620 results for 1990, Masters

  • The failure of corporate failure models to classify and predict : aspects and refinements

    Alexander, P. B. (1991)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much has been written about the use of multiple discriminant analysis in corporate distress classification and forecasting. Classification and prediction models are notoriously difficult to establish in such a way that they will stand the ultimate test of time. Many articles severely criticise the use of the technique yet there are aspects which may improve our ability to develop satisfactory models. We are probably yet a long way off from being able to do so with any great degree of satisfaction, yet it behoves us to try to develop models that do justice to the assumptions and the theory. This thesis explores several important aspects of the model-building process and concludes that some of the more conventional criticisms of the models developed so far are less important than claimed. It suggests that more critical than the failure to meet the conditions of multivariate normality, the equality of the variance-covariance matrices, and the use of a priori probabilities are the need for: a satisfactory model specification that can be theoretically justified, the strict use of random sampling, the efficient use of sample data, the search for stable mean vectors which are significantly different from each other, and ex ante validation. If these requirements are met then the MDA technique is robust enough to cope with breaches of the assumptions.

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  • The state and income redistribution: a study of the social wage and taxation in New Zealand 1949-1975

    Reveley, J. W. C. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the role of the state in redistributing income between social classes in New Zealand during the years 1949-1975. It applies an innovative methodology, developed by E. Ahmet Tonak, to a set of data drawn from New Zealand's national accounts and estimates a quantity labelled 'net-tax', defined as the taxes that the working class cede to the state less the expenditure that the working class receives from the state in the form of a social wage. A detailed theoretical discussion precedes the empirical analysis. Insofar as Tonak's method requires that the social wage (the portion of state expenditure consumed by the working class) be identified as an empirical quantity, the argument that all taxes, and hence all state expenditures, originate from surplus value is confronted. The views of the main representatives of this contemporary school of thought are subjected to detailed scrutiny. They are rejected in favour of the views of a school which considers the portion of taxes funding the state expenditure that constitutes the social wage to originate in 'wages'. A model which theoretically 'grounds' the comparison of taxes paid to state expenditure received, effected in the remaining chapters of this study, is then formulated. In the empirical analysis, the empirical referent of the 'net-tax' concept is calculated for the years 1949-1975. The net-tax data set is then used to construct a transference ratio, which indicates the degree and direction of income redistribution effected by the state. The main finding to emerge is that, in all but one of the twenty-seven years surveyed in this study, the working class has surrendered more wealth in taxes to the state than it has received back from the state as a social wage. In light of these results, it can be concluded that the welfare state has not materially benefitted the working class in New Zealand. Moreover, insofar as income has consistently been redistributed from the working class to 'non-labour' (the capitalist class and the state itself), the state can be considered to owe the working class a debt in the amount of 3671.26 million (constant 1975) dollars.

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  • The impact of the Internet on small firms

    Martin, Ross A. (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Several researchers have designed frameworks to model and analyse impacts of the Internet on firms. This research takes one such framework aimed at small firms (Lymer et al., 1997b) and attempts to validate its usefulness by comparing it to similar and conflicting models, and by applying it to impacts collected from both the literature and from four case studies of small firms. The findings suggest that several changes to Lymer et al.'s (1997b) framework are necessary to make the model more effective and more practical for researchers and practitioners. A revised Internet impacts model is proposed that incorporates these changes. Preliminary evaluation has been performed on the revised model, resulting in the conclusion that the study makes a valuable contribution to the area of Internet research by significantly enhancing the usability and analytical usefulness of Lymer et al.'s (1997b) Internet impacts model.

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  • Promoting sustainable management in local resource management issues

    Weastell, Lynda (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Resource Management Act (RMA) 1991 is a much discussed and frequently criticised piece of legislation in New Zealand. The RMA 1991 is much discussed because it is part of a substantial reform of New Zealand's resource management law. It is much criticised because the overall purpose of the RMA 1991 is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources (S.5(1)) but the meaning given to sustainable management in the RMA 1991 (S.5(2)) is ambiguous. These discussions and criticisms focus on the legislation. Little research on promoting sustainable management in the context of resource management practice has been undertaken so far. This research needs to be done because the context of resource management issues and the public planning process will influence how sustainable management is interpreted and applied in resource management practice. This thesis is a comparative analysis of promoting sustainable management in four local government resource management issues: the northern access road issue, Christchurch; underground coal mining at Mount Davy, Rewanui; subdivision of Travis Swamp and Kennedy's Bush Spur, Christchurch; and air access into Westland National Park. The aims of the research are to establish: how sustainable management is being promoted in resource management practice; how important the RMA 1991 and promoting sustainable management is in determining resource management outcomes in the public planning process; and whether promoting sustainable management is resulting in a radical change in resource management practice. The thesis makes three conclusions. Firstly, that while sustainable management is an ambiguous concept a 'working' interpretation is emerging in resource management practice based on managing adverse environmental effects. Secondly, that the RMA 1991 and promoting sustainable management is important to legitimise resource management proposals in terms of the law, but it is not the raison d'etre for these proposals. Thirdly, that promoting sustainable management has resulted in changes in the way in which resource management proposals are assessed, but there are a lot of conitunities in resource management practice despite resource management law reform.

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  • The environmental concern of commerce students -a survey

    Saunders, Louise M. (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The evolution of attitudes towards the environment has culminated in the entrenchment of environmental concern as a characteristic of Western society. Overseas research has found young, well educated, urban individuals are most likely to express concern for the environment. However, the features of environmentally concerned New Zealanders have largely failed to attract the attention of researchers. In a sample of University of Canterbury Commerce students, aspects of environmental concern, and salient issues, were identified. As expected, individuals raised in urban centres were more likely to express environmental concern, although the expected influence of age and education were not observed. Women were more concerned about the environment, as were New Zealand-raised and New Zealand-ethnic respondents. It was concluded that the environmental concern of this population has many similarities to populations in other Western nations in the salience of issues, the issues of concern, and the levels of concern shown. As the respondents in this study were not representative of the New Zealand public, the suggestions for further research focus on the need to investigate environmental concern in a representative sample. A need was also suggested for research into areas of specific concerns, actual behaviour, commitment, and knowledge in the New Zealand population.

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  • An examination of employees' observations and informal information in a distressed organisation : the case of Fortex Group Limited

    Tobin, Scott Mylrea (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A review of previous qualitative corporate distress research reveals that non-managerial employees appear to have been overlooked as a potential source of information on a failed company. Yet assertions by Argenti (1976a) and an analysis of Altman's (1983) and McBarnet, Weston and Whelan's (1993) research indicates that employees can potentially observe the symptoms of distress. However, Argenti (1976a) reported that employees could only observe the non-financial systems of distress, and that they could not determine that an organisation was distressed. McBarnet et al's (1993) research and a pilot case study indicated otherwise. The pilot study also found that employees had access to the informal communication network, or grapevine, and an informal accounting information system (IAIS). McBarnet et al (1993) report that informal information may assist employees to detect problems or unusual events within a company. Consequently, this research sought to clarify the anomaly between Argenti's assertions and McBarnet et al's (1993) and the pilot study's findings, determining the problems or concerns that employees observed in a company before. it collapsed, and whether these observations could cause employees to believe that a company was distressed before it failed. The research also examined whether information from an IAIS and/or the grapevine contributes to employees' observations and opinions in a distressed company. A single case study of a failed organisation was conducted. The subject was Fortex Group Limited, a South Island meat-processing company. The findings challenged and extended previous beliefs regarding employees' observations in a distressed company, indicating that they may not only observe the symptoms of distress, but also observe the defects and mistakes which cause, and contribute to, failure. Moreover, from the symptoms observed, the employees recognised that the company was distressed. The research also established preliminary links between the grapevine, IAISs, employees' observations and corporate distress. Each area was identified as an alternative source of information which could potentially assist the early detection of corporate distress. Despite limitations, this research increases the body of knowledge in these areas, and recommends directions for future research.

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  • Interpretation of some Paleocene fluvial sediments from the Upper Pakawau and Kapuni groups, Pakawau Sub-basin, North-West Nelson

    Stark, C.J. (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Fifteen key measured sections form the basis for detailed facies analysis of Paleocene upper North Cape Formation (Pakawau Group) and Farewell Formation (Kapuni Group) sediments, northwest Nelson. Based on structural, textural and compositional variations, the sediments were divided into eight lithofacies associations (LAA3, LAA4, LAA5, LAA6, LAA7, LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3). Associations A3 to A7, North Cape Formation, represent a progradational sequence of floodplain (LAA3), lacustrine (LAA4), low energy meander (LAA5 and LAA6), and braided river deposits (LAA7). LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3 are interpreted as meander, gravel dominated and sand dominated braided systems. The conformable boundary between LAA3 and LAA5 on the northwestern side (Moki Point) of the Whanganui Inlet means the transition from an axial system to system flowing perpendicular to the axis of the Pakawau Sub-basin does not represent the contact between the Kapuni Group and Pakawau Group. Progradation of a fluvial system passing through the space between en echelon faults in the west would explain the paleocurrent change from parallel to perpendicular to the main axis of the Pakawau Sub-basin. A higher rate of subsidence toward the north along the Wakamarama Fault is inferred from a lateral northerly-coarsening trend between LAA6 and LAA7. Erosional contact between LAA6 and LAB2 on the northern side of the Whanganui Inlet is interpreted as the upper contact of the North Cape Formation. The absence of fluvial association LAA5-LAA7 on the southern side of the Whanganui Inlet Entrance suggests a period of uplift and subsequent erosion of prior to the deposition of associations LAB1-LAB3 deposits. The preferred explanation for the localized uplift and erosion of fluvial association A deposits is by activation of intrabasin antithetic and synthetic faults. LAB1 is inferred to represent a 'feeder' system associated with LAB2 and LAB3. The basal contact of LAB1 on the southern side of the Whanganui Inlet is thus inferred to represent the boundary between the North Cape and Farewell Formations. The downstream coarsening of LAB2 and LAB3 is best interpreted by coarse grained sediment being fed from active (penecontemporaneous) intrabasin antithetic and synthetic faults and/or the Kahurangi fault in the west. The interpretation of the Wakamarama Fault as a growth fault during the deposition of LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3 is supported by the lack of change in grain size of LAB1 up-section and the fine grained texture of LAB3 at Abel Head. The change in position of the North Cape Formation upper contact results in the recognition of a new lithostratigraphic unit, the Wharariki member, for the fluvial deposits upon LAA3. Also LAB1 is deemed sufficiently structurally, texturally and compositionally distinct to suggest it be called the Whanganui Member of the Farewell Formation. The boundary between association A and association B sediments is interpreted as a type 1 sequence stratigraphic boundary.

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  • The treatment of childhood in the novels of Charlotte and Emily Brontë

    Tan, Elis Peak Neo (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this thesis I have dealt with Charlotte and Emily Bronte's representation of children in their novels, and the significance of childhood as it reflects or suggests the authors' attitudes to morality, character, and society. I have studied what Charlotte and Emily overtly or covertly say about children and the adults that they grow into, as a means of assessing the similarities and differences in the sisters' attitudes, taking into consideration as well, how these attitudes compare with contemporary images of childhood. I have chosen to examine the published novels of Charlotte and Emily, and have used for my research both critical and biographical material written on the Brontes. In chapter one, I introduce both writers vis-a-vis two major influences in Victorian literature, namely, religion and romanticism, comparing the extent to which the sisters are affected by these opposing traditions in their treatment of childhood. Chapters two and three deal separately with Charlotte and Emily and their novels. The final chapter offers a conclusion with regard to the similarities and differences between these authors, including the distinction between their narrative techniques that reflect their differing literary motives. Unlike Charlotte, Emily wrote for personal catharsis and awareness rather than for didactic reasons. While both Brontes reveal their moral attitudes on the question of childhood, Emily, unlike her sister, remains non-judgmental. Also, although both sisters accept harsh reality, Emily seems to do so reluctantly compared to Charlotte who is quite unambiguous about it.

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  • Groundwater contamination in the Heathcote/Woolston area, Christchurch, New Zealand

    Hertel, Ingrid (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Christchurch City (population 360,000) depends entirely on an underlying stratified, leaky, confined, artesian aquifer system to provide untreated water for its residents and industries. Concerns have been raised by the Canterbury Regional Council about brackish water entering the aquifer system in a localised area in the south-eastern part of the City (Woolston/Heathcote). Due to the coastal, urban, and geological, setting of the area several possible groundwater contaminant sources exist and needed to be investigated. These include: seawater, urban wastes, thermal groundwater, and connate seawater. A potentiometric survey carried out in the area, combined with water quality sampling, hydrogeological information from previous studies, and previously obtained water quality data, provided the basis for a conceptual model of groundwater contamination. Downward leakage of estuarine water through the confining layer appears to be the dominant contaminant source. In the past, the potential risk of seawater intrusion has been regarded as low for the Christchurch artesian aquifer system. The freshwater/seawater interface was considered to be located 40km offshore where the uppermost confined aquifer intersects with the sea at its submarine outcrop. To enhance the understanding of freshwater and saltwater flow dynamics of the aquifer system, a steady-state crosssectional finite-difference model along the coast of Christchurch has been constructed and calibrated. The modelling indicated that the location of the freshwater/seawater interface is dominated by leakage from the sea through the confining layer and not, as presumed before, by lateral inflow of seawater through the offshore outcrop. Consequently the interface location is to be expected much closer to the shoreline at approximately 3km offshore. Groundwater contamination in a localised area in Christchurch has demonstrated that the uppermost confining layer does not act as an effective barrier towards seawater intrusion where the hydraulic gradient between the sea and the aquifer is directed downward. A groundwater level and quality monitoring network, and a groundwater model specific to the study area, have been constructed to facilitate the future management of the resource. Immediate pumping restrictions are needed on 3 major abstraction wells to increase potentiometric heads that currently sit below sea level. An upward hydraulic gradient between the uppermost aquifer, the estuary, and the confining layer, is essential to protect the aquifer from ongoing downward leakage of saline contaminant sources. Ongoing monitoring of water levels and groundwater quality is recommended. This data will allow more refined modelling of management scenarios.

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  • The conceptual distinction between liabilities and equity : a new approach required

    Crook, Kimberley (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the conceptual distinction between liabilities and equity, in the context of business entities, by means of a literature review. It is shown that the conceptual distinction between liabilities and equity requires consideration of the underlying equity theory. Various equity theories are compared, including the entity, proprietary and residual equity theories, which each view liabilities and equity, and the distinction between the two, differently. In addition to these well-known equity theories, another equity theory is presented, that has received little specific attention as an equity theory in the literature, but nevertheless appears to have considerable support. This other theory is termed the noncompulsion equity theory for the purposes of this thesis. Despite the support from the accounting literature, it is shown that the non-compulsion equity theory appears to have little support from either the law or the economics literature. Given that accounting takes place in the wider legal and economic environment, this suggests that the non-compulsion equity theory may not be an appropriate basis for distinguishing between liabilities and equity. A review of the accounting conceptual statements reveals that they are inconsistent in their application of an underlying equity theory, because they use several equity theories rather than one, including the non-compulsion equity theory, which is adopted by the conceptual statements' definitions of liabilities and equity. A closer examination of the non-compulsion equity theory demonstrates that it is based upon inconsistent reasoning and questionable assumptions, suggesting that it is fundamentally flawed. This thesis concludes by rejecting the non-compulsion equity theory as a basis for distinguishing between liabilities and equity, suggesting that a new approach is required. The residual equity theory seems likely to provide a suitable alternative.

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  • Romantic relationships at work and attributions for the occupational success of participants

    McLaren, Elizabeth Sara (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The research on romantic relationships at work was extended in two studies. In Study 1, 102 working people provided information about their experience of organisational romance in New Zealand. The results revealed many similarities to the findings of studies conducted in other countries. In Study 2, in an experiment, 144 students completed the Women as Managers Scale and made attributions for the promotion of stimulus managers who were involved in a workplace romance. As hypothesised, female subjects with more positive attitudes toward women in management tended to attribute the promotion of a female manager to internal factors rather than to external factors. Contrary to predictions, female managers were more favourably evaluated than male managers. However, as expected, there was a tendency for women to be more derogated than men for being romantically involved with a high status partner rather than a low status partner. The results were explained in relation to research on sex biases in evaluation. The implications of the findings for women and the management of organisational romance are discussed.

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  • Worker participation and worker privacy : a concern for managers planning office space?

    McMillan, Anna Natasha (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Office space planning is a common occurrence in organisations, yet receives little attention in management and organisational theory. One possible explanation is that the physical work environment and its planning does not have a significant effect on worker attitudes and behaviour and therefore is not a priority for management practice. This is the interpretation of some early organisational studies which minimise the value of the physical environment as a management tool (e.g., as a "Hawthorne" effect or a "Hygiene factor"). These findings are thought to have contributed to the lack of attention to the physical work environment, including office space, in management theory and practice. However, the office space planning literature, which draws largely from the field of environmental design, suggests that office space planning should be of concern to managers. This thesis investigates this question. . Two aspects of office space planning were selected in order to explore this issue: office worker participation in planning and office worker privacy. Office worker participation was selected as an aspect of the process of planning and privacy because it was an outcome of planning. The practical application of the research question is investigated by analysing recent office space planning processes and outcomes occurring in seven organisations. Sources of data include the perceptions of office managers, office employees and one design professional gained from interviews, as well as written organisational records and floor plans. Key findings concerning participation included: while all managers interviewed had an ongoing and central role in office space planning, this role was new and they found little guidance available; managers were often not aware of their own decision making capability before they involved office workers in planning; poor liaison with those constructing the environment led to limitations in the way offices could be used; and perceived fairness in allocating space was important to office workers. Key findings on office worker privacy included: workers perceived privacy to be important to work related attitudes and behaviour; not having speech privacy or control over accessibility, distractions and interruptions was reported to effect work efficiency; and private interview rooms tend to be thought of as expansion space by managers in times of organisational change. On the basis of the analysis this study concludes that office space planning is deserving of further attention in management practice, research and theory.

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  • Pollen Dispersal Across the Southern Alps, South Island, New Zealand

    Randall, Paul M. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this research was to improve the understanding of modern pollen deposition in central South Island in order to interpret Quaternary pollen profiles. This was accomplished by examining the results from a chain of pollen traps (exposed for one year), moss polsters collected along a transect from Westland across the Southern Alps to Canterbury (with and without addition of exotic spores to facilitate 'absolute' counting) and three short peat monoliths. The role of topography, vegetation type and weather patterns were also briefly assessed. The results were analysed by means of principal components and cluster analyses to identify the respective contribution of different pollen taxa. The conclusions are: 1. Trap and polster results are broadly comparable. 2. With exceptions, caused by local effects such as fire and contributions by adjacent vegetation and taxa introduced since 1850, the monolith profiles show little change over the period studied. 3. Forest sites in Westland were dominated by pollen of local podocarps (Dacrydium cupressinum, Prumnopitys) and broadleaved angiosperm species (Metrosideros, Quintinia, Weinmannia). Nothofagus fusca type pollen dominates within the beech forest areas, but drops to about 10% a short distance from the forest edge. Poaceae pollen shows low frequencies in forested sites, but dominates in grass/scrubland areas. 4. Sites above the treeline on the Main Divide shows proportionately high counts of exogenous Podocarpaceae pollen. However, the high counts involve no 'real' increase in regional deposition.

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  • "A colour line affair" : race, imperialism and rugby football contacts between New Zealand and South Africa to 1950.

    Buckley, Mike (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is an attempt to construct an alternative tradition of New Zealand and South African rugby football contacts to 1950. It examines the wider social conditions of such contacts, unlike the existing plethora of rugby-centred chronicles of matches, tours, and sporting personalities. Rugby tours between New Zealand and South Africa before 1950 raised questions over the relationship between sport, race and imperialism. The manner that rugby reflected the divergent racial traditions in both societies thus challenges the cliche that sport is separate from wider social and political considerations. The thesis consists of an introduction, conclusion and four chapters. The chapters correlate with the New Zealand and South African rugby exchanges of 1921, 1928, 1937, and 1949. They are dominated by the themes of race relations and sporting imperialism, which form the context of the tours. Research is based on New Zealand newspaper sources; contextual material is derived from secondary sources.

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  • Ecology of the Possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula Kerr) in the Karori Water Supply Reserve, Wellington, Sounds Ecological District

    Stoffregen, Hans (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The abundance and condition of possums in various areas of the Karori Reserve, Wellington - Sounds Ecological District was assessed. Possums were most abundant in the upper part of the reserve in an area dominated by bishop and radiata pines with an undergrowth of native species and in an area dominated by gorse and flax shrublands. In the lower part of the reserve, possums were less abundant and there a number of characteristics were observed: possums had a higher body weight for age, their reproductive output was higher and the population was marked by a higher proportion of females and juveniles. This was interpreted as a "compensatory response" characteristic of possum populations maintained at low densities. Possum stomachs were sampled in spring and their contents analysed in order to investigate the importance of Fuchsia excorticata and other plant species to possum diet. In the lower part of the reserve the leaves of Fuchsia excorticata and the flowers of Cytisus scoparius made up more than 50 percent of the possums' forage. In the upper part of the reserve exotic species such as the flowers of Cytisus scoparius and Ulex europeans as well as the leaves of native species such as Aristotelia serrata, Pseudopanax arboreus and Coprosma robusta made up the bulk of possum forage. Exotic plants accounted for a significant proportion of the spring possum diet in the reserve. Whereas most leaves originated from native plants, the exotic species contributed mainly carbohydrate-rich flowers and pollen. The canopy condition of two possum-susceptible tree species Fuchsia excorticata and Pseudopanax arboreus was assessed early in autumn over the years 1993, 1995 and 1996. Over these years, 47 percent of marked fuchsia trees were completely defoliated and most trees are unlikely to recover even if possums are eradicated from the reserve. All defoliated fuchsia trees were located in the upper part of the reserve. On the other hand, 37 percent of marked fuchsia trees exhibited only a little possum damage. Most of these trees were located in the lower part of the reserve where possum density was lower. Increasing possum densities could therefore be correlated with an increasing level of possum damage to fuchsia canopies. Even though Pseudopanax arboreus leaves and petioles were encountered in 10 percent of possum stomachs, the canopies leaves and petioles were encountered in 10 percent of possum stomachs, the canopies of assessed trees did not seem to be greatly affected. It appeared that due to the high abundance of this plant species in the reserve the effects of possum browse were spread over the whole reserve to levels which could be tolerated by an individual Pseudopanax arboreus tree.

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  • Final report for BOP Fertiliser Ltd. : transportation, marketing, process design and costing for the commercialisation of granular reactive phosphate rock

    Ferris, Tim (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report was completed to determine the commercial feasibility of granular Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) as a fertiliser, and the requirements needed to bring it to market. Recommendations based on this report are as follows: • Redesign the existing Morrinsville plant • Change the name of the final product to something that is not directly associated with RPR, ie Gradual Delivery Phosphate • Convince the sales representatives in the ability of the new granular RPR • Employ a dedicated representative to target the forest and organic markets • Sell granular RPR for $210 per tonne ex works from year one • Consider adding extra nutrients into granular RPR for the Forestry market • Use marketing to current markets extensively • Appoint a Program Director for the implementation of granular RPR • Offer bulk discounts and special deals to bring in customers for the initial sale of RPR.

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  • Cliff erosion and coastal change, mid Canterbury.

    Flatman, Michael R. (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The mid Canterbury coast has been largely neglected in the coastal research of the South Island's East Coast. This thesis investigates cliff erosion and coastal change in mid Canterbury. The mid Canterbury coast is comprised of mixed sand and gravel beaches with unconsolidated alluvium cliffs landward of the beaches. The average erosion rate of the cliffs is 0.43m.y( 1 • This rate masks spatial and temporal variations in cliff erosion rates. Erosion at the northern section of the study area is 0.7m.y( 1 faster than erosion at the southern end. In the long-term (15 years) cliff height is the major controlling factor on the spatial variations of cliff erosion (r = 0.733). Beach volume controls short-term (1 year) spatial variations of cliff erosion (r = -0.774). Coastal storm frequency significantly controls temporal variations of cliff erosion (r = 0.635). Erosion of the mid Canterbury cliffs yields 228,339m3 .y( 1 to the coast. Longshore sediment transport is predominantly in a northward direction and provides a net sediment quantity of 40,645m3 .y( 1 • The mid Canterbury coast is bisected by two major rivers, the Ashburton and Rangitata. Their specific sediment yields are among the largest in the world. Sediment yields of beach forming material (coarse sands and gravels) are much lower supplying 25,000 and 28,000m3 .yr- 1 of sediment to the coast. The mid Canterbury coast has a sediment budget deficit of 27,500m3 .yr- 1 • Major sources of sediment to the mid Canterbury coast are cliff erosion (70 per cent), river transport (17 per cent) and longshore sediment transport (13 per cent). Major sediment sinks include offshore transport through abrasion (76.8 per cent) and longshore sediment transport (23.2 per cent). The large amount of sediment lost through abrasion suggests that sediment, once it arrives on the coast has a short 'life span' before it is ground up. Total beach sediment volume varies significantly from year to year but is losing 27,500m3 .yr- 1 of sediment on average.

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  • Canals in literature, 1760-1830

    Cornwall, Joanne Louise (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis presents the results of an intensive study into literature of the years 1760-1830 to discover at what times and in what ways the building of England's narrow canal system, which occurred during these years, entered the writings of people at the time. All types of literature have been studied, from broadside ballads to promotional pamphlets to novels. Not all areas provided much material, but the absences were also of value in indicating which aspects of the canals were of interest to the general public, and which had limited interest. The most common types of literature differed with each stage of the development of the canals. This study is divided into sections which reflect the stages a canal was at when it was being written about, and consequently the attitude of the writers, and the assumed attitudes of their intended audiences, reflect the interest the public had in canals at that stage. These stages are Promotion, Construction, The Opening, and The Canals in Use. This study reveals that although the development of the canal system was a major factor in producing England's Industrial Revolution, surprisingly little notice was taken of it. The main group to be interested was the speculators, who invested their money and hoped to make a good profit; there were also some who saw the possibilities of canals and believed in them for their own sake, however most of the general public seemingly neither knew nor cared about artificial waterways. This is likely to be largely due to the class structure of England at the time; canals had strong connections with the working class and so were not popular with the nobility and upper-middle classes, who were the more literate members of society.

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  • Regulatory options for the privatisation of natural monopolies with particular emphasis on the privatisation of Telecom in New Zealand

    Blanchard, Carl (1992)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The increased prominence of market thinking has seen many Governments liberalise markets that were previously tightly controlled by regulation. Similarly, these Governments have at the same time questioned their role in society. This questioning has seen them first commercialise and in some cases privatise previously publicly owned trading enterprises. All of these initiatives have had the objective of increasing the efficiency by which resources are allocated in the economy. Liberalisation was designed to promote pricing efficiencies, while commercialisation and privatisation were designed to promote production and investment efficiencies. While the promotion of efficiency has been the key motivation behind these reforms, these same reforms provide the incentive for some industries to act inefficiently - especially those industries with natural monopoly characteristics. These characteristics mean that it is productively efficient for one firm rather than many to produce desired output. However, because only one firm can exist in a market, commercialisation and privatisation give that firm, in some cases, the ability to "inefficiently" price above cost. That same ability not only allows the monopolist to affect the operation of monopoly markets, but also "competitive" markets - especially if the monopolist operats in those markets - because refusing to supply product essential for operation, or engagin& in other forms of discrimination, would prevent competition. For these reasons Governments should consider regulating those industries. When faced with the issue of regulation the first question a Government should ask is whether the monopolist can exploit. Obviously if the monopolist is threatened by entry - whether that be nationally by replication, or internationally by importation - or consumers can substitute or forgo the monopolist's product, then the monopolist does not have the power to exploit in any market. However, as entry barriers rise, and the dependency of customers increases, then the Government should consider regulation. Then the issue facing Government is not whether the monopolist can exploit, but the extent to which the monopolist can exploit. For example, if barriers to entry are slight or if consumers can substitute (albeit imperfectly) with another product, then this loss to society may not warrant the imposition of costly, less-than-perfect, regulation. In other words, imperfect competition will often provide greater benefits to society than will regulation designed to correct these imperfections. However, as these imperfections increase, so does the likelihood of regulation. Regulation will seek to maximise efficiency benefits to society. If Government decides to regulate, then it must choose between alternative regulatory policies. These policies are the subject of this thesis with evaluation based on two objectives. First, any regulatory solution should seek to promote economic efficiency and secondly, that solution, where at all possible, should fit within the Government's framework of a liberalized "market" economy. These tools are then applied to the recently privatised Telecom Corporation of New Zealand. This application, and initial regulatory evaluation, are conducted within a public policy rather than economics based framework. Based on this reasoning I have split my thesis into three sections with each section subdivided into chapters. The first section deals with the issues of liberalisation, commercialisation, privatisation and natural monopolies. Chapter 1 discusses the reasons and motives for liberalisation, commercialisation, and privatisation. Chapter 2 extends this analysis by looking at the factors that will determine when a natural monopoly exists. This chapter also shows how such a monopoly can best promote productive, allocative and dynamic efficiencies. Finally, chapter 3 considers when Governments should use regulation to promote efficiency - assuming a perfect world. With this analysis in mind, section 2 attacks the issue of regulatory options. Chapter 4 considers the place that a threat to regulate has in the Government's regulatory armour and how such a threat can prevent both monopoly and competitive market exploitation. Chapter 5 examines the place of antitrust law within the Government's regulatory framework and how such law retains the principles of light-handed regulation, while controlling the monopolist's behaviour in competitive markets. Chapter 6 contemplates the issue of price control. This chapter discusses how Governments can use these controls to prevent exploitation in monopoly markets and, to a lesser extent, predation in competitive markets. Finally, chapter 7 looks at the issue of structural separation and how such separation can increase competitive pressure. Such separation can reduce the need for regulation. In section 3 I apply these regulatory tools to the telecommunications industry. Chapter 8 backgrounds the industry by considering its network characteristics; natural monopoly features; and the path Governments have taken to liberalise the industry in New Zealand, Britain, Australia, and the United States. Chapter 9 details the pricing issues within the industry and how a combination of light-handed controls, coupled with the threat of heavy-handed intervention, could effectively force cost based pricing. Chapter 10 deals with the important issue of industry competition and how a competitor must interconnect with the natural monopoly in order to compete. To ensure connection alternative regulatory options are considered. Chapter 11 then looks at how the monopolist can use other practices to engage in anti-competitive behaviour. This chapter looks at the mechanisms by which Governments could control these practices. Finally, chapter 12 summarises the findings of this section.

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  • New Zealand and Japan : trade relations, 1928-1958

    Horsley, David William (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines trade between New Zealand and Japan in the period 1928-1958. These are the years in which New Zealand and Japan signed commercial treaties establishing Most Friendly Nation relations. The study is both of the nature of the trade itself, i.e. the commodities and the infrastructure of trade, and of the effect of trade on political relations and issues. Study of the infrastructure deals with Trade commissioners, shipping, private trading organisations, and the activities of small businesses. The aim of the thesis is to analyse why New Zealand and Sapan did not develop an extensive trading relationship in this period given their complementary economic activity. Very little has been written of this topic and thus much of the thesis, especially dealing with official (and at the time confidential) policy on trade with Japan covers areas dealing with New Zealand history that have not previously been researched. Other areas in which this thesis has attempted to 'cover new ground' are shipping and private business activities between New Zealand and Japan. The primary method of investigation has been by research on archival material of the Department of Industries and Commerce. Unpublished histories of shipping were also made available to me, and interviews were conducted with businessmen who were involved with importing/exporting to Japan in the post-war period. oral history has thus been used to supplement research on archival material. The thesis, as summarized at the end, details the major impediments that prevented the development of an extensive trading relationship and the importance of New Zealand's commercial relationship with Britain as a determining factor on relations with Japan.

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