23,160 results for 2000

  • Intentionalism, Intentionality and Reporting Beliefs

    Mitrovic, Branko (2009)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The dominant view of twentieth century analytic philosophy has been that all thinking is always in a language; that languages are vehicles of thought. In recent decades, however, the opposite view, that languages merely serve to express language-­‐independent thought-­‐contents or propositions, has been more widely accepted. The debate has a direct equivalent in the philosophy of history: when historians report the beliefs of historical figures, do they report the sentences or propositions that these historical figures believed to be true or false? In this paper I argue in favor of the latter, intentionalist, view. My arguments mostly center on the problems with translations that are likely to arise when a historian reports the beliefs of historical figures who expressed them in languages other than the one in which the historian is writing. In discussing these problems the paper presents an application of John Searle’s theory of intentionality on the philosophy of history. The debate between the view that all thinking is verbal and always in a language and the view that human beings think independently of any language (using their languages merely in order to express their thoughts) has had an extensive history in the philosophy of language for the past hundred years. It also has numerous implications for the philosophy of history, where the problem can be stated in general terms as the question of whether a historian, when reporting the beliefs of historical figures, reports the thought-­‐contents (conceived as independent of the language in which they were articulated) or the sentences that these people believed to be true or false. Among English-­‐speaking historians of philosophy, the latter view was promoted by Arthur Danto, the former by Quentin Skinner and Mark Bevir. Both positions are reflected in specific problems of history-­‐writing, such as, for instance, the question whether and how a historian can report the beliefs of historical figures who articulated them in languages different from the language in which the historian is writing. Both positions also fundamentally rely on the assumption that it is possible and legitimate to provide translations of sentences from one language to another when reporting the beliefs of historical figures; but, as we shall see, they are not on equal footing when it comes to explaining what counts as a legitimate translation. This paper explores the implications that these two views on the role of language in human thinking have for the philosophy of history. It will show that the view that all human thinking is verbal is not compatible with some fundamental and standard practices of history-­‐writing. Thus, the paper can be seen as a contribution to the debate about intentionalism in history-­‐writing. It argues in favor of the intentionalist approach by introducing new arguments derived from the philosophy of language, while at the same time proposing a formulation of the intentionalist position that relies on John Searle’s philosophical elaboration on the concept of intentionality.

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  • Impact of changes in cartography and mapping on the selection of cartographic materials in New Zealand map libraries

    Bagnall, Mark James MacLaren (2002)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Changes to cartography and mapping in New Zealand have had impacts on map library identification, evaluation and selection of maps and other tools that convey spatial data. In semi-structured interviews, five map librarians gave their views on how changes to cartography and mapping affects the selection of cartographic materials. Data gathered from managers/technicians of geographic information systems laboratories were also used in the research. The results indicate that New Zealand's specialist map libraries are developing their collections and services to include electronic cartographic resources. This collection development tends not to be the result of forward looking collection policies that outline a vision and strategies for integrating hardcopy and electronic cartographic materials into collections and services. The results also indicate that map librarians are adapting their selection practices to cater for the special requirements of new cartographic information resources and to overcome some of the difficulties related to the reshaping of the mapping industry in New Zealand.

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  • Reconstruction of the 01 February 1814 eruption of Mayon Volcano, Philippines

    Mirabueno, Maria Hannah Terbio (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Mayan Volcano's eruption on 01 February 1814 is considered as the volcano's most violent eruption episode, devastating five towns in the southern slopes of the volcano and killing at least 1,200 people. The deposits of the 1814 eruption are mainly distributed on the southern slopes of the volcano. The primary volcanic succession consists of, from bottom to top, tephra fall deposit, lower ignimbrite, pyroclastic surge deposit and upper ignimbrite. Two post-eruption lahar units were also recognized in the field area. The tephra fall unit, although not observed in direct contact with any of the other primary deposits, was distinguished based on petrologic and geochemical similarities with the lower ignimbrite and pyroclastic surge deposit. The lower ignimbrite and the overlying pyroclastic surge deposit are both scoriaceous, and are similarly bombs-rich; the surge deposit is distinguished by its characteristically good sorting. In contrast, the upper ignimbrite contains abundant angular altered clasts derived from pre-eruption deposits. All the primary deposits are interpreted to have been derived from an eruption column that was generated by multiple explosive eruptions occurring in close succession. This column initially generated the tephra fall. Discrete phases of column collapse produced the succession of lower ignimbrite, pyroclastic surge deposit and upper ignimbrite. The wide dispersal, composition and textural characteristics of the pyroclastic surge indicate that it was generated by a discrete phase of an eruption column collapse. The upper ignimbrite is the deposit from a density current produced during the cessation of the eruption that was accompanied by partial collapse of the crater wall. The 1814 deposits are predominantly composed of basaltic andesite, with minor more acidic andesite. Petrographic texture and contact relationships, bimodal distribution of plagioclase, and variation in glass composition indicate mixing of two magmas. A geologic model for the 1814 eruption is proposed in which an intermediate andesite magma residing in a small, shallow chamber beneath Mayan was intruded by a comparably larger magma of basaltic andesite composition. The resulting magma mixing may have triggered the explosive eruption of 1814.

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  • Possible selves and career transition: It's who you want to be, not what you want to do

    Plimmer, G. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Desire for career change is the driver behind much adult study. Career change and going back to school as an adult are often stressful. For the individual, the experience often begins with a state of dissatisfaction about who you are and who you are becoming. Dissatisfied adults who make major career changes generally become more satisfied than those who did not, suggesting that the associated struggle is usually worthwhile (Thomas, 1980). Career transition often represents a radical break from earlier goals and plans. It may conflict with family obligations; it may involve trying out new roles and identities and revisiting past obstacles and fears (Schlossberg, 1984). Beneath the carefully written resume, the reasons for seeking career change may be fraught with emotion, uncertainty, and the desire to be someone different. Possible selves theory, when applied to new approaches to career development and adult education, helps us understand how adults manage transition and move toward being the selves that they want to become. This chapter outlines how possible selves theory is used in career development, and how these uses might apply to adult learning. It draws on theory, practice, and, for illustration, vignettes from a study of mature students’ experiences in a New Zealand polytechnic college (Schmidt, Mabbett, and Houston, 2005). It includes some personal conclusions taken from our experience of using possible selves with clients and presents a five-step process to use with learners in developing effective possible selves. Each section ends with some practical career development techniques that may be of use to adult educators. Being a mature adult in career transition is different from being a younger person, though younger people are the chief concern of traditional learning and career theories (Taylor and Giannantonio, 1990). Mature adults interpret themselves and the world with more complexity than the young (Hy and Loevinger, 1996), while also having a more narrow and specialized sense of self. Mature adults are less guided by social comparison and more guided by comparison with how they ideally want to be (Ouellete and others, 2005). Usually, they are less malleable than younger people, and may be experiencing an intense search for meaning (Zunker, 1990). Their sense of opportunity is often limited by obligations to others, like Kim, a middle-aged woman who comments that “The biggest obstacle for me is my home commitments because I have four children and a family to run”. Adult learners may also have a sense of running out of time. William, a mature part time student, is dispirited by what he calls his “protracted process” and is daunted by his realisation that “I’ve got a six year process before I’m even qualified … at that stage I’ll be 51 years old.” When an adult returns to study, it can be an attempt to break out of a sense of limited opportunities and restricted roles. Back in an education setting, adults may find their deeply held assumptions, beliefs and expectations threatened. Further, mature adults can feel like impostors, culturally alien and isolated (Brookfield, 1999). Older people in career transition often see themselves as having fewer psychological resources; they may experience more stress and less progress, and may perceive more barriers to change than younger people (Heppner, Multon, and Johnston, 1994). These themes of stress, circumscription, search for meaning, complexity, and narrowing and consolidating the self are well traversed in the adult learning and adult careers literatures (Brown and Brooks, 1996; Knowles, 1990; and Zunker, 1990).

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  • Inverse problems in astronomical imaging

    Johnston, Rachel Anne (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The imaging of astronomical objects is limited by atmospheric turbulence, which consists of layers of varying refractive index surrounding the earth. These refractive index fluctuations are a direct consequence of the warming and cooling of air and water vapour in the atmosphere. Wavefronts entering the atmosphere acquire phase distortions, which when propagated result in amplitude fluctuations known as scintillation. Hence the practical manifestation of the atmosphere is a degradation of the signals passing through it, for example it severely limits the resolution of images captured by ground-based telescopes. A variety of solutions, or inverse problems, have been proposed and trialed in the attempt to obtain the best possible images from astronomical telescopes. An orbiting telescope (for example the Hubble space telescope) is one solution. In this case light is captured before it is distorted by the atmosphere. Less expensive ground-based solutions include the post processing of short exposure images and real-time compensation using adaptive optics, both of which are investigated in this thesis. However, the success of an inverse problem lies in the accurate modelling of the processes that give rise to the corresponding forward problem, in this case the random refractive index fluctuations that characterise the atmosphere. Numerical simulation of atmospheric turbulence is achieved using phase screens in which the assumption of Kolmogorov statistics is often made. A previously presented method for modelling Kolmogorov phase fluctuations over a finite aperture, the midpoint displacement method, is both formalised and improved. This enables the accurate generation of atmospheric speckle images for the development and testing of post processing methods. Another aspect of the forward problem is the accurate simulation of scintillation, resulting from the propagation of phase distorted wavefronts. Commonly used simulation methods achieve this by assuming periodic boundary conditions. A technique for the accurate modelling and simulation of scintillation from an aperiodic Kolmogorov phase screen is presented. The more physically justifiable assumption of smoothness is shown to result in a propagation kernel of finite extent. This allows the phase screen dimensions for an accurate simulation to be determined and truncation can then be used to eliminate the unwanted spectral leakage and diffraction effects usually inherent in the use of finite apertures. Deconvolution methods are popular for the post processing of atmospheric speckle images to compensate for the effects of the atmosphere. Conventional deconvolution algorithms are applied when the distortion is known or well-characterised, whereas, blind deconvolution algorithms are used when the distortion is unknown. Conventional deconvolution techniques are not often directly applied to astronomical imaging problems as the distortion introduced by the atmosphere is unknown. However, their extension to blind deconvolution is straightforward and hence their development is valuable. The ill-conditioning of the deconvolution problem requires the addition of prior information, such as positivity, to enable its solution. It is shown that the conventional deconvolution problem can be reformulated as an equivalent quadratic programming problem. Consequently, an accelerated quadratic programming approach is applied and shown to be an improvement to an existing method used for enforcing positivity in deconvolution applications. The main algorithmic differences of the new method are implementation via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and guaranteed convergence to the constrained minimum. Blind deconvolution is also an interesting problem that may arise in many fields of research. It is of particular relevance to imaging through turbulence where the point spread function can only be modelled statistically, and direct measurement may be difficult. The extension of the quadratic programming method to blind deconvolution, combined with Tikhonov-Miller regularisation (energy constraints), smoothness constraints, penalty terms and statistical priors produced a series of new algorithms. The performance of these algorithms is illustrated on simulated astronomical speckle images. Ground-based adaptive optics (AO) technologies are an alternative to post processing methods and aim to compensate for the distortion introduced by the atmosphere in real-time. Knowledge of the vertical structure of the atmosphere combined with AO provides the potential for compensation over a wide field of view. However, the continually changing nature of atmospheric turbulence places strict requirements on techniques for determining the turbulence structure. The remote sensing of scintillation data to estimate this information is known as scintillation detection and ranging (SCIDAR). Application of SCIDAR methods to the capture and analysis of experimental data, as demonstrated in this thesis, highlighted a number of problems with the technique. Methods for overcoming these difficulties are discussed and demonstrated. Finally, alternative approaches to the estimation of atmospheric turbulence profiles and a proposed new technique are investigated.

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  • Informed preferences in forest-based land use planning in Indonesia : a methodological case study.

    Rahardja, Teguh (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Indonesia is large and rich in natural resources. Its forest extends over 60 per cent of the country's land and contains many other natural resources. There are many stakeholders, often with conflicting interests. The demands placed on the forest have resulted in declining quantity and quality of the forest lands. People have recognised the need for reviewing and improving the forest-based land use plan, and, in so doing, promoting the participatory approach rather than the traditionally centralistic one. This has been attempted, but there were difficulties in the participatory evaluation of land use options' impacts. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method to help forestry-based land use planning take into account stakeholders' preferences after considering land use scenario consequences. Based on the situation in Indonesia and existing options, this study adopted the mixed rational-participatory approach. The rational side was attempted by FOLPI simulation of land use scenarios. An interview survey of opinions suggested eight scenarios of varying emphases on the economic, ecological and social aspects, which were simulated in FOLPI with area and resource data of each land use. The results were graphs of land use changes and their economic, ecological and social impacts. The participatory aspect was promoted by Q methodology applications. Q was used to analyse respondents' sorts of a set of statements about different aspects of land use planning, and revealed the typology and preferences of stakeholders with regard to land use planning. Using verbal statements in such exercises discovered the typology and normative preferences, while using the FOLPI application graphs as the statements disclosed the positive preferences. In tandem, they provide useful information as inputs to stakeholder deliberations towards a new, rational, and acceptable land use scenario. This study, therefore, recommends a method to help forest-based land use planning stakeholders. The method includes FOLPI simulation of the broad-scoped land use scenarios, and Q applications both the conventional verbal way and the innovative graphical way.

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  • Advanced surface texturing for silicon solar cells

    Ganesan, Kumaravelu (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The multi-crystalline silicon (me-Si) solar cell is considered to be one of the most promising cells capable of achieving high efficiency at low cost and high reliability. Improving solar cells efficiency using low cost materials requires careful design considerations aiming to minimise the optical and electrical losses. In this work plasma texturing was employed to reduce optical reflections from silicon surfaces well below 1%. Plasma texturing is used to form light trapping structures suitable for silicon solar cells. Several plasma texturing methods are investigated and associated defects are analysed. Masked as well as mask-less texturing techniques are investigated. Conventional parallel plate Reactive Ion Elching (RIE), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma system are used to compare the plasma induced defects in silicon. The influence of various plasma etch parameters on plasma induced defect is investigated. A correlation between the minority carriers lifetime and surface area increased by texturing is established. Effective lifetime measurements using Quasi Steady State Photo Conductive (QSSPC) technique is mainly used to estimate the plasma induced defect in textured silicon substrates. Sinton lifetime tester is used to measure the effective lifetime of the substrates. The implied open circuit voltage is calculated from the lifetime data for textured substrates. In this work low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy is also used to analyse the defect caused by plasma on me-Si substrates. Photoluminescence (PL) data is obtained using the 514.5 nm line of an Ar⁺ laser as an excitation source. The luminescence is dispersed with SPEX 1700 spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled Germanium detector. Reflectance measurements are performed on textured surfaces usmg a purpose built integrating sphere attachment of a high accuracy spectrophotometer. Modelling is also performed using PV-optics software to compare the experimental and theoretical results. Finally, silicon solar cells are fabricated with measured efficiency around 18% . The efficiency is estimated from the I-V characteristics data obtained using a calibrated halogen lamp and a HP semiconductor parameter analyser. Spin-on-dopant source as well as solid diffusion source is used to form the ewitter junction of the solar cells fabricated on p-type silicon wafers. Multicrystalline silicon, CZ- silicon and FZ silicon wafers are used to fabricate solar cells in this thesis. The effect of single and double layer antireflection coatings on diffused reflections is also investigated.

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  • Enhancing Information Literacy: A Practical Exemplar

    Graham, Jeanine; Parsons, Kathryn (2003)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This case-study outlines a teaching partnership between library and academic staff at the University of Waikato. It describes the strategies adopted to develop greater student information literacy and knowledge of source materials; and demonstrates the inter-relationship between student assignments and library resourcing. Both achievements and areas of difficulty are discussed.

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  • The Maori cultural institution of hui : when meeting means more than a meeting.

    O'Sullivan, John; Mills, Colleen (2009)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    Within all societies individuals gather together for various reasons and in a variety of ways for events that can be collectively termed “meetings”. The Māori cultural institution termed hui is often translated into English as a meeting (Cormack, 2000, Ryan, 2001). Using Volkema and Niederman’s (1996) input/ context-process-output model of the meeting, hui, as described by expert Māori informants, is compared with how Western corporate meetings are depicted in management and communication textbooks used in New Zealand universities over the last decade. The analysis shows that, while the Western approach to meetings and hui share common features, equating the two forms of communication event is inappropriate and results in the key cultural dimensions of hui being ignored. The authors propose that a more thorough explanation of the forms, functions, and cultural underpinnings of both hui and Western style meetings is required in our tertiary textbooks to ensure our students are adequately prepared for their future roles, which in Aotearoa New Zealand will entail working across Western and Māori group communication settings in an appreciative and informed manner.

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  • Parental bereavement: From grief theory to a creative nonfiction perspective on grieving the death of a young adult child from cancer

    Arnold, S. (2008)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

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  • Gender and health promotion: a feminist perspective

    Yarwood, J. (2002)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Throughout the twentieth century feminist thinking underwent radical change as the women’s movement gained momentum. The social movement of feminism has embraced many guises, from liberal, to Marxist, to the postmodern. However, critical understanding of the experience of women’s oppression has remained the raison d’être of feminist thinking. The relevance of feminist scholarship within the interrelationship of gender and health care will be analysed and debated in this article, through the dominant discourse of health promotion.Throughout the twentieth century feminist thinking underwent radical change as the women’s movement gained momentum. The social movement of feminism has embraced many guises, from liberal, to Marxist, to the postmodern. However, critical understanding of the experience of women’s oppression has remained the raison d’être of feminist thinking. The relevance of feminist scholarship within the interrelationship of gender and health care will be analysed and debated in this article, through the dominant discourse of health promotion.

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  • Outsider influence and the utility of e-mail as an instrument for teaching in developing nations: a case study in Fiji

    Shanahan, M. W. (2006)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The impact of outsider influence in the advancement of human capital in developing nations is well documented1. This paper examines the utility of e-mail as a mechanism for delivery of outsider influence to middle managers in Fiji via a personal management development programme (PMDP). Thirteen participants took part in the PMDP over a six month period. The programme was aimed at enhancing their managerial skills by achievement of a series of negotiated objectives. There was one face-to-face meeting with each participant to set up the programme and negotiate objectives, and a second face-to-face meeting six weeks later to ensure all processes and systems were operational. During the six month duration of the programme, all other correspondence was limited to e-mail only.

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  • Sen's capability approach in designing and implementing poverty reduction programmes: promoting successful local application through focus groups

    Schischka, J. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    At a theoretical level there has been wide acceptance of Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA) in development. However, questions remain regarding operationalization of the approach within the constraints participants and practitioners and other stakeholders face in designing and implementing poverty reduction programmes.

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  • Living in stories: Creative nonfiction as an effective genre to write about death and bereavement

    Arnold, S. (2009)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Through the telling of stories and interaction with listener or audience, we give structure to our experience and create order and meaning. Written narrative is, therefore, a medium well suited to exploring the experience of death and bereavement. 'We live in stories, not statistics,' Gilbert says (2002: 223). Parents' stories of their children's deaths serve the same purpose as parents' stories of their living children's ongoing lives. Writing about the death of one's child is a way not only to continue bonds and help other bereaved parents, but also a way to allow the 'wounded storyteller' to give voice to the dead and facilitate catharsis in the teller. Utilising the techniques of creative nonfiction to write such a story, the writer can create a compelling narrative that allows writer and reader to enter 'the space of the story for the other' (Frank 1995: 18). This paper discusses the human affinity with story telling and the reasons the bereaved write their stories. It also defines the genre of creative nonfiction and outlines the history of its development. Finally it examines four creative nonfiction texts that have influenced my own writing on the topic of parental bereavement.

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  • Computing education for sustainability: Madrid and beyond

    Young, A.; Mann, S.; Smith, L.; Muller, L. (2009)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper presents a synopsis of the report published in Inroads, December 2008, on work started by an international working group at the Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education conference in Madrid in July 2008 and the continuation of that work in the ensuing year. The report presented a policy on Computing Education for Sustainability for adoption by SIGCSE. The original paper presented “results from a survey of Computing Educators who attended ITiCSE 2008 where such a policy statement was mooted” (Mann et al, 2008). It also sets out an action plan to integrate Education for Sustainability into computing education curriculum. This paper draws heavily on the content of the Working Group report 2008.

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  • Do computing students have a different approach to studying?

    Lopez, M.; Clarkson, D.; Fourie, W.; Lopez, D.; Marais, K. (2009)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Courses in ICT qualifications have a lower pass rate than other qualifications. We postulate that this might be a result of different pedagogy and that such difference might be reflected in student conceptions of learning. We surveyed students (n=218) from two degree programmes (Nursing and Computing) and one sub-degree programme with a questionnaire based on the ASSIST instrument to identify differences in conceptions of learning, preferences for types of learning, and approaches to studying. We report on the differences we found between the fields of study and consider the implications for teaching.

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  • Recognising excellence in student projects

    Lopez, D.; Lopez, M. (2009)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    We would like to propose the establishment of an annual publication of student projects. This publication would be reviewed by a panel drown from NACCQ and published in association with the annual conference. Submissions would be invited from all tertiary institutions in New Zealand and would take the form of a two page paper, in a design science format that provides a concise summary of the project. The review will be designed to enforce a minimum standard but resubmissions will be invited from those who do not initially meet the standard.

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  • Developing and introducing courses on testing and quality assurance

    Joyce, D.; Young, A. (2008)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper reviews the processes involved in developing level 6 and 7 courses on testing and quality assurance. These processes include having the initial idea, conducting market research, deciding to proceed, forming a development team, gathering data, deciding levels and prerequisites, identifying resources, obtaining approvals, and marketing to students. The paper also reflects on the learnings gained from the experience of delivering the level 6 course for the first time.

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  • Attracting students to computing: The collaborative development of an innovative marketing tool

    Young, A. (2008)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Over the past few years students enrolling in computing courses or choosing computing as a major have been declining. (McCallum, 2006, Chabrow, 2004) Review of the literature tells us that one of the reasons for this decline is the “image of computing” as a viable career option. To help eliminate this myth a project was established under the Accelerating Auckland Task Force TEC funding to create a DVD for high school students to show how exciting a career in computing can be. Six Auckland tertiary institutions collaborated to design and produce a DVD outlining eight different careers in the field of computing. This paper outlines the background to the declining enrolments, the collaboration of the six tertiary providers and the production and development of the DVD. Free copies of the DVD will be available at the presentation.

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  • Estimation of Cronbach’s alpha for sparse datasets

    Lopez, M. (2007)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Cronbach’s alpha is widely used to evaluate the internal consistency of a psychometric instrument. Its popularity is largely based on a straightforward interpretation in terms of correlations, its ease of calculation and the guidance it gives to building a single dimensional scale. The standard calculation of alpha, however, requires a complete dataset and can give misleading results with sparse datasets. An alternative method of calculating an equivalent to Cronbach’s alpha is proposed that retains the essence of alpha and can be readily calculated for sparse datasets. A theoretical basis is given and the method is evaluated and validated against generated datasets.

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