisms have been proposed and implemented in practice. Among these mechanisms, Two-Phase Locking, Timestamping and Optimistic mechanisms have attracted most attention. This thesis presents a survey on these three mechanisms, identifies their major problems and ways to resolve these problems. Despite their popularity, literatures published to date on these three mechanisms are mostly theoretical in nature, discussions on their implementation issues are normally neglected. This thesis attempts to look into this aspect by investigating the use of concurrent programming techniques based on semaphore and monitor in their implementations. Detailed descriptions of the implemenations are given and various modifications to the concurrent programming techniques to improve their applicability in the DBMS environment are provided too.

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  • Solvent abuse in New Zealand: Descriptive data

    Britt, Eileen F. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The aims of this study were to develop and evaluate an assessment procedure and to use this instrument to gather descriptive data on solvent abuse in New Zealand. The Solvent Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ) was devised to identify type of solvent abuse. Its psychometric properties were established using samples of 41 solvent abusers and 15 non-abusers. Findings suggest that the SAQ has potential to accurately discriminate different types of solvent abuser and thus to serve as a guide to appropriate treatment. Descriptive data obtained from subjects ' responses to the questionnaire suggests that the solvent abusing sample shared many characteristics with solvent abusers described in previous research on solvent abuse, both overseas and in New Zealand. Furthermore, the solvent abusing subjects appeared different to the non-abusing subjects, reporting more feelings of depression and self-dislike, and more potential side-effects of solvent abuse (i.e. impaired concentration, frequent nasal discharge, nose-bleeds).

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  • The Design of a Two Level Code Generator

    Byrne, Michael (1987)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Rcode intermediate code used in the University of Waikato Portable Language Implementation Project (PLIP) compiler system has been designed to represent the source program independently of the source language and the target machine environment, with only sufficient structural information to ensure that efficient target machine code can be represented. Like many such intermediate codes, significant work is still required to produce target machine code. This study has investigated the design and use of a second intermediate code that divides the code generator into two phases, based on the observation that generation of target machine code will have many similarities for machines that are architecturally similar. This code is a Generic Action Set (GAS) code that represents common architectural family. The first phase is the generation of GAS code and its optimisation, and is common for all machines in the family. The second phase is the generation of target machine code from GAS code. It has been recognised that generation of target machine code for machines in the family will still involve many similarities, abstraction but machine idiosyncrasies make difficult. However the development of adequate "fluid" abstractions portability definition for machines in the family to assist of compiler code has been studied, using the provided for the GAS family as a basis for the level of abstraction. Producing a code generator for a new machine will often involves very little effort, if one already exists for a similar machine.

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  • Early childhood developmental disabilities and intervention in language, communication and social relationships

    Gibbs, Colin J. (1981)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The ecological perspective of child development is receiving increasing attention from researchers and interventionists in recent times. Such a perspective of child development “...involves the scintific study of the progressive, mutual accomodation between an active, growing human being and the changing properties of the immediate settings in which the devloping person lives, as this process is affected by relations between these settings and by the larger contexts in which these stteings are embedded.” (Bronfenbrennar 1979, p.21) These important issues arise from this viewpoint and have iomplication in terms of intervention strategies. First, the child is viewed as a growing and active organism who progressivley enters into and restructures his environment. Secondly, there exists a reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. Thirdly, the developmental importance of the environment is not restricted to a single setting, but encompasses interconnections between settings as well as in the larger ecological environment (Bronfenbrenner, 1974, 1979).

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  • A woman's reckoning: a feminist analysis of the power of the internationally accepted conception and implementation of the United Nations System of National Accounts

    Waring, Marilyn J. (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA) was the formal and global institutionalization of the development of national accounts over a period of several centuries. Each man responsible for the development is historically located within a government in the midst of mercantile, colonial expansionism (civil and colonial wars) or global conflict (World Wars I & II). While apologists for the pathology now evident in the implementation of the UNSNA describe its conception as an attempt, with limited indicators and blunt tools, to produce the best possible measurement system for a particular short-term historical contingency, the over-riding ideology of power inherent in the conception and implementation of the UNSNA is patriarchy. Given the maintaining this system in place are devastating - both to and for the majority of the human species, and for the eco-system of the planet. This thesis establishes the conception of the UNSNA in Western political and economic patriarchal ideology. It exposes, in the narrow terms of the UNSNA, the major flaws of the system, and the passage of 'blame' from one 'profession' to another in locating responsibility for the perpetuation of a chronically impaired system. Then the thesis examines the nature of 'reproduction' not as 'another form of production', but as the primary exchange, the economic principle before and beyond which no production can exist. The absence of this concept from political economy, even as an extended debate is distinctly patriarchal. The environment, by way of analogy with women and children, suffers a similar rape, abuse, enslavement, and invisibility in the conception and implementation of the UNSNA. The global resource abuses and the policy consequences of such a treatment are examined in detail. Various reforms suggested of the UNSNA have been and are being developed. While some would offer the possibility of short-term policy options which would be of some improvement, the problem of pursuing only one indicator, the market dollar, remains. My own experience as a legislator has seen this as a barren basic, and I discuss a variety of options. Throughout 'A Woman's Reckoning', the approach is one of feminist scholarship, and the theoretical and political base of the thesis are unavoidably those of an enquiring activist.

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  • Structa saxo (founded upon a rock): the genesis and development of A.F.B. Broadhurst's English-style preparatory boarding school for boys Saint Peter's School, Cambridge, New Zealand, 1936-1978

    Bull, Francis Arthur Lovelace (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the genesis and development of St Peter's School, Cambridge, originally founded as a small preparatory boarding school in 1936. Though there are relatively few such schools in New Zealand they have through encouragement of certain attitudes an impact disproportionate to their number of pupils. Little has been written about such institutions and this is an historical study of one of the most interesting. A brief introductory survey of the main developments in the New Zealand education system including the dominance of the State in elementary schooling and the continuing demands for independent and alternative schools provides a general background to the study. The second chapter looks at the social and educational influences upon the Englishman who founded St Peter's school. A.F.B. Broadhurst, born in to a wealthy merchant family, was educated at a progressive preparatory school, West Downs, followed by Winchester and Oxford. He served in a variety of postings in the First World War, but eventually returned to teach at West Downs School. Confirmed in his choice of vocation and convinced of the excellence of educational methods and philosophy of West Downs, Broadhurst determined to found his own school, and bought a property for this purpose near Cambridge, New Zealand. Chapter three details the establishment of the school to Broadhurst’s specifications. It was built with his private wealth and basically to his own design, incorporating many modern amenities. The founder recruited The Rev. J.M. Beaufort as joint headmaster and as chaplain; together they recruited staff and Beaufort's local reputation helped to draw in pupils and staff. Broadhurst's insistence on his proprietorial rights was a strong factor in the departure of Beaufort. To perpetuate the school, Broadhurst ‘gave’ it to a Trust, but retained effective control. Chapter four surveys the Broadhurst philosophy: small classes, progressive teaching methods, a start soon after a boy's eighth birthday and boarding. These were all important and Broadhurst gave direction to the life of the school. Hobbies were emphasised, self - discipline was encouraged. His "whole man" philosophy included aesthetic and spiritual development and was expressed through music and the school chapel especially. Chapter five, which begins with the retirement of Broadhurst in 1960, discusses the problems of succession to the headmastership, the numerical and physical decline of the school and its revival under D.J. Thornton, headmaster 1960 (Term III) to 1978. Thornton and the Trustees made changes with the introduction of day boys, more contact with the Cambridge community, greater competition in academic and sporting aspects, and most importantly the creation of a secondary department in the 1970's. The Conclusion gathers evidence from the study: concepts and patterns previously discussed are considered. Some specific points about St Peter's School are made and general observations on the place of preparatory schools in New Zealand and the exiguousness of detailed studies of these, complete the final chapter of this thesis.

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  • "Bringing it home" New Zealand responses to the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939

    Skudder, Susan Mary (1986)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis discusses New Zealander's attitudes to and involvement in the Spanish Civil War, 1936 to 1939. Although distance muted the war's impact, three general divisions of opinion developed in New Zealand - pro-Republicanism, pro-Francoism and "Non-Interventionism". The first Labour Government's "limited pro-Republicanism" illustrated its commitment to collective security and was expressed at the League of Nations and in communications with Britain. Its policy was part of a move towards more independent judgement in foreign affairs and caused some strain in relations with the British Government, but was ultimately restricted by commitment to the Commonwealth. Expression of sympathy with the Spanish Government was limited by appreciation of the potential divisiveness of the issue. The National Party and some newspapers objected to Labour's policy. These "Non-Interventionists" considered the ideological issues of the war irrelevant to New Zealanders and regarded the war largely in terms of Imperial strategic concerns. They supported British non-intervention policy and accused Labour of disloyalty to Britain. It is argued that this insular imperialist view of the war and of New Zealand's role in international affairs was the real opposite to both pro-Francoist and pro-Republican views, although conservatism and anti-Communism brought "Non-Interventionism" closer to pro-Francoism. Although in general pro-Francoist and pro-Republican views reflected overseas attitudes, both applied the issues of the war to the New Zealand scene. Support for Franco was mainly confined to Catholics, who saw the war as a battle between Catholic Christianity and Communism. Catholic newspapers objected to Labour's policy, but there was some ambivalence towards British non-intervention. Catholics saw pro-Republicanism as anti-Catholic and also indicative of the presence of the Communist menace in New Zealand, but did little to promote Franco's cause other than through letters to newspapers. There is more extensive discussion of the more diverse group that constituted the pro-Republican movement. The Communist Party's slogan of "Democracy versus Fascism" was generally accepted on the Left, but it failed to create a wider Popular Front from pro-Republicanism. The Labour Party, mindful of Catholic voters' views and suspicious of Communism, was publicly cautious, although its newspaper was pro-Republican. Long standing divisions on the Left were not exacerbated by the issue, but neither were they entirely healed. However, intellectuals, Christians, workers and Labourites came together in the Communist-inspired Spanish Medical Aid Committee a focus for propaganda and fund-raising for aid to Republican Spain. Condemnation of British policy and support for Labour's independent stand was a significant feature of New Zealand pro-Republicanism. The motives and experiences of the few New Zealanders with the International Brigades and Republican medical units, as well as the one New Zealander who fought for Franco, are considered. There is some discussion of non-partisan humanitarian appeals for aid to Spain. The Spanish conflict did not have a great or lasting impact upon New Zealanders. However, the responses of New Zealanders were significant in their revelation of differing perceptions of the world imperialist and internationalist - and in the development of a new independent outlook that questioned the nature and value of New Zealand's relation with Britain and foreshadowed New Zealand's full acceptance of independent nationhood after the Second World War.

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  • Henry Hill – Frontier Inspector

    Matthews, Alison Kay (1984)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Although school inspectors appear frequently as occasional actors in New Zealand nineteenth century educational history the part they played in developing regional systems of education has been little considered. Employed initially by provincial governments and later by education boards, inspectors were relied upon to be the public's educational watchdogs. Scholarly standards had to be attained and maintained, spending on education carefully supervised. Some insight into the role of the pioneering inspectorate is afforded by this 'case study' which examines the work done in Hawke's Bay between 1878 and 1900 by inspector Henry Hill. Primary education made free and compulsory by the 1877 Education Act, threw former provincial schools into disarray as hundreds of children flocked to the 14 schools in the Hawke's Bay Educational District. Hill1 s initial task, therefore, was to bring some semblance of order by negotiating the hireage of temporary school buildings, purchasing new school sites, supervising the construction and maintenance of schools, directing inexperienced teachers and advising newly elected school committee and Board members. Ever aware of the needs of both teachers and children, Hill strove to employ qualified teachers and to evolve a more relevant curriculum for children. Always motivated by a professional concern for those in his care the inspector introduced many innovative features to a national system of education. Because education derives its purpose, form and content from the particular social environment in which it develops its history, to be truly understood, must be viewed as a part of the total history of a people. The aim throughout this study has been, therefore to describe and explain educational developments within the province not in isolation from, but in relation to the evolving social order of nineteenth century Hawke's Bay. This study hypothesizes that throughout the Colony, education board inspectors were primarily responsible for implementing the 1877 Education Act and that in Hawke's Bay Inspector Henry Hill was particularly influential in bringing the work of the most educationally backward of provinces into line with others more richly endowed.

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  • Carbon dioxide exchange in lichens: Relationship between the diffusive resistance of carbon dioxide and water vapour

    Green, T.G. Allan; Snelgar, W.P. (1982)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Gaseous diffusion resistances for carbon dioxide and water vapour, thallus water content and thallus water potential were experimentally determined on species of the Stictaceae. The diffusion resistance to water loss was high only at low water contents and correlated closely with thallus water potential. Carbon dioxide diffusion resistances, however, were high at both low and high water contents and, even at medium water contents, were still an order of magnitude greater than the water resistance. These results indicate that carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange occur by different pathways in these lichens. Consequently it is suggested that the lichens have structural adaptations which separate the functions of water uptake, water storage and carbon dioxide exchange.

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  • Further nomenclature and chemical notes on Pseudocyphellaria in New Zealand

    Galloway, D.J.; James, P.W.; Wilkins, Alistair L. (1983)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Nomenclatural notes on the following taxa are provided: Pseudocyphellaria billardierii, P. carpoloma, P. faveolata, P. rufovirescens and P. subvariabilis. Detailed chemical profiles are given for all described species of Pseudocyphellaria in New Zealand. Pseudocyphellaria ardesiaca, P. degelii, P. durietzii, P. fimbriata, P. fimbriatoides, P. gretae, P. knightii, P. maculata and P. sericeofulva spp. nov. are described for the first time.

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  • Motility of the reticulum and rumen of sheep given juice-extracted pasture

    McLeay, Lance M.; Kokich, D.C.; Hockey, H-U.; Trigg, T.E. (1982)


    University of Waikato

    1. Sheep were fed on different diets of juice-extracted herbage to determine what effect juice-extraction had on reticulo-rumen motility. 2. The frequency of A and B sequences of contraction of the reticulo-rumen were recorded during eating, rumination and inactivity for continuous periods of 24–72 h by using integrated electromyograms obtained from electrodes implanted in the musculature of the reticulum and cranial dorsal rumen. 3. Animals were fed on herbage in which approximately 200 g/kg dry matter had been removed in juice extracted from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), mixed ryegrass–white clover and lucerne (Medicago saliva). 4. Over all the frequency of A sequences of contraction did not differ in animals fed on pressed herbage or the unpressed material from which it was derived, although it was slower during rumination on some of the pressed material. In contrast, the frequency of B sequences was higher on the pressed material. The frequencies of contraction of A and B sequences in animals fed on pressed herbage was related to the activity of the animals in the order eating > rumination > inactivity. 5. Changes in reticulo-rumen motility due to juice extraction were small and the frequencies of A and B sequences of contraction in sheep fed on pressed herbage were in the range encountered in ruminants consuming more conventional foods.

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  • Social change, migration and pregnancy intervals

    Pool, Ian; Sceats, Janet E.; Hooper, A.; Huntsman, J.; Pummer, E.; Prior, I. (1987)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Maternity histories from residents of a Pacific Island society, Tokelau, and migrants to New Zealand, are analysed using life table techniques. Inter-cohort differentials in patterns of family formation were found in the total Tokelau-origin population. The process of accelerated timing and spacing of pregnancies was more pronounced among migrants who tended to marry later, be pregnant at marriage, have shorter inter-pregnancy intervals at lower parities and to show evidence of family limitation occurring at higher parities. These results point to the significance of changing patterns of social control on strategies of family building.

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  • Microprocessor-based digital correlator

    Thomas, John C.; Lum, Y.T.; Kennett, David (1983-10)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a low-cost, microprocessor-based digital correlator. The device has 128 channels, operates in either the single clipping or single scaling mode, and allows selection of the sample interval with 2-digit precision over the range 100 ns to 9.9 s. The device can be operated in the autocorrelate or cross-correlate mode and may easily be expanded to more than 128 correlation channels.

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  • The influence of the lithological and geotechnical properties of rocks on the morphology of glacial valleys

    Augustinus, Paul Christian (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The glacial valley cross-profile has traditionally had its development attrituted to the physical properties of the eroding glacier, with the input of the properties of the eroded rock mass to the development of the valley system considered in a purely qualitative sense. The present study shows that the size of the outlet trough is directly related to the volume of ice discharged through it, estimated from the glacier contributing area. The trough size and morphological variations therein, can be partially attributed to the influence of the bedrock strength properties. Rock intact strength measures showed little relationship to the form of the glacial trough. However, a modified rock mass strength method was developed and applied to a variety of morphological and geological terrains in the vicinity of the Main Divide of the New Zealand Southern Alps. The results indicate a significant correlation between the cross-valley form and mass strength (RMS) properties of the eroded bedrock. The RMS controls on the development of the trough were: joint spacing, joint orientation and joint continuity. The trend suggests that weaker, more densely jointed bedrock tends to develop broader, flatter valleys. RMS with respect to subaerial processed controls the extent of post-glacial/interglacial modification of the trough slope, and development of zones of weakened slope rock that could be preferentially exploited by subsequent glazier re-advances. Due to their position astride the Alpine Fault, the New Zealand Southern Alps are subjected to high levels of shallow crustal horizontal stresses. The PHS directions are indicated by geodetic and earthquake first-motion studies, as well as conjugate shear joint and glacial valley orientations. The in situ stress field may control the location and extent of rock failure, when considered in conjunction with the high gravitational stresses induced by the extreme relief. Finite element models of typical glacial troughs suggest that rock intact strength properties control the likelihood and site of stress-induced bedrock failure. Thus, the shape of a glacial trough depends not only on the physical properties of the glacier, but on the geotechnical propertied of the host rockmass. The stress-induced controls on the site of rick mass failure are important controls on the locus of erosion. Following development of the glacial trough, considerable modification of the size and form of the valley cross-profile may occur depending on the mass strength of the de-buttressed slope rock.

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  • Isolation of anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, sulphur metabolising archaebacteria from New Zealand hot springs

    Patel, B.K.C.; Jasperse-Herst, P.M.; Morgan, Hugh W.; Daniel, Roy M. (1986)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Enrichments of New Zealand geo-thermal samples, initiated in anaerobic sulphur-containing media and incubated at temperatures above 85°C, yielded rod and coccal shaped organisms which possessed archaebacterial characteristics. Pure cultures were isolated and characterised. Five of the seven isolates, which were rod-shaped organisms and did not have an obligate requirement for sulphur respiration, were similar to Ther-moproteus sp. but had more neutral pH optima for growth. Three of these five Thermoproteus sp. were obligate heterotrophs, which has not previously been reported. The two coccal isolates had an obligate requirement for sulphur as an electron acceptor and were similar to Desulfurococcus sp. but again with more neutral pH optima for growth.

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