523 results for 1990, ResearchCommons@Waikato

  • An ecological survey on the effect of the dump ground on benthos in Poverty Bay

    Merrett, Nicola G. (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    An investigation of the sediments and ecology of the dump ground was conducted in March 1995. The primary purpose of the investigation was to analyse factors which may be affecting the benthic biota on the dump ground. These include heavy metal content of the sediments, grain size characteristics of the sediments, and population distribution of the benthic biota on and surrounding the dump ground. It was intended that information obtained could be utilised in future investigations on the ecology of the dump ground, noting changes that have occurred over time. Heavy metal analysis of Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Mercury, Lead, and Zinc from the dump ground, turning basin, and inner harbour area indicate that concentrations of all heavy metals were all very low and well within resource consent limits. Sediment and ecological samples from 25 sites on and surrounding the dump ground were taken. Two other sites were also surveyed, one from the turning basin, another from the inner harbour area (dredged material). Examination of the sediments has shown that although the dredged material consists solely of mud sized particles the sediments of the dump ground are mainly sand sized sediments. This suggests that during the dumping process dispersion of mud occurs. Mud is transported off the dump ground in a southeasterly direction. Ecological evaluation indicates benthic species diversity and abundance of macrofauna is high, with no species in particular dominating the species assemblage. Comparison between this study and a 1993 survey shows increased diversity over the dump ground. Increased population abundance was evident and larger sized bivalves are indicative of an ageing population. Field experiments examining the kelp beds indicate a decline in the population of Ecklonia radiata from 1993 to 1996. It is thought that this decline may be due to suspended sediment load from the Turanganui River, as the kelp beds are situated in the direction of discharge from the River.

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  • Ecology of the invertebrate predatory fauna across Centre Bank, Tauranga Harbour

    Putt, Fiona Gloria (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The distribution, abundance, population size structure and behaviour of three common invertebrate predators were studied on Centre Bank, the flood-tidal delta of Tauranga Harbour. The study assessed the role of the predators in controlling the distribution and abundance of bivalve shellfish and provided information concerning the biology of Centre Bank for Port of Tauranga Ltd. Two broad-scale surveys were conducted to describe the broad-scale spatial patterns of Patiriella regularis, Coscinasterias calamaria and Cominella adspersa. Results found P. regularis was the numerically dominant species across Centre Bank and it maintained a widespread distribution over the sampling period. C. calamaria was of low abundance and typically exhibited a patchy distribution. C. adspersa was also found to be of low abundance and similarly distributed as C. calamaria. Size structures of all 3 species comprised mostly adults in both surveys. Temporal monitoring at finer scales was undertaken, two-monthly, to describe small-scale spatial patterns. P. regularis was found at similar densities to that of the large-scale surveys and it was the most prevalent species across the grid; C. calamaria was present at higher abundances within a small patch of the grid and appeared stable over time. C. adspersa was initially absent from the grid, but became more abundant and widespead over the 9 month sampling period. Investigations included monitoring the natural movement behaviour of C. adspersa in relation to tidal currents and the body condition. Results showed the directions moved and distances displaced by C. adspersa may be influenced by the rate and direction of current movement and therefore potentially influencing the dispersal ability of C. adspersa, in relation to available prey. An experiment to determine the body condition of C. adspersa in the field suggested that food deprivation may be less detrimental than first realised, or that C. adspersa is able to feed on a greater variety of food types than known of. Little evidence was found that indicated predation was an important mechanism controlling bivalve populations across Centre Bank. However, predators may be potentially important as scavengers of decaying or dead organisms. Their predatory activities may also provide shell substrate for macroalgae, and this, in combination with dense aggregations of C. calamaria, appeared to provide habitat for small fishes.

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  • Wave induced sediment transport on intertidal flats in a fetch limited environment, Pine Harbour Marina, Auckland

    Hull, Joanne Margaret (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigates the nature of sediments and the role of tides, currents, waves and winds in driving sediment transport on the intertidal flats and shallow subtidal areas in the vicinity of Pine Harbour Marina which is situated in a shallow embayment adjoining Tamaki Strait in Hauraki Gulf, northeast North Island, New Zealand. The results from these investigations along with the study of the marina approach channel and dredge spoil dump site are used to examine the causes of sediment infilling the approach channel to the marina. This work was undertaken in support of two resource consents (W9205 and W9258) granted to Pine Harbour Marina by the Auckland Regional Council to undertake maintenance dredging to excavate 4,500 m3 of sediment from the navigation approach channel between June and October 1994. The sediments of the intertidal and shallow subtidal regions in the vicinity of Pine Harbour Marina were characterised and sediment mixing depths and transport patterns investigated with sedimentation rods, tracer studies, beach surveys and hydrographic surveys. The forcing processes of tide, wave, current and wind in the embayment were also investigated with hydrodynamic monitoring and a wave generation model for fetch limited environments was used to hind cast wave conditions. The data was collected, in conjunction with a monitoring program of the physical impacts of the 1994 dredging, to identify sediment transport pathways and to obtain quantitative sediment volume changes over the intertidal and subtidal channel areas. Pine Harbour Marina is situated in a fetch limited low wave energy environment, dominated by local wind generated waves. Wave generation model WGEN3DD for limited fetches, was set up to hind cast wave conditions from wind data recorded at the site. The wave climate is characterised by wave heights (Hₛ) between 0.1 m to 0.4 m, and wave periods (Tₛ) between 1.0 and 2.0 s. Large wave events are rare, but wave heights (Hₛ) up to 0.5 m and periods (Tₛ) of 2.5 s are generated by wind speeds greater than 10 m/s from the northwest where fetch is greatest. Wind driven circulation is important over the shallow intertidal region. On a day-to-day basis suspended sediment is transported north driven by the prevailing south-westerly winds. However large infrequent storms from the north have a greater impact on sediment transport over short time periods where significant volumes of sediment are entrained beneath high energy waves. Greater sediment transport occurs over the intertidal region than the subtidal region because sediment threshold velocities are more frequently exceeded in the shallower water depths. Thus sediment deposited in the approach channel to Pine Harbour Marina is infrequently entrained as wave orbital velocities are attenuated before they reach the bed in the deeper water. A sediment tracer experiment was undertaken using artificial fluorescent particles to identify the pattern of fine grained sediment dispersion over the intertidal flats. The dominant sediment transport direction detected was towards the southeast during a westerly storm, and a significant concentration of tracer particles accumulated in the approach channel. Sediment depth of disturbance rods on the intertidal flats indicate that sediment mixing depths were generally less than 1.5 cm due to shallow disturbance created the movement of small (h = 1.0-1.5 cm) wave ripples. Depth of sediment disturbance increased to between 2.0 and 3.0 cm associated with storm periods. The maximum sediment mixing depth recorded by sedimentation rods was 6.2 cm. Similar mixing depths of 2.5 cm were recorded during mixing depth experiments involving short cores through buried dyed sediment and vertical mixing of fluorescent tracer particles. Fluorescent tracer was mixed to a maximum depth of 17 cm, which was not attributed to wave action but rather to bioturbation. Six monthly beach surveys indicated 2.5 cm of accretion occurred over the mid tide region on the northern intertidal flats. This volume of sediment accretion accounts for approximately half of the dredgings material dumped on the intertidal flats. The remaining dumped sediment was resuspended by wave action and either transported back into the approach channel to Pine Harbour Marina, or removed from the area in suspension. Within 9 months of dredging of the approach channel, an average of 0.5 m of sediment deposition occurred along the northern side of the landward 700 m of approach channel. This was estimated to be approximately 5,250 m³ ± 2,100 m³ of sediment infilling the channel. The increased rate of sediment infilling the approach channel is attributed to natural sediment accumulation combined with the rapid transportation of some dredgings sediment back into the channel. Initially dredgings sediment appeared to consolidate in situ, but became dispersed as a shallow layer extending up to 100 m over the intertidal flats north of the approach channel. Over the course of the investigation the dredge mounds were observed to be eroded by small drainage channels which became incised into the silty sediment at various locations transporting fine sediment from the dredge mound and intertidal flats into the approach channel. Some 12 months after dredging, the dredge mounds were dissipated and only remnant blocks of gravel to boulder sized fragments of bed rock were left. This investigation has shown that a significant amount of dredge spoil deposited on the northern intertidal flats during the 1994 dredging operation became transported back into the approach channel within 9 months of the completion of the dredging works. An alternate disposal site for future maintenance dredging works in the approach channel at a further distance from the channel edge would reduce the likelihood of "recycling" of dredged material. Possible alternate disposal options for management of dredge spoil from future maintenance dredging could include: sidecasting disposal further from the channel; offshore disposal site - adjacent or distant; contained disposal; or landfill.

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  • Modelling volcanic tsunamis

    Prasetya, Gegar Sapta (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Tsunamis generated by volcanic eruptions have caused about 25% of all deaths associated with volcano activity. The 1883 Krakatau eruption is one example of a fairly recent eruption that produced large tsunamis (-35 m) which caused a high death toll. Concern has also been raised by the potential tsunami generation of the Auckland Volcanic Field, and the impact of such events on the Auckland Region. Although the generation of tsunamis by volcanic eruptions is a major hazard, the processes of tsunami generation are poorly understood. A review of volcanic tsunamis identified 10 main mechanisms. Four of these - caldera collapse, debris avalanches, submarine explosions, and pyroclastic flows - have been suggested as the mechanisms producing the largest tsunamis. All four mechanisms have also been suggested as being responsible for the tsunamis produced by the Krakatau eruption. A combination of physical and numerical modelling was used to develop predictive tools to be applied to volcanoes in Indonesia and New Zealand. The physical modelling involved two main investigations: • A 3 dimensional scale model of the Straits of Sunda and Krakatau. This examined the nature of tsunamis produced by caldera collapse, submarine explosions, and water displacement by debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows. • A series of 2 dimensional simulations of the entrance of pyroclastic flows into the sea. A finite element numerical model was applied to the simulation of pyroclastic flow, maar formation and submarine explosion generation of tsunamis within the Auckland Volcanic Field. The physical and numerical model results indicate that large scale pyroclastic flows are probably the cause of the main 1883 Krakatau tsunamis. A tsunami wave can easily be generated by gravity flows entering the water, regardless of the slope. The wave properties depend on the relative densities of the flow and the receiving body, and the velocity of the flow. The angle of entry of the flow into the water determines the deposition pattern of sediment. The formation of the Calmeyers and Steers shallow area on Krakatau event 1883 was reproduced by the pyroclastic experiments using coarse sand and mud with steep entry angle ~ 60°). The more dilute upper component of the pyroclastic flow that traveled along the sea surface for up to 45 km and killed more than 1000 people at Katimbang, Sumatera Island can also be explained. The experiments showed that less dense material from the pyroclastic flow propagates near the water surface. This is even more likely if the material is hot and gas-rich. Physical and numerical model results showed that a single explosion cannot produce a high wave. If a super violent explosion did occur during the Krakatau event, then the water waves (tsunamis) that caused the devastating effect on the surrounding island coastal land were not caused by the direct transfer of explosive forces. Instead a sequence of one or more pyroclastic flows, or collapsing column in and around the Krakatau complex are the most likely mechanism causing the largest tsunami. Numerical modelling of the Auckland Volcanic Field examined 4 scenarios: • A series of submarine explosion; • Pyroclastic flows from Rangitoto Island; • Pyroclastic flows from Browns (Motukorea) Island; • Submarine explosion within the Tamaki Estuary. The first 3 scenarios produced regional effects, while the last was purely local event. It was also found that the efficiency of the submarine explosion mechanism was increased by using a sequence of smaller explosions, instead of one large explosion. However the timing between explosions was found to be critical; if the explosions are too close together or too far apart, the efficiency decreases. It is considered that the optimal timing will vary with water depth and explosive yield. The numerical modelling showed that volcanic tsunamis are not a major threat to Auckland. However under suitable conditions a volcanic eruption could produce moderately large tsunamis that generate strong currents.

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  • Te taiao: te titiro a te Māori

    Kirby, Dean Robert (1992)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Ko te kaupapa o tēnei tuhinga ko te titiro a te Māori ki te taiao. He mea tuhi i runga i te aroha, i te whakapono ki ngēnei mea, ki te ātaahua o te taiao me ngā kōrero mōna. E whakatangatatia ana ngā āhuatanga o te taiao, ngā rākau, ngā manu, ngā ika, te kohu, ngā kapua, ngā maunga, otirā ngā mea katoa. Ara noa atu ngā kōrero, he whakapapa ō rātou, he huānga tētehi mea ki tētehi, he mauri tō tēnā mea tō tēnā mea. E ora ana ngā mea katoa o te ao, ka whai tamariki, he mātua he tūpuna anō, te katoa tae atu hoki ki te tangata, he wāhanga ia nō te taiao. Hei aha tēnei tuhinga? Ko tāna mahi he whakaatu i ngēnei āhuatanga. Ā he whakamātau hoki ki te whakautu i te pātai he aha i whērā ai te titiro a ngā tūpuna ki tō rātou taiao. He kohikohingā tēnei nō ngā kōrero maha e takoto mai naka i roto i ngā pukapuka kua tāia kētia. Ehake i te mea ka kōrerotia ngā mea katoa, otiia ka tirohia noatia ngētehi āhuatanga o tēnei hanga te taiao. Kāhore i tuhia i runga i ngā kōrero ā waha a ngētehi kaikōrero, whēnā i ngētehi atu tuhinga roa. He mahi nui tērā mā tētehi atu hei whai, heoi anō tēnei he huihuinga nō ngētehi kōrero kua tuhia i mua atu. Ka whakarārangitia ngā kōrero neki i muri ake nei. Ko tōna timatanga kei te Ōrokohanga, ko te timatanga tērā o te taiao. Ko te whenua ka whai mai me ngā kōrero mōna. Muri iho ko te wai me ngōna āhuatanga katoa. Ko te rangi, ngā mea katoa o te rangi ka whai mai i muri i tēnā. Muri iho anō ko ngā manu, ko ngā ngārara me ngā ngāngara, ngā rākau me ngā ika. Ka mutu atu i ngā tupua, i ngā taniwha me ngā patupaiarehe, i ngā kōrero mō ngērā. E iwa wāhanga nui te katoa o tēnei tuhinga. Kei te timatanga tētehi wāhanga hei whakamārama i te tuhinga ā kei te mutunga tētehi atu wāhanga hei whakatōpū, hei whakarāpopoto i ngā kōrero o roto i te puku o te tuhinga nei. Kei ngā wāhanga o te pukapuka nei he kōrero mō tēnā mea, mō tēnā mea i raro i tōna ūpoko anō, me ngā whakaāhua e rite ana mōna. Ko te tūmanako ka kite te kaipānui i te pūrotutanga o te taiao o te Māori.

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  • The hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of selected cuspated beaches on the eastern Coromandel Peninsula

    Paton, Lisa (1993)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Beach cusps are concave seaward-facing features that are rhythmic in the longshore direction (Fig. 1.1). They consist of cusp horns separated by lower sloped cusp embayments where the sediment of the horn is generally coarser than that of the embayment. They are located in the swash zone, near the high tide mark, and form a series of undulations along the beach. Cusp spacing, the distance between consecutive cusp horns, is quasi uniform. The onshore topography is mirrored offshore with deltas forming at the base of each embayment and troughs forming at the base of each cusp horn (Fig. 1.2).

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  • Littoral sediment budget and beach morphodynamics, Pukehina Beach to Matata, Bay of Plenty

    Phizacklea, David Jonathan Dominic (1993)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Pukehina-Matata coastal sector is one of the least studied parts of the Bay of Plenty coastline. Currently this section of coast is in a stable, tending towards erosive, condition, with historical erosion of 0-0.2 m/year. Sediment mineralogy reflects the high input of quartzo-feldspathic material into the beach-dune-nearshore system. For the Otamarakau-Matata sector much of the sediment is provided from fluvial sources, predominantly the Waitahanui, Pikowai, and Herepuru streams, although the total stream input in this area is only 3,000 to 7,000 m³ per year. The sources of beach sand from Town Point to Otamarakau includes some erosion of catchment material, supplemented by littoral drift, erosion of submarine rock outcrops in the Town Point-Otamarakau region, and possible onshore reworking of pre-Holocene sediments. The greywacke gravels present within the littoral system, especially between Rodgers Road and Pukehina, are relict deposits, which are presently active within the beach-dune-nearshore system due to the small volume transfers of sandy sediments. Their original source, is suggested as from marine erosion of Castlecliffian sediments, such as exposed in the coastal cliffs at Matata. Net littoral drift is suggested as bi-directional from a centre-point near Otamarakau, to both the north-east along Pukehina Spit, and to the south-west towards Matata. Some counter-drift occurs between the Tarawera River mouth and Matata, and along the tip of Pukehina Spit, with nourishment of this area by the Waihi estuary. Nearshore sedimentary-morphodynamic units show that the nearshore and inner-shelf at Town Point, and from southern Pukehina Beach to Otamarakau, is characterised by the presence of numerous rock outcrops, which are responsible for the coarse sands and relatively higher carbonate abundances in this area. Sediment volumes within the beach-nearshore system, and alongshore transfers between sectors of the coast are small, with annual net littoral drift estimated as 15,000 m³ at Matata. Diabathic processes are considered to dominate, with the limit of significant onshore-offshore sediment transport no more than 12 m, and a parabathic limit of less than 6 m. The net change in sediment volume for the entire beach system within the Pukehina-Matata coastal sector between 1989 and 1993, produced a calculated deficit of sediment of 90,570 m³. In comparison a longer-term change, between 1978 and 1993, showed a sediment surplus of 218, 560 m³. Over the Pukehina-Matata coastal sector these volume changes are reasonably small and their variability reflects both the dynamic nature, and the delicate state of equilibrium, of the beach-dune-nearshore system. The derived littoral sediment budget shows that in order to balance the inputs and outputs within the system approximately 27,400 m³ of annual onshore sediment transport must occur. Current sand extraction at Otamarakau has resulted in a decline in the beach sediment volumes between Otamarakau and Pikowai, with this sector in a sediment deficit. Although natural processes mask the true impacts, the increased sand extraction rate of 36,000 m³ per year is liable to further deplete the beach-dunenearshore system. However, in the short-term these effects are unlikely to be immediately noticeable.

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  • Reduction of water and bed levels in the lower Waikato River

    Wo, You Gu (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The major aims of this thesis are to determine the historical qualitative and quantitative reduction in water and bed levels of the lower Waikato River, to identify probable factors influencing the reduction, and to predict the future water and bed levels at Huntly in relation to the Huntly Power Station management Sediments in the Waikato River are composed of gravelly pumiceous sands. In terms of the mean and median grain sizes, generally sands dominate the lower river b~ from the river mouth to the cross section at about 100 km upstream of the mouth, while gravels dominate the bed upstream onward. A hiatus in the longitudinal mean and median grain size distributions from sand to gravel is apparent around Horotiu. In the Waipa River, the texture of bed materials was found to be similar but probably finer to those in the lower parts of the Waikato River. On the basis that ∂n / ∂Q= ∂W/ ∂Q =∂S / ∂Q=0, where n, W, S and Q are, respectively, Manning's coefficient, width, energy slope and discharge, water level of each gauging can be adjusted to one for an index flow of 350 m³/s ( WLQ₌₃₅₀ ). Further assuming that ∂n / ∂T = ∂W / ∂T = ∂S / ∂T=0 where T is time, variations in the time series of WLQ₌₃₅₀ represent the mean bed level changes over time. These assumptions seem to be acceptable for those gauging data within a certain range of discharges in the lower Waikato River. A quantitative analysis of the available river survey data, water level profile measurements, and gauging records has indicated that, in general, there was a continuous trend of reduction in water and bed levels on the lower Waikato River since the 1960s. The reasons for these reductions likely include sand mining operation along the river, consequent disturbance of the river bed surface, long term sand extraction around Mercer and further downstream, upstream effects of the significant bed level lowering at Mercer, and downstream effects of the 1947 Karapiro Dam closure. Analysis of river bulk volume changes suggested that the amount of bedload transported into the river downstream of Ngaruawahia was about 160 000±24 000 m3/yr between 1964-1989. Nearly two-thirds of this was contributed by the bed materials stored in the upstream Waikato River course by an analysis of data from 1974-1989, and the remainder by the Waipa River and the catchment yield from the Hamilton basin. Two disparate time scales for water and bedload movements in practice result in singularperturbation characteristics of the system. With a quasi-steady flow approach, linearization of the water and bedload movement system produces a hyperbolic equation or even a parabolic equation (uniform flow). The parabolic equation is a good approximation of the hyperbolic equation under the condition of large values of time or a large distance from the original disturbance. Variations along the Waikato River of an average mean bed level within a certain length of channel are expected to be small. Therefore the linear models can be applied. In the domain between 48.25-94.45 km upstream of the Waikato River mouth, the parabolic model has been used numerically to predict the future bed levels at Huntly in December 2040 for different scenarios. Potential effects on operation of the present cooling water system have been assessed for given discharges at that time. The ratio of river width to water depth for the formation of alternate bars at the Huntly Railway Bridge has been found to be exceeding 100 by an analysis of the gauging data at this site and at the Ngaruawahia Cableway. This critical width-depth ratio, 100, is much bigger than those suggested in the literature. The corresponding conditions of discharge and mean water depth are, respectively, less than about 350 m³/s and 2.30 m. However further research is required to confirm these conclusions.

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  • Environmental aspects of storm runoff discharge from a timber port, Tauranga, New Zealand

    Tian, Fengming (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    An investigation was undertaken into storm runoff water quantity and quality, contaminant input to the receiving tidal waters from the Mt. Maunganui wharf, accumulation of potentially toxic resin acids in adjacent sediments, and the dilution of the wharf runoff in the receiving tidal waters, in order to assess the possible adverse environmental impact associated with the log operation at the Port of Tauranga Ltd. Based upon field data and rainfall records, about a half of the annual precipitation over the log handling areas is converted to surface runoff (117,000 m³a⁻¹). Annual runoff volume per hectare of wharf surface is estimated as 7,500 m³ha⁻¹a⁻¹ for the sealed area and 3,700 m³ha⁻¹a⁻¹ for the gravelled area. The optical quality of the wharf runoff is degraded due to addition of bark and soil particles. The black disk visual clarity (0.01-0.02 m) was only 0.5-1.0% of that in the receiving tidal waters. The wharf runoff appears very dark gray to yellowish brown in apparent colour (10YR1/3 to 10YR5/6 Munsell colour chart) and has a soluble yellow substance concentration of about 25 m⁻¹. Power relationships between the traditionally used parameters, for example, suspended solids and turbidity, were identified. The wharf surface pavement types had a significant influence on visual clarity, but little influence on yellow substance concentration. The potentially toxic resin acids in the wharf runoff have been determined with SIM GC-MS. The average total resin acid level (1,030 ppb) is comparable to that of 1,000 ppb reported at which acute toxicity is likely to be exhibited. A relationship of resin acids against volatile suspended solids was established. Tests undertaken suggest that conventional treatment methods of natural sedimentation and flocculation-sedimentation are able to remove the resin acids effectively. The levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD), total phosphorus and nitrogen in the wharf runoff are considerably higher than those of common urban runoff. However, the wharf runoff contributes little nitrate nitrogen and oil and grease to the receiving environment. About 87,500 kg of suspended solids, 43,000 kg of volatile suspended solids, 14,200 kg of BOD, 500 kg of phosphorus, and 103 kg of resin acids are discharged to the Tauranga Harbour annually from runoff from the Mt. Maunganui wharf. Analyses show that the impact on adjacent sediments from the storm runoff is limited to a distance of about 100 m from the discharge points and the resin acid levels in the sediments within this distance are not significantly higher compared to that of the storm runoff. The net resin acid accumulation rate in the shipping channel (Stella Passage) beside the log handling areas was estimated to be in the range of 300 to 370 ppb per year. Based on field investigation and numerical simulations, the findings on dispersion and dilution of the wharf runoff in the receiving tidal waters are as follows: (i) the sea water around Stella Passage experiences an obvious natural salinity stratification, the extent of which depends greatly on the weather conditions; (ii) the wind drag stress and the pressure gradient caused by the addition of runoff had the greatest influence on the plume dynamics during the flood tide. The plumes basically remain within the top 2-3 m of the water column under different winds; (iii) the plume is unlikely to advect to the Whareroa Marae under strong (30-40 knots) easterly or northeasterly winds for a storm with a 5-year return period. However, there is an obvious influence on the Whareroa Marae under 30- 40 knot northerly winds; and (iv) the short duration and restricted region of the low dilution pulse of effluent around slack water may explain why there has been no reports of acute toxic events. Sealing the gravel covered wharf area, improving the sweeping efficiency, and extending the present outfalls to the sea floor might be potential options for mitigating the environmental impact associated with discharge of the wharf runoff.

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  • The ecology of bivalves on Centre Bank, Tauranga Harbour

    Hull, Penelope Jane (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    An investigation into the ecology of bivalve molluscs on Centre Bank, the flood tidal delta of Tauranga Harbour was undertaken over the period December 1994 - March 1996. The primary purpose of which was to gather quantitative data on bivalve diversity, spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and population size structure of bivalves present on Centre Bank. Experiments were conducted to assess the burrowing behaviour of the bivalve Paphies australis. It was intended that information obtained be such that it could be used as a base for future investigations into changes in the ecology of Centre Bank. Two broad scale benthic surveys of 27 sites on Centre Bank, conducted 6 months apart resulted in a total of 31 bivalve taxa being identified. Temporal and spatial variation in abundance was prominent for all species. Three species Paphies australis, Tawera spissa and Ruditapes largillierti occurred in far greater abundances than any others. Distribution of bivalves in both surveys was patchy with some species showing strong associations with particular sites. Small scale abundance patterns of P. australis was examined in detail by systematic sampling of a 50 m x 15 m grid. The grid was monitored at 2- monthly intervals from March 1995 to November 1995. Abundances at sites in the northern half of the grid were found to be very dense (up to 1400 m², mean shell length=55-65 mm), while densities at the southern end were noticeably lower. Through time densities across the grid appeared to decrease evenly in a constant north-west direction. The smothering effect of mobile sand ridges was speculated to be the cause of these density decreases. Experiments examining the burrowing behaviour of the infaunal bivalve Paphies australis were conducted both in the field and in the laboratory. The ability of P. australis to bury into the sediment if left exposed on the sediment surface was examined in the field. It appeared that P. australis were able to bury relatively quickly with the majority of experimental animals reburying within 40 minutes. Laboratory experiments showed P. australis to be capable of burrowing to the sediment surface after being inundated with sediment to a depth of 10 cm.

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  • Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana = The confiscation of Tauranga lands. [Volume 1]

    Stokes, Evelyn (1990)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    A report providing a historical and geographical overview on the confiscation of Tauranga lands. In two volumes, volume one comprises a narrative of the events described as the raupatu, the confiscation of lands in the Tauranga Moana tribal area under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863. Volume two is a collection of documents, edited and annotated which were compiled in support of the report. These documents include personal accounts, tribal history, land purchases, lands returned and crown transactions.

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  • Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana : Volume 2, Documents relating to tribal history, confiscation and reallocation of Tauranga lands.

    Stokes, Evelyn (1993)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    A report providing a historical and geographical overview on the confiscation of Tauranga lands. In two volumes, volume one comprises a narrative of the events described as the raupatu, the confiscation of lands in the Tauranga Moana tribal area under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863. Volume two is a collection of documents, edited and annotated which were compiled in support of the report. These documents include personal accounts, tribal history, land purchases, lands returned and crown transactions.

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  • Te Kōpura

    Maxwell, Te Kahautu (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    He Hōnore, he korōria, he maungārongo ki runga ki te whenua, he whakaaro pai ki ngā tānagata katoa. Ko te tāhu o tēnei tuhituhinga he titiro ki Te Hāhi Ringatū i runga o Whitianga marae. E rua noa iho ngā Rā Ringatū ka tū ki runga i tēnei marae, arā, ko Te Huamata, hei te tahi o Hune tēnā me Te Pure, hei te tahi o Nōema tēnā. I roto i te tuhituhingaroa nei ka titiro he aha I tae atu ai wēnei tikanga ki tēnei o ngā marae. Ka whakatakoto haere, i pēhea hoki ngā whakahaeretanga i te wā o ngā pakeke. Kātahi ka titiro ki ngā whakarerekētanga ki ngā tikanga i roto i te wā, ā, he aha i pērā ai. Kua tata ki te toru tekau tau mai i te whakakoretanga o Te Māratapu a Te Ringatū i roto i wāna whakahaerenga i Te Huamata me Te Pure. Ko tērā tūāhuatanga o Te Ringatū e kore nei e kitea e tēnei reanga tangata. Tokoiti noa nei, me kī, ngā mōrehu o tērā whakatipuranga pakeke i kitea wērā tūāhuatanga e ora tonu ana. Nō reira i toko ake te whakaaro ki te rangahau, ki te kohikohi hoki i ngā kōrero i te hunga i rongo, i kite, i tipu ake hoki i roto i tērā Ao. He pekanga nui o te tuhinga nei kua titiro ki Te Huamata me Te Pure me wōna tapu, me wōna whakahaerenga ki runga o te marae o Whitianga. Ki te whakawhāriki i ngā kōrero nei mō Te Ringatū ki runga o Whitianga kua tātaritia kia waru ngā pekanga o te tuhinga kia mārama ai ki te karu pānui i ngā kōrero; i pēhea tae atu ai Te Ringatū ki runga o Whitianga, i pēhea tāna kawe i ngā tikanga, ā, he aha i whakarerekēngia ai tāna kawe i Te Huamata me Te Pure i roto I te wā. Tuatahi: Ki te kōrero mō Te Ringatū me hoki ki te tīmata maitanga o Te Ringatū. Ka tirohia, nā wai i tīmata, ā, he aha i tīmataria ai, me te whakaatu i wētahi āhuatanga i pā ki tōna Poropiti me wāna pononga i te tīmatatanga rā anō o Te Ringatū. Tuarua: Ko te whai haere tēnei i ngā takahanga waewae o ngā tīpuna o Te Whānau-a-Apanui, ki te whai i Te Ringatū. Ka titiro he aha te take i huri ai a Te Whānau-a-Apanui ki ngā tikanga o Te Ringatū. Ka titiro anō hoki ki te taenga atu o Te Kooti me tana iwi Ringatū ki roto o Te Whānau-a-Apanui me wāna mahi ki a rātou i reira. Tuatoru: Ka whakaatu i konei, he aha te take ko wātahi marae tokoiti noa iho o Te Whānau-a-Apanui ka noho hei marae Ringatū, mai i te taenga atu o Te Ringatū, aā, tae noa ki tēnei rā. Tuawhā: I konei ka tae ki te pūtake o te tuhinga. Ka titiro i konei ki te taenga o ngā whakahaere Ringatū, arā, Te Huamata me Te Pure ki runga i te marae o Whitianga. Ka whakaatu i konei, he aha i tae atu ai wēnei tikanga ki tērā marae. Ka kite anē hoki he aha i karangatia ko Whitianga te marae pou mō Te Ringatū ki roto o Te Whānau-a-Apanui. Tuarima: Ka tiro haeretia i konei ngā tikanga e pā ana ki Te Huamata me wōna whakahaere I ngā. tapu katoa e pā ana ki Te Huamata. Ka whakarārangitia ko ngā karakia me wōna kaupapa katoa kia kite ai te kaipānui i te hōhonutanga o tēnei tikanga a Te Ringatū. I konei ka kite anō hoki te kaipānui i ngā kōrero a ngā pakeke, nāna nei i kite, i tipu ake i roto i tērā tikanga. Tuaono: Ka titiro i konei ko ngā whakahaere a Te Ringatū i tēnei tikanga, arā, Te Pure. Pērā anō ki te tipuranga tuarima, ka whakarārangitia ai ko ngā karakia me wōna kaupapa katoa kia kite ai te kaipānui i te tikanga o Te Pure, ā, he aha i pērā rawa ai te kaha whakapono o ngā pakeke ki tēnei tūāhuatanga, ko Te Pure. Tuawhitu: I konei ka titiro ki a Paora Delamere me te take i whakarerekēngia ai e ia ngā tikanga tapu o Te Huamata me Te Pure. Ka titiro anō hoki ki wētahi āhuatanga hou i tīmataria ai e ia i waenganui i Te Ringatū whanui huri i Aotearoa. Tuawaru: Ka tuituia ngā pekanga katoa ki te whakamārama i ngā kōrero kia eke katoa ki runga i te tāhūhū o te kōrero. Ka kitea te take i tīmataria ai Te Ringatu, arā ngā kairiri a Māori ki a tauiwi. Ā, pērā anō te take i huri ai a Te Whānau-a-Apanui ki ngā tikanga a Te Ringatū. Koira i hanake hoki ai ngā pakeke ki Ōtewa ki te pōhiri i a Te Kooti ki te rohe o Te Whānau-a-Apanui, nā te rauwhaitanga o te patu i ngā papatipu. Ko te hokitanga ki te haumoana o Te Whānau-a-Apanui, ko te hokinga anō hoki o Te Māratapu o Te Huamata, o Te Pure ki reira toka atu ai. Ka haere te wā, ā, nāwai rā ka poua wēnei tikanga a Te Ringatū ki Te Māratapu ki runga o Whitianga, ana, i tipu ake he tipu hou, he oranga hou, ā, he tikanga hou i te huringa o te wā. Katoa wēnei kōrero hei whakaatu i te āhua o te taenga o Te Huamata me Te Pure ki runga o Whitianga marae, mai i te kunenga ake o te whakaaro ki te whai I wēnei tikanga, ā, tae noa ki te whakatinanatanga e haere ake nei, e haere ake. He rautau kua taha, he raurau tau e haere mai nei.

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  • "Motherhood", "the family" and Murphy Brown : New Zealanders' receptions of an American sitcom text

    Michelle, Carolyn (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This interdisciplinary study examines the role of American entertainment television in the social construction of 'motherhood' and 'the family' in New Zealand. It investigates how differently positioned viewers made sense of, and responded to, a particularly controversial episode of the American sitcom Murphy Brown. It also assesses the extent to which this programme was able to 'set the agenda' for discursive understandings of 'motherhood' and 'the family' in contemporary New Zealand society. Drawing on various insights derived from poststructuralist theory and audience reception studies, the first aspect of this tri-partite investigation examines the macro context of this episode's production in the United States in 1992, and identifies competing constructions of 'motherhood' and 'the family' circulating within that wider environment. The representation of these debates within the text itself is then assessed through an analysis of its narrative structure and discursive content. The second aspect of this project outlines the macro context in which this episode was broadcast in New Zealand, and identifies competing understandings of 'motherhood' and 'the family' in this country. The third aspect comprises a reception analysis in which in-depth individual interviews were used to explore participants' interpretations of this American sitcom text and their responses to its propositional content around 'motherhood', 'the family' and Murphy Brown. Twenty-two adults from a range of backgrounds participated in this qualitative audience research. On the basis of this research, it is argued that this particular American television programme and viewers in this country both play an active part in defining the social meaning of 'motherhood' and 'the family' in contemporary New Zealand. While such texts clearly work to establish certain parameters for audience receptions of their content, both cultural location and social group membership(s) provide New Zealand viewers with access to experiences, knowledges and discourses of the wider social world that potentially enable them to renegotiate and even reject the privileged meanings of American entertainment programming.

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  • Kūpapa Ki Raro, Titiro Ake

    Papa, Pānia Christine (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Ko tā te kaituhi e manaleo nei i roto i tēnei tuhinga, kia āta tirohia he aha ngā huarahi i whāia ai e ngā iwi o Pōhara, hei kawe i a rātou mai i te pōharatanga ki te oranga tonutanga; mai i te noho marara ki te noho tahi; mai i te korekore ki te ao mārama. Ko te tuarua o ngā pātai kei mua i taleu aroaro, he wānanga mena i tutuki pai ngā kaupapa i wawatahia ai e rātou. E rua ngā kārero matua e toko ake ana i roto i ahau hei taumarumaru mō ngā whakaaro me ngā kōrero kua whaleatakotoria i te tuhinga nei, hei whakautu i ngā pātai matua e rua ō runga ake nei. Tuatahi, 'Ko te amorangi ki mua, ko te hāpai ō ki muri'. E hāngai ana tēnei whakataukī ki te pūmautanga o ngā whakaaro o ngā tūpuna o Pōhara ki ngā kaupapa i kōkirihia ai e tō rātou rangatira, me te āhua o tā ngā tūpuna hāpai i aua kaupapa. I te tīmatanga, nā Piupiu Te Wherowhero rātou i arataki. I te rā nei, ko Te Arikinui, Te Atairangikaahu te manu whakataka pōkai i te ata hāpara, e ngāngahu tonu nei i ngā iwi o te marae o Pōhara. Tuarua, 'Kūpapa ki raro, Titiro ake.' Koia tēnei tētehi whakataukī whaleahau i ngā uri whaleatupu o te marae, o Pōhara, kua waihotia e rātou mā hei kupu ārahi i ngā uri i runga i te marae, i roto anō hoki i te ao hou. He hōhonutanga anō tō te whakataukī nei e tika ana kia whakamāramahia i roto i tēnei tuhinga, hei whāki atu i ngā rerenga kētanga o te āhua o te whakaaro o kui mā, o koro mā, me te āhua o tā rātou noho i te wā i a rātou. Ko te whakatau o ngā kōrero, i tutuki pai i ngā tūpuna o te marae o Pōhara ō rātou manako, nā tō rātou kaha ū ki te kaupapa o te Kāhui Ariki, me tō rātou ū ki te kaupapa o te tupuranga o te papakāinga o Pōhara hei marae mō ngā uri whakatupu. Ka noho mai tērā hei whakatohu i tō rātou pakaritanga, me ō rātou whakaaro rangatira hei tauira mā ngā uri whakaheke e whai ake ana i ngā tapuwae o ngā tūpuna. Ko ēnei tuhinga hei whakatinana i te ngākau nui kia waituhia ngā kōrero ā ngā rūruhi, ā ngā koroheke, mō te marae o Pōhara, kei ngaro katoa atu ngēna kōrero e here nei i te ao kōhatu ki te ao hou. Nā te ngākau māhaki o ngā kaumātua i whakaae ai kia tuhia te kaupapa nei, kia puta ai ngā kōrero mō Pōhara ki te ao mārama hei painga mō ngā uri whakatupu. Nā rātou i whakatūwhera te kūaha ki tō rātou ao hei kuhu atu ki roto mā te hunga mahira. Ko ngā kongakonga kōrero i taka iho mai i ō rātou puna mahara, kua kohia-ā-rīpenehia hei taonga tuku iho mō ngā iwi o te marae. E tika ana kia puruhia te mauri o ērā kōrero e ngā whānau me ngā uri o te marae. I tutuki ai te taha rangahau i ngā kōrero kaumātua i te whakatū wānanga, me te uiui kaumātua. I whāia ngā huarahi e rua nei hei kohikohi i ngā kōrero-ā-waha mō te hītori o Pōhara. Arā noa atu ngā painga i kitea, o te noho tahi a ngā kaumātua i runga tonu i te marae, ki te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro, kōrero hoki mō ngā rā o mua i waenganui i a rātou. Ā, hei whai ake i ngā kōrero i puta i ngā wānanga, i haere maua ko taku matua ki te torotoro i tēnā, i tēnā o ngā kaumātua e mōhio pai ana ki ngā kōrero, hei whakakīkī i ngā whārua, hei whakawhānui hoki i ngā kōrero. I ngāwari ake taku mahi i te haere tahitanga mai o taku matua, hei hoa mōku. Ko tāna, he āta whakamārama atu i te pūtake o te rangahau, he whakamārama hoki i te whakaaetanga o ngā kaumātua ki tērā mahi. I mōhio pai hoki ia ki ngā kōrero whānui mō te marae, ki ngā tāngata ka kōrerohia, ā, nā konā i taea e ia te whiu atu ētehi pātai, te whakamārama hoki i ahau i muri mai mō te āhua o ētehi o ngā kōrero kāore i tino mārama mai ki ahau. I tū hoki taku matua hei piriti i waenganui i te kaikōrero kaumātua me te kaiuiui rangatahi kia whakawhiti pai ai ngā patai me ngā whakautu ki waenganui i ngā taha e rua. Koia tērā taku waimarie i roto i ngā mahi uiui kaumātua, ā, koia hoki i tutuki pai ai tērā taha o te rangahau. I tae mai ki aku ringa tētehi rīpene o tētehi wānanga i hopukina ai i te tau 1978. Nō taua tau, i haere ake ētehi akonga o te Tari Maori o Te Whare Wananga o Waikato, i raro i te maru o Wharehuia Milroy ki te rapu i ngā kōrero mō te marae o Pōhara. Heoi anō, i tō rātou hokinga atu ki te kāinga, kāore te nuinga o ngā kōrero i hopukina. Ka waihotia te take nā kia tārewa, ā, tae rawa ki te tau 1990, kātahi ka riro i a ahau te rīpene kotahi i ora mai, hei āwhina i aku mahi rangahau mō tōku marae. I rapu māramatanga ahau mō te āhua o te noho a te iwi Māori whānui i ngā rā o mua, i roto i nga pukapuka maha kua tuhia kētia. Mō ngā kōrero mō te whenua e tū nei te marae ināianei, i haere ki te Kooti Whenua Māori, ki reira kimi ai i ngā kōrero mō te rohe o Maungatautari whānui, mō te marae o Pōhara hoki. Nā ēnei whaiwhainga, kua puta he kōrero, kua puta hoki he whakaaro hei whakawā i ērā kōrero, hei whakamārama rānei i ērā kōrero, ā, koia tēnei e takoto nei i roto i tēnei tuhinga. Ka huri ināianei ki te wetewetetanga o ngā wāhanga o roto i te tuhinga nei. Nō namata mai anō i tīkina atu ai te rākau i te Wao-nui-ā-Tāne hei tārai i te waka o ōku tūpuna. Tēnei au e tiki atu nei i te rākau hei tauira hanga kōrero mōku. Ko tō te rākau tupu, ki ngā whakaaro o tēnei e tuhi nei, e pērā ana ki te tupu o te kaupapa kia nohoia te marae o Pōhara e tū ana i raro i te maru o Maungatautari. Arā noa atu ngā tauritenga o te tupu o te rākau me tō te marae o Pōhara tupu, mai i ōna pūtakenga hei papakāinga, ki te puāwaitanga o te whakaaro kia tū hei marae mō te mokopuna a te motu, mō ngā un whakatupu, otirā, mō te iwi whānui. E whitu anō ngā wāhanga o tō te rākau tupu e whakatauritehia nei i roto i ngā whārangi o tēnei tuhinga. Ko te whenua tonu hei papa mō te tupu o te rākau, mō te tupu hoki o te marae Nō reira, ka tīmata ake i konā.

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  • The Control Points of Lactose Synthesis in the Lactating Ruminant

    Eichler, Stephen J. (1993)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It has been established that lactose is the major osmole in the milk of many mammalian species, and hence that the amount of water secreted is approximately proportional to the amount of lactose secreted. It is envisaged that reduction of the amount of lactose synthesised would allow a reduction of the amount of water in milk. This thesis studied the regulation of lactose synthesis in the mammary glands of goats by altering the flux of glucose and other intermediates of lactose synthesis. The consequent effects were determined by measuring the levels of various metabolites in milk. The mechanism of the reduction of milk yield brought about by twenty-four hour fasting in goats was explored by looking for perturbations in some of these parameters measured. Also, known differences between certain bovine genetic groups in water secretion were investigated by measurements in milk of trace metabolites involved in lactose synthesis. It was intended to further substantiate the paradigm that availability of glucose within mammary secretory cells of ruminants normally regulates lactose synthesis during midlactation. This widely held belief has not been supported by this research.

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  • The Role of coercion and individual liberty within the spontaneous order

    Riddell, Lynne Katherine Mary (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines the implications of Friedrich Hayek's assertion of liberty as the supreme value. The definition of individual liberty and coercion represents a crucial determinant of his social theory. Society exists as a spontaneous order, where knowledge is disseminated and utilised through the market. The participants in the market process are an association of free individuals, regulated by a body of abstract and universally applicable laws. Each individual must be guaranteed the maximum degree of freedom that is equal to and compatible with all other individuals. The benefits of individual freedom are intended to encourage individual responsibility and allow for the greatest possible amount of discoveries for the improvement of society. The emergence of new processes and technologies ls a result of the spontaneous order of free individuals. Hayek's assertion of the connection between individual freedom and invention is correct, although totalitarian societies are still capable of progress. However Hayek's theory has serious flaws and inconsistencies. His definition of freedom, as an absence of arbitrary coercion, is inadequate for the requirements of individual self-determination. The reliance on universal laws as a guarantee against coercion is misplaced. Alternately he is inconsistent with his claim of the coercive powers of the state and trade unions as intolerable while the coercive nature of the market is acceptable. Monopolies and cartels created by the market are incompatible with liberty. Hayek's reliance on competition will not always secure freedom for those individuals who do not have the opportunities to pursue their particular ends.

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  • Feminist theories and practices of lawyering: Legal representation for women who are survivors of domestic violence

    Seuffert, Nan Marie (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The image of a spiral represents the relationship between theory, practices and the experiences of women in the continual project of developing feminist theories. Feminists create tentative theories to explain the experiences of women. These theories inform feminist practices. The practices then lead to new experiences and new interpretations of experiences, which may require new or revised theories. Feminist theories are therefore subject to constant testing in the light of the diverse experiences of women. Each turn on the spiral may require revisiting the same issues; each movement upward on the spiral also represents development of feminist theories towards the goal of more accurately reflecting the diverse experiences of women. The first goal of this project was to consider how feminists develop feminist theories from the experiences of women, considering the relationship between theory and practice in gathering the experiences of women, and in the interpretation and presentation of those experiences. The second goal was to develop feminist theories of lawyering in the area of domestic violence from the experiences of women who are survivors of domestic violence, thereby moving feminist theories of lawyering a full turn on the theory-practice spiral. The theoretical component of the first goal of the project required using feminist theories to inform the gathering and interpretation of the experiences of women with their legal representation. The theoretical component of the second goal required testing current feminist theories of lawyering in light of these experiences. The experiences of women are therefore central to the theoretical aspects of the project. They also provide a focus for the practical aspects of the project: recommendations for lawyers about representing women who are survivors of domestic violence. Perhaps the most significant finding of the research is the frequency with which the women felt that their lawyers did not believe them, especially with respect to the level of danger in which they lived and the severity of the abuse that they endured. Focusing on the disbelief of the lawyers with respect to these aspects of the women's experiences revealed the lawyers' lack of understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence. This finding alone virtually precludes the possibilities for truly ethical lawyer-client relationships in which power is shared and the twoway process of lawyer translation takes place in the context of mutual understanding, respect and a willingness to listen which are required for dialogue. These findings also provide a backdrop to the other issues raised by the research, especially the lack of involvement of the women in decision-making and the lack of advocacy provided to the women. Effective legal representation requires that lawyers be aware of the context in which women seek protection from the legal system, and that lawyers be prepared to assist the women in ensuring their safety by advocating for protection by the legal system throughout the legal process. Lawyers should also be prepared to confront and expose gender bias as it operates in particular cases in a manner that furthers the interests of their clients, and to assist in ensuring that women receive adequate support in using the legal process. The development of feminist theories builds on what we know about women's experiences by producing tentative theories which are tested in light of further experiences. In this project, feminist theories concerning the gathering and interpretation of women's experiences provided the basis for the development of the research methods. The experiences gathered were used to test the recent developments in feminist theories of lawyering. Attention to the situated aspects of experiences resulted in the development of situated theories of feminist lawyering: theories that are relevant to non-Maori women in New Zealand, and that provide a lens through which other women might consider their own theories, practices and experiences.

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  • He Whakaemi Kōrero mō Ngā Ruahine

    Manuirirangi, Hori (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Ko te whāinga o tēnei tuhingaroa, hei whakaemi kōrero mō Ngā Ruahine. I whāia e au te āhua o te tipu o te rākau hei hanga i aku kōhinga kōrero mō Ngā Ruahine. Ko te ūpoko tuatahi, ko ngā pakiaka, arā te tīmatatanga o Ngā Ruahine. I konei ka tirohia ngā kōrero mō ngā waka tawhito mete whakapapa hoki o ngā tūpuna tāngatawhenua o Ngā Ruahine. Whai muri i tēnā, he wāhanga e pā ana ki te haeretanga mai o Aotea waka, ā, ka tirohia hoki tētehi kōrero tawhito mō te wehenga o ngā iwi o Aotea. Mai i ngā pakiaka ka piki ake ki te tinana o te rākau. Koinei te wāhanga e pā ana ki ngā korero whenua o Ngā Ruahine. Kei te ūpoko tuarua nei, ka āta tirohia ngā kōrero mō ngā tongi o te rohe o Ngā Ruahine, me ngā take kōrero e whakawhanaunga ana i te tangata ki te whenua. Kei te ūpoko tuarua anō hoki ētehi whakaaturanga whenua mō te rohe o Ngā Ruahine, hei āwhina i te kaipānui. Mai i te tinana, ka aro atu ki ngā peka o te rākau i raro i te ūpoko tuatoru. Koinei te wāhanga nui o tēnei tuhingaroa, nā te tokomaha o ngā toronga o ngā peka nei. I roto i te ūpoko tuatoru, ka tirohia ētehi kōrero mō ia hapū o Ngā Ruahine. Mai i ngā kōrero mō ngā rohe whenua o ia hapū, ki ngā kōrero mō ngā marae me ngā pā tawhito o ērā hapū, ā, tae atu hoki ki ngā tūpuna rongonui me ā rātou mahi whakaari. Hei te mutunga, ka herea katoatia ngā kōrero o te tuhinga nei i raro i te ūpoko tuawhā, kia kite ai , he aha ngā hua e pūawai ai i tēnei tuhinga. Koinei te whakamutunga o ngā kōrero, arā ko te whakakapīnga o ngā kōrero. Ko tēnei tuhingaroa, he whakaemi kōrero mai i ngā kaumātua o Ngā Ruahine, ā, he mea tango mai hoki ētehi kōrero i ngā pukapuka, ko ēnei kōrero kua whakatakotoria i roto i tēnei tuhingaroa hei whakawhāriki iho ki te aroaro o te tini. Ko te tūmanako, he tuhinga rangahau tēnei hei āwhina i ngā rangatahi o Ngā Ruahine, kia rongo ai rātou i ngā kōrero kāore i te tino rangona i ēnei rā, kia mau hoki ngā kōrero a ngā kaumātua o Ngā Ruahine, kei ngaro. Erangi, he whakamōhio tēnei, he tīmatanga anahe tēnei tuhingaroa mō te kaupapa nei. Ko te tūmanako, he hua anō ka puta i tēnei rangahau, hei whāngai i ngā manu hiakai o Ngā Ruahine.

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  • FDI Regimes in the Chinese Triangle

    Wang, Yucai (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The existence of regimes on foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Chinese triangle (China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) is one of the most important elements that promote rapid FDI inter-flows and economic integration within the triangle. The economic policies and FDI inter-flows are leading to their regimes harmonize with international standards. Cultural backgrounds and ideological conflicts have an impact on shaping legalism towards their FDI regimes. Their FDI regimes also reflect the interaction between market and government. As their domestic markets being oriented toward a bigger and more competitive international market, FDI regimes in the triangle need to be, at least, harmonized with each other and with international standards. Learning from East Asian countries' past examples of rapid economic growth and recent lessons of financial crisis, governments within the triangle need to improve their FDI regimes to support the Chinese triangle to be more dynamic and harmony. In this thesis, after exploiting the backgrounds of FDI regimes in the triangle, I first compared the systems and effects of FDI regimes in the Chinese triangle, then analyzed their integration and harmonization trends. In conclusion, both market mechanisms and government strategies can and have played an important and effective role in the triangle in building regimes to attract FDI inflows to support their economic development and integration with each other. Meanwhile, as part of their legal systems that belong to three major different legal systems in the world, the integration and harmonization of FDI regimes in the triangle could be a useful preparation for the harmonization of international investment law.

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