10,277 results for ResearchCommons@Waikato

  • Study on Low-cost Alternatives for Synthesising Powder Metallurgy Titanium and Titanium Alloys

    Raynova, Stiliana (Stella) Rousseva (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this work was to carry out research about cost effective ways for synthesising powder metallurgy Ti and Ti alloys. This was done: using low cost Ti powders produced by the hydrogenation dehydrogenation (HDH) method; using induction heating, instead of the more traditionally used electrically heated vacuum furnace, for sintering and in the thermomechanical processing of powders; using low cost alloying elements such as Fe and stainless steel powders and investigating the possibility of using low amounts of alloying elements. The first main stream investigation in this work focussed on a study of induction sintering of Ti and pre-alloyed Ti6Al4V powders. This initial work included the following investigations: the effect of powder compact density on induction heating rates, the levels of porosity and the tensile properties of sintered samples; and the effect of induction sintering process parameters, such as temperature and time on the sintered densities, porosity distribution, microstructure, tensile properties and fracture characteristics of Ti and pre-alloyed Ti6Al4V powders. The second main study was on the application of induction sintering for consolidating pre-alloyed Ti6Al4V powders by thermomechanical processing via open die forging. The aim was to reduce processing time by eliminating the need for lengthy vacuum sintering and additional reheating required before final processing. The effect of the induction sintering parameters on the deformation behaviour, microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behaviour were studied. Furthermore, the effect of a recrystallization annealing heat treatment on the tensile properties and microstructure was also analysed. The third study was focused on the development of low cost powder metallurgy Ti alloys with mechanical properties similar to those of the most commonly used wrought Ti6Al4V alloy. To achieve this aim an approach using Ti HDH powder with a high oxygen content of 0.25wt% was used along with low cost alloying elements such as Fe and stainless steel powders. The maximum alloying element content was limited to 5% and a blended elemental approach for making the alloys was employed. Induction sintering and vacuum sintering prior to thermomechanical processing by open die forging and extrusion were used for consolidation. The alloy compositions studied were Ti3Al2V, Ti5Fe with two different particle sizes of Fe powder and Ti5SS (addition of 316 stainless steel powder). A blended elemental Ti6Al4V alloy was also studied for comparison. The relationship between microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behaviour was studied. The effect of recrystallization annealing after forging and extrusion was investigated for some of the alloys on its effect on microstructure and tensile properties. The results showed that induction sintering significantly reduces the sintering time. Induction sintering for four to ten minutes produces Ti and Ti alloy with closed porosity structures as well as densities and mechanical properties comparable with those found in vacuum sintered Ti based material. The use of induction sintering in direct open die forging of prealloyed Ti6Al4V powders with a high oxygen content of 0.5wt% resulted in material with a solid structure and tensile properties, such as YS and UTS, significantly higher than those given by wrought Ti6Al4V alloy. The ductility was affected by the high oxygen content and was generally lower than that of the wrought material. Thermomechanical processing of the low cost alloys Ti5Fe, Ti5SS and Ti3Al2V with oxygen contents between 0.33wt% and 0.45wt% resulted in material with an excellent combination of tensile strength and ductility, comparable to the values found in wrought Ti6Al4V alloy. A post forging or extrusion recrystallization annealing heat treatment played a significant role in producing microstructures with fine α+β lamellae, which was a controlling factor for achieving good ductility in Ti alloys with a high oxygen content.

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  • Holocene Evolution of the Upper Western Channel within Tauranga Harbour

    Podrumac, Alyosha (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Tauranga Harbour is a mesotidal lagoon that is actively infilling with sediment. The southern basin of the harbour is important from both ecological and socio-economic standpoints. An understanding of sediment dynamics is necessary for the management of the harbour. Previously, the Tauranga Harbour Sediment Study (THSS) analysed the terrigenous flux of sediments into the harbour. It identified predominantly silt-sized sediment yields, from catchments, which remains confined to entry points into the harbour, or get exported out to the open coast. However, mapping of the tidal inlet and parts of the Western Channel through to Rangiwaea Island, has identified that accretion involves sand-sized sediment. The presence of eroding cliffs has provided speculation that sediment is primarily derived by local source erosion, as opposed to terrestrial or marine inputs. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics through the central harbour region. This thesis involved seismic reflection surveying through the Western Channel, from Rangiwaea Island to Matakana Point, utilising a Knudsen Sub-Bottom Profiler that operates on a chirp sonar system. Through the seismic analysis, patterns of sandwave occurrence were analysed to discover how sediment dynamics varied along the Western Channel. Additionally, three fault sites were identified in the seismic profiles. Two of these faults occur parallel to a previously mapped fault at Omokoroa, where doming has been suggested. The third fault occurs in the southeast where subsidence has been identified. Vibracoring was utilised to collect intact, contiguous, and undisturbed cores through the field area. Sand is identified as the primary contribution to ongoing sedimentation in the harbour. A general coarsening trend of sedimentary texture is observed from the central intertidal flats through the upper Western Channel towards the tidal inlet. This pattern is disrupted where current amplification or close proximity to a sediment source is associated with the accretion of coarser sediment to form sandwaves. Rates of sedimentation through the Western Channel over the last 7,200 years, ranged from 0.0482 mm/yr approaching the tidal flats, to 0.436 mm/yr where extensive sandwave were identified. A sedimentation rate of 0.0977 mm/yr was calculated within the channel where no sandwaves were present. The primary source of sediment appears to be local erosion of coastal cliffs, with sedimentation rates strongly correlating to erosional sites.

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  • Colonisation, Fragment Recovery, and Disturbance in Zostera muelleri Beds, Raglan

    Cade, Octavia Jane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Zostera muelleri is a seagrass currently on the decline in New Zealand. Potential conservation methods rely on accurate information tailored to local sites. This thesis considers the Z. muelleri beds at Raglan harbour, New Zealand. It focuses on their mechanisms for acquiring genetic diversity, and their ability to prove resilient to small-scale disturbance. Extensive sediment sampling at four different study sites within the Raglan harbour has yielded no evidence of a seed bank. Z. muelleri reproduction at this site is likely therefore vegetative. Without sexual reproduction to increase the genetic diversity (and therefore the resilience) of the beds, this diversity can be increased by the natural mechanism of seagrass fragments or the deliberate transplantation of seeds, seedlings, or adult plants. This, however, raises conservation questions regarding the tension between “original” and “resilient” environmental states. Genetic diversity within the seagrass beds may be introduced via the natural dispersal of seagrass fragments. Fragments collected in austral autumn (April) and spring (September) were tested to determine if length of dispersal (floating) time impacted their ability to grow either rhizome length or new shoots. Fragments were randomly assigned to one of five treatments (T0-T4) and left to float for between 0-28 days before planting (T0 = 0 days; T1 = 7 days; T2 = 14 days; T3 = 21 days; T4 = 28 days). After a six-week planting there was no statistically significant difference in rhizome or shoot growth between treatments or between collection times. The ability of Z. muelleri to respond to small-scale disturbance was also assessed. The presence of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) has been noted feeding on New Zealand seagrass for the first time, and an experiment mimicking their feeding patterns performed. Z. muelleri proved highly resilient to single-event, small scale disturbance at all tidal levels. However, the rapidly increasing population of geese in the Waikato region is expected to increase the level of disturbance to the Raglan beds, and their ability to respond to repetitive, large-scale disturbance may be crucial to their continued survival.

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  • The Fairy-tale of weight loss: Fact or Fantasy

    Loomans, Cushla Rose (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Being overweight or obese is if often associated with prejudice, stereotyping, stigmatisation, and discrimination, and can lead to both physical and mental health difficulties. It is commonly thought that weight loss will lead to improvements in various areas within the individual’s life including; body image, social, family, and work. The present study aimed to enhance the understanding of the weight loss journey and the associated outcomes, with a specific focus on the expectation that individuals held, and how these compared to actual outcomes and perceptions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven participants. Data was then analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings showed that although weight loss had benefits such as fitting ‘normal’ sized clothes, increased attention, and a growth in confidence, there were also difficulties that were experienced. These included: a lack of support and unintentional sabotage, perceived body imperfections, and time taken for body perception to match up with actual physical appearance. It was found that positive outcomes of weight loss (such as compliments) could actually be viewed from a negative perspective and may have the opposite effect than what was intended. While some outcomes were congruent with participants’ expectations, there were also instances where these were incongruent; for example being left with loose skin as a result of weight loss. It appeared as though having an expectation of life being ‘perfect’ after weight loss was more likely to lead to dissatisfaction, while having some form of education or insight about what life and their physical appearance would be like was more likely to result in higher levels of satisfaction.

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  • The level of voluntary disclosure by Malaysian listed family-controlled companies

    Md Zaini, Syeliya Binti (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this research is to develop a best practice framework of voluntary disclosure for family-controlled companies in Malaysia. This study identifies the level of voluntary disclosure by Malaysian listed family-controlled companies, and reviews and discusses the voluntary disclosure practices in Malaysia from the perspectives of stakeholders. The study contends that the level of voluntary disclosure practices by listed family-controlled companies is lower than that of nonfamily-controlled companies. It is found that factors such as family ownership structure and values are the main influences that contribute to the level of voluntary disclosure in listed family-controlled companies’ annual reports. Malaysian listed family-controlled companies’ decision to disclose voluntarily is not only complex but also is influenced by the family’s governance structure and relationships. This situation accounts for the differences in the level of voluntary disclosure between family-controlled companies and other listed companies. This study adopts a mixed methods approach (i.e., quantitative and qualitative methodology) in order to achieve its objectives. A voluntary disclosure index consisting of 61 items is developed using a Delphi process with 40 panel members. The index is then applied on to 30 Malaysian listed companies’ annual reports for the years 2009-2013. The collected data is quantified and analysed to determine the differing levels of voluntary disclosure practices between family-controlled and nonfamily-controlled companies. In addition, factors that might influence the level of voluntary disclosure in the companies’ annual reports are examined. Taking a qualitative approach, 41 corporate managers are interviewed to identify their experiences of using voluntary disclosure information within annual reports. The research outcome showed that the current level of voluntary disclosure by family-controlled companies falls below the stakeholders’ expectations. The most frequently disclosed items within the annual reports are general corporate and strategic information, and financial information. However, the forward-looking and risk review management category had lower disclosure in the annual reports, and fell short of stakeholders’ expectation. One important finding in this study is that, compared to previous studies in the Malaysian context, voluntary disclosure regarding Islamic values in areas such as halal certification, zakat, and waqf within the companies’ annual reports is improving. This study also identifies that the number of family members involved in the management of a family-controlled business, the generations to which members of the family belong, and the education level of family members are positively significant in terms of the level of voluntary disclosure in the annual reports of family-controlled companies. Furthermore, the data from the discussions with and opinions expressed by the interview participants indicate that the family-controlled companies in Malaysia are progressing towards better voluntary disclosure practices. It is believed that the findings of this research can assist in the improvement of family-controlled company governance and the development of voluntary disclosure practice guidelines applicable to the Malaysian family business context.

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  • Youth and Climate Change in Samoa

    Senara, Pati Orana (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Climate change is a major issue for Samoa and the other Pacific island countries. Samoa’s Prime Minister Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi has identified climate change as the government’s main challenge following his successful re-election in 2016. Many studies and research projects have addressed the significance of building adaptation strategies towards climate change in the Pacific. However, very few academics have paid attention and effort to include young people specifically in the fight against climate change. Young people often face great barriers in getting their voices heard. This is no different for the youth of Samoa given their social structure and their cultural tradition of respect. As Samoa continues to experience increasing environmental degradation and climatic changes, affecting its social and economic development, a sustainable collective approach from all groups of people including the youth can be crucial. This paper presents an outcome of a study to investigate if the youth of Samoa are active in the climate change projects being implemented in their local villages. The study was based on a particular climate change project called the Integration of Climate Change Risks and Resilience into Forestry Management in Samoa (ICCRIFS). The main focus was to examine if the youths of the project site villages were involved during the project. Particular interest was paid towards the discourses that may have prevented them from participating in voicing their concerns. A qualitative approach was central to the discussions from the youth focus groups, as their responses and perceptions were analysed. The results highlighted the poor level of participation and understanding of the youths about climate change and the ICCRIFS project in their local villages. It revealed a downside of the communication process used between the ministry and the village, as well as the relationship between the local chiefs leading the project and the village youths. The findings also revealed how the youth are exposed to the cultural barriers which have influenced the way they understand and treated the ICCRIFS project. These findings concluded that the project needs a better medium of communication to enhance contact and improve interaction from both sides. The analysis of the youth participants painted the need for someone responsible and committed to lead the project. This will need to be someone who can become a good role model to motivate and encourage everyone in their local communities to work and participate. Hopefully this research paper will provide an opportunity to guide and improve the framework for the overall sustainability of adaptation programs in Samoa. More importantly, I hope this paper will provide a pathway for the youths of Samoa to develop a sense of passion and responsibility to participate and contribute to the various climate change programs being implemented in the local villages.

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  • Strategy Formation in a Horticultural Advocacy Context: The Case of New Zealand Kiwifruit Growers

    Longman, Katherine Victoria (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis presents a case study research on strategy reformation at New Zealand Kiwifruit Growers Incorporated 2015-2016. The previous strategy of NZ Kiwifruit Growers had not changed since 2006 whilst the kiwifruit industry itself had grown and changed rapidly in the decade. The goal of the review included developing a strategic plan that lifted the performance of the organisation for the benefit of NZ kiwifruit growers. Literature on strategy formation, participatory research, and stakeholder theory, informed the methodology and research outcomes. The data was analysed by describing, classifying, and connecting data through the use of hierarchies, risk matrices, and a stakeholder model that led to the establishment of NZ Kiwifruit Growers strategic plan. Priorities for the organisation included increased monitoring of performance and enhanced communication. Targets were established to rectify a disconnection that was identified during the strategy formation process, between the organisations priorities and the strategic plan caused by ineffective teamwork. This thesis provides a framework for strategy formation that includes the stages of strategic analysis, strategic planning, implementation, and monitoring that can be applied by other industry - good organisations in the horticulture industry.

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  • Challenges Faced – Implications for Policy: The Everyday Lives of Eastern European Women in New Zealand

    Ember, Adrienna (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study explored the everyday lives, aspirations, and coping strategies of seven Eastern European immigrant women in New Zealand who came from Bulgaria, the former Eastern Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia. The answers to the research questions aimed to contribute to the deconstruction of the invisibility and marginalisation of these women in New Zealand. Guided by the philosophies of Kaupapa Māori Research; the theory of Human Wellbeing; and the theory of Positive Psychology, and using the methods of narrative inquiry, three interviews were conducted with each participant. The focus of the first interviews was to learn about the everyday lives of research participants in their countries of origin. The second interview explored the reasons of relocation to New Zealand, the settlement process, and how women re-established their lives in their new locations. In the final interviews women talked about their current everyday lives and their plans for the future. Interviews were recorded and summarised in interview summary reports which research participants modified in collaboration with the researcher until a final version was achieved. In addition, women participated in two focus group sessions. The first session was devoted to establish connections among the participants and allow themes to emerge from their conversations. The second group session aimed to explore areas women struggled with in their lives the most: relationships and employment opportunities. The study yielded contributions to the research topic, to the acculturation literature, and to the design of research with migrants. Firstly, it revealed both negative and positive aspects of the participants’ everyday lives and highlighted some under-researched cultural differences from the mainstream population. Women highlighted as an important cultural difference their strong preference for straightforward communication which was often experienced as offensive and blatant by local New Zealanders. Research participants critiqued the necessity of networking to obtain jobs in New Zealand which is a clear obstacle for a newly arrived migrant. This study also highlighted how the acculturation process is more individual and complex than conventional models have sought to explain. While traditional acculturation literature suggests that migrants go through some common patterns during their settlement that ideally leads to their assimilation to the host culture, in this research not all migrant women intended to assimilate. Indeed, those with a stronger wish to become part of the host culture reported more disappointments than those who embraced their cultural otherness as a positive aspect and did not mind reminding different from the dominant Pakeha culture. Finally, for migrant studies a less common research design was applied by using the Kaupapa Māori framework. This philosophy proposes a research process that empowers immigrants to voice their needs and strengthen them as agents of their lives beyond the research process. While two strength based theories were used for data interpretation (the 3-D model of the Human Wellbeing Theory and the PERMA model of Positive Psychology), the data analysis revealed that both models showed some limitations by failing to incorporate the dimension of spiritual and physical wellbeing within their domains.

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  • Sentence initial bundles in L2 thesis writing: A comparative study of Chinese L2 and New Zealand L1 postgraduates’ writing

    Li, Liang (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Multiword combinations perform a crucial role in signifying fluency, accuracy and idiomaticity in academic writing. Lexical bundles are recurrent, but not salient, multi-word combinations, for example, on the other hand, the fact that the, and it should be noted. They are important as they act as discourse frames to relate to new information or as interactional devices to mark the involvement of the writer and the reader. These functions can also be regarded as metadiscoursal functions, represented by metadiscoursal models. The use of lexical bundles in L2 academic writing has been the focus of a number of recent studies, but few studies distinguish bundles in different sentence positions, investigate bundles from the perspective of metadiscoursal functions, and explore the reasons underlying the bundle choices of L2 writers. The present study sought to fill these gaps by comparing the use of sentence initial bundles (i.e. bundles at the beginning of sentences) in Chinese L2 and New Zealand L1 thesis writing in the discipline of general and applied linguistics. Four collections were built: a Chinese masters thesis corpus, a New Zealand masters thesis corpus, a Chinese PhD thesis corpus and a New Zealand PhD thesis corpus. In comparing these four corpora, this study provided a detailed picture of the use of sentence initial bundles in Chinese postgraduate writing and an overall picture of variation in bundle use across different postgraduate levels of students in terms of frequency, structure and function. Semi-structured interviews with six Chinese postgraduates were conducted after the text analysis to understand the reasons for Chinese students’ bundle choices. The interviews were based on the expressions in participants’ original drafts, which were completely or partially overlapped with the sentence initial bundles generated from the corpus data. Chinese masters and PhD students were found to rely more heavily on sentence initial bundles, particularly interactive bundles. They preferred to start sentences with PP-based bundles, VP-based bundles, and conjunction + clause fragment bundles; but were less aware of the importance of NP-based bundles and anticipatory-it bundles. With regard to function, both the Chinese PhD and masters corpora were characterised by a heavy use of condition bundles and booster bundles; and a relatively low use of endophoric bundles, attitude bundles, hedge bundles, self-mention bundles and directive bundles of cognitive acts. In regard to bundle development, both groups of masters students were found to use more bundles than their PhD counterparts. However, the two PhD groups shared more bundles. More research-related NP-based bundles occurred in masters corpora, and more PP-based bundles and anticipatory-it bundles appeared in PhD students’ writing. A functional analysis showed that both groups of PhD students used more transition bundles, condition bundles, section-level frame bundles and self-mention bundles, but fewer attitude bundles. Interviews with six Chinese postgraduates revealed possible reasons for Chinese students’ bundle selection and use, which included but were not limited to interlingual transfer, classroom learning, noticing in reading, a lack of rhetorical confidence, and misunderstanding of rhetorical conventions. The findings suggest the need to go beyond the teaching of lexical bundles as a list of fixed multiword expressions. Teachers and learners are advised to address the pedagogical implications of bundle studies, and to use corpus-based tools (e.g. FLAX) to approach bundles as lexico-grammatical frames in which slots can be filled with a variety of words.

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  • Chief Amongst The Angels? International Prosecutors And The Modernist Project

    Rogers, Damien Robert (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis argues that three successive generations of prosecutors—each of whom at some moment in time belong to a major institution designed specifically to enforce international criminal law—are best understood as agents of the law, politics and war. By examining the relevant institutional arrangements, including formal prosecutorial mandates, the thesis recognises that these prosecutors play vital roles in the enforcement of international criminal law. By critically examining prosecutorial performance during the pre-trial and trial phases this thesis contends, firstly, that these prosecutors are also political actors serving, unwittingly or otherwise, in the interests of economic liberalisation, expressed as neo-capitalism during the middle of the twentieth century or as neoliberalism in the late twentieth century. By foregrounding the material and ideational conditions giving rise to those major enforcement institutions this thesis contends, secondly, that international prosecutors also help wage a mostly silent and largely unacknowledged war fought by proponents of various utopian movements. In order to support these two main contentions the thesis situates the development of international criminal law and its major institutions as a significant temporality of a discourse against politico-cruelty, a term used here to refer to cruel acts committed as a means of achieving some substantive end. It also contextualises the collective prosecutorial efforts within the project of modernity and, more specifically, what is described here as a politico-cultural civil war fought for control over that project. Using international criminal law as a means of confronting humanity’s worst excesses and curbing modernity’s most violent pathologies, international prosecutors of war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes of genocide and crimes of aggression might represent the vanguard in the quest for international criminal justice and be regarded by many as featuring among humanity’s better angels. Indeed, they might well be characterised in world affairs as chief amongst the angels. But, at the same time, these politico-legal actors, whose mandates are derived from, and re-inscribe, particular configurations of power emerging in the aftermath of global conflict, need to be recognised as the auxiliary combatants of those seeking to maintain their control over the modernist project.

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  • A Mobile Augmented Memory Aid for people with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Chang, Su-Ping Carole (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs when an external mechanical force traumatically injures the brain. The 2010/2011 population-based study shows that the total incidence of TBI in New Zealand has increased to 790 per 100,000 population. Memory impairment is the most common symptom and affects most TBI survivors. Memory impairments resulting from TBI take many forms depending on the nature of the injury. Existing work to use technology to help with memory problems focuses predominantly on capturing all information digitally to enable ‘replaying’ of memories. Other software applications (like calendar that reminders) are designed to assist the average people tracking their schedules. Both are inadequate for supporting TBI survivors. The aim of this research is to build an augmented autobiographical memory system for a mobile device for supporting TBI survivors with their memory problems. I address the lack of information about TBI survivors’ use of digital aids through user studies and interviews. This research includes three studies. The first study is the interview user study, which aims to investigate TBI survivors’ use of their own memory aids/strategies to cope with difficulties caused by memory impairments. The results contribute to develop the conceptual design of the prototype. The second study is the interface user study, which aims to examine the usability of the conceptual design. Findings from this study provide the data and feedback for structuring the implementation of the MyMemory prototype on a mobile device. MyMemory is an augmented autobiographical memory aid specialized for TBI survivors with memory impairments. According to the results from the interface user study, we develop the implementation of the MyMemory prototype. The third study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of MyMemory for improving autobiographical memory for people with TBI. This evaluation study is based on the ABAB case study used in psychology which can provide more accurate outcomes about the evaluation of MyMemory.

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  • Women's leadership as a symbolic act of reproduction: A case study in the Solomon Islands

    Maezama, Susanne Gasepelo (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Literature on women’s leadership over the last three decades suggests that women’s leadership perspectives have been predominantly influenced by either Euro-centric patriarchal views or those of women in economically developed countries. These are significantly different from an economically developing Pacific Island like the Solomon Islands, in particular, its Santa Isabel Island. The literature, therefore, overlooks the impacts women’s indigenous culture may have in order to understand their leadership beliefs and practices. Bourdieu (1977b) argues that people’s practices are embodied within their cultures, forming habitus through their past and present experiences, both consciously and unconsciously. I argue that women leaders’ leadership beliefs and practices cannot be fully understood without considering these social and cultural norms operating in their specific cultures. My thesis explores the impact of the Santa Isabel matrilineal culture on women’s formed leadership beliefs and practices. The main research question therefore is: How do women leaders’ leadership beliefs and practices form in the Santa Isabel matrilineal culture? Sub questions arising from this are: 1. In what ways does the Santa Isabel matrilineal culture influence women leaders’ beliefs and practices? 2. To what extent does the Santa Isabel matrilineal culture contribute to the formation of women leaders’ cultural leadership beliefs and practices? 3. How do women leaders practice leadership in the Santa Isabel matrilineal culture? My research was undertaken using a case study methodology, linked with Bourdieu’s (1977b) habitus as a lens for exploring women leaders’ leadership practices in Santa Isabel in the Solomon Islands context through using interviews, informal observations and focus groups. The findings were generated through Bourdieu’s (1977b) habitus theory for capturing an in-depth understanding of how women leaders’ leadership beliefs and practices were formed. Key findings demonstrated that women leaders’ leadership beliefs and practices were influenced by their matrilineal culture and early learning experiences in Santa Isabel. The study also revealed that these women leaders used leadership practices appropriate for their context. As a result, they formed leadership beliefs and practices that demonstrated a symbolic act of reproduction of their cultural habitus that reflected their existing leadership thinking. The study has contributed to the research field by recognising the impact of cultural embodiment, the habitus and social reproduction of the Santa Isabel matrilineal culture on women’s leadership beliefs and practices. It fills a critical gap in understanding women’s leadership as a symbolic act of reproduction of their cultural beliefs and practices which has been overlooked in women’s leadership literature.

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  • Inflation and Macroeconomic Effects of Inflation Targeting in Asia: Time-Series and Cross-Country Analysis

    Valera, Harold Glenn A. (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Controlling inflation is important. The 2008-2009 global financial crisis created new concerns about the macroeconomic effects of inflation targeting. A key issue for many central banks in recent years has been that inflation is uncomfortably too low rather than too high. This thesis examines the impact of inflation targeting on the behaviour of inflation, output growth and real exchange rates for eight Asian countries using time-series and panel data from 1987 to 2013. The econometric methodologies employed include panel GARCH, quantile unit root and Markov regime-switching testing. Panel GARCH results indicate that inflation targeting is more credible in lowering the inflation level rather than its volatility. The quantile unit root testing results indicate that the credibility of inflation targeting and alternative monetary policy frameworks in Asia are imperfect, except for Malaysia and South Korea. Results also suggest that targeting countries have been building up their monetary policy credibility more than non-targeting countries, based on a faster rate of decline in inflation rate changes. Results generally indicate the presence of mean-reversion at the lower quantiles only. Where stationarity is present, results indicate varied speed of adjustment process across quantiles. The regime-switching results indicate that inflation and output growth are generally characterized by partial stationarity, while there is mostly varied stationarity in real exchange rates. Results also indicate that inflation targeting significantly affects the inferred probabilities of remaining in the stationary regime, mainly for output growth and real exchange rates and for inflation in some cases. Results further indicate that the variance of inflation and output growth is lower during the inflation targeting period. Furthermore, results indicate that there is a significant difference between targeting and non-targeting countries in terms of the speed of adjustment of macroeconomic variables towards the equilibrium level and the behaviour of inferred probabilities of remaining in the stationary regime.

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  • Distributed Operating Systems on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Hunkin, Paul Wade (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis proposes the use of traditional distributed operating system and distributed systems techniques that are adapted and applied to the wireless sensor network domain. These techniques are applied to the creation of a wireless sensor network operating system that allows complex applications to be created without special programmer knowledge of sensor network programming or architecture. The resulting system is capable of executing a high level user application written in conventional single-system-image form, without the user being aware of the mesh architecture or underlying sensor node hardware. A wireless sensor network is a collection of battery-powered embedded systems that communicate over low-bandwidth radio. Because of their limited hardware, niche deployments and use of embedded processors, programming techniques for wireless sensor network nodes are generally relatively esoteric compared to most software programming tasks. This can be relatively complex for programmers not familiar with the wireless sensor network domain. A naive approach to writing a wireless sensor network application may well result in considerably reduced battery life due to inefficient use of the limited power resources, requiring an expensive and time-consuming replacement or patching process. As a result of this complexity, traditional wireless sensor network applications are written as simply as possible. The majority of these applications simply move passive data readings back across a mesh to a more powerful server. While this is a sufficiently effective approach in some situations, for other sensor network deployments involving large amounts of complex data it is more efficient for the sensor network application to process at least some of the data inside the mesh, saving on unnecessary data transmissions. However in the real world, the complexity of writing such an application in many cases precludes this from being created. An operating system that provides power-efficient distributed processing while presenting a more standard unified single system image to the application developer would provide new possibilities for sensor network application developers in terms of creating dynamic and complex sensor network applications. This thesis covers the design decisions, development process and evaluation of the Hydra distributed wireless sensor network operating system, an operating system that provides these services. The system is evaluated in the form of a scenario for monitoring intruders over a large area using accelerometer monitoring -- during this scenario, power efficiency is gained due to the intelligent Hydra operating system services, as the resulting accelerometer data is not moved across potentially multi-hop network links. Application code complexity is also reduced due to the higher-level single system image programming environment.

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  • On the Matter of Kava: From the Past to the Present to the Future

    Māhina, Hūfanga ‘Ōkusitino (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Paradoxically, it is thought that people in Tonga specifically and the Moana Pacific generally walk forward (‘alu ki mu‘a) into the past (kuongamu‘a “age-in-the-front”) and, at the same timespace, walk backward (‘alu ki mui) into the future (kuongamui “age-in-the-back”), both taking place in the present (kuongaloto “age-in-the-middle”), where both the elusive, already-taken-place past and the illusive, yet-to-take-place future are constantly mediated in the ever-changing, conflicting present. Historically, it simply means that because the past (kuohili “that-which-has-come-to-pass”) has stood the test of timespace, it must be brought to the front (mu‘a) of people as guidance and because the future (kaha‘u “that-which-is-yet-to-come”) is yet to take place, it must be brought to the back (mui) of people, informed by their refined past knowledge, skills and experiences, both taking place in the present (lotolotonga “that which is the here-and-now”), where they are permanently negotiated in the social process. (Tā-Vā (Time-Space) Philosophy/Theory of Reality). This paper makes a serious attempt to critically examine the matter of kava in its multifarious dimensions from a tavaist philosophical or theoretical perspective. In doing so, it strictly calls for the systematic adoption of a logical, total rather than an illogical, partial approach to the matter of kava, justly critiquing it in the broader context of the time-space (tā-vā), form-content (fuo-uho) and functional (‘aonga) relationships between the past, present and future. Given that the matter of kava is both physical and social in nature, it therefore requires that it be reflected upon totally and not partially, focusing on the temporal-formal, spatial-substantial and functional relationships between plant (‘akau) and body (sino), specifically those relating to their bio-chemical, molecular biological, and narcotic properties. These are then projected both actually and symbolically beyond the realm of the physical to the domain of the social, where a range of lasting social institutions of immense intellectual, cultural, political, artistic and now economic significance have been established. By broadly situating the matter of kava in the plural, cultural, collectivistic, holistic and circular context of the past, present and future, by virtue of their coexistence and continuity as intersecting or connecting and separating physical and social tendencies, it is hope that we can have a clear sense of its historical and ceaseless transformation over time and space as a human concept and practice. This includes the increasing economic appropriation and exploitation of kava by multinational pharmaceutical companies on a large scale, in view of their total established physical and social attributes in reality as in nature, mind and society, where the truly controversial issue of biological, intellectual and cultural property ownership is introduced into the existing equation, theoretically and practically problematised by a sense of globalism, commercialism and legalism.

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  • Tongan men talk when the language (talanoa) and context (faikava) are Tongan

    Vaka, Sione (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    In Tongan society, Tongan males have the authority, while Tongan females hold the senior ranks in society. Other roles and responsibilities, including father, leader, provider, protector, negotiator, communicator, mentor and so forth, are also expected of Tongan males. Tongan men understand that these roles and responsibilities are to be performed effectively and held in high regard as they represent their father, grandfather, family, kāinga, village, and the Kingdom of Tonga. Despite the many tasks assumed by Tongan males, they are struggling to communicate, and have difficulty disclosing sensitive matters. Moving to New Zealand also introduces new challenges with a new environment, culture, technology, language, and ways of living. This paper focuses on talanoa with Tongan men around smoking in a faikava setting in Auckland. The information discussed in this chapter was generated by four different faikava groups that were hold at local churches in the Auckland area. During the talanoa, the men also discussed their roles and responsibilities and how these influenced their decisions.

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  • Faikava Navigation: Space for critical discussions about identity in diaspora

    Hernandez, Daniel (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This presentation explores a broad sense of diaspora drawing from both Mayan and Tongan concepts of time and space to explore these experiences. Additionally, Lucky Dube's song, The Other Side, is used as a framework for analyzing some comments from ethnographic data of Tongan and Moana (Oceanic) people commenting on struggles for identity. Kava circles serve as significant sites of making and keeping connections to homeland as well as creating spaces of interdependent support to face economic challenges in new homelands.

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  • The cultural classroom: The faikava as an epistemological site for teaching and learning

    Fehoko, Edmond S. (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    My Masters research explored the experiences and perceptions of New Zealand-born Tongan males who participate in the faikava (kava-drinking). The faikava is a well-known ceremonial cultural practice that in recent times has been adapted as an informal and recreational activity embedded in the activities of some churches and other agencies in Tongan migrant communities in New Zealand, Australia and in the United States of America. This cultural practice includes aspects of socialising, sharing and talking, social bonding and fostering camaraderie. For my study, the faikava was the vehicle for my data collection. This presentation will argue the value of the faikava as an epistemological site which provides New Zealand- born Tongan males with the opportunity to reinforce their knowledge of the anga fakatonga (Tongan culture) protocols and language and to engage in discussion about issues of concern to Tongan people today. Drawing on this, I will share my experience in researching in a gendered, social and cultural space in a predominant male practice.

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  • My experience as a female Tongan kava drinker

    Ma’u, Ikanamoe (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This presentation explains the cultural values and social significance of faikava from a Tongan female’s perspective. Tongan woman kava use is a present although often hidden and controversial practice. Because of this, Ikanamoe’s presentation was picked up and reported on by the media (http://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/330400/drinking-kava-becoming-popular-with-tongan-women).

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  • Libation and sacrifice in the Samoan ‘ava ceremony

    Refiti, Albert L. (2017)


    University of Waikato

    This presentation is an analysis of Samoan oral stories connected to the ‘ava ceremony. These foundational stories have an important connection to the role blood sacrifice played in pre ‘ava and post ‘ava Samoa. Dr Refiti argues that the ‘ava ceremony replaced the actual killing of people in religious ceremonies that were required in former times to make sacred important communal spaces. This he shows relates to libation as an offering to the memories of the dead by spilling ‘ava on the ground as a sacrificial prayer or aso that mark and re-memorialise the past in honouring the bones of the dead and sacrificed victim. ‘Ava foundational stories also provide us with clues that the ‘ava plant was brought to Samoa by brothers from Fiti (Fiji) and later the ‘ava ceremony as we know it today was brought to Samoa by the Tagaloa clan which included the aumaga (kava chewers), the tauaga strainer and the use of the taupou (village maiden) as the stand-in for the old priest to distribute the ‘ava. The roles of the aumaga and taupou mirror that of the sacrificer and sacrificial victim. Sacrifice and the ‘ava ceremony, Dr Refiti I contends, was required to mark, command and bring the passage of time and space to a stop so that people and roles can be redistributed allowing the community to grow and extend (tupu). The main role of sacrifice, as Valeri states, is “the transformation of the community from a lesser state which is indexed by disorder and pollution to a higher more complete state associated with order and purity” (Valeri, V. (1985). Kingship and Sacrifice: Ritual and society in ancient Hawaii (P. Wissing, Trans.). Chicago, ILL: University of Chicago Press).

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