262 results for 1980, Masters

  • Stress : strain relationships for confined concrete : rectangular sections

    Scott, Bryan D. (1980)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An experimental investigation into the behaviour of square, confined, reinforced concrete columns was undertaken. Thirty 450 mm square, 1200 mm high units were cast with varying amounts of longitudinal and lateral steel. These were subjected to concentric or eccentric axial loads to failure at slow or dynamic loading rates. Confinement requirements of reinforced concrete columns are discussed and the results and analyses of experimental work presented. Results include an assessment of the significance of loading rate, eccentricity, amount and distribution of longitudinal steel, and the amount of confining steel. A general stress-strain curve for rectangular concrete sections loaded at seismic rates is proposed and compared with existing curves based on previous static loading tests.

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  • Engineering geological roading aggregate investigations of the Wakatipu Basin

    Watts, C. R. (1988)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Wakatipu Basin lies within the Otago Schist belt, and aggregates derived from the schist do not meet New Zealand basecourse specifications. This study comprises engineering geological investigations of the roading aggregate with the objective of identifying potential aggregate source areas which comply with specifications. Five aggregate sources, two glacial and three post-glacial, have been identified, and their geology related to aggregate quality. A survey of existing aggregate quarries confirmed the sub-specification quality of schist derived roading aggregate, and that the highest quality roading aggregate of the Basin is produced from exotic glacial transported graywacke. A graywacke rich aggregate source area of Kame terraces was investigated. Investigations included mapping at scales of 1:10 000 and 1:1 500, and the excavation of test pits. A geotechnical testing programme concluded that the Kame terrace source area was capable of producing roading aggregate for basecourse, and is comparable with the highest quality roading aggregate of the Wakatipu Basin. Subsequently, the Queenstown - Lakes District Council has developed an aggregate quarry within the Kame terrace source area.

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  • The palynology of the Ohai coalfield, Southland

    Warnes, Malcolm D. (1988)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Upper Cretaceous Morley Coal Measures in the Ohai Coalfield are one of three non-marine formations constituting the Ohai Group. In the past, seam correlation has generally been carried out using lithological criteria, however due to dramatic thinning and splitting of seams, associated faulting, and abrupt facies changes uncertainties in coal seam correlation have frequently arisen. In order to minimize lithostratigraphic uncertainties Couper (1964) pioneered a palynological zonation which demonstrated the potential of palynology for coal seam correlation. However, Couper's early work has proved unreliable and is in need of further refinement. Recent drillholes incorporating almost fully cored sequences of the Morley Formation have permitted further palynological examination of the coal measures. Nine drillholes were selected and 140 samples taken, at 10 metre intervals, for palynological analyses. The Morley Coal Measures are unconformably overlain by the Beaumont Coal Measures. This important boundary, though difficult to detect lithologically, is readily defined on palynological grounds. Biostratigraphic subdivision of the Morley Coal Measures was investigated by the application of three quantitative techniques. These entailed the construction and analysis of: (1) Standard pollen diagrams based on relative abundances of selected taxa and groups of taxa; (2) Pollen diagrams zoned by the numerical method of cluster analysis; (3) Ratios of selected taxa of recurrent and variably high frequency. Technique (1), involving relative abundance patterns of key taxa and groups of taxa was successful in providing a basis for subdivision of the Morley Coal Measures into three pollen zones, two interzonal units and two unzoned units. The three pollen zones were, in stratigraphically descending order: The Nothofagus kaitangata acme zone, the SPPA assemblage zone, and the Tricolpites reticulatus acme zone. Techniques (2) and (3) were, in all practicality, unproductive, although results suggested that, with refinement, cluster analysis could aid the zonation of pollen diagrams.

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  • Jack McCullough : workers' representative on the Arbitration Court

    Nolan, Melanie (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This biography of Jack McCullough is also the chronicle of the Canterbury Trades and Labour Council coterie he helped to organize at the turn of the century. This group of class conscious unionists attempted to persuade the nascent trade union movement to adopt their socialist objectives. This thesis examines the opposition that McCullough's coterie faced. It experienced difficulty, first, in distinguishing itself from an 'advanced' Liberal establishment in Christchurch which assiduously cultivated its working class power base. Organized Labour in Christchurch divided into Lib-Lab and Independent Labour factions. The Independent Labour unionists' attempt to use the arbitration system to rebuild class conscious unions was also vigorously opposed locally by a new managerial elite which attempted to control relations in the workplace and who had their own expectations of the Arbitration Court. McCullough's coterie's objectives were also challenged from the left by the militant Red Feds. Ultimately, however, McCullough's ideal ran aground. It was the victim not so much of the employers or the Red Feds as of a groundswell of more moderate Labour opinion which found its home in the Labour Party formed in July 1916. McCullough's coterie eventually failed in its attempt to create a democratic socialist revolution in its own lifetime based on either the trade union movement or the Labour Party. McCullough himself was thus left with his role as Workers' Representative on the Arbitration Court. Increasingly, he was to find this role impossible to sustain and resigned. His resignation and his entire career as workers' representative before the Court illustrates the difficulties faced by socialist reformers who chose to attempt to bring about reform from within the apparatus of the capitalist state.

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  • The earthquake resistance of reinforced concrete structural walls of limited ductility

    Mestyanek, J. M. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental study of three 1/3 to 1/2 scale model walls failing in shear under reversed cyclic loading. The main test parameter was the wall aspect ratio (height over length) . The following characteristics of response were considered: strength, displacement ductility, energy dissipation, and damageability. Recommendations are made for the design of future walls of limited ductility and the assessment of the likely seismic performance of existing walls that may respond primarily in a shear rather than flexural mode.

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  • Stratigraphy, structure and geological history of mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks across the Torlesse-like/non Torlesse boundary in the Sawtooth Range-Coverham area, Marlborough.

    Ritchie, D. D. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the geology of an approximately 100km2 area lying between the Clarence River and Kekerengu. The objectives were to determine the relationship of the "Torlesse-like" sawtooth Group to the late Early Cretaceous Coverham Group; to determine the relationship between the coeval Split Rock and Burnt Creek Formations within the Coverham Group; and to investigate the nature of Cretaceous events which led to the traditional differentiation into older Torlesse type "basement" and younger Cretaceous "cover". Geological mapping indicates the presence of three packets (Glencoe, Pikes and Coverham Blocks) of sedimentary rocks separated by the major Ouse and Pikes Faults. These packets comprise probable submarine fan flysch, massivE? sandstone, massive siltstone, acid tuffs and conglomerate of Sawtooth Group (Torlesse-like Urutawan - Motuan) unconformably overlain by probable slope basin flysch, massive siltstone, Inoceramus shellbed, and conglomerate of Coverham Group (non-Torlesse). The unconformity is most commonly angular but in a few places is a more subtle paraconformity. A further minor unconformity occurs at the base of the Ouse Member within the Split Rock Formation of the Coverham Group and is thought to reflect the presence of the growing Ouse Anticline. The Coverham Group rocks have similar Motuan - Teratan ages on each side of the Ouse Fault. The Split Rock Formation, previously used only for rocks in the middle Clarence Valley, has been extended to the Coverham area and used for rocks west of the Ouse Fault. The partly coeval Burnt Creek Formation east of the Ouse Fault was probably deposited some distance from the Split Rock Formation in a different basin separated by a structural high. They were juxtaposed by low angle reverse movement on the Fault in the Late Cretaceous. structural/deformation characteristics cannot be used as criteria for separating the Torlesse-like rocks from non-Torlesse rocks in the study area. It is dangerous to assume that 'Torlesseness' is a certain and particular state of deformation. Both the Torlesse (Sawtooth) and Coverham Group rocks exhibit a whole spectrum of deformation from 'broken formation' to more or less undisturbed beds. The pattern of deposition and deformation suggests an accretionary prism setting for these rocks. Sawtooth Group rocks are likely to represent 'younger' Pahau Terrane rocks which were deformed by a single intra-Motuan event either tectonic or perhaps a huge submarine slide, creating widespread unconformity between them and the Coverham Group slope deposits. Continuing instability is likely to have led to growing folds and further minor unconformities. The termination of the Rangitata Orogeny occurred in a progressive and evolutionary way representing a mid-Late Cretaceous change from a compressional subduction regime to a tensional rifting regime. Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanism was common in the late Early Cretaceous.

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  • An examination of selected novels by Graham Greene : with reference to the Teilhardian concept of the world and salvation

    Clark, Anthony Raymond (1980)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this thesis I have applied some of Teilhard de Chardin's concepts about the world, man and salvation to selected works by Graham Greene. Having found strong similarities between the subject matter and attitudes of the two writers, I believe that the comparison helps to demonstrate more clearly a systematic unity of theme and purpose in those novels I have selected, as well as offering some new insights into Greene's doctrine. I have made use of selected writings by Teilhard, in particular Le Milieu Divin and The Phenomenon of Man, as well as critical writings on these and his other works. Besides various critical writings on Greene and his works' I have selected for particular study the following novels: It's a Battlefield, Brighton Rock, The Power and the Glory; The Heart of the Matter and The End of the Affair. In Chapter 1, I examine the interest of both writers in Peguy and compare Teilhard's main ideas on the world and salvation with the way these matters are dealt with by Greene in general. The remaining 6 chapters deal with the five novels individually and provide a summary and conclusion. While the question of any positive influence of Teilhard's writings on Greene's own work is at present difficult to establish with certainty, there is such similarity between the concepts of Teilhard on the one hand and their fictional presentation in Greene's work on the other, that a more than coincidental link is suggested.

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  • Hari Hari : a study of land use and a community

    Maturin, Susan E. (1981)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A multi-disciplinary approach was used to study land use, and the associated community of Hari Hari. Land use decisions concerning forestry and agriculture, were placed in the context of social and economic needs of the human system and ecological requirements of the natural system. Data was collected from interviews with 17% of the Hari Hari community. The needs of the community were identified, from a detailed study of the Hari Hari people. Past and present land uses were studied in detail to determine the suitability of each land use, and its ability to work within the constraints imposed by the natural system. Future land use options and their social, economic and ecological implications were outlined. The most appropriate options were selected, according to their ability to satisfy the needs of the community, and ecological requirements of the natural systems. Appropriate options for agriculture included the following: a. continuing as at present; and, b. increasing farm management efficiency; and, c. diversification into opossum and deer farming. These options met ecological requirements and would contribute to community needs. The most appropriate option for forestry was found to be; immediate cessation of production logging until the natural constraints are identified and a logging system which works within these constraints is identified. This option conflicts with the social need to maintain employment. However the study found that closure of the sawmill would have little impact upon the Hari Hari community, other than a reduction in employment. Possible options for establishing alternative employment activities were suggested. These included a fur industry, an out-door pursuits centre, cottage industries, and ventures which would promote community self-sufficiency. As a whole, this study emphasised the value of a multi-disciplinary approach to land use planning.

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  • The mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Lower Tertiary smectite-mudstones, East Coast deformed belt, New Zealand.

    Fergusson, Linda Jan (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Marine smectite-mudstones of Lower Tertiary age (Teurian to Runangan) occur throughout the East Coast Deformed Belt of New Zealand. In Marlborough, Marl lithofacies of the Amuri Limestone comprise calcareous, siliceous smectite-mudstone alternating with biomicrite. In Wairarapa, the Kandahar Formation consists of calcareous smectite-mudstone, micritic limestone beds and mass-flow greensand beds. Calcareous smectite-mudstone is also a minor interbedded lithology in the Mungaroa Limestone of Wairarapa. The Wanstead Formation in Hawkes Bay comprises uncemented smectite-mudstone with interbedded mass-flow greensands. Lower Tertiary sequences throughout the East Coast Deformed Belt are typically disrupted by thrust faults and associated shear/mélange zones which have developed in the weak smectite-mudstone lithology. Insoluble clay fractions of the smectite-mudstones are composed of well crystallised smectite + illite ± quartz (chert). Both the smectite and illite clays are discrete phases with no interstratification suggestive of post-sedimentary transformation of smectite to illite. From detailed phase analysis, the smectite clay overall is a montmorillonitic species, but with varying interstratification of other dioctahedral smectite species and varying layer charge. No distinct stratigraphic trends in clay fraction mineralogy or smectite mineralogy are apparent. Sand fractions of the mudstones are dominated by authigenic or non-volcanic detrital minerals. Average smectite + illite structural formulas calculated from chemical analyses are commonly non-ideal, with deficiencies in aluminium particularly apparent. The dominant exchangeable cations are calcium in Marlborough mudstones and sodium in Hawkes Bay mudstones. Trace element geochemistry of the smectite-mudstones is similar to that of typical shale and carbonate rocks. Variations in trace element abundances·reflect the lithological character of the mudstones and do not appear to be a useful tool for regional stratigraphic correlation. Combined sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical features of the smectite-mudstones indicate a non-volcanic origin. They did not form by in-situ alteration of ash-falls and are unlikely to have formed from transported/reworked ash. Previous use of the term 'bentonite' for the smectite-mudstones implies such a mode of genesis and should be discontinued. Hemipelagic sedimentation and/or mass-flow redeposition of detrital or neoformed clay in an open oceanic, relatively deep water environment is proposed as the origin of the smectite-mudstones.

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  • Inter-personal relationships in the plays of Henrik Ibsen and Arthur Wing Pinero

    Peters, N. E. (1987)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Henrik Ibsen is widely accepted as being one of the most important influences on the Modern Drama, while Arthur Wing Pinero, the most successful English playwright of the l880's, has been almost forgotten. Ibsen criticism has become repetitive, while criticism of Pinero's work is both superficial and sporadic. There is no comparative study of Ibsen with the English dramatists of the 1880's. The study of Inter-personal Relationships in the plays of Ibsen and Pinero not only provides further insight into the work of each, but also a starting point for just such a comparison. Part One involves a close textual analysis. For the purposes of this study, Inter-personal Relationships are divided into four main types: Familial, Inter-sexual, Friendship and Inter-class. Part One concludes that Convergence, the mutual union of individuals, predominates in Pinero, while Divergence is paramount in Ibsen. Part Two considers possible reasons for this dichotomy. Chapter Five focuses upon Human Nature as it is established in the plays. Chapter Six concentrates upon the dramatists' respective attitudes toward the Collective, the union of persons on the basis of common belief or purpose, and the Individual as apparent in the plays. The study of Inter-personal Relationships reveals the Ideals central to the work of each dramatist - Love in Pinero versus Truth and Freedom in Ibsen.

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  • The urban transport planning process in Christchurch : the master transportation plan.

    Fleete, Len (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes and analyses the operation of the urban transport planning process as it applied in the Christchurch Master Transport Plan. Three specific research areas are studied: (1) to describe the process of urban transport planning as it operated in Christchurch; (2) to identify the nature of the relationship between transport and urban development in Christchurch; and (3) to assess how this relationship, and the urban transport planning process has adapted to change during the course of the Master Transport Plan. The study showed that the perception of the decision situation in the Christchurch case was largely subjective but played a major role in the decision-making process. A 'rational' master planning methodology was inapplicable, incremental planning decision seemed more important to the plan product.

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  • Investigation and remedial methods for subsurface erosion control in Banks Peninsula loess

    Yetton, Mark D. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Subsurface erosion in the loessial soils of Banks Peninsula has been studied by numerous researchers and the mechanism and form of the erosion process is now w ell understood. This thesis study is a practical evaluation of potential investigation methods at sites of subsurface erosion, with the additional evaluation of suitable remedial options for erosion stabilisation. Preferred laboratory procedures include the pinhole test, the crumb test and the uniaxial expansion test. While the pinhole test is the most useful single measure of erodibility, the crumb test is the more effective test of dispersion. When the results are combined, these three tests appear to give a reliable guide to soil material erosion potential. Soil mass layering and defects also provide important controls on subsurface erosion, and auger and testpit logging allows soil mass characterisation. Geomorphic mapping provides the first approximation to the location, extent and form of subsurface erosion. Photographic methods, as aids to this mapping, appear to have only limited application. Geophysical methods are not able to define cavity location or extent but are still useful as general site investigation tools. Dyed water and smoke can be used to trace cavity connections and establish tunnel outlets. The interception of surface before it enters the area of principal the cheapest remedial technique. or subsurface water concern is generally If the subsidence or collapse of large cavities creates problems then a number of options are available. Foundations at risk can be supported on piles extending through the erosion cavity to bedrock, but in accessible areas excavation to below cavity level with drainage and chemically stabilised backfilling has proven effective. The slurry filling of subsurface cavities with lime/cement/sandy gravel slurries appears a promising new method and the application of this technique at one site has provided considerable cost savings.

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  • Silver, state and society : A monetary perspective on China's seventeenth century crisis

    Moloughney, Brian (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is an investigation of the extent and importance of China's dependence upon imported silver in the years leading up to the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644. The commercial expansion and fiscal reforms of the late Ming years had resulted in an increased demand for silver, yet very little of the metal was mined domestically and China relied on foreign sources to supply the increasing demand. It is this dependence upon foreign sources of supply, at a time when the demand for monetary media was continually increasing, which has led to the suggestion that the collapse of the Ming dynasty may have been a consequence, at least in part, of a decline in the volume of imported silver. The thesis gives a detailed consideration of this hypothesis. It also examines the suggestion that the changing pattern of money-use within the empire, the increasing use of silver, was associated with the rise of new social tensions, and that together these undermined the stability of the Ming administration. The evidence accumulated from the perusal of this monetary perspective will be balanced against what is known of the turmoil of these late Ming years so as to broaden an understanding of the crisis of state and society in the seventeenth century China.

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  • Comparison and evaluation of Tanzanian construction procedures.

    Kijangwa, Halid Y. L. (1988)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research describes the study into construction delays in building projects in Tanzania. The main objective was to determine the causes and extent of construction delays and cost overruns on building projects. The findings from this study were also compared with studies in New Zealand and Australia. Summary of the major factors influencing construction time delays and cost overruns were pointed out and possible solutions to these factors discussed with the aim of improving the performance of the building industry in Tanzania. The study was based mainly on 42 completed projects with an average value of TShs. 19.5 million per building. The study has shown that the average extra time overrun on specified building contract time exceeded 50% and that the average cost overrun on specified building contract cost exceeded 26%. The study cited poor economic conditions and management problems as the major factors which had attributed to the poor performance of the majority of the projects. These factors were also found to be common on the 30 ongoing projects and 14 abandoned projects included in this study.

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  • Migration and female labour : Samoan women in New Zealand

    Larner, Wendy (1989)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Labour migration from underdeveloped countries of the 'Third World' to developed countries of the 'First World' was a marked phenomenon in the thirty years that followed the end of the Second World War. These labour migrations were initially produced by a demand for low skilled workers but have set in place a process which has resulted in the formation of large ethnically differentiated populations of migrants and their descendants in developed countries. This thesis focuses on one such labour migration and considers the position occupied in the New Zealand labour market by two groups of Samoan women; the Island born women who have migrated from Western Samoa, and the New Zealand born women who are part of the new ethnic minority developing in New Zealand as a result of labour migration. The discussion is based on an analysis of census data and the findings of a series of indepth semi-structured interviews with Samoan women living in Christchurch. It is shown that New Zealand born and Island born women have quite different experiences in the New Zealand labour market. The Marxian concept of a Reserve Army of Labour is employed in an attempt to analyse the labour force position of the two groups of women. The difficulties experienced in the application of this concept demonstrate the inadequacy of an analysis based purely on the working of capital. The experiences of Samoan women in the New Zealand labour force can only be understood with an analysis which takes into consideration the articulation of capitalism and patriarchy.

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  • Women in paid domestic labour in Christchurch

    Watt, Joanne Ruth (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study of women in paid domestic labour looks mainly at the influence of a system of capitalist patriarchy on the lives of working-class women. The historical situation of women in New Zealand is studied in depth and compared with their situation today. The women interviewed for the study are all currently involved in paid domestic work. The interviews are used to illustrate the nature of the work these women do. These quotes are also used to illustrate the influence of class and patriarchy in today's society.

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  • Gender differences in occupational role conflict and psychological well-being, job satisfaction, job involvement and stress.

    Love, Kenneth A. (1987)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The study investigated gender differences in occupational role conflict and the effects on emotional and motivational aspects of occupational behaviour in the male-dominated occupation of law enforcement. Male and female police officers rated themselves and their colleagues on an occupational image rating scale. Three image ratings were obtained for each subject (a) self occupational image, (b) perceived occupational image, and (c) actual occupational image. The discrepancy between the self and perceived occupational images was used as an indicator of occupational role conflict. It was argued that due to the relatively recent inclusion of policewomen as generalist officers, male officers' predominantly negative attitudes towards female officers, and the 'masculine' image associated with the policing role; female police officers would experience greater role conflict than their male counterparts. Contrary to predictions, the results showed that female police officers did not experience greater role conflict than male officers. Furthermore, occupational role conflict did not correlate significantly with measures of psychological well-being, job satisfaction, job involvement or felt stress. Self and perceived occupational images were found to relate positively with one another. In addition, it was shown that, compared with male officers, female officers had more accurate perceptions of the views their counterparts held towards them. Gender differences in the self, perceived and actual occupational images were found. The results were discussed in the context of symbolic interactionism theory and the recent findings on occupational self-efficacy expectancies.

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  • The influence of Japanese noh, Balinese dance-drama and the Kathakali on four twentieth century western playwrights

    Direen, Bill (1982)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Oriental drama has influenced twentieth century western drama in many ways. I have chosen to look at four ways that prove valuable in appreciating plays and productions of four western playwrights. Yeats's oriental influence took the form of conscious assimilation of elements of the Japanese Noh drama. Artaud was greatly influenced by Balinese dance-drama in the formation of his theory of theatre. His production of Les Cenci in 1935 was an attempt to make this theory work. Grotowski acknowledges an eastern influence but it is inalienable from the unity of his work. Brecht sensed the intellectual cohesion of the Noh in a partial translation, and finally achieved this in an ironic deviation from his incomplete source. The method of investigation is therefore different in each case. In looking at Yeats's Play for Dancers assimilated elements are listed and discussed, while in the case of Brecht the four stages in his development towards a cohesion analogous to that of the original Buddhistic source are examined. The Balinese dancedrama crystallised some ideas and catalysed the formation of others for Artaud; his theoretical writings and his recorded technique of direction in Les Cenci permit assessment of the extent of this influence. Finally the technique of training and performance of the Indian Kathakali is canvassed so that parallels and contrasts can be drawn with the work of the Polish Theatre Laboratory.

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  • The early Buddhist affirmation of self (ātman) in the logic, parables and imagery of the Pāli nikāyas

    Wells, Arthur Russell (1983)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this study is to defend the view of a small but increasing minority of scholars that Gotama did not deny but affirmed the self, or 'ātman'. The Buddhist tradition assumes that he denied it when he taught that we should not say of the various aspects of our personality which we recognize to be impermanent and involved in suffering: 'This belongs to me, this I am, this is my self’. But the saying is ambiguous. If Gotama believed (which he nowhere says that he did) that the perishable aspects of personality are all that we are, it follows that he denied the self of the mystics, the ātman. If, however, his analysis was intended only to identify what is perishable as not the essential self, the reality of the ātman is implied. Buddhism would no longer be an anomaly. Gotama’s utterances would be seen to belong with other Indian expressions of apophatic mysticism, like the 'neti! neti!' of the Upanisads (although they cannot simply be equated since deep philosophical and sociological differences separate the traditions). The study has three parts: 1. A survey of Western scholarly views over the last 150 years, evaluating the handling of textual evidence and the way in which scholars have taken sides over the meanings of anattā and nibbāna. 2. A survey of Theravādin views, ancient and modern, seeking reasons for the misunderstanding of Gotama's utterances in the period of dogmatic consolidation and loyal literalism after the early preaching. 3. A reassessment of the Pāli Nikāyas, examining especially the figures of speech, parables and imagery relating to the self. It is argued that Gotama affirmed the self elliptically to discourage speculation and focus on the practical nature of the path. It is concluded that there has indeed been a two thousand-year misunderstanding of Gotama's teaching about the self, but the tradition compensated for it by shifting onto the concept of nirvāna all of the significance that at first was shared with the atman. The view still held by some scholars that nirvāna at first meant simple extinction collapses entirely.

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  • Longshore sediment transport in a mixed sand and gravel foreshore, South Canterbury

    Neale, Donald Malcolm (1987)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the processes, patterns and rates of longshore sediment transport in the mixed sand and gravel foreshores (particle sizes 1 mm to 200 mm) of the South Canterbury coast. The beach system that is studied presents a very different situation from that most commonly studied on sand beaches. The flows of water and sediment are dominated by breaking waves and swash rather than 'surf' and interrelated subzones of distinctive processes, responses and sediment transport regimes occur across the foreshore. A variety of methods for measuring water flows and sediment movements are assessed and a set of daily beach observations made over four months is analysed. Long- and short-term net rates of longshore transport in the study area are estimated to average 51,288 m³ .yr⁻¹ from measurements of the historic accumulation of beach material updrift of structures at Timaru Harbour. This estimate is then used with deepwater wave data to 'calibrate' a widely used linear relationship between the transport rate and the longshore component of wave power, for use in a mixed beach situation. Short-term measurements of the transport rate and wave power from shore-based observations are also used to calibrate the relationship. The values obtained are 14 to 94 times lower in magnitude than the accepted relationship for sand beaches, and can be used with greater certainty for other locations in the study area. Finally, a new method of estimating net transport based on longshore variations in shore morphology over time is developed using data from a 10-year profile survey program. Results suggest that 'slugs' of beach sediment are moved alongshore as collective units, at rates of about 1.4 km. yr . Rates of movement are dependent on the prevailing angle of wave approach.

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