573 results for 1980, Doctoral

  • An examination of certain aspects of industrial relations ideologies : a theoretical analysis and an empirical study of managers

    Geare, Alan J. (1986)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 437 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 423-437. University of Otago department: Management.

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  • The epidemiology and control of cervical cancer

    Cox, Brian (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 405 leaves :ill. ; 31 cm. Bibliography: leaves 348-376.

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  • A study of some New Zealand natural products.

    Jogia, Madhu Kant (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 348 leaves :col. ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Chemistry

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  • Comparative feeding ecology of New Zealand marine shags (Phalacrocoracidae)

    Lalas, Chris (1983)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxii, 228 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm Includes bibliographical references. Appendix consisting of revised ch. 3 (leaves 292-308) in pocket. University of Otago department: Zoology

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  • Contribution of honeybees to white clover pollination in hill and high country grasslands under development in Otago

    Ogden, Stephen C. (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Development of the hill and high country tussock grasslands of Otago (N.Z.) by aerial oversowing with legumes has been carried out on a large scale without concurrent research into the role of reseeding in the longevity of legume based pastures, or of the agents responsible for pollination. The present study focuses on (1) the level of pollination and seeding that occurs in hill country areas remote from apiaries, {2) how pollination levels can best be increased by the introduction of managed apiaries, {3) whether a honeycrop is available to the beekeeper to offset additional costs of operating in a more difficult environment, and (4) to identify some of the difficulties of high country beekeeping. In areas remote from commercial apiaries where no honeybees were found, pollination levels of approximately 20% were recorded. Low numbers of honeybees from non-experimental apiaries were found at most sampling sites, producing pollination levels generally between 20-30% and 2-3kg/ha of good seed. By manipulating insect access to white clover plots the maximum pollination level attainable by high densities of honeybees and bumblebees was found to be 97% and 95% respectively. Self pollination was thought to have caused between 1% and 7% pollination in cages where insects were excluded, and a high percentage of this seed was aborted. Very large increases in pollination and seed production were recorded following the introduction of an apiary to a hill country area remote from commercial apiaries. The pollinating range of honeybees from hill country apiaries was between 1km and 2km, and pollination levels declined with increasing distance from the apiaries. To maximise pollination, seed, and honey production it is recommended that 16-hive apiaries be spaced 2.5km-3km apart, depending on flower densities. Differences in pollination and seed production between sites with varying aspect were mainly caused by physical and climatic attributes of aspect influencing the timing and density of white clover flowering. A programme of pollen trapping revealed that pollen sources in high country areas may lack diversity and that pollen gathering can be restricted by unfavourable weather conditions in early spring. Pollen deficiency was identified as a probable cause of crop failure in hives overwintered in the high country for two consecutive winters. A programme of hive weighing showed that the honeyflow in high country areas can be very short, and can be curtailed by climatic conditions before the end of flowering. Honeycrop increases of up to 50% were recorded in high country apiaries at the expense of a 100% cost increase. Honeybees are necessary to produce high pollination levels in high country areas, however beekeeping in these areas is not economically viable at the present time.

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  • Sappers of the south: the origins and impact of the Corps of the Royal New Zealand Engineers

    Berry, Peter Edwin (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis traces the growth, leadership, changes in role, and strategic employments of the Royal New Zealand Engineers from their formation in 1902 until the present day. The writer has deliberately chosen to make his major concern the Corps development since the Second World War. However, because there was a military engineer presence in New Zealand prior to the Corps formation, indeed from the establishment of the first 'Redcoats' fighting force in New Zealand in the1840’s, a preliminary study has been done of the British and Volunteer New Zealand Sappers of the period prior to 1902. This thesis is intended as a contribution to New Zealand's sparse military history. Concentration on the post-war World War two period has seemed fitting in that, it is in this period that the Corps of the Royal New Zealand Engineers has provided specialist service, in diverse roles through the new regions of New Zealand’s strategic interest – South East Asia, the pacific and Antarctica.

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  • Orbital characteristics of meteoroids

    Steel, Duncan (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The bulk of meteoroidal particles follow pseudo-random orbits and are termed sporadic meteoroids. These are thought to be derived from the correlated streams of particles released by comets, although the mechanisms by which their orbits are dispersed have been the subject of some confusion. By developing techniques to compute the frequency of close encounters with each of the planets, and also the gross outcome of such events, it is shown that most sporadic orbits are a result of gravitational scattering by the giant planets. Jupiter plays the major role. Although catastrophic impacts with smaller particles limit the lifetimes of meteoroids, this mechanism is not responsible for the bulk of the stream disruption. With a simple model of the zodiacal cloud, the method is also used to find the collisional lifetime of meteoroids including for the first time the dependence upon inclination. The rate of meteoroid depletion by planetary collisions and hyperbolic ejections resulting from close approaches is calculated. It is found that for Jupiter-crossing meteoroids these losses are as rapid as those due to the PoyntingRobertson effect. This theory is also applied to six peculiar asteroids, including Hidalgo and Chiron. These prove to have extremely short-lived orbits: large orbital variations occur on a timescale of only ~10³ years. It is also shown that Pluto exists in its Neptune-crossing orbit solely because of the stable resonance which prohibits approaches between the two in the present epoch. The collision rate between the Apollo-Amor-Aten asteroids and each of the terrestrial planets is calculated using all 76 known objects. The result using this new procedure (4-6 Earth impacts per million years) is somewhat higher than previous estimates, indicating that these asteroids do not represent a steady-state population.

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  • Seismic resistant design of base isolated multistorey structures

    Andriono, Takim (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Base Isolation technique and its benefits in reducing the transmitted earthquake energy into a structure has gained increasing recognition during the last two decades. This recognition is indicated by the application of Base Isolation systems to a large number of bridges, several multistorey buildings and some power plants in countries which have high seismic risk. Unfortunately, the currently available design procedures, especially for multistorey structures, seem inadequate and too restrictive and as a result present practice still relies upon a series of deterministic time history analyses which are not only impractical for design purposes but appear unable to give the designer a clear insight into the seismic behaviour of the multistory structure. This research is carried out to investigate in more detail the effects of various structural parameters and ground motion characteristics on the seismic response of Base Isolated multistorey structures. It also reviews the shortcomings of the current design methods. The results are then used to develop two simplified analysis methods for practical design. The first method which is called the Code-Type approach can be used to accurately estimate the inertia forces, not only at the level of the isolation devices but throughout the height of the multistorey structure. It is recommended for use as a preliminary design tool or even a final design tool for simple Base Isolated multistorey structures. The second procedure which is based on the Component Mode Synthesis method is suggested for final design purposes of more complex Base Isolated multistorey structures. This method enables the designer to evaluate the effects of the isolation devices on the contribution of each mode of vibration to the total response of the structure.

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  • Blind deconvolution and phase retrieval

    Lane, Richard George (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Theoretical and practical aspects of identifying and deconvolving a convolution in more than one-dimension are presented. In contrast to conventional techniques which require knowledge of the blurring function, this thesis describes techniques for "blind" deconvolution. The techniques introduced differ from previous work in the field of blind deconvolution because they do not require an ensemble of similarly blurred images, i.e. they can be effectively employed upon a single convolution. The first method for blind deconvolution introduced relies on the analytic properties of the Fourier spectrum of a compact image. Rather than deal with continuous images, a discrete approximation is employed. It is argued, however, that approximation of the Fourier spectrum by a finite order polynomial model is a logical response to the practical constraints posed by limited a.mounts of noisy data. Since the convolution of two images is equivalent to a multiplication of their Fourier spectra, deconvolution is consequently equivalent to factorisation of their Fourier spectra. In one dimension it is always possible to factorise a polynomial, even when it is of infinite order. These factors correspond to isolated points, in the complex plane into which the Fourier spectra are analytically continued, where the spectra are zero. Since these points are distinct there are a large number of factors and hence there is usually a large number of ways of deconvolving a one-dimensional image. By contrast the analytically continued Fourier spectrum of a two-dimensional image exists in a four-dimensional space and is zero on a two-dimensional analytic surface, here called a zero-sheet. Because of the analytic nature of the zero-sheet it is not possible, in general, to factorise a two-dimensional spectrum or equivalently partition its zerosheet into separate analytic surfaces. The major exception is when the true image is a convolution in which case the zero-sheet is, in fact, the union of the zero-sheets of the components of the convolution. As a result the zero-sheet of a convolution can be partitioned into two zero-sheets which can be used to recover, to within a complex constant, the components of the convolution. The addition of noise is shown to link the zero-sheets of the components of the convolution. Consequently it is no longer possible to partition the zero-sheet without isolating and correcting these "bridges" between the zero-sheets of the components. The Fourier phase problem forms a special subclass of the blind deconvolution problem, one in which the true image and the blurring function are conjugate mirror images of each other. The data in the Fourier phase problem comprises the oversampled magnitude of the Fourier transform of the true image. Consequently, it is necessary to reconstruct the Fourier phase before an estimate of the true image can be formed. It is shown that a solution exists and the accuracy of the solution can be empirically related to the amount of noise present in the Fourier magnitude data. It is shown that a unique solution to the Fourier phase problem in more than one dimension exists except when the spectrum is the Fourier transform of a convolution. In this case, the number of solutions to the Fourier phase problem is related to the number of component images which have been convolved to produce the convolution. The second technique for deconvolution introduced in this thesis uses these multiple solutions to the Fourier phase problem to recover information about the phase of the spectra of the components of the convolution. The Fourier phase is, however, only recovered modulo π. The problems encountered in the modified magnitude problem, as it is called in this thesis, are analysed and techniques for overcoming these difficulties are described. A final result presented herein is an extension to an existing technique for blind deconvolution of ensembles of two-dimensional speckle images. It is shown that comparing the zero-sheets of the speckle spectra leads to a useful new approach to speckle imaging.

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  • An evaluation of the validity of multidimensional scaling methods : for the representation of cognitive processes

    Fraser, Christopher O (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study is an evaluation of the issues involved in providing a meaningful psychological interpretation of multidimensional scaling solutions, for example to regard them as valid representations of the cognitive processes involved in generating the data. The various metatheoretic approaches that have been developed to define appropriate procedures for the quantification of psychological attributes are discussed and evaluated. It is argued that much current psychological research is based on an inappropriate paradigm. In particular it is argued that the emphasis on magnitude estimation to generate psychological data is misplaced and scales derived from weak-ordered judgements are much to be preferred. Extending these arguments to the multidimensional case, it is argued that most applications of multivariate methods in psychology have shown insufficient recognition of the theoretical implications of using a particular technique. The application of any method of data analysis such as multidimensional scaling is only appropriate if it can be shown that the assumptions implicit in the scaling model are satisfied for that set of empirical data. In addition some variations in the scaling model, such as subjective metrics scaling, involve additional assumptions which need to be explicitly formulated and tested. These metatheoretic limitations, as well as evidence on the frequent occurrence of violations of its basic assumptions suggest that multidimensional scaling configurations can at best be attributed with only a limited degree of psychological significance. It is suggested that such value as it does possess is limited to the evaluation of non-dimensional structural hypotheses derived from some prior substantive theory. An empirical example is presented demonstrating that even when there appears an obvious and intuitive interpretation of the dimensions of a MDS configuration, the solution may be completely inappropriate as a model of the underlying cognitive processes. A second example however describes a more appropriate and successful application of multidimensional scaling methodology. A theoretical interpretation of emotion labelling based on Guttmans (1957 ) facet theory, was shown to be substantially confirmed in the structure of a MDS configuration.

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  • Regulation of microbial production in intertidal mudflats : the role of Amphibola crenata, a deposit feeding gastropod

    Juniper, S.K. (1982)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Interactions between the deposit feeding gastropod Amphibola crenata and the microbial community in intertidal mudflats were studied in laboratory and field experiments in two New Zealand estuaries. The study was mainly designed to reveal the effect of deposit feeding on bacterial and microalgal production and assess the importance of these microorganisms to the nutrition of the snail. The secondary aim was to compare the influence of Amphibola to external factors which regulate microbial production on the mudflat. Short-term effects of deposit feeding on bacterial production were examined by monitoring the recolonisation of Amphibola faeces by bacteria. Long-term effects on bacterial production were studied in artificial enclosures in the field where the effect of snail density on bacterial numbers and activity was monitored. These same enclosures were also used to study the effect of grazing by the snail on standing crop and productivity of the epibenthic algae. Assimilation of bacterial carborn by Amphibola was experimentally measured, and the contribution of bacterial and microalgal carbon to the snail’s carbon budget was estimated. The effect of microbial biomass on the feeding behaviour of Amphibola was also examined. It was found that a pulse in bacterial production occured during the recolonisation of Amphibola faeces by bacteria. This appeared to be similar in magnitude to the amount of bacterial biomass consumed by the snail - approximately 4. 5 mg C/m²/day. Amphibola also had a minor long-term influence on bacterial numbers and activity, but no clear effect on productivity was apparent. Grazing by Amphibola caused a substantial reduction in microalgal standing crop and productivity and affected the species composition of the microalgal community. Both the bacteria and microalgae serve as significant sources of carbon for the snail, but a large additional input of carbon is required to meet its nutritional needs. Other possible sources of carbon for the snail include meiofauna and non-living organic material. Amphibola was also found to alter its feeding rate in response to changes in microbial biomass, in a manner which may improve the return for feeding effort. In overview, it appears that Amphibola and the sediment bacteria similarly influence the other 's productivity while Amphibola has a greater effect on the microalgae than the microalgae have on Amphibola. Ultimate control of microbial productivity was concluded to be external to these relationships, with the snail acting only to modify seasonally determined levels of productivity.

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  • Phase manipulation of speech using FIR digital filters

    Stephen, R. D. C. (1987)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Three related investigations involving the fields of FIR digital filters, phase manipulation of speech, and speech coding via bandwidth compression are reported. The first investigation is aimed at providing a means of generating the impulse response coefficients of a non-linear phase FIR digital filter. Existing methods of designing linear-phase filters are discussed and compared from a defined common comparison base. The methods available for designing non-linear phase filters are examined. An existing linear phase design method is extended to the non-linear phase case and shown to be useful. The required impulse response length in the presence of non-linear phase is studied. Particular emphasis is placed on "random phase" filters and their generation because they are required by the second investigation. The second investigation examines in detail the ramifications of phase randomising a speech signal. The analytic zero representation of speech which forms the underlying base on which the discussion, and answers, are based is elucidated. The technique of using a non-linear phase FIR filter is shown to be feasible and as a minimum, offers at least the same level of performance as a very early reported technique. Significant differences in the behaviour of male and female speech is demonstrated. The third and final investigation reports some early and incomplete experiments on a radically different approach to achieving band width compression and expansion of a signal. The technique is referred to as "phase unwrapping". It is based on the application of a linear phase FIR digital filter in an adaptation of the traditional convolution relation. The motivation and validity of the basic idea is outlined and justified via application of the procedure to simple sinusoids and one experiment using real speech. The fundamental problem to be overcome is identified and the basis of a possible means of solution indicated.

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  • Aranuian pollen diagrams from montane Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Russell, John Blair (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Detailed site histories are developed from pollen analyses at six sites in three areas of montane Canterbury: Upper Rakaia Valley, Mt. Somers, Lake Sumner. A post-glacial (Aranuian) vegetational and climatic history for central montane Canterbury is developed from these site histories and pollen analyses published from other areas. The site histories relate broadly to existing knowledge, but it is shown that pollen diagrams from montane areas may not be taken as being directly representative of the regional vegetation. Forest in montane Canterbury became widespread in the upper Rakaia Valley 10,000 years ago. The subsequent spread of beech forest (species of the Nothofagus fusca pollen group) in montane Canterbury occurred about 6,000 years ago in the Waimakariri and Hurunui catchments; more than 4,500 years ago in the Harper tributary of the Rakaia River; and about 1,000 years ago in the vicinity of Prospect Hill in the upper Rakaia Valley. The isolated occurrence of silver beech (N. menziesii) in the Lake Stream tributary of the Rakaia River has a probable history of about 8,000 years, and at Prospect Hill, a local history of 2,000 years. Beech forests of the Hurunui catchment originated from a northern mixed beech source, while the beech forests of the Waimakariri and Rakaia catchments, and Mt. Somers, originated mainly from mountain beech (N. solandri var. cliffortioides) sources, scattered most probably in the foothills of the central Canterbury Alps. Present evidence suggests that there was a marked improvement in climate 10,000 years ago from cold early Aranuian conditions. It is thought that climatic conditions were most equable between 10,000 and about 6,000 yr B.P. when precipitation was higher than at present. Conditions deteriorated at about 6,000 yr B.P. becoming drier and less equable, approaching present conditions. Pollen and charcoal evidence of European, Polynesian, and prehistoric fires in the study areas contributes to the history man-caused and natural fires in Canterbury. Polynesian fires in the Upper Rakaia - Lake Heron - Mt. Somers region are seen as the coup de grace in a long established history of decline of montane podocarp forest there.

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  • Blind deconvolution and phase retrieval.

    Lane, Richard George (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Theoretical and practical aspects of identifying and deconvolving a convolution in more than one-dimension are presented. In contrast to conventional techniques which require knowledge of the blurring function, this thesis describes techniques for "blind" deconvolution. The techniques introduced differ from previous work in the field of blind deconvolution because they do not require an ensemble of similarly blurred images, i.e. they can be effectively employed upon a single convolution. The first method for blind deconvolution introduced relies on the analytic properties of the Fourier spectrum of a compact image. Rather than deal with continuous images, a discrete approximation is employed. It is argued, however, that approximation of the Fourier spectrum by a finite order polynomial model is a logical response to the practical constraints posed by limited a.mounts of noisy data. Since the convolution of two irn.ages is equivalent to a multiplication of their Fourier spectra, deconvolution is consequently equivalent to factorisation of their Fourier spectra. In one dimension it is always possible to factorise a polynomial, even when it is of infinite order. These factors correspond to isolated points, in the complex plane into which the Fourier spectra are analytically continued, where the spectra are zero. Since these points are distinct there are a large number of factors and hence there is usually a large number of ways of deconvolving a one-dimensional image. By contrast the analytically continued Fourier spectrum of a two-dimensional image exists in a four-dimensional space and is zero on a two-dimensional analytic surface, here called a zero-sheet. Because of the analytic nature of the zero-sheet it is not possible, in general, to factorise a two-dimensional spectrum or equivalently partition its zerosheet into separate analytic surfaces. The major exception is when the true image is a convolution in which case the zero-sheet is, in fact, the union of the zero-sheets of the components of the convolution. As a result the zero-sheet of a convolution can be partitioned into two zero-sheets which can be used to recover, to within a complex constant, the components of the convolution. The addition of noise is shown to link the zero-sheets of the components of the convolution. Consequently it is no longer possible to partition the zero-sheet without isolating and correcting these "bridges" between the zero-sheets of the components. The Fourier phase problem forms a special subclass of the blind deconvolution problem, one in which the true image and the blurring function are conjugate mirror images of each other. The data in the Fourier phase problem comprises the oversampled magnitude of the Fourier transform of the true image. Consequently, it is necessary to reconstruct the Fourier phase before an estimate of the true image can be formed. It is shown that a solution exists and the accuracy of the solution can be empirically related to the amount of noise present in the Fourier magnitude data. It is shown that a unique solution to the Fourier phase problem in more than one dimension exists except when the spectrum is the Fourier transform of a convolution. In this case, the number of solutions to the Fourier phase problem is related to the number of component images which have been convolved to produce the convolution. The second technique for deconvolution introduced in this thesis uses these multiple solutions to the Fourier phase problem to recover information about the phase of the spectra of the components of the convolution. The Fourier phase is, however, only recovered inodulo 1r. The problems encountered in the modified magnitude problem, as it is called in this thesis, are analysed and techniques for overcoming these difficulties are described. A final result presented herein is an extension to an existing technique for blind deconvolution of ensembles of two-dimensional speckle images. It is shown that comparing the zero-sheets of the speckle spectra leads to a useful new approach to speckle imaging.

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  • Seismic shear strength of circular bridge piers.

    Ang, Beng Ghee (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The project was carried out with the intention to study the shear strength of circular reinforced concrete bridge piers under seismic loading. Two series of tests were conducted. Initially, twenty-five column units were tested by subjecting them to static incremental reversed cyclic loading, to investigate the influence of some main parameters. The columns were loaded into the inelastic range to controlled displacement ductility levels. The second stage of experimental work involved dynamic testing of bridge piers, which were half scale models of the static test units on a shake-table. Altogether eight single pier models and two twin-pier models were tested. The single pier models were subjected to sinusoidal excitation while the twin-pier models were tested using scaled earthquake accelerograms. The performance of the test units was gauged mainly in terms of shear strength and displacement ductility capacity. Four failure modes were identified according to the displacement ductility level at which significant degradation occurred. The static test results indicated that existing code provisions for shear strength were conservative and suggested that the level of shear strength and the displacement ductility might be related. The behaviour of single pier models in the dynamic tests was compatible with that of the static test units. The behaviour of the twin-pier models was less predictable, especially when axial tension was acting. The dynamic magnification effect on material strength due to higher strain rate was not significant in the tests. A design method was proposed as an outcome of the static tests. The proposal allows the shear strength and the displacement ductility capacity to be determined, and has been incorporated into an integral flexure/shear design approach in which the provision of transverse reinforcement is considered for confinement as well as shear resistance. Some theoretical study was also conducted using 'Diagonal Compression Field Theory'. The theory was adapted using a stress strain relationship developed for confined concrete. The agreement between the predicted and the experimental behaviour in terms of load displacement response was reasonable.

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  • A woman's reckoning: a feminist analysis of the power of the internationally accepted conception and implementation of the United Nations System of National Accounts

    Waring, Marilyn J. (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA) was the formal and global institutionalization of the development of national accounts over a period of several centuries. Each man responsible for the development is historically located within a government in the midst of mercantile, colonial expansionism (civil and colonial wars) or global conflict (World Wars I & II). While apologists for the pathology now evident in the implementation of the UNSNA describe its conception as an attempt, with limited indicators and blunt tools, to produce the best possible measurement system for a particular short-term historical contingency, the over-riding ideology of power inherent in the conception and implementation of the UNSNA is patriarchy. Given the maintaining this system in place are devastating - both to and for the majority of the human species, and for the eco-system of the planet. This thesis establishes the conception of the UNSNA in Western political and economic patriarchal ideology. It exposes, in the narrow terms of the UNSNA, the major flaws of the system, and the passage of 'blame' from one 'profession' to another in locating responsibility for the perpetuation of a chronically impaired system. Then the thesis examines the nature of 'reproduction' not as 'another form of production', but as the primary exchange, the economic principle before and beyond which no production can exist. The absence of this concept from political economy, even as an extended debate is distinctly patriarchal. The environment, by way of analogy with women and children, suffers a similar rape, abuse, enslavement, and invisibility in the conception and implementation of the UNSNA. The global resource abuses and the policy consequences of such a treatment are examined in detail. Various reforms suggested of the UNSNA have been and are being developed. While some would offer the possibility of short-term policy options which would be of some improvement, the problem of pursuing only one indicator, the market dollar, remains. My own experience as a legislator has seen this as a barren basic, and I discuss a variety of options. Throughout 'A Woman's Reckoning', the approach is one of feminist scholarship, and the theoretical and political base of the thesis are unavoidably those of an enquiring activist.

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  • Negotiation versus mediation in international conflict: Deciding how to manage violent conflicts

    Jackson, Richard D. W. (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The thesis is an attempt to fill the theoretical and empirical gap in current conflict management research, which has failed to examine methods of conflict management comparatively. Two dominant paradigms exist, neither of which is adequate to the task of comparing negotiation and mediation in the real world of international politics: the Psychology paradigm and the Third Party Intervention paradigm. An alternative theoretical framework, the Contingency framework of negotiation and mediation was therefore, constructed. This model suggests that negotiation and mediation are conceptually and empirically different, and specifies a series of contextual and process variables which are vital to any examination of conflict management. Utilising a unique data set of thousands of cases of negotiation and mediation coded according to the variables specified in the Contingency model, a general bivariate analysis, followed by a more in-depth multivariate analysis, revealed a number of important differences and similarities between the two methods. The results suggest that negotiation and mediation are different forms of conflict management, which are most likely to be successful under contrasting conditions in international politics. Negotiation is the most successful method overall, but tends to be limited to low intensity, interstate conflicts. Mediation tends to occur in the most intense, intractable, and primarily civil conflicts, and is useful under a number of onerous circumstances.

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  • Laser studies in flames

    Brady, Terence John (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Laser excited fluorescence was used to investigate minority species in premixed H₂:N₂:O₂ flames with temperatures ranging from about 1500 K to 2400 K. The species CH and NH were produced in a series of flames but detection by laser fluorescence failed. Fluorescence studies of metal atoms enabled the rate of spin-orbit relaxation Pb (7s³P₁°) → Pb (7s³P₀°) in collisions with atomic hydrogen and flame bulk-constituents to be measured. For hydrogen as the collision partner, the rate constant showed a negative temperature coefficient, varying as T⁻¹·⁷, whereas for other flame bulk constituents the rate constant showed a positive coefficient, varying as T¹·⁸. The process is described in terms of the Landau-Zener theory of non-adiabatic transitions between potential curves corresponding to excited states of the transient molecules formed during collisions. The magnitude of the rate constants and the signs of the temperature coefficients are predicted correctly by the application of the Landau-Zener theory.

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  • The use of microcomputers in chemical education

    Draper, R. D. (1986)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The use of computers for teaching in Chemistry has attracted widespread interest since computers became relatively common. However, despite considerable effort, no clear direction for their use as teaching tools has emerged. The advent of the microcomputer has recently brought the computer within the reach of all Chemists, and has resulted in a corresponding increase in the amount of software offered as teaching material. However, the apparent lack of direction available for new authors of software threatens both the credibility and effectiveness of the microcomputer in teaching. There was therefore a need firstly to investigate and secondly to evaluate techniques and strategies for the use of microcomputers in Chemistry. To perform such an investigation, a stand-alone teaching package based on a microcomputer was constructed, with NMR chosen as its subject. The first part of the package was the inclusion of programs to present the background theory of NMR. Allowing students the opportunity to experiment and practise with newly-learnt skills was the next stage of the development. Exercises allowed students to analyse and to generate 1H NMR spectra. Further exercises were needed to engage students in limited dialogue to further develop understanding. Analysis of the needs for the inclusion of such exercises indicated that an Author language would be useful. After consideration of the available software, a limited Author language was written. A variety of exercises were included in the package using this language. Evaluation of the package indicated that those students willing to use it did indeed derive considerable benefit from it. Analysis of student attitudes towards the package supported the view that it was successful. These attitudes also revealed a large potential for the use of similar packages in Chemistry. An effective package was created, with its elements using a variety of styles of presentation to students. The strengths and advantages of each style were noted in the construction of the package, and are embodied in the teaching package. A number of useful software tools were also created. Important guidelines for the formal inclusion of CAL as a style of teaching in Chemistry were developed.

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  • Experimental and theoretical studies of transient molecules

    Harrison, John Andrew (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Room temperature bimolecular rate constants for the reactions : 1 NH + N₂H₄ ---> products k₁ = (3.6 ± 2.2) x 10⁻¹⁵ cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ 2 NH + NO ---> products k₂ = (5.78 ± 0.64) x 10⁻¹¹ cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ 3 NH + NO₂ ---> products k3 = (1.61 ± 0.14) x 10⁻¹¹ cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ 4 BH + NO ---> products k₄= (15.6 ± 2.3) x 10⁻¹¹ cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ 5 BH + C₂ H₄ ---> products k₅ = (14.4 ± 1.7) x 10⁻¹¹ cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ have been measured along with upper limits for the reaction rates of : 6 BH + O₂ ---> products k₆ < 1.1 x 10⁻¹¹ cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ 7 BH + CH₄ ---> products k₇ < 9.4 x 10⁻¹³ cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ 8 BH + C₂ H₆ ---> products k₈ < 1.6 x 10⁻¹² cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ 9 BH + CO ---> products k₉< 1.3 x 10⁻¹³ cm³ molec⁻¹s⁻¹ All rates were measured at 1 torr buffer pressure. The effect of temperature on the rate constants for reactions 2,3,4 and 5 has been investigated along with the effect of varying the nature of the third body. NH (X, ³∑⁻) was generated from KrF 248.5 nm excimer laser photolysis of hydrazine and detected by laser induced fluorescence at 336 nm (A--> X, Q(0,0)). BH (X, ¹∑) was produced from ArF 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of diborane and the concentration was monitored by 433.4 nm laser induced fluorescence of the A--> X, Q(0,0) transition. Ab-initio calculations of species important on the potential energy surfaces of the systems: NH + NO, NO₂ NH₂ + NO, NO₂ BH +NO BH₂ + NO have been carried out in order to compliment the data obtained in the above, and future, experiments. Prompt emission observed in the 193 nm photolysis of diborane has been characterized. The emission bands and probable emitters (in brackets) were: 249.7, 208.9 nm (Boron atomic lines) * 254 - 326 nm (BH3*) 320 - 340 nm (BH₂*) 366 - 388 nm (BH3*) 423 - 450 nm (BH A - X) Assignment of the probable emitter was based on band structure, thermochemistry and observed power dependence of each of the bands. The two bands attributed to BH3* are the first experimentally detected electronic transitions for this important species. The band attributed to B H₂* is also a new transition. An apparatus capable of generating a pulsed supersonic molecular beam has been constructed. Software and hardware to determine the translational temperature for species in the beam has been developed and temperatures for beams of various species have been measured.

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