10,408 results for ResearchCommons@Waikato

  • Input and output considerations in estimating rates of chemical denudation

    Goudie, Andrew (1970)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Estimation of rates of solutional denudation in river basins necessitates some consideration of salt inputs as well as consideration of salt outputs. Recent work in nutrient cycling has stressed the complexity and importance of the input factor, particularly when throughfall chemistry is taken into account. Frequently the differences between rates of input and output of salt in a river basin are small, suggesting that many published rates of solutional denudation, which consider outputs alone, or inputs only in part, are excessive. The input of salts, which may take place in rain, snow, fog and throughfall are most important in coastal areas. Analysis of data, for both the semi-arid United States and the Cotswold Hills in England, illustrate the need for long-term sampling, and for a detailed spatial network of sampling points.

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  • Book reviews and Book notices

    Waikato Geological Society (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Book reviews and Book notice from Volume 1, Number 1, 1967 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Notes on the hydrology of the Waikato River

    Ridall, G.T. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The catchment area of the Waikato River is 5,500 square miles. If its source is accepted as being the Upper Waikato, then its distance to the sea at Port Waikato including its journey through Lake Taupo is 266 miles. It rises, together with the Whangaehu, the Rangitikei and the Wanganui, between the volcanic region of Ruapehu 9,000 ft. above sea level and the Kaimanawa Ranges 5,000 ft. above sea level. The river flows northwards for 34 miles into Lake Taupo, losing its identity into the Tongariro for the last 26 miles to the lake. It emerges from Lake Taupo resuming its proper name and, still flowing northwards, passes for more than 100 miles through a series of lakes formed by hydroelectric dams to Cambridge. From here it continues through a deeply incised channel to Ngaruawahia where it is joined by its major tributary, the Waipa River. From Ngaruawahia to the mouth, a distance of 60 miles, shallow lakes and peat swamps predominate on both sides of the river, many of them protected and drained and developed into rich dairy farms. From Mercer, 35 miles downstream of Ngaruawahia, where slight tidal effects are discernable at low flows, the river changes its general northerly direction to a westerly one and, still 9 miles from the mouth, enters the delta. Here it is fragmented into many channels before emptying into the broad expanse of Maioro Bay and finally emerges by two fairly narrow channels into the sea on the west coast, 25 miles south of Manukau Heads.

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  • Geology of the Hamilton region

    Schofield, J.C. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This account takes the form of a synopsis which closely follows that prepared for a bulletin entitled "Geology of the Ngaruawahia Subdivision" (Kear and Schofield, in press). Normally such repetition should be avoided but an exception is made in view of delays in publishing the bulletin and of the parochial nature of this first number of the Earth Science Journal.

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  • Economic geology of the Waikato

    Kear, David (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Waikato contributes between 20 and 25 per cent of New Zealand's mineral production. Aggregate from Mesozoic rocks ranges from good (greywacke) to poor (argillite), with detailed differences being related to the position of the deposit within the New Zealand Geosyncline. Tertiary sediments show rapid facies changes that are reflected in the variability of important coal and limestone deposits. Petroleum and natural gas prospects are marginal at best. Upper Cenozoic deposits include sand, ironsand, pumice, perlite, aggregate, and building stone. Ground water is of vital importance, and is warm or hot in some areas. Good clays are available.

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  • The surface features and soil pattern of the Hamilton basin

    McCraw, J.D. (1967)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Holocene history of the Hamilton basin and development of the soil pattern are closely related. The basin was partly filled by the large alluvial fan of the Waikato River which partly buried a hilly, ash-covered landscape. The normal depositional pattern of fans is recognisable (apex of coarse sediments; middle part with ridges of coarse sediments and swales with fine sediments; toe of fine sediments) but has been modified by changing river courses during fan building. Each of these courses was flanked by levees which dammed valleys and embayments and blocked drainage to form lakes. The lakes were the sources of the present day peat bogs. The properties of the soils developed on the wide range of parent materials and landforms in the basin are summarised.

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  • Geomorphology of the Kaikoura area

    Chandra, Satish (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The major physiographic units in the Kaikoura area are the Peninsula Block, Beach Ridges and Raised Beaches, Hard Rock Areas and the Alluvial Fans. Erosion of the Seaward Kaikoura Mountains and the transfer of the debris to the sea by fan streams have contributed to coastline pro gradation so that a former offshore island, now called the Kaikoura Peninsula, has been joined to the mainland. On the piedmont alluvial plain between the mountains and the sea Otiran Glacial Stage and Holocene fan deposits have covered up older fan surfaces. Stillstands during the tectonic uplift of the Peninsula Block when marine processes cut shore platforms and also higher stands of interglacial sea levels in the Late Pleistocene have contributed to the development of erosion surfaces. Along the coast beach ridges and raised beaches have developed during post-glacial times.

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  • Skeleton Islands of New Zealand and elsewhere

    Cotton, C.A. (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Skeleton Islands are a variety of the class of islands resulting from subsidence of dissected land, subcategory 4a of a classification of islands here offered. Such islands are characterised by development of a sprawling outline with a narrow axial ridge from which slender lateral spurs, or ribs, extend more or less at right angles. Extreme skeletonisation is associated with development before a final drowning, or redrowning, of amphitheatre heads in valleys already heading in the main divide. This may be a climatically induced change of the valley form related, in the case of the New Zealand example, Arapawa Island, to cryergic (periglacial) activity in the Pleistocene glacial ages. Kakeroma Island (Ryukyu Group), an example of a skeleton island described by W. M. Davis, has quite possibly a history different from that of Arapawa Island as regards both the development of the relief of the subsiding lands and. being in a low latitude, the possibly climatic process responsible for shaping its now submerged valley heads and thus emaciating the ribs of the island.

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  • Rational descriptive classification of duricrusts

    Dury, G.H. (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The term duricrust appears to be extending itself to include calcareous, gypseous, and saline crusts, in addition to crusts composed dominantly of silica and/or of sesquioxides of iron and aluminium, with or without significant contents of dioxides of manganese or titanium. This latter group can be distinguished as duricrusts proper. Its nomenclature is highly confused, and its classification, in writings in the English language, defective. The relevant problems can be resolved, at least in considerable part, by the introduction, adaptation, and extension of modern terms current in tropical pedology, to give a descriptive classification free of genetic implications. When content of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ is used as a primary basis for the classification of duricrusts proper, plots on a ternary diagram justify the recognition of seven named types in the fersiallitic range.

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  • New Zealand microcosm of subtropical soils

    Guerassimov, I.P. (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Some examples of zonal soils in New Zealand are described by a visiting Soviet soil scientist. Analyses made in Moscow of samples collected during the visit are given and compared with results obtained by New Zealand Soil Bureau. The soi1s are correlated with some soils in Transcaucasia and alternative methods of classification are proposed.

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  • The effect of some environmental factors on rapid mass movement in the Hunua Ranges, New Zealand

    Pain, C.F. (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes some of the relationships between rapid mass movement and environmental factors in the Hunua Ranges. Extreme climatic events appear to be important in triggering mass movement, while vegetation has a marked effect on mass movement processes and resulting landforms. The main effects of lithology and soils are connected with their influence on site conditions of mass movement. Drainage basin morphometry is affected by the addition of channels produced by mass movement.

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  • Coverpage and Contents

    Waikato Geological Society (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Coverpage and Contents from Volume 3, Number 1, 1969 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Shore platforms and mass-movement: A reply

    McLean, R.F.; Davidson, C.F. (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Implicit in Mr Wright's note on shore platforms and mass-movement is a criticism of our findings on the role of mass-movement in shore platform development along the Gisborne coastline, New Zealand (McLean and Davidson, 1968). The lack of explicit criticism makes any reply difficult; we are not rebuked on our own evidence, nor is any fresh evidence presented from the same area to make it necessary for us to change or modify our original views.

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  • Book reviews and Book notices

    Waikato Geological Society (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Book reviews and Book notices from Volume 3, Number 2, 1969 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Aggregation characteristics and maturity of Peak District soils

    Bryan, Rorke B. (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Soil aggregation and aggregate stability are fundamental factors in determination of soil erodibility. The aggregation characteristics of soils in a region of high erosion potential are measured, and controlling factors examined. A relationship between increasing soil maturity and decreasing aggregate stability is described, and its significance in relation to Penck’s Aufbereitung concept is discussed.

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  • Notes on the belemnite content of the Heterian and Ohauan stages at Kawhia Harbour, New Zealand

    Challinor, A.B. (1968)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The belemnite content of the Heterian and Ohauan stages at Kawhia Harbour is described. Six major species or groups are differentiated, each of which ranges through several hundred feet of strata. Other minor elements are also present. Belemnopsis keari Stevens is shown to be present in only a restricted group of beds in the upper part of the Waikutakuta Siltstone, and Belemnopsis alfurica (Boehm) may be present in the upper Waikutakuta Siltstone. A system of informal belemnite zones is suggested. The belemnite succession is well defined throughout most of the Heterian stage, but poorly defined in the Ohauan, and further work is required in the upper and lower parts of this stage.

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  • Processes acting to produce glacial detritus

    Falconer, Allan (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The traditional view of attrition and abrasion as the major agents producing glacial debris is considered in the light of recent work by engineering geologists and geomorphologists. The decomposition of certain rock types when affected by frost action leads to the concept of rock deterioration within the body of the glacier. It seems that differing rock types with varying responses to low temperature conditions would produce a heterogeneous mixture of particle size such as is usually termed glacial till. Observations in recent work on rock stability emphasise the importance of clay minerals and their mode of occurrence. It is considered that a detailed study of the stability of rocks forming the source region of a glacier should give considerable insight into the nature of the till produced.

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  • Coverpage and Contents

    Waikato Geological Society (1968)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Coverpage and Contents from the Volume 2, Number 2, 1968 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Book reviews and Book notices

    Waikato Geological Society (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Book reviews and Book notice from Volume 3, Number 1, 1969 of Earth Science Journal.

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  • Shore platforms and mass movement: a note

    Wright, L.W. (1969)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Shore platforms and mass movement phenomena are important elements in the coastal scenery of the British Isles. Both features are particularly well developed along the English Channel coast. Where mass movement is of major importance it tends to inhibit the exposure of shore platforms. Under certain conditions it may temporarily protect the platform from further erosion. The factors which encourage the formation of shore platform and mass movement differ. Mass movement appears to be a secondary process, and does not seem to participate directly in either the primary formation of the shore platform or in its subsequent evolution.

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