3,060 results for 2000, Masters

  • Reconstruction of the 01 February 1814 eruption of Mayon Volcano, Philippines

    Mirabueno, Maria Hannah Terbio (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Mayan Volcano's eruption on 01 February 1814 is considered as the volcano's most violent eruption episode, devastating five towns in the southern slopes of the volcano and killing at least 1,200 people. The deposits of the 1814 eruption are mainly distributed on the southern slopes of the volcano. The primary volcanic succession consists of, from bottom to top, tephra fall deposit, lower ignimbrite, pyroclastic surge deposit and upper ignimbrite. Two post-eruption lahar units were also recognized in the field area. The tephra fall unit, although not observed in direct contact with any of the other primary deposits, was distinguished based on petrologic and geochemical similarities with the lower ignimbrite and pyroclastic surge deposit. The lower ignimbrite and the overlying pyroclastic surge deposit are both scoriaceous, and are similarly bombs-rich; the surge deposit is distinguished by its characteristically good sorting. In contrast, the upper ignimbrite contains abundant angular altered clasts derived from pre-eruption deposits. All the primary deposits are interpreted to have been derived from an eruption column that was generated by multiple explosive eruptions occurring in close succession. This column initially generated the tephra fall. Discrete phases of column collapse produced the succession of lower ignimbrite, pyroclastic surge deposit and upper ignimbrite. The wide dispersal, composition and textural characteristics of the pyroclastic surge indicate that it was generated by a discrete phase of an eruption column collapse. The upper ignimbrite is the deposit from a density current produced during the cessation of the eruption that was accompanied by partial collapse of the crater wall. The 1814 deposits are predominantly composed of basaltic andesite, with minor more acidic andesite. Petrographic texture and contact relationships, bimodal distribution of plagioclase, and variation in glass composition indicate mixing of two magmas. A geologic model for the 1814 eruption is proposed in which an intermediate andesite magma residing in a small, shallow chamber beneath Mayan was intruded by a comparably larger magma of basaltic andesite composition. The resulting magma mixing may have triggered the explosive eruption of 1814.

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  • Bullying the boss : upwards bullying as a response to destructive supervisory leadership in the workplace.

    Wallace, Belinda (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Despite a growing acknowledgement of the negative outcomes for organizational functioning and the health and well-being of individuals attributable to workplace bullying, research into the phenomenon of upward bullying (supervisors bullied by their subordinates), particularly its aetiology, has received modest attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the link between destructive supervisory leadership and upward bullying and the mediating or moderating roles of perceived interactional justice, continuance commitment and workrelated meaning in this relationship. Two hundred and eight post-graduate students and two hundred and four work-based subordinate employees completed an on-line survey of their perceptions of the leadership style and interactional justice of their immediate supervisor, the levels of their own continuance commitment and work-related meaning, and the frequency with which they engaged in specific bullying behaviours targeting their supervisor. As expected, subordinate perceptions of destructive supervisory leadership were strongly associated with an increased incidence of upward bullying, with the strength of this relationship partially mediated by subordinate perceptions of interactional justice within supervisory interactions. In addition, subordinate levels of continuance commitment and work-related meaning moderated the relationship between subordinate perceptions of interactional justice and the incidence of upward bullying, such that this relationship was intensified when either, or both the level of subordinate continuance commitment or work-related meaning was higher. This paper offers preliminary support for conceptualizing upwards bullying as a retaliatory response to destructive leadership, however due to a reliance on cross-sectional data, inferences of causality cannot be made. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

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  • Effects of constant incubation regimes on eggs and hatchlings of the egg-laying skink, Oligosoma suteri

    Hare, Kelly Maree (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The conditions under which reptilian eggs are incubated affect survival probability and physiological attributes of the progeny. The egg-laying skink, Oligosoma suteri, is the only endemic oviparous lizard in New Zealand. No controlled laboratory incubation had previously been undertaken, and thus no information was available on the requirements for successful captive incubation. I studied the effects of incubation regime on the eggs and hatchlings of O. suteri to four months of age. Oligosoma suteri eggs (n = 174) were randomly distributed among three constant incubation temperatures (18°C, 22°C and 26°C) and two water potentials (-120 kPa and -270 kPa). Hatching success and hatchling survival were greatest at 22°C and 26°C, with hatchlings from 18°C incubation suffering from physical abnormalities. Incubation regime and maternal influence did not affect sex of individuals, with equal sex ratios occurring from each incubation treatment. Hatchlings from the 22°C and -120 kPa incubation treatments were larger, for most measurements, and warmer incubation temperatures resulted in increased growth rates. Juveniles from 22°C and 26°C and individuals with greater mass per unit length (condition index) sprinted faster over 0.25 m. Sprint speed was positively correlated with ambient temperature. At four months of age sprint speed decreased in 18°C individuals and individuals incubated at 26°C and -270 kPa compared to their performance at one month. The results suggest that the most successful captive incubation regime for O. suteri is 22°C and -120 kPa. This study also shows that temperature-dependent sex determination does not occur in O. suteri, but that fitness traits are influenced by incubation temperature.

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  • Urban Maori art : the third generation of contemporary Maori artists : identity and identification

    Rennie, Kirsten (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kia u ki tou kawai tupuna, kia matauria ai, i ahu mai !we i hea anga ana koe ko hea Trace out your ancestral stem, so that it may be known where you come from and in which direction you are going. The intention of this thesis is to examine and interpret the artistic careers and practice of University of Auckland Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Lisa Reihana (1987), Brett Graham (1989), and Michael Parekowhai (1990), and University of Canterbury Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Shane Cotton (1989) and Peter Robinson (1989). These urban artists are from a third generation of contemporary Maori artists, and they have been selected for this study because they represent a phenomenon within the New Zealand arts establishment. Graduating within three years of one another, they have instantly and successfully mapped out their artistic careers, rapidly rising in status nationally, and internationally, over the past decade. An examination of how contemporary Maori art has been defined by Maori and Pakeha critics and artists, and who is legitimised as Maori artists, presented as the debate between an essentialist and a post-modern, post-colonial argument, frames the context for this survey of identity and identification. The thesis investigates a contemporary Maori art movement: presenting a whanau of artists who form an artistic and educational support network of contemporaries, that whakapapa back to the Tovey generation - the kaumatua artists, influential in the work of Shane Cotton (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi), Brett Graham (Ngati Koroki Kahukura), Michael Parekowhai (Nga-Ariki/Te Aitanga, Rongowhakaata) Lisa Reihana (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi, Ngai Tu), and Peter Robinson (Kai Tahu). The artistic whanau now includes Cotton, Graham, Parekowhai, Reihana and Robinson who in turn influence and support their third generation peers, subsequently informing the artistic practice of the fourth generation of contemporary Maori artists, and forming a vital link in the continuation and development of the contemporary Maori art movement. The sesquicentenary of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1990 raised the question, once again, of how we identify as a nation, specifically, is there a New Zealand bicultural identity? The historically familiar focus on forming a partnership between the tangata whenua and Pakeha continued to be of importance for the nation as it approached the end of the millenium. The issue for New Zealand, as a country populated by a diverse range of migrant and locally born peoples, more recently, has become less concerned with 'creating' a bicultural identity and more interested in visually representing a multicultural nation. The last decade of the second millenium (1990 - 2000), is the main focus of this study because each one of the five artists profiled is conscious of speaking between two cultures, and they utilise their artistic works as the vehicle through which to investigate their Maoritanga and their bicultural reality. In a global climate of an increased awareness involving the rights of indigenous peoples, the third generation of contemporary urban Maori artists, the thesis will argue, became cultural ambassadors both nationally and internationally, their work an institutionally acceptable bicultural fusion of Pakeha and Maori concerns. The easy facility with which they negotiate between these two worlds makes them a pivotal generation in any study of contemporary Maori art. This thesis aims to reveal the changing and sometimes controversial face of contemporary Maori art, establishing the necessity for this change, revealing where the artists position themselves as a result of their geographical location within New Zealand, and in terms of their own connection to their Maori heritage and knowledge of their whakapapa, investigating issues of identity and identification.

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  • Knowledge and falling in Milton's Paradise lost and Imre Madách's The tragedy of man

    Liebert, Elisabeth (2003)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Milton's Paradise Lost and Ilnre Madach's Az ember tragediaja [The Tragedy of Man] were written in different centuries, in different languages. Yet as reworkings of the story of the Fall of Man both attempt to explicate the phenomenon of human selfawareness. A comparison of their treatment of knowledge and its relationship to the Fall discloses this similarity of intent, as well as the fundamental difference that underlies the philosophical position of the two authors. The thesis is divided into chapters that examine prelapsarian knowledge, the Fall itself, and postlapsarian knowledge in Paradise Lost and The Tragedy of Man respectively, with occasional reference to the Biblical story and literary analogues in order to illustrate the development of central themes. As elements of the story are considered - Adam's conversation with God in Eden, the injunction against the Tree of Knowledge, the role of Satan or Lucifer, Eve's otherness, the consequences of the Fall, expulsion from the garden, and Adam's postlapsarian [re]discovery of knowledge - it becomes clear that Milton and Madach deploy them differently to different ends: for Milton self-knowledge is only possible within the context of a relationship with God, while for Madach selfknowledge begins when man has abandoned God and, although the final stage of selfunderstanding can only be achieved by returning to a relationship with the divine, certain knowledge is never possible. The comparison of Paradise Lost and The Tragedy of Man illustrates the fact that the desire to know remains a constant through the vagaries of human development, but the approach to knowledge taken by different generations shifts, drawing the story of the Fall away from its original context of religious mythology into the realms of anthropocentric philosophy.

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  • Reporting financial performance : a conceptual analysis

    Zheng, Geng (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Reporting financial performance is among the most difficult and vexing questions faced by accounting standard-setters around the world. The group of international accounting standard setters, known as G4+ 1, has released two special reports on reporting financial performance over the last three years: Reporting Financial Performance-Current Development and Future Directions written by Todd Johnson and Andrew Lennard (Johnson and Lennard, 1998) and Reporting Financial Performance-A Proposed Approach written by Kathryn Cearns (Cearns, 1999). Given the current importance of G4+ 1 in the international accounting standards setting process, the proposals made in these two reports have important implications for future accounting practices in respect of reporting financial performance. Therefore it is important to understand and examine the conceptual basis of the proposals made in the two reports for its consistency and validity. The purpose of this research is to examine the income concepts underlying the proposals. It is conducted by a way of literature review. Several theoretical concepts of income have been identified and compared with the details of the proposals made in the reports. The four concepts of income identified are: the concept of service value income, the concept of business venture income, the concept of comprehensive income and the concept of value added income. The results of the examination show that, at the overall level, both reports have adopted an approach to reporting financial performance that is consistent with the concept of comprehensive income. At the detailed level, it seems that the concept of service value income has been adopted for developing the proposed performance statement. Based on this finding, this research discusses the inconsistencies between the underlying income concepts identified and the appropriateness of adopting the concepts. To the extent that the inconsistencies are concerned, this research paper also provides suggestions for possible resolutions.

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  • Engineering geological investigation of the Lake Coleridge rock avalanche deposits, inland Canterbury

    Lee, Jenny Alice (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Lake Coleridge Rock Avalanche Deposits (LCRADs) are located on Ryton Station in the middle Rakaia Valley, approximately 80 km west of Christchurch. Torlesse Supergroup greywacke is the basement material and has been significantly influenced by both active tectonics and glaciation. Both glacial and post-glacial processes have produced large volumes of material which blanket the bedrock on slopes and in the valley floors. The LCRADs were part of a regional study of rock avalanches by WHITEHOUSE (1981, 1983) and WHITEHOUSE and GRIFFITHS (1983), and a single rock avalanche event was recognised with a weathering rind age of 120 years B.P. that was later modified to 150 ± 40 years B.P. The present study has refined details of both the age and the sequence of events at the site, by identifying three separate rock avalanche deposits (termed the LCRA1, LCRA2 and LCRA3 deposits), which are all sourced from near the summit of Carriage Drive. The LCRA1 deposit is lobate in shape and had an estimated original deposit volume of 12.5 x 10⁶ m³, although erosion by the Ryton River has reduced the present day debris volume to 5.1 x 10⁶ m³. An optically stimulated luminescence date taken from sandy loess immediately beneath the LCRA1 deposit provided a maximum age for the rock avalanche event of 9,720 ± 750 years B.P., which is believed to be realistic given that this is shortly after the retreat of Acheron 3 ice from this part of the valley. Emplacement of rock avalanche material into an ancestral Ryton riverbed created a natural dam with a ~17 M m³ lake upstream. The river is thought to have created a natural spillway over the dam structure at ~557 m (a.s.l), and to have existed for a number of years before any significant downcutting occurred. Although a triggering mechanism for the LCRA1 deposit was poorly constrained, it is thought that stress rebound after glacial ice removal may have initiated failure. Due to the event occurring c.10,000 years ago, there was a lack of definition for a possible earthquake trigger, though the possibility is obvious. The LCRA₂ event had an original deposit volume of 0.66 x 10⁶ m³, and was constrained to the low-lying area adjacent to the Ryton River that had been created by river erosion of the LCRA1 deposit. Further erosion by the Ryton River has reduced the deposit volume to 0.4 x 10⁶ m³. A radiocarbon date from a piece of mānuka found within the LCRA2 deposit provided an age of 668 ± 36 years B.P., and this is thought to reliably date the event. The LCRA2 event also dammed the Ryton River, and the preservation of dam-break outwash terraces downstream from the deposit provides clear evidence of rapid dam erosion and flooding after overtopping, and breaching by the Ryton River. Based on the mean annual flow of the Ryton River, the LCRA2 lake would have taken approximately two weeks to fill assuming that there were no preferred breach paths and the material was relatively impermeable. The LCRA2 event is thought to have been coseismic with a fault rupture along the western segment of the PPAFZ, which has been dated at 600 ± 100 years B.P. by SMITH (2003). The small LCRA3 event was not able to be dated, but it is believed to have failed shortly after the LCRA2 event and it may in fact be a lag deposit of the second rock avalanche event possibly triggered by an aftershock. The deposit is only visible at one locality within the cliffs that line the Ryton River, and its lack of geomorphic expression is attributed to it occurring closely after the LCRA2 event, while the Ryton River was still dammed from the second rock avalanche event. A wedge-block of some 35,000 m³ of source material for a future rock avalanche was identified at the summit of Carriage Drive. The dilation of the rock mass, combined with unfavourably oriented sub-vertical bedding in the Torlesse Supergroup bedrock, has allowed toppling-style failure on both of the main ridge lines around the source area for the LCRADs. In the event of a future rock avalanche occurring within the Ryton riverbed an emergency response plan has been developed to provide a staged response, especially in relation to the camping ground located at the mouth of the Ryton River. A long-term management plan has also been developed for mitigation measures for the Ryton riverbed and adjacent floodplain areas downstream of a future rock avalanche at the LCRAD site.

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  • The politics of privatizing water services : in theory and practice.

    Treliving, Victoria (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since the early 1980s, the phenomenon of privatization has quickly spread worldwide, changing the balance between the state and the market in favour of the latter. Its adoption questions and replaces the traditional roie of the state in providing and controlling certain public services. One formerly predominantly public service to be affected by privatization is piped water services, as it is commonly argued that private suppliers stimulate greater efficiencies and innovations than public suppliers. Most of those writing on this subject tend to focus narrowly on comparisons of public and private water companies in an attempt to argue that one or the other is best. Alternatively, some concentrate on the policy process through which privatization found favour. However, the thesis takes a very different approach to the analysis of privatizing water supplies, contributing to an area that has attracted little attention: its theoretical context and its implications for democratic politics. The aim of the thesis is to concentrate on, and extend, the types of assumptions - efficiency and innovation - inherent in arguments for privatization, thus providing a wide-ranging theoretical context in which to locate the privatization of water services. After discussing at some length exactly what comprises privatization, the thesis examines the theoretical foundations from which the policy originates. With reference to two case studies of privatization - Britain and Wales, which privatized water services in 1989, and New Zealand, which has not fully privatized its water, but is increasingly favouring more commercial practices - the thesis then illustrates how the theories have informed privatization in practice. The thesis concludes that privatizing water supplies . is an inappropriate extension of these theories because, first, they do not recognize the inherently non-commercial nature of water services and, second, because their implications for citizenship, and therefore democratic politics, are potentially very damaging.

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  • Strategic marketing for Uruguayan Eucalyptus solidwood products

    Heberling Giudice, Mónica (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Uruguay is a relatively small country by international standards both in land area and in population. In the late 1980s, the government of Uruguay decided to establish plantation forestry and to provide for new industry business development, with rural employment opportunities. An incentive programme was established to subsidise planting costs and a future commitment made to importing processing equipment with duty exemptions. The planting programme has been successful. Today there are 616,000 hectares planted, of which 424,000 are Eucalyptus forests. But Uruguay has had no forestry culture. The issue is one of looking at future projections and anticipating future requirements for developing markets and marketing programmes, a missing ingredient in the current programmes. This study addresses the situation in the Northern Department of Rivera. Here there has been highly intensive management implemented to Eucalyptus grandis. The questions concern availability and likely product-markets for a lesser-known hardwood species. The issues are how to access these markets and achieve value for new hardwood products. There is some experience developing with plantation Eucalyptus but only for the largest international marketer, Weyerhaeuser. This questions the need to review the market opportunities for landowners growing solidwood Eucalyptus to avoid a commodity approach selling into SE Asia. The identified value-adding product opportunities include furniture and flooring. The species attributes are shown to meet product-market requirements in international markets. General hardwood trends are identified which support more hardwood production and sustainable products from plantations. Recommendations are offered for market positioning and branding Uruguayan Eucalyptus products. Two parallel New Zealand case studies are cited in support of the recommendations. The question is one of raising the sights to achieve market objectives early on and developing a national, industry and company approach to achieve these objectives. This requires both investment and commitment.

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  • The changing Chinese wood products consumer : opportunities and challenges for the NZ forestry sector.

    Tsang, Kenneth Ko Fung (2003)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Chinese wood products market represents a significant opportunity for the New Zealand forestry sector, especially in the coniferous roundwood and sawn timber market. Despite the Sino-Russian agreement on wood products trade, which allows Russian suppliers have to only pay half of the normal value-added tax for their exports to China, New Zealand wood products still show competitiveness in the coniferous wood products market. However, lack of warehousing facilities and subsidiaries in China limit New Zealand's ability to access many small domestic industrial wood consumers. In addition, the exclusion of New Zealand pine from the current Chinese building and fire codes, prevents the use of New Zealand pine for wood framed residential housing. Moreover, the use of coniferous timber species is still not widely accepted in the domestic market in relation to the housing construction, interior decoration, and furniture sectors. In order to promote New Zealand pine effectively, this study found that "Price" and "Environmental Issues" are the most important factors which will influence the Chinese industrial wood consumers to adopt a new wood-based product. Most respondents in this study indicate that the general managers and plant managers are final decision-makers in adopting a new wood product. Wood consumption behaviour of the industrial wood consumers varies by sector. Most respondents indicate that they are dependent on the domestic Chinese importers as their main sources of supply. It had previously been found that the apparent consumption per capita of most wood-based panel products increase as the real GDP increases as in international market. This study does not have any statistical evidence to show whether the apparent consumption per capita of industrial roundwood and sawnwood increases with the Chinese real GDP. Furthermore, the apparent consumption of most wood products tends to be inelastic with respect to the adjusted average import and export prices. Other macroenvironmental drivers are likely to influence the demand of wood products in China.

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  • Geotechnical properties of coal and mine pillar design in the Greymouth and Reefton coalfields, West Coast, South Island

    Harris, Dean Michael (2002)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This project has estimated coal strength in selected parts of the Greymouth and Reefton Coalfields in order to better estimate the size of pillars needed to maintain stability of the underground workings. Coal strength in known to decrease with increasing rank, and the Greymouth Coalfield displays to a very high rank gradient increasing from west to east. The mines assessed by this study were the Bishop Block, Strongman No. 2, Spring Creek, Roa and Terrace (Reefton Coalfield) Mines. Core samples could not be obtained from all locations so 63.5mm cubes and point load tests were used, and compared to a control group of with a known UCS/cube relationship, in order to develop an equation from which a UCS equivalent value could be determined. Coal strength drops from 24 MPa in the west (Strongman No. 2 E seam) to 1.3 MPa in the east of the coalfield (Roa mine Kimbell seam). Other coal properties also shows changes corresponding to changes in coal strength including carbon, volatile matter, ash, and the degree of cleating. Ash is the only one of these which is not related to increasing rank. Cleat frequency, which increases with coal rank has the most significant effect on coal strength. The equations of Bieniawski and Salamon-Munro have been used for pillar strength calculations with panel pillars designed to a factor of safety of 1.6. Optimum pillar sizes for each of the locations in this study have been calculated, but small changes to these sizes may be necessary depending on local conditions such as faults and sheared zones. Pillar design must take into account the chance of pillar shearing once seam dip increases above 20° as the shear strength becomes greatly reduced with increasing seam dip. Coal from the Spring Creek Mine shows a high degree of anisotropy and so pillars have been designed for specific seam dips at this location. Bearing capacity of the fireclay in the Terrace Mine is greatly reduced with increasing seam dip and overburden thickness, thus increasing the chances of floor heave. Pillars need to be of adequate size so as not to transfer excess overburden load to the mine floor, which would result in floor heave.

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  • A Comparison Between Predicted and Actual Behaviour of Domestic Smoke Detectors in a Realistic House Fire

    Brammer, D R (2002)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report describes an investigation into various methods for predicting the activation times for domestic ionisation and optical smoke detectors when detecting flaming fires. The prediction methods studied were the temperature correlation method where the detector is assumed to activate when the gas that surrounds it rises a certain temperature above ambient, the pseudo-heat detector method in which an RTI is assumed for the smoke detector, and Heskestad's method which is based on optical density. The activation times predicted by these methods were then compared with those that were recorded during actual fire tests within a full size two-storey test house. The house was modelled on the field modelling software FDS. Two test fires were considered in this study. Both were lounge chair fires in a room on the ground floor of the house, and were flaming fires under vitiated conditions. The energy output reached by the two fires was between 600 and 1000 kW. Data collected during these tests included gas temperatures, optical density and the mass loss history of the chairs. There were also a number of radiators throughout the house that were left on for some time to heat the house before the fires were ignited. It was found that there was little difference between the temperature correlation and the pseudo-heat detector methods when a value for RTI of 1 m½ s½, was considered. It was also found that the use of an activation temperature of 20°C above ambient within the temperature correlation method was the most appropriate method for predicting the activation times for the detectors. This value for activation temperature is high compared with other researchers, but it is likely that the radiators within the house created airflow currents that had an effect on the behaviour of the detectors.

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  • Analysis of forecasted travel time benefits against those realised

    Keshaboina, Akhylesh (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is lack of knowledge on how well the transport projects work once implemented. This research project seeks to investigate how the forecasted benefits claimed during the economic appraisal of the projects compare with the actual benefits realised. This study carried out a literature review on how the travel time benefits are forecasted for transport investment projects and comments on general to specific issues like value of travel time, international and local experiences of forecasting travel time savings to use of traffic modelling in forecasting travel time savings. The study also carried out a post-construction evaluation of projects on a diverse range of transport projects from realignments, grade separated interchange to the installation of HOV lanes and urban bypass project. Post-construction analysis was carried out and then compared against those assumed for the pre-construction evaluation and possible reasons for the differences were discussed.

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  • Modified freeze-TCP for improved performance in mobile wireless networks

    Da Costa, Gustavo M. T. (2002)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    With the rapid development of wireless network technologies, such as cellular networks, the demand for wireless data access is becoming a reality. Third-generation (3G) technologies are set to enter the market in the very near future, allowing increased bandwidth and marking a shift from the circuit-switch mode characteristics of first and second-generation cellular networks to packet mode operation. Future wireless networks (such as a future 4G cellular system) are expected therefore to move towards an all-IP network, so that wireless networks become a part of the global Internet. Such an all-IP network has the potential to provide cost savings through simplified integration among different networks and enhanced service capabilities to a wide base of consumers. Given the wide deployment of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as the Transport Layer protocol in wired networks and the desire to allow internetworking between wired and wireless networks with minimal intervention from intermediate nodes, so that information can be accessed at any time without incurring major changes in existing infrastructure or disruption in performance, it makes sense to use TCP not only in the wired Internet but also in the wireless network. However, TCP is based on assumptions that are not valid in wireless environments, which leads to poor performance in wired-wireless networks. TCP performance problems exist not only due to the wireless channel characteristics but also due to mobility in cellular-based networks, as the mobile host (MH) hands off from one cell coverage area to the next. A considerable effort has been made in recent years to modify TCP for wireless and mobile environments. The protocol behaviour dependence on the particular packet loss characteristics (e.g. short duration vs long duration) and frequency of losses encountered makes the solutions studied to be targeted to the characteristics of a particular environment. Furthermore, the underlying network characteristics call for different approaches to be used depending on the level of support that can be obtained from the components of the network and its characteristics. Some works have shown that the TCP performance degradation is particularly serious in cases where a connection is lost for extended periods. Although a broader discussion of TCP performance problems and solutions is presented, it is on this specific type of problem that we focus our attention in this thesis.

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  • Knowledge and falling in Milton's Paradise lost and Imre Madách's The tragedy of man

    Liebert, Elisabeth (2003)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Milton's Paradise Lost and Imre Madách's Az ember tragédiája [The Tragedy of Man] were written in different centuries, in different languages. Yet as reworkings of the story of the Fall of Man both attempt to explicate the phenomenon of human selfawareness. A comparison of their treatment of knowledge and its relationship to the Fall discloses this similarity of intent, as well as the fundamental difference that underlies the philosophical position of the two authors. The thesis is divided into chapters that examine prelapsarian knowledge, the Fall itself, and postlapsarian knowledge in Paradise Lost and The Tragedy of Man respectively, with occasional reference to the Biblical story and literary analogues in order to illustrate the development of central themes. As elements of the story are considered - Adam's conversation with God in Eden, the injunction against the Tree of Knowledge, the role of Satan or Lucifer, Eve's otherness, the consequences of the Fall, expulsion from the garden, and Adam's postlapsarian [re]discovery of knowledge - it becomes clear that Milton and Madách deploy them differently to different ends: for Milton self-knowledge is only possible within the context of a relationship with God, while for Madách selfknowledge begins when man has abandoned God and, although the final stage of selfunderstanding can only be achieved by returning to a relationship with the divine, certain knowledge is never possible. The comparison of Paradise Lost and The Tragedy of Man illustrates the fact that the desire to know remains a constant through the vagaries of human development, but the approach to knowledge taken by different generations shifts, drawing the story of the Fall away from its original context of religious mythology into the realms of anthropocentric philosophy.

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  • The Effects of Auditory Distraction on Discourse Retell Tasks in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Cook, Katherine Jane (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of auditory distraction on the discourse production abilities of adults with traumatic brain injury. Narrative and persuasive discourse-retelling abilities were compared in ten adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ten healthy, aged-matched control participants. Narrative and persuasive retellings were analysed according to language measures (e.g. number of words, number of T-units, mean length of T-units and sentential complexity); information measures (e.g. number of propositions, number of episodic structure elements, and number of global structure components) and ability to generate a moral or aim. A modified version of Damico’s Clinical Discourse Analysis (1992) was included as a further measurement of pragmatic ability for the persuasive genre. The effect of auditory distraction upon passage recall and discourse production abilities was investigated by employing two experimental conditions: (1) no distraction and (2) multitalker babble at 80db. The adults with TBI differed significantly from the non-TBI comparison group for the language domain (sentential complexity), information domain (episodic structure) and generation of a moral or aim. Significant genre differences were documented, for the language domain (number of words and number of T-units), all measures in the information domain, and generation of a moral or aim. No condition effect was found, across group or genre. The results are examined alongside a number of theories including working memory, genre demands and perception of distraction. Clinical implications for assessment and intervention within the TBI population are discussed.

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  • 'We can love nothing, but that which we do, or think we do understand' : the sacred and the profane in Donne's poetry.

    Mogridge, Rebecca (2002)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Donne's dismissal of a dichotomy between the sacred and the profane in his Elegies, Songs and Sonets, and Divine Poems is fundamental to his conception of love. Throughout his poetry, and reiterated time and again in his Sermons, is his conviction that however desirable such a distinction may be between earthly and divine love, it is at best arbitrary, and often proves futile. This is because the nature of our love and its expression, whether for men and women, or God, defies categorisation as discrete secular or sacred manifestations. Donne's approach to this paradox is best demonstrated by considering his secular and religious poetry together, which however obvious it may seem, has not previously been undertaken in any great detail. As a way of contextualising what Donne is doing, and emphasising his essential orthodoxy, two complementary literary traditions are discussed. The first, in Chapter Two, is the exegetical tradition surrounding The Song of Songs, in conjunction with two mystics, St. Teresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross, and the poets, Robert Southwell and Richard Crashaw. Petrarchism is the second, secular, literary tradition looked at, in Chapter Three. I then turn to the poetry itself, devoting the rest of Chapter Three to the Elegies, Chapter Four to the Songs and Sonets, and Chapter Five to the Divine Poems. By examining the individual groups of poems together like this I want to demonstrate that in the profane poetry there is a discernable connection between the sanctification and celebration of earthly love and Donne's use of religious terminology, which is mirrored in the secular, often sexual imagery found in his description of his love for God. The result is that however startling and occasionally uncomfortable readers may believe Donne's juxtaposition of the earthly and the divine to be, his conflation of these two apparent opposites is fully considered.

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  • Marketing study of markets for Fijian hardwood species in New Zealand

    Tabukovu, Maika (2003)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study investigates the potential for distributing Fijian hardwood species in New Zealand markets and how stakeholders would benefit from a marketing network providing a win-win situation. Fiji, a small nation with limited natural forest resources, needs to manufacture value-added wood products for export. This should result in increased financial return, creating employment opportunities, reducing the number and amount of native tree species being extracted and better natural forest management Secondary data were collected about the Fiji Forest Industry (including timber exporters) and the New Zealand Forest Industry (including importers) to try to identify the-five major Fijian hardwood species (Kauvula, Kaudamu, Dakua makadre, Dakua salusalu and Damanu) used in New Zealand. In conjunction with interviews, primary data from survey questionnaires and a literature review, the following findings were obtained analysed and discussed.

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  • "The sturdy good old stock" : Englishness, class and gender in mid-Victorian England

    Molloy, Carla (2003)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The dominant construction of Englishness in the mid-nineteenth century simultaneously manufactured and reinforced middle class, masculine social power. This ideology was not stable and all-encompassing, but open to resistance and renegotiation. My thesis examines the ways in which the novels of two middle class women-whose social position located them both outside the dominant discourse and ambivalently within it-reveal resistance to and complicity with the dominant social power. The construction of Englishness in the first novel, Charlotte Bronte's Villette, almost always promotes middle class social power, yet it radically rearticulates the gender roles within that discourse. Bronte is aware, however, that this conception of female Englishness is only possible outside England. Her feminist vision is also moderated by her inability completely to resist the ideology of separate spheres. Englishness in Under Two Flags, the second novel examined in this thesis, is even more complex. On one hand, it follows a middle class, masculine trajectory whereby the novel's protagonist must leave the corrupt and effeminate aristocratic world in order to assume an English identity. On the other hand, Ouida's enthusiasm for the aristocracy leads her at the same time to imagine an Englishness that advances aristocratic social power. The qualities that construct Cecil's middle class Englishness are thus also used to signify his nobility. Ultimately, nobility and middle class Englishness cannot satisfactorily be reconciled, and nobility in the text becomes a source for resistance to not just middle class, but masculine social power. Ouida's female characters provide further evidence of the tension between the desire to resist and reinforce the dominant gender ideology. Cigarette, overtly transgressive, is both criticised and praised. The novel pretends to position the Princess Venetia as the proper English alternative, but this is undermined elsewhere in the text.

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  • Engineering geological assessment of selected landslide dams formed from the 1929 Murchison and 1968 Inangahua earthquakes

    Nash, Timothy Richard (2003)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study investigated the characteristics of 26 failed and non-failed landslide dams (Murchison dataset) formed in the northern part of the South Island, New Zealand, from the 1929 Murchison and 1968 Inangahua earthquakes. The dataset was compiled from a combination of engineering geological mapping, field investigations, aerial photography interpretation and a review of existing literature. Current analysis techniques have been applied to the investigated landslide dams to assess their ability to accurately predict the post-formation development (or ‘evolution’) of the dam overtime. This has allowed the recognition of a number of additional landslide dam attributes that influence long-term stability, allowing modification of the stability analysis techniques in current use. Dam, lake, catchment and landslide characteristics were collated and analysed for the Murchison dataset by distinguishing failed from non-failed landslide dams, and then assessing the parameters common to both. Parameters that influence the post-formation development of selected landslide dams in the dataset include the dam volume, catchment area above the point of blockage, average block size of material comprising the dam, slope angle of the downstream dam face, and rock mass anal material characteristics in the source area of the dam-forming landslide. The stability of the dams in the Murchison dataset was not significantly affected by rock type, landslide movement, or the state, distribution and style of the dam-forming landslide. Existing geomorphic indices were applied to selected dams in the dataset. The Impoundment, Blockage and Dimensionless Blockage Indices (Casagli and Ermini (1999); Ermini and Casagli (2003)) predicted the correct post-formation development for 58, 86, and 81% of the selected landslide dams in the Murchison dataset, respectively. Four landslide dams covering both failed and non-failed types were investigated in detail to assist with this analysis, two being stable dams impounding lakes, and two having failed ‘catastrophically’ post-formation. Detailed investigation was carried out on Lake Stanley landslide dam, which agrees with all three indices predicting post-formation development, and of Lake Matiri, Ram Creek and Rain Peak landslide dams for which the indices incorrectly predict their post formation development. This investigation has shown that the average block size (D₅₀) of the dam material strongly influences the post-formation development of the four dams studied in detail. Dams consisting of material. with larger(> 200mm) average block sizes correspond to stable dams; while those with small(< 100mm) average block size correspond to failed dams. Rainfall duration/ intensity and slope angle of the downstream dam face were also found to influence post-formation development of the dams. The recently formed and failed Poerua landslide dam on the West Coast of the South Island was included in the geomorphic index evaluation because of the excellent documentation available, together with the prediction of its long-term stability using the index approach. The D₅₀ of the material forming the landslide dam, and the landslide dam's basal (or footprint) length, were incorporated with the parameters used in the existing geomorphic indices to produce a new geomorphic index, the Modified Dimensionless Blockage Index (MDBI). This is defined as: [complicated equation here] where Ac is the catchment area (m²), At is the lake area (m²), Hd is the height of the dam (m), Lʄ is the length of the dam footprint (m), Vd is the volume of the dam (m³), and Vd is the volume of the mean block size forming the dam (cube of the D₅₀ expressed in m³). Calculated MDBI values for the two stable landslide dams (Lake Stanley and Lake Matiri) are less than 10 (8.90 and 6.94 respective]y), while those for three failed landslide dams (Rain Peak, Ram Creek and Poerua) are greater than 10 (10.75, 10.80 and 14.9, respective]y). This suggests that the MDBI can be tentative]y used as a tool in forecasting the post-formation development of a landslide dam, with MDBI values > 10 corresponding to catastrophic dam failure, and an MDBI value < 10 corresponding to probable longer-term stability. However, it is recommended that a wider landslide dam dataset be applied to the MDBI to further test its accuracy, and to refine the parameters used both for short-term stability assessment following impoundment, and for longer-term prediction of post-formation dam (and lake) development. Rainfall duration and maximum block size of the dam material also require further evaluation, and a refinement incorporating grading parameters (such as D₆₀/D₁₀) may provide a better estimation of the post-formation landslide dam development. It is clear from this study that the block size and grading of the landslide dam material (in particular matrix or block support) exert significant influence on dam longevity and evolution, and this is reflected in the substantial weighting given to D₅₀ in the MDBI.

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