2,579 results for 2000, Doctoral

  • Effect of alcohol exposure in early gestation on brain development

    Li, Yuhong (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, has been extensively studied in the human. Animal studies show that alcohol exposure during very early development may result in severe brain damage, often incompatible with a postnatal life. However, for surviving offspring it is unknown whether they suffer long term brain damage. The final assembly of the mature brain results from a controlled balance between proliferation of glial and neuronal precursors and programmed cell death. The overall aim of the current study was to use a physiologically relevant mouse model to assess the acute and long-term effects of binge alcohol exposure on the early embryo, to simulate human pregnancy at the third week of gestation when pregnancy may be undetected. A number of paradigms were used to assess the acute dose-response effect, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) profile and the extent of cell death following alcohol exposure on gestational day (G) 7.5. The exposure paradigms were single binge IG6.5, IG4.5, IP4.5, or an extended binge IG4.5+, IG3.0+. Two control groups were Con6.5 and Con4.5+. Acute cell death was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), activated caspase-3 staining, and transmission electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was investigated using S-phase immuno-labeling, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) birthdating and immuno-detection (BrdU/anti-BrdU). The long-term effects were investigated at G18.5 and postnatal day (PN) 60. Unbiased stereological methods were used to assess the effect of ethanol exposure at G7.5 on neocortical volume, cell number and density of neurons, glial cells, and capillary cells at PN60. The first principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation resulted in acute apoptotic cell death in the ectoderm of the mouse embryo. Cell death was dependent on both peak BAC and the duration of elevated BAC. Significant increased cell death (TUNEL labeling) was observed in groups IG6.5 (9.43 ± 2.08%) and IG4.5+ (8.97 ± 2.12%) compared with control groups Con6.5 (2.14 ± 0.09%) and Con4.5+ (2.81 ± 0.36%). There was no significant increased cell death in ethanol exposed groups IG4.5 (3.43 ± 0.45%), IP4.5 (3.68 ± 0.67%), or IG3.0+ (1.72 ± 0.24%). TEM analysis revealed that cell death exhibited characteristics of the apoptotic pathway. The second principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation resulted in acute arrested proliferation in the ectoderm of the mouse embryo. The S-phase proliferation was significantly decreased within the whole ectoderm in the ethanol exposed group IG6.5 (45.58 ± 2.34%) compared with control group Con6.5 (62.08 ± 3.11%). The third principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation induced the long term effect of laminate disorganization in the neocortex. The incidence of abnormal lamination was 87.5% in IG6.5 compared with 16.7% in IG3.0+ and 14.3% in Con6.5. Although ethanol exposure increased embryonic reabsorption, decreased litter size, and increased abnormal offspring, neocortical volume, and the total number of neurons, glial cells, and capillary cells was not affected. The total number (10⁶) of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells respectively was 12.221 ± 0.436, 4.865 ± 0.167, and 2.874 ± 0.234 in IG6.5; 11.987 ± 0.416, 4.942 ± 0.133, and 2.922 ± 0.130 in IG3.0+; and 11.806 ± 0.368, 5.166 ± 0.267, and 3.284 ± 0.217 in controls, at PN60. These results provide important information pertinent to fetal outcome for those women who drink heavily in early pregnancy. The results also demonstrate the importance of the pattern of ethanol exposure and blood alcohol concentration in determining the magnitude of ethanol's teratogenic impact. Ethanol exposure on G7.5 that resulted in a high transient BAC, induced disorganized neocortical lamination, indicative of a permanent structural change. This disruption may result in altered neocortical function and requires further investigation.

    View record details
  • Dissolved organic matter in New Zealand natural waters

    Gonsior, Michael (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 186 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "1st of April 2008". University of Otago department: Chemistry.

    View record details
  • The collectors : Naval, Army and Air Intelligence in the New Zealand Armed Forces during the Second World War

    Tonkin-Covell, John (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines the performance of the intelligence collection organisations of the armed services of New Zealand during the Second World War. It considers the intelligence bodies of the Navy, the Army and the Air Force and looks at their growth, development and demise, and assesses their effectiveness as intelligence organisations. The question of how much New Zealand could be expected to achieve in the field of intelligence arises, not least because New Zealand was demographically small, had a long coastline and was geographically relatively remote. How much could New Zealand contribute to the Allied cause in intelligence terms is another issue, and what forms did any participation take? Were there lessons to be learned from the wartime experience (there were, but they went for the most part largely unheeded)? New Zealand, like other countries, had a fragmented approach to intelligence collection, making for a degree of complexity over a range of activity, despite the intelligence organisations being of modest size. The examination of the organisations in this thesis includes multi-service and multi-departmental dimensions along with the production of useful intelligence. Whether good use was made of intelligence collected is another matter. There was a substantial amount of liaison, contact and practice between departments of state as to various aspects of intelligence, the Organization for National Security and coastwatching being two notable areas. The overarching role and limitations of the Organization for National Security with regard to intelligence is explored, and the development of a combined intelligence centre examined. The participation of New Zealand signals intelligence organisations in the great Allied interception offensive is detailed, along with the mundane but fundamental task of coastal surveillance. The establishment and spectacular decline of the first local independent security service is traced. Both the intelligence and security aspects of the Army's operationally deployed units are covered, along with the growth of RNZAF air intelligence. The effectiveness of all of these organisations could hardly be expected to be uniform, and indeed it was not. Some bodies succeeded in their collection roles beyond expectations, others were reasonably effective, and two organisations failed dismally in different ways, for a number of reasons. If a pattern emerges at all, it is that small single service component-type intelligence sections collecting operational intelligence were the most effective New Zealand intelligence organisations. Operational focus and. operational requirements underlay the drive for successful collection. Most significant within the Allied context were the signals intelligence bodies. At the other end of the scale, larger co-operative interdepartmental New Zealand intelligence ventures failed to deliver projected results. New Zealand's armed forces had an interesting variety of intelligence contributions during the Second World War. Of these, the most effective organisations collected intelligence to meet directed operational requirements.

    View record details
  • Age, growth and feeding ecology of five co-occurring fishes in southern New Zealand

    Jiang, Weimin (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 340 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Marine Science

    View record details
  • The cultural transmission of cookery knowledge : from seventeenth century Britain to twentieth century New Zealand

    Inglis, Raelene (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 354 leaves :ill., map ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology.

    View record details
  • 'The danger of vertigo' : an evaluation and critique of Theōsis in the theology of Thomas Forsyth Torrance

    Habets, Michael (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 387 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Theology and Religious Studies

    View record details
  • Dr Edward Shortland and the politics of ethnography

    Lousberg, Marjan Marie (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 321 leaves :col. port., map ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: History.

    View record details
  • Are New Zealand Treaty of Waitangi settlements achieving justice? : the Ngai Tahu settlement and the return of Pounamu (greenstone)

    Gibbs, Meredith (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 332 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Political Studies. "30 September 2001."

    View record details
  • Effect of estradiol on the ovarian surface epithelium in older mice

    Gulliver, Linda Shirley Mabelle (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    2 v. (xxxii, 573 leaves) :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "August 2009". University of Otago department: Anatomy and Structural Biology

    View record details
  • Threads of inequity: the marginalisation of New Zealand area schools

    Fisk, Robert William (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 471 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. "August 27th, 2002."

    View record details
  • Imagining the revealed God : Hans Urs von Balthasar, Eberhard Jungel, and the triduum mortis

    Sharman, Elizabeth Pauline (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    'Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your minds.' [Rom 12:2] Hans Urs von Balthasar and Eberhard Jungel are profound and imaginative thinkers who unreservedly ground their theologies in revelation as God's self-disclosure. This thesis asks what resources such revelation-centred authors, from different traditions, may contribute to a theological understanding of the human imagination. Although theology has often been more interested in the constructive capacities of the imagination, it is the responsive quality of the imagination that is of particular interest to this thesis. Can the imagination contribute to a theological understanding which comprehends the action and speech of God as antecedent to human response? This thesis examines the epistemological issues that are related both to the imagination and to revelation as the self-communication and self-interpretation of God. The imagination is conceived of as essential to perception and understanding; it allows for both recognition and re-cognition. Through the imagination we can rethink the patterns or paradigms that shape our lives. The renewing of the mind can be said to involve the imagination. However, spiritual transformation requires more than a notion of the imagination as a spontaneous mental act which determines its own content. Balthasar and Jungel, while thinking in lively and narrative ways, are constrained by divine self-disclosure. God's self-revelation provides the content of the paradigm or pattern by which the Christian believer is to live. The imagination can be said to act as the context or locus of revelation. This thesis demonstrates that the three days of Easter are central to Balthasar's and Jungel's respective understandings of God. For Balthasar and Jungel, the triduum mortis is where the self-revelation of God is most apparent; it is here that God is understood to be self-giving love as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. While quite distinct in their approaches, both authors work within trinitarian, and therefore relational, frameworks. This thesis traces the motifs that not only express their understandings of the paschal mystery in relational terms but also ground their respective understandings of renewed existence; for Balthasar, the motifs of mission and kenosis, and for Jungel, those of identification and justification. For both Balthasar and Jungel, the events of the triduum mortis can be said to provide the content of, and act as a boundary to, our conception of God. Nonetheless, it is proposed that, within their respective understandings of divine prevenience, Balthasar and Jungel leave room for the exercise of the imagination. God is mystery; God is not a fixed or completed concept.

    View record details
  • Creative mourning: the AIDS Quilt Aotearoa New Zealand

    Brooke-Carr, Elizabeth (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xvii, 445 leaves :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. "November 2000".

    View record details
  • 'Blood, sweat and queers' : (re)imagining global queer citizenship at the Sydney 2002 Gay Games

    Burns, Kellie Jean (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxii, 260 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "September 17, 2007". University of Otago department: School of Physical Education.

    View record details
  • Spirituality in New Zealand hospice care

    Egan, Richard Michael Martin (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 362 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "July 2009". University of Otago department: General Practice

    View record details
  • Farm women : diverse encounters with discourse and agency

    Peoples, Susan J (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis contributes to the established literature on farm women within the context of family farming. It recognises that not enough is yet known about the discourses and agency which influence their lives. Consequently, this study has sought to establish what dominant discourses shape the lives of farm women, their responses to these discourses and how their discursive positioning influences their agency. This study employed a qualitative case study approach involving interviews with a diverse mixture of independent farm women, along with women farming in marital relationships. This thesis engages these narratives to showcase the colourful, complex life-experiences of farm women. In addition, and where present, women's partners were interviewed to provide male farmers' perspectives about women in family farming. This research has found that women's lives are shaped by positioning and contextualising discourses, with which they comply to ensure that the family farm survives. Their subservient discursive positioning limits the agency they can express, although they are able to mobilise indirect agency through supporting their partner; an implicit form of agency which has previously been unrecognised or understated. Cumulatively, this thesis highlights the need to recognise the diversity of farm women, and how they are able to exercise agency from their constrained subject positions within the family farming context. Furthermore it emphasises that agency is a dynamic, and far more varied concept than previously understood.

    View record details
  • Genetic patterning at Austronesian contact zones

    Cox, Murray Paul (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, [2], 277 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department : Biochemistry. "26 June 2003"

    View record details
  • Open population capture-recapture models and diabetes in Otago

    Cameron, Claire (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 207 leaves :ill., ; 30 cm Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Mathematics and Statistics

    View record details
  • The transformation of Alexander's court : the kingship, royal insignia and eastern court personnel of Alexander the Great

    Collins, Andrew William (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 272 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Classics.

    View record details
  • Participation, urbanism and power

    Bond, Sophie (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiii, 312 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "July 2007". University of Otago department: Geography.

    View record details
  • Teachers and dance in the classroom : So, do I need my tutu?

    Buck, Ralph (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    [x], 350 leaves :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. "21 July 2003"

    View record details