220 results for ResearchCommons@Waikato, Modify

  • Assessing drivers of plantation forest productivity on eroded and non-eroded soils in hilly land, eastern North Island, New Zealand

    Heaphy, Marie; Lowe, David J.; Palmer, David John; Jones, Hayden S.; Gielen, Gerty J. H. P.; Oliver, Graeme R.; Pearce, Stephen H. (2014-07-02)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Methods: The impact of soil erosion by mass movement on forest productivity was investigated in a paired plot trial in a planted forest in a mainly hilly to steepland catchment (Pakuratahi) near Napier, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Tree growth and form were measured and soil properties analysed to compare productivity and productivity drivers in adjacent non-eroded and eroded plots. Background: The effect of soil erosion on New Zealand production forestry is not well known and there has been no research prior to our study into the relationship between soil nutrient status and planted forests growing in eroded soils in steeplands. Results: Regression analysis showed that the decreased soil total nitrogen, total carbon, total phosphorus, and soil organic matter content in eroded plots had a negative impact on tree volume, resulting in a 10% decrease in measured tree volume. Based on an assessment of log quality, trees in the eroded plots were forecast to produce 16% less volume from high-quality pruned logs (with associated reduction in revenue of around $4000 per hectare), than trees in non-eroded plots. The total recoverable volume (TRV), estimated (for a 25-year rotation) from the measured Pinus radiata D. Don trees growing on the eroded sites, was valued at $68,500, about 9% less than the estimated TRV from trees measured on non-eroded plots ($76,000). Tree form and mean tree height in eroded and non-eroded plots were not significantly different. Conclusions: Soil erosion impacts production in planted forests. Afforestation of erodible land provides a valuable ecosystem service through land and soil stabilisation but this service is currently not reflected in the market prices for timber in New Zealand. Maintaining the productive capacity of erodible soils through practices such as fertilisation or continuous-cover forestry can add further costs to production forestry. To ensure that sustainable forest practices are carried out to protect the productivity of soils, financial incentives may be justified.

    View record details
  • Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata

    Khor, Serena; Wood, Susanna A.; Salvitti, Lauren R.; Taylor, David I.; Adamson, Janet E.; McNabb, Paul; Cary, S. Craig (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The origin of tetrodotoxin (TTX) is highly debated; researchers have postulated either an endogenous or exogenous source with the host accumulating TTX symbiotically or via food chain transmission. The aim of this study was to determine whether the grey side-gilled sea slug (Pleurobranchaea maculata) could obtain TTX from a dietary source, and to attempt to identify this source through environmental surveys. Eighteen non-toxic P. maculata were maintained in aquariums and twelve were fed a TTX-containing diet. Three P. maculata were harvested after 1 h, 24 h, 17 days and 39 days and TTX concentrations in their stomach, gonad, mantle and remaining tissue/fluids determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tetrodotoxin was detected in all organs/tissue after 1 h with an average uptake of 32%. This decreased throughout the experiment (21%, 15% and 9%, respectively). Benthic surveys at sites with dense populations of toxic P. maculata detected very low or no TTX in other organisms. This study demonstrates that P. maculata can accumulate TTX through their diet. However, based on the absence of an identifiable TTX source in the environment, in concert with the extremely high TTX concentrations and short life spans of P. maculata, it is unlikely to be the sole TTX source for this species.

    View record details
  • Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals slow growth and low mutation rates during latent infections in humans

    Colangeli, Roberto; Arcus, Vickery L.; Cursons, Raymond T.; Ruthe, Ali; Karalus, Noel; Coley, Kathy; Manning, Shannon D.; Kim, Soyeon; Marchiano, Emily; Alland, David (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Very little is known about the growth and mutation rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latent infection in humans. However, studies in rhesus macaques have suggested that latent infections have mutation rates that are higher than that observed during active tuberculosis disease. Elevated mutation rates are presumed risk factors for the development of drug resistance. Therefore, the investigation of mutation rates during human latency is of high importance. We performed whole genome mutation analysis of M. tuberculosis isolates from a multi-decade tuberculosis outbreak of the New Zealand Rangipo strain. We used epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis to identify four cases of tuberculosis acquired from the same index case. Two of the tuberculosis cases occurred within two years of exposure and were classified as recently transmitted tuberculosis. Two other cases occurred more than 20 years after exposure and were classified as reactivation of latent M. tuberculosis infections. Mutation rates were compared between the two recently transmitted pairs versus the two latent pairs. Mean mutation rates assuming 20 hour generation times were 5.5X10⁻¹⁰ mutations/bp/generation for recently transmitted tuberculosis and 7.3X10⁻¹¹ mutations/bp/generation for latent tuberculosis. Generation time versus mutation rate curves were also significantly higher for recently transmitted tuberculosis across all replication rates (p = 0.006). Assuming identical replication and mutation rates among all isolates in the final two years before disease reactivation, the u20hr mutation rate attributable to the remaining latent period was 1.6×10⁻¹¹ mutations/bp/generation, or approximately 30 fold less than that calculated during the two years immediately before disease. Mutations attributable to oxidative stress as might be caused by bacterial exposure to the host immune system were not increased in latent infections. In conclusion, we did not find any evidence to suggest elevated mutation rates during tuberculosis latency in humans, unlike the situation in rhesus macaques.

    View record details
  • Technology education in New Zealand

    Jones, Alister; Moreland, Judy (2002)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Technology in New Zealand schools is a new area of learning that is now compulsory for all students (years 1–10). Technology education policy was first developed in 1992 (Jones & Carr, 1993). Since then there has been a sustained research and development focus to inform the structure of the curriculum, its subsequent national implementation, and classroom practice. This article discusses the structure of the technology curriculum, programs that were developed to inform teachers of the curriculum and its content, and strategies to enhance the classroom practice of technology.

    View record details
  • Technology education in New Zealand

    Forret, Michael; Jones, Alister; Moreland, Judy (2002)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Technology is one of the seven essential learning areas included to achieve the knowledge and understanding that all New Zealanders need to acquire (Ministry of Education, 1993). Responsibility for the implementation of these curricula rests with schools which have flexibility in making implementation decisions. Within the national curriculum framework, all curriculum statements must reflect the principles of the national curriculum framework, specify clear learning outcomes against which students’ achievements can be assessed, have learning outcomes or objectives defined over eight progressive levels, and be grouped in a number of strands. The national curriculum framework’s principles relate to learning and achievement, development of school programs, and aspects of social justice and equity.

    View record details
  • High-resolution coproecology: Using coprolites to reconstruct the habits and habitats of New Zealand’s extinct upland Moa (Megalapteryx didinus)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Cooper, Alan (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Knowledge about the diet and ecology of extinct herbivores has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant defence structures, establishing the influences of herbivory on past plant community structure and composition, and identifying pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The flightless ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were New Zealand's largest herbivores prior to their extinction soon after initial human settlement. Here we contribute to the knowledge of moa diet and ecology by reporting the results of a multidisciplinary study of 35 coprolites from a subalpine cave (Euphrates Cave) on the South Island of New Zealand. Ancient DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating revealed the coprolites were deposited by the extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus), and span from at least 6,368±31 until 694±30 ¹⁴C years BP; the approximate time of their extinction. Using pollen, plant macrofossil, and ancient DNA analyses, we identified at least 67 plant taxa from the coprolites, including the first evidence that moa fed on the nectar-rich flowers of New Zealand flax (Phormium) and tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata). The plant assemblage from the coprolites reflects a highly-generalist feeding ecology for upland moa, including browsing and grazing across the full range of locally available habitats (spanning southern beech (Nothofagus) forest to tussock (Chionochloa) grassland). Intact seeds in the coprolites indicate that upland moa may have been important dispersal agents for several plant taxa. Plant taxa with putative anti-browse adaptations were also identified in the coprolites. Clusters of coprolites (based on pollen assemblages, moa haplotypes, and radiocarbon dates), probably reflect specimens deposited at the same time by individual birds, and reveal the necessity of suitably large sample sizes in coprolite studies to overcome potential biases in diet interpretation.

    View record details
  • Does Socrates vindicate the coherence theory of truth?

    Deane, Warren (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Within Plato's Socratic Dialogues we routinely observe the character of Socrates employing a formal, yet largely unexplained method of investigation into the beliefs that his interlocutors hold as true. Socrates even goes so far as to claim there will be discord within them their whole life should they not be able refute one of his controversial and counter-intuitive revealed truths. With the beliefs under investigation striking to the core of how one should live a good life, this paper seeks to investigate whether Socrates' formal method justifies him in making the claims he does. After exposing the methodology of his technique, we turn to investigate the theory of truth that the method represents, seeking to ascertain a greater understanding of what truth means to Socrates when he makes the claim that a belief is true.

    View record details
  • Growth in densely populated Asia: implications for primary product exporters

    Anderson, Kym; Strutt, Anna (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Economic growth and integration in Asia is rapidly increasing the global economic importance of the region. To the extent that this growth continues and is strongest in natural resource-poor Asian economies, it will add to global demand for imports of primary products, to the benefit of (especially nearby) resource-abundant countries. How will global production, consumption and trade patterns change by 2030 in the course of such economic developments and structural changes? We address this question using the GTAP model and Version 8.1 of the 2007 GTAP database, together with supplementary data from a range of sources, to support projections of the global economy from 2007 to 2030 under various scenarios. Factor endowments and real gross domestic product are assumed to grow at exogenous rates, and trade-related policies are kept unchanged to generate a core baseline, which is compared with an alternative slower growth scenario. We also consider the impact of several policy changes aimed at increasing China's agricultural self-sufficiency relative to the 2030 baseline. Policy implications for countries of the Asia-Pacific region are drawn out in the final section.

    View record details
  • The soil geochemistry in the Beardmore Glacier Region, Antarctica: Implications for terrestrial ecosystem history

    Lyons, W.B.; Deuerling, K.; Welch, K.A.; Welch, S.A.; Michalski, G.; Walters, W.W.; Nielsen, U.; Wall, D.H.; Hogg, Ian D.; Adams, B.J. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Although most models suggest continental Antarctica was covered by ice during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) it has been speculated that endemic species of soil invertebrates could have survived the Pleistocene at high elevation habitats protruding above the ice sheets. We analyzed a series of soil samples from different elevations at three locations along the Beardmore Glacier in the Transantarctic Mountains (in order of increasing elevation): Ebony Ridge (ER), Cloudmaker (CM), and Meyer Desert (MD). Geochemical analyses show the MD soils, which were exposed during the LGM, were the least weathered compared to lower elevations, and also had the highest total dissolved solids (TDS). MD soils are dominated by nitrate salts (NO₃/Cl ratios >10) that can be observed in SEM images. High δ¹⁷O and δ¹⁸O values of the nitrate indicate that its source is solely of atmospheric origin. It is suggested that nitrate concentrations in the soil may be utilized to determine a relative “wetting age” to better assess invertebrate habitat suitability. The highest elevation sites at MD have been exposed and accumulating salts for the longest times, and because of the salt accumulations, they were not suitable as invertebrate refugia during the LGM.

    View record details
  • Moehewa: Death, lifestyle & sexuality in the Maori World

    Nikora, Linda Waimarie; Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Customary death ritual and traditional practice have continued for the Māori (indigenous) people of Aotearoa/New Zealand, despite intensive missionary incursion and the colonial process. This paper critically considers what occurs when the deceased is different, in a most significant way. What happens when you die – and you are Māori and any one, or a combination, of the following: a queen, takatāpui,[1] butch, like that, gay, she-male, lesbian, transsexual, a dyke, intersex, tomboy, kamp, drag, homosexual, or just queer? Who remembers you and how? Same sex relationships today are still discouraged or denied, although traditional chant and Māori visual narratives record such liaisons and erotic experience as joyously normal (Te Awekotuku, 2005). And yet some people choose to remain in the closet. In this paper, we present three case studies, and invite the reader to reflect with us on mourning rituals or tangi – Māori death rites, in a same sex relationship, or for a gay, lesbian or transsexual family member. In this way, we open up a space for dialogue about such matters in our intimate and kin communities.

    View record details
  • What do we know about mathematics teaching and learning of multilingual adults and why does it matter?

    Ní Ríordáin, Máire; Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The significant role of language in mathematics teaching and learning is not a new phenomenon. Given the growth of cultural and economic migration, the increasing international focus on education for economic development and the widespread use of English as a language for learning, we have become acutely aware of the importance of language in adults’ mathematics learning. While investigation has been undertaken in relation to the role of language in the learning and teaching of mathematics at primary and second level, little research has been done on multilingual (including bilingual) adults’ learning of mathematics and the ways in which teaching might support such learning. In this paper we investigate the role of language in the mathematics and numeracy education of bi/multilingual adults with a focus on the mathematics register and discourse; we address the relationship between language(s) and learning; we provide a review of available literature specific to adult learners; and discuss implications for adult mathematics education.

    View record details
  • "It's about the relationships that we build": iPad-supported relational pedagogy (Ngā Hononga) with young children

    Khoo, Elaine G.L.; Merry, Rosina; Bennett, Timothy; MacMillan, Nadine (2015)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Although iPads have gained much attention and are being increasingly adopted into educational practices, concerns exist as to the suitability and extent of their use with and by young children. This chapter reports on the findings of a qualitative study exploring iPad use in the sustaining and extending of relationships in an early childhood education and care centre in New Zealand. Guided by the notion of a relational pedagogy, espoused in Te Whāriki, the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, the research involved collaborations with two early childhood teachers and children at the centre to obtain perspectives of teachers, young children and their parents/caregivers regarding iPad adoption and use. The findings highlight the potential of using iPads to support and further develop young children’s relationships with people, places and objects within their immediate contexts, which are underpinned importantly by a clear teacher awareness, adoption of and being informed by a relational pedagogy perspective. This has implications for how teachers can be supported to use the iPad to create meaningful and relevant teaching and learning experiences for and with young children.

    View record details
  • Considerations for sustainable tourism development in developing countries: Perspectives from the South Pacific

    Panakera, Charlie; Willson, Gregory Brian; Ryan, Chris; Liu, Ge (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Nations of the South Pacific face a number of major challenges with respect to sustainable tourism development. Much of the literature presents overtly pessimistic conceptualisations of South Pacific nations as environmentally vulnerable and economically dependent. This paper argues that the narrative concerning sustainable tourism development in the South Pacific is incomplete and the predominant narrative viewing the South Pacific nations as economically and environmentally vulnerable is too simplistic. Additionally, this paper challenges the narrative that high or mass levels of tourism within the South Pacific cannot be sustainable. Based on experience derived from operational experience and consultancy, this paper provides insights into the challenges and possibilities for sustainable tourism development in the South Pacific.

    View record details
  • Statistics on indigenous peoples: International effort needed

    Madden, Richard; Axelsson, Per; Kukutai, Tahu; Griffiths, Kalinda; Storm Mienna, Christina; Brown, Ngaire; Coleman, Clare; Ring, Ian (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In 2007, the UN General Assembly endorsed the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. In the following years, there has been a strong call from a range United Nations agencies and spokespersons for countries to act to improve their statistics relating to Indigenous peoples as part of their response to the Declaration. These calls have emphasised the need for a holistic approach, describing strengths and resilience of Indigenous peoples and not just a focus on gaps and disadvantage. National responses have been mixed and overall statistics remain inadequate. Significantly, there has been no international statistical effort through the United Nations statistical structures to respond to the Declaration and the increasing array of calls for improved statistics. The United Nations Statistical Commission in particular has an array of mechanisms to study statistical needs and develop solutions across a broad international statistical agenda. It is time for countries to make a concerted effort to improve their own statistics on Indigenous peoples, and to insist that the Statistical Commission work in partnership with the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and other stakeholders to lead a major international drive to improve statistics on and for Indigenous peoples.

    View record details
  • School leaders growing leadership from within: A framework for the development of school leaders

    Fisher, Anthony; Carlyon, Tracey (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article discusses the development of school leaders from within schools. Within this discussion, a framework is presented which identifies key features which support school leaders to achieve this. The authors propose that school leaders are required to deliberately establish and maintain positive relationships with their teachers while also developing a positive school culture. The framework demonstrates the strong influence that school leaders have on their relationships with teachers, and in turn the interconnectedness between these relationships and the school culture. It also shows how a positive school culture enables school leaders to create opportunities and support teachers to develop both personally and professionally, and grow as leaders from within their schools. Although in order to create this culture, school leaders draw on aspects from various different leadership styles, we suggest that to be successful the development of a new leadership style may be timely.

    View record details
  • Dataset for: Southern Hemisphere bog persists as a strong carbon sink during droughts

    Goodrich, Jordan Paul; Campbell, David I.; Schipper, Louis A. (2017)

    Unclassified
    University of Waikato

    Main article is available online at http://hdl.handle.net/10289/11373

    View record details
  • Editors’ introduction: A collaborative exploration of reflexivity as a pedagogic bridge towards publication for international postgraduate students

    Cobb, Donella J.; Franken, Margaret (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Research conducted by postgraduate students is a significant source of new knowledge in universities. While it is increasingly available in digital databases, it is not frequently published, and thus accessible, in the form of academic journal articles (Kamler, 2008; Kwan, 2010; Lassig, Dillon, & Diezmann, 2013). In this article we explore the notion of an academic writing group as a pedagogical arrangement to scaffold international postgraduate students into writing for publication. We draw from our experiences of facilitating collaborative writing workshops with five international postgraduate students from The University of Waikato. These workshops provided a pedagogic space for international students and academic mentors to collectively bridge the often obscured path between thesis writing and writing for academic publication. We explain how a focus on reflexivity offered a way of foregrounding the ‘backstories’ of each student’s research experiences and established a platform from which scholars could discuss and write. We also give consideration to the linguistic and discoursal resources that supported emerging writers to foreground reflexivity in their published text. Each of the articles in this special section celebrate the outcome of this academic writing group by showcasing the published articles that have been written by the international postgraduate students involved in this collaborative writing project. We conclude this article by offering our experiences of a collaborative writing group as one way to facilitate a pedagogic bridge between thesis writing and writing for publication.

    View record details
  • Implementation framework for chronic disease intervention effectiveness in Maori and other indigenous communities

    Oetzel, John G.; Scott,Nina; Hudson, Maui; Masters-Awatere, Bridgette; Rarere, Moana; Foote, Jeff; Beaton, Angela; Ehau, Terry (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Background: About 40% of all health burden in New Zealand is due to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes/obesity. Outcomes for Māori (indigenous people) are significantly worse than non-Maori; these inequities mirror those found in indigenous communities elsewhere. Evidence-based interventions with established efficacy may not be effective in indigenous communities without addressing specific implementation challenges. We present an implementation framework for interventions to prevent and treat chronic conditions for Māori and other indigenous communities. Theoretical framework: The He Pikinga Waiora Implementation Framework has indigenous self-determination at its core and consists of four elements: cultural-centeredness, community engagement, systems thinking, and integrated knowledge translation. All elements have conceptual fit with Kaupapa Māori aspirations (i.e., indigenous knowledge creation, theorizing, and methodology) and all have demonstrated evidence of positive implementation outcomes. Applying the framework: A coding scheme derived from the Framework was applied to 13 studies of diabetes prevention in indigenous communities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States from a systematic review. Cross-tabulations demonstrated that culture-centeredness (p = .008) and community engagement (p = .009) explained differences in diabetes outcomes and community engagement (p = .098) explained difference in blood pressure outcomes. Implications and conclusions: The He Pikinga Waiora Implementation Framework appears to be well suited to advance implementation science for indigenous communities in general and Māori in particular. The framework has promise as a policy and planning tool to evaluate and design effective interventions for chronic disease prevention in indigenous communities.

    View record details
  • Further characterization of glycine-containing microcystins from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    Puddick, Jonathan; Prinsep, Michèle R.; Wood, Susanna A.; Cary, S. Craig; Hamilton, David P.; Holland, Patrick T. (2015-02-10)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Microcystins are hepatotoxic cyclic peptides produced by several cyanobacterial genera worldwide. In 2008, our research group identified eight new glycine-containing microcystin congeners in two hydro-terrestrial mat samples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Eastern Antarctica. During the present study, high-resolution mass spectrometry, amino acid analysis and micro-scale thiol derivatization were used to further elucidate their structures. The Antarctic microcystin congeners contained the rare substitution of the position-1 D-alanine for glycine, as well as the acetyl desmethyl modification of the position-5 Adda moiety (3S-amino-9S-methoxy-2S,6,8S-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4E,6E-dienoic acid). Amino acid analysis was used to determine the stereochemistry of several of the amino acids and conclusively demonstrated the presence of glycine in the microcystins. A recently developed thiol derivatization technique showed that each microcystin contained dehydrobutyrine in position-7 instead of the commonly observed N-methyl dehydroalanine.

    View record details
  • The effect of cyanobacterial biomass enrichment by centrifugation and GF/C filtration on subsequent microcystin measurement

    Rogers, Shelley; Puddick, Jonathan; Wood, Susanna A.; Dietrich, Daniel R.; Hamilton, David P.; Prinsep, Michèle R. (2015-03)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Microcystins are cyclic peptides produced by multiple cyanobacterial genera. After accumulation in the liver of animals they inhibit eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatases, causing liver disease or death. Accurate detection/quantification of microcystins is essential to ensure safe water resources and to enable research on this toxin. Previous methodological comparisons have focused on detection and extraction techniques, but have not investigated the commonly used biomass enrichment steps. These enrichment steps could modulate toxin production as recent studies have demonstrated that high cyanobacterial cell densities cause increased microcystin levels. In this study, three microcystin-producing strains were processed using no cell enrichment steps (by direct freezing at three temperatures) and with biomass enrichment (by centrifugation or GF/C filtration). After extraction, microcystins were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All processing methods tested, except GF/C filtration, resulted in comparable microcystin quotas for all strains. The low yields observed for the filtration samples were caused by adsorption of arginine-containing microcystins to the GF/C filters. Whilst biomass enrichment did not affect microcystin metabolism over the time-frame of normal sample processing, problems associated with GF/C filtration were identified. The most widely applicable processing method was direct freezing of samples as it could be utilized in both field and laboratory environments.

    View record details