10,277 results for ResearchCommons@Waikato

  • Kava Haus Ltd: Distributor of innovative kava products

    Hau, Koloa (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Koloa Hau presents on why and how Kava Haus Ltd was created, where he see opportunities in the marketplace and the challenges ahead. The presentation also showcases current kava products from overseas manufacturers that have innovated kava into an off-the-shelf commercial product.

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  • Physical volcanology of Red Crater, Tongariro

    Bardsley, Candice Joy (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Tongariro Volcanic Centre (TVC) is New Zealand's most recently active volcanic centre and comprises two large active andesitic cones, Ruapehu and Tongariro. Tongariro is a dominantly andesitic cone complex, yet located at its centre is Red Crater, a basaltic andesite vent with an eruptive nature in striking contrast to the rest of Tongariro. The main aim of this research was to reconstruct the eruption history of this vent and provide the basis to model the impact of a range of future eruption scenarios from Tongariro. The Red Crater basaltic andesite vent occupies a small scoria cone (~ 0.3 km³) which has also erupted eleven lava flows including the single largest preserved lava flow on Tongariro, with a length of ~ 7 km and a volume of ~ 0.3 km³. This flow was erupted between 9.7 ka and 3.4 ka, providing a maximum age for the vent. A distinctive feature of this vent is the exposed drained dike in the eastern wall. Clast density (vesicularity), SEM, grain size, and petrographic analysis were undertaken on the deposits erupted from Red Crater, and used to constrain the timing of the lava flows in relation to the construction of the scoria cone. Average vesicularities for the Red Crater scoria deposits, exposed in the eastern and southern crater walls in particular, range from 51.5% to 76.8%, while the range of individual clasts is from 30.5% to 82.1 %. These values classify Red Crater scoria as highly vesicular. This scoria section is ~ 60 metres thick and possibly erupted within a 48 hour period. The five lava flows erupted prior to this scoria cone construction (pre 1.85ka Taupo eruption) are andesitic blocky flows, with lengths up to ~ 7 km and thicknesses up to ~ 50 metres. Five basaltic andesite aa flows were erupted post 1.85ka and coincided with the construction of the scoria cone. Maximum thicknesses are ~ 5 metres with lengths up to 0.98 km. The change in composition of the lava flows at this time is reflected by a change in the eruptive processes. Effusive activity dominated pre 1.85 ka while strombolian style eruptions producing discrete gas bursts dominated during the scoria cone construction post 1.85 ka. Two dikes are intruded into the scoria cone; one is the eastern wall and the other in the western wall. The eruptive history of Red Crater can be divided into three phases. Phase one was probably initiated with a violent phreatic eruption caused by the interaction of an intruding dike with groundwater. The loss of volatiles during this phreatic eruption and through the permeable country rock lead to sustained effusive activity which produced the five andesite flows into Oturere Valley. Phase two began when more basaltic magma was injected into the system, with strombolian eruptions rapidly building the scoria cone and erupting the remaining six basaltic andesite lava flows. The basaltic andesite flow (flow 9) into Central Crater has the most mafic composition of any lava flow from the entire Tongariro cone complex. Phase three began when the withdrawal of magma from the dike caused a series of phreatic explosions originating from the deeper section of the NE-SW orientated dike, which violently excavated the NE trending Emerald Lakes explosion pits, the northern section of the scoria cone and the explosion pit on the south face of the cone. Minor ash and steam eruptions have been observed at the end of the last century, but it is the active fumaroles surrounding the vent which reveal Red Crater's currently active state, and potential for future eruptions.

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  • Postal Reform in Japan: A Comparative New Zealand–Japan Study of Economic Issues in Privatising a Postal System

    Duggan, Anthony John (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the economic issues in the postal reform experiences of New Zealand and Japan. New Zealand’s reforms were conducted in the 1980s. Its experience raises questions about what factors were important for overcoming resistance to reform. Japan’s case is a current issue, raising questions of how likely privatisation may be, what dilutions may occur, and what might the post-reform organisation look like. This study charts New Zealand’s reform evolution by supplementing the literature with interviews conducted with experts closely tied to the events. Japan’s reform is similarly traced to the present day where a simulation model I have developed proposes final negotiation outcomes. I argue that New Zealand Post’s pre-reform institutional environment was incongruent with efficiency and productivity. Reforms created an entirely new institutional environment based on neoliberal ideologies, separating governance from ownership and disentangling commercial and social objectives. This study shows that resistance was overcome by a culmination of implementation speed, scale of reform, carefully drafted legislation, and managerial acuity. Japan’s pre-reform environment displays a number of parallels to New Zealand’s. However in this case, I argue that prolonged implementation and a greater presence of interest groups hamper reform progress and simulation suggests only a partial reform where legislation maintains entry barriers, favouring Japan Post over private competition. Key reasons in explaining the differences in outcomes between the two countries are argued to be differences in political ideologies and the strength of reform opposition. The separation of governance and ownership for instance, appears to be more distinct in New Zealand than Japan, and whilst the New Zealand model focuses upon shareholder wealth maximisation, the Japanese case appears to place greater emphasis upon stakeholder interests.

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  • Kaitiakitanga o te Taiao - Reconciling Legislative Provisions and Outcomes for Māori

    Kennedy, Nathan Charles Karaua (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Resource Management Act (1991) (RMA) was heralded as internationally ground-breaking for its integrated approach, and for cementing 'sustainable management' as its overarching purpose. It was ground-breaking also for its recognition of First Nations’ rights and values. This includes directing decision-makers to recognise and provide for the relationship of Māori and their culture and traditions with their ancestral lands, waters and treasured resources, to have particular regard to Māori customary practices, and to take into account the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. The RMA provides for councils to transfer or delegate functions and powers to Māori, and for joint management arrangements. In 16 years as environment officer for my iwi, I witnessed the failure of the RMA to protect Māori values and interests. This experience prompted me to undertake research to thoroughly investigate outcomes of the operation of the RMA for Māori. Two questions framed my research; the first asking whether kaitiaki have been empowered by the Māori provisions in the RMA, and the second seeking to determine overall outcomes for Māori from the Act. Assessing such outcomes required an understanding of Māori values and interests, evaluation of the law, of the statutory plans that govern council administration of the RMA, implementation of these by councils and the Crown, and their treatment by the courts. To answer the two questions I present in this thesis a geographically focused study of two take (causes or significant issues) at Whangamatā, the construction of a marina, and the removal of mangroves. I compare Ngāti Whanaunga experiences with those of Māori nationally. By doing so I provide the evidence base for an 'overall broad judgement' (as the RMA requires) that despite apparent empowerment by the Act and its statutory plans, Māori have suffered widespread and significantly negative outcomes under the RMA. Rather than being empowered, Māori struggle to participate in planning processes, and see ancestral values and interests eroded by waves of resource consent processes, in which effects on Māori are little considered.

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  • Rapists Among Us? Rape Proclivity and Correlates in a New Zealand Sample of Men

    Tapara, Ann (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Rates of rape proclivity reported by men have remained relatively unchanged since the infancy of rape proclivity research. International studies have found that a significant number of men admit to having some proclivity for rape, a proclivity that is associated with a range of sexually coercive and sexually aggressive behaviours. The purpose of this research was to explore the proposition that many men are attracted to rape in the New Zealand context. The first aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported rape proclivity in a New Zealand community sample of men (N = 118). The second aim was to explore the relationship between rape proclivity and theoretically-related attitudes and beliefs including rape myth acceptance, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, adversarial sexual beliefs and the acceptance of interpersonal violence. Findings confirmed that the rate of self-reported rape proclivity was similar to those found in international samples, with men more willing to admit to some likelihood of rape when responding to behavioural descriptors than explicit questions. Rape proclivity was associated with theoretically-related attitudes and beliefs in the expected direction. Furthermore, there was a clear difference in responding between men who reported no likelihood of rape and men responding that they perceived were somewhat likely to rape. The implications of these findings for those who work with men in this area include the need to acknowledge that strategies to raise awareness of rape and rape myths do not appear to be effective in isolation, and the need to develop more effective methods of addressing rape proclivity to impact on rates of sexual coercion and assault.

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  • Income Inequality, Voter Turnout and Employment in 2005 – 2014 Elections in New Zealand

    Muggeridge, Charlotte (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    As Robert Dahl put it in 1971, ―a key characteristic of a democracy is the continued responsiveness of the government to the preferences of its citizens, considered as political equals‖. Democracy is thought to break down when equality diminishes. This paper explores the causal relation between an independent variable, income inequality, and a potential dependent variable, voter turnout (as a measure of democratic participation), at the local level in 13 electoral districts in New Zealand over 4 national elections. For Bühlmann, the three fundamental principles of democracy are equality, freedom and control. Equality usually ranks at the top of most democratic criteria. New Zealand, once regarded as one of the most egalitarian societies in the world, was ranked 23rd out of 34 countries on the OECD measure of income inequality in 2012, and has continued to drop since then, with ―New Zealand [having] the largest increase in income inequality of all the OECD countries since the mid 1980‘s…‖. Of the top 20% of income earners, 86% voted in the New Zealand national elections, compared to the bottom 20% of income earners, where only 75% voted. Goodin and Dryzek argue that the more that economic power is concentrated within the elite, the more the bottom income earners will withdraw from electoral voting. Participation in politics, in this interpretation, tends to be driven by relative income. Income inequality, in this view, hinders democracy by blocking full participation in society and limiting a sense of belonging. This study has tested these presumptions with a cursory longitudinal analysis of 13 comparative and contrasting local electoral districts in New Zealand, once the most egalitarian and, arguably, most democratic country in the world. The research shows that household income inequality has an inverse effect on voter turnout, taken as a whole. With the voting that has occurred, there is a clear preference for right-of-centre parties. Regardless of economic standing, citizens are apparently continuing to vote against their immediate interests. The results also suggest that while employment rates are currently high in New Zealand, voter turnout is decreasing and voters perhaps have previously blamed the government for their lack of employment even when they have seemingly lost the bases of their grievances.

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  • Responsible nature-based tourism: Rotorua Canopy Tours in the Dansey Road Scenic Reserve in New Zealand; a critical review

    Senarathna, Dinesha Rasanjalie (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The overall objective is to examine whether the Rotorua Canopy Tours (RCTs) in the Dansey Road Scenic Reserve (DRSR) follows the rules of sustainability. Tourism is primarily based on the natural environment because it plays a vital role for attracting tourists to various destinations. Consequently, massive tourist demand creates a huge stress on the natural environment. This has resulted in creating different concepts from time to time such as sustainable tourism, responsible tourism, ecotourism and ethical tourism in order to salvage the environment from tourism’s often predatory practices. New Zealand is popular as a clean and green country which has led to dramatic tourist flows to its unspoiled natural environments. This enormous demand emphasises the necessity for responsible nature-based tourism. My research seeks to discover whether any efforts are being made to render attractions more environmentally friendly. Such actions should ensure that commodification of the environment does not jeopardize its long-term sustainability. This research uses a case study, RCTs, as an activity in the nature-based tourism sector to determine whether it offers a sustainable form of tourism. The research site in the DRSR was selected because it is known as the only native forest zipline canopy tour in New Zealand and brands itself as nature-friendly. This research focuses on how its owners conduct their activities and how they direct tourists to behave responsibly when on tour, in order to determine whether they fulfil the requirements of responsible nature-based tourism. The study scrutinizes how they discourse about the activities they have set up and their environmental consequences. It also examines how the conservation programme run by the Department of Conservation that they collaborate with addresses responsible tourism. A qualitative research methodology was used for this research because my interest was in obtaining social perspectives and attitudes of the people involved in the commodification of nature. I was particularly interested about how they conceive responsible nature tourism and how they believe it can be implemented. Such issues are difficult to understand when using statistical or other quantitative methods and analysis. Critical discourse analysis was applied for data analysis. Both pros and cons have been identified in the various perceptions of key stakeholders on implementing sustainability principles to nature-based tourism. Even though the operators are making efforts to conserve the native birds, they need to have support of other stakeholders to make it effective and productive.

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  • Head, Eye and Comb temperature changes in Chooks during handling: the use of infrared thermal imaging in observing stress in chooks.

    Good, Courtney Estelle (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It is now widely accepted in the scientific community that animals suffer from both physical and emotional stress. Emotional stress has been linked to an increase in core body temperature and decrease in surface area temperature of at least 0.5 degrees Celsius in a wide number of species, a phenomenon known as Stress-Induced hyperthermia (SIH) (Edgar et al, 2013). Catching and handling are relevant events in an animals life. Wild prey animal’s experience catching and handling by predators while animals raised for productivity experience catching and handling by Humans. Handling has been linked to the onset of stress-induced hyperthermia in many species, and Edgar et al (2013) provided evidence that handling causes a significant decrease in Head, Eye and Comb temperatures in Hens. The aim of this current research was to replicate that of Edgar et al (2013). This research aims to use infrared thermography to measure changes in Chooks Head, Eye and Comb prior to, during and after capture and handling. It is the hope that this research will provide further evidence that handling causes stress-induced hyperthermia in Hens. Infrared thermal imaging is a non-invasive measure of surface temperatures. It is the hope that this research will provide evidence that infrared thermography is an effective non-invasive measure useful in animal welfare research. 13 Hens and 6 Roosters Head, Eye and Comb temperatures were measured using infrared thermal imaging during 20 minute pre measurement, handling (capture by a researcher and held for 5 seconds) and 20 minute post measurement periods. Average surface area temperatures for each of the 19 subjects were obtained every minute during pre-measurement, handling and post-measurement. Average temperatures were plotted and analysed to investigate any patterns of change. Subjects Head, Eye and Comb temperatures experienced a significant decrease (more than 2 degrees celsius) from pre-measurement to handling. For Hens the Comb saw the most significant temperature drop during handling which is consistent with previous research. The Head saw the most significant decrease in temperature during handling for Roosters. Roosters Head Eye and Comb temperatures in post measurement went on to exceed those obtained in pre measurement while for Female subjects Head, Eye and Comb temperatures never returned to pre-measurement levels during the 20 minute post measurement. Infrared thermography proved a useful and accurate measure of Chooks surface area temperature. A surface area temperature decrease of more than 2 degrees celsius was observed in all subjects. All subjects met the requirements for stress-induced hyperthermia after handling. Stress-induced hyperthermia had a significant and lengthy impact on Chooks, in particular Hens

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  • Lorelei and the beautiful Lau: The portrayal of water nymphs in seminal works of 19th century German literature

    Lawrie, Bianca Simone (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis focuses on Lorelei and the beautiful Lau in its analysis of the portrayal of women in 19th century works of German literature with regards to water, love and death. It explores theories around the origins of a woman’s connections with these elements, including her biological functions and her roles in society, as well as important historical influences on the (male) authors. Lorelei and the beautiful Lau are two key figures within this discourse, as these water nymphs provide distinctive gender roles and enable an in-depth study into identity constructs and gender relations. This thesis compares the images of Lorelei within seminal works of her saga and contrasts these depictions of dangerous femininity with Mörike's domesticated and relatively harmless water woman, Lau. In addition, the study of Lorelei brings with it aspects of European cultural and intellectual paradigms, as well as constructs of German cultural and national identity. The analysis of these fictional characters exposes areas of significant friction in male-dominated Western culture. The water nymphs’ portrayal reveals subtle and discernible forms of male dominance through the degradation, marginalisation and ostracism undergone by the female figures. It also reveals discord in societal standings and religious affiliations, as well as the dichotomy of nature and culture. Through an understanding and analysis of these issues, the reader can better come to terms with humanity’s differences and, like Lau, go on a journey of self-discovery, in which the reader may embrace parts of themselves they never knew they had or were missing.

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  • Testing Macromolecular Rate Theory

    Kraakman, Kirsty Leigh (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Enzymatic rate increase with respect to temperature has widely been described by transition-state theory. The experimentally observed rate decline above an optimum temperature (Tₒₚₜ) for enzymes has previously been attributed to thermal denaturation, despite the known discrepancies with this rationalisation. Recently, a new model has been proposed to describe the temperature dependence of enzymatic rates: macromolecular rate theory (MMRT). This new theory incorporates heat capacity into the rate equation to provide a more robust thermodynamic description of rates, and account for the distinct curvature seen in biological temperature-rate profiles. The current study explores the effect of enzyme vibrational modes on heat capacity, and how alterations to the distribution of these modes, by heavy isotope substitution, affect the change in heat capacity along the reaction coordinate. The results presented show clear evidence for the role of vibrational mode frequency distributions in governing the curvature of temperature-rate profiles, and present a hypothesis for how this shift differs for the enzyme-substrate complex and the enzyme-transition state complex. The study also addresses the ability of MMRT to accurately model enzymatic rates over a wide temperature range for two different enzymes. As a result of this study, a new MMRT equation was generated to include a temperature dependence term for the heat capacity, a factor previously considered negligible. The data generated has shown that heat capacity is temperature dependent and this is a significant factor in accurately describing enzymatic rates with respect to temperature. In particular, for complex enzymatic reactions whose enthalpy distribution is significantly narrowed over the reaction co-ordinate. These findings have helped to develop MMRT to provide more accurate descriptions of a broader range of data. Additionally, the conclusions regarding vibrational mode distribution provide insight into the physical basis for heat capacity changes over the course of the enzymatic reaction. Investigation of the hypotheses generated from this research will offer further insight into the mechanistic contributions of vibrational modes and heat capacity in enzyme catalysis.

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  • An Evaluation of an Impaired Driver Treatment Programme Facilitated by Tūhoe Hauora

    Waru, Nicole Arihia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Driving while impaired is a substantial issue in Aotearoa. It has the potential to result in loss of life and cause significant health and economic strain on society. Recidivist impaired drivers are major contributors to this problem. Countermeasures of impaired driving have previously included liquor licencing, drinking age restrictions, health promotion campaigns and health rehabilitation therapies. The Ministry of Health offer an Impaired Driving therapy throughout Aotearoa as countermeasure to this issue. The programme is administered through the funder-contract system. Participation is compulsory for those mandated by court order. This study evaluates an Impaired Driver programme facilitated by Tūhoe Hauora; a kaupapa Māori mental health and addiction provider based in Taneatua, Eastern Bay of Plenty. The course is delivered once weekly over a period of ten weeks to a group of twelve or less recidivist impaired drivers or first time offenders who were convicted of driving with excessive levels of breath alcohol. The evaluation draws from a community psychology paradigm in exploration of the lived experiences of programme participants, in the context of course 2 of the 2014 Tūhoe Hauora Impaired Driving course. The experiences of five individuals were explored using in-depth face to face interviews and presented using a case-by-case approach. Participant observation, document review, evaluation visits and participant surveys were used as supplement methods of inquiry. The findings illustrated that Tūhoe Hauora met contract requirements by addressing impaired driving recidivism to date of interview. The evaluation also found the course actualising the mission of Tūhoe Hauora which was to address the holistic well-being of programme participants. The research did present areas in the programme that could be improved particularly pertaining to the referral process and a need for agency collaboration. Recommendations were formulated in attempt to address the programme gaps and discussion is offered in addressing the multi-layered oppression that was experienced throughout the evaluation process by both Tūhoe Hauora and the evaluation participants.  

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  • The role of values in destination decision-making: The Indian travel market

    Dassanayake, Dassanayake Mudiyanselage Chaminda (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Destination decision-making has gained considerable attention in the field of tourism research because it relates directly to the destination selection behaviours of tourists, and thus to formulating and implementing effective marketing strategies. This research examines the destination decision-making process and applies a value-based approach to the globally influential travel market of Indian tourists. The motive for this research was to study Indian travellers as a potential market for Sri Lankan tourism. However, as the research evolved, following the initial qualitative research findings, the thesis developed and empirically tested a model for the influence of values on destination decision-making; thus, the study of Indian visitors to Sri Lanka became a secondary concern. The conceptual framework, informed by exploratory qualitative research and two phases of literature review, for the first time in the destination decision-making literature, integrates four different concepts and theories: destination decision-making, consumption value theory, destination image, and the consumers’ value hierarchy. More specifically, the introduction of a new variable labelled selective image, derived from destination image and consumption value theories, successfully synthesises several variables previously studied in destination selection research. Human values and travel motivations are included in the model as precursors of selective image. The model conceptualises human values, travel motivations, and selective image as a tourism value hierarchy with corresponding constructs to a consumers’ value hierarchy. The research adopted an exploratory mixed method approach, using qualitative face-to-face interviews and quantitative online questionnaires. The qualitative study was directed by a preliminary conceptual framework, which described destination decision-making as a three-staged process, with each stage involving its own choice sets, until the final destination is selected. However, the qualitative findings highlighted limitations of the preliminary framework; so that, the conceptual framework was further developed through a second phase of literature review. This extended conceptual framework integrated destination image theory, consumption value theory, destination decision-making, and the concept of consumers’ value hierarchy. Human values, travel motivations, and travel constraints were identified as the main independent variables, whereas selective image was the main dependent variable of the conceptual framework, with selective image being a second-order variable to the consumer value dimensions: i.e., the functional, social, emotional, epistemic, and conditional. The qualitative data were analysed using thematic and content analysis. The quantitative data analysis used a range of techniques such as ANOVA, PLS path modelling, Leximancer maps, and descriptive statistics The outcomes of this research contribute to the field of tourism behavioural research through the introduction of a new variable ̶ selective image. This can be used to assess destination decision-making. The value hierarchy of human values-travel motivations-selective image provides a solid foundation upon which to integrate the value concept in destination decision-making. The conceptual model is relevant to, and can easily be applied by, destination marketers for market analysis and segmentation. Another key contribution of this research is its applicability in the context of tourism marketing

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  • Causes of diurnal ground movements at Omokoroa, New Zealand

    Manderson, Tyler Peter (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigated processes acting on the Bramley Drive Landslide, located on the Omokoroa Peninsula. The landslide, first failed in 1979, and has become an important field site for assessing the processes affecting sensitive volcanic soils in the Bay of Plenty region that contribute to slope failure. Researchers from the University of Waikato and the University of Bremen, Germany observed daily displacements in a borehole inclinometer located on site that were attributed to amplification of Earth tide movements. Potential factors contributing to exaggerated diurnal solid Earth tide strains were investigated, primarily: temperature, rainfall, Earth tides and microseisms. Measurements of displacements and forcing processes were obtained using a 3-axis 0.65 g precision accelerometer/seismometer, borehole inclinometer and weather station. The accelerometer data indicate that microseisms, consistent with breaking waves on the open coast of Matakana Island, and a diurnal thermal component occur within the top 5cm of the ground profile. The measured ground accelerations are greatest in warmer summer months due to the larger changes in temperature throughout a day associated with higher insolation and reduced soil moisture. The displacements within the borehole are a linear function of depth, but involve a series of sharp deviations, or steps, throughout the 42 m length measured. These steps coincide with boundaries between different stratigraphic units, usually where there is a change in soil type and soil strength. Therefore, the effects of the horizontal strain due to the solid Earth tide is exaggerated by differential and lagged displacement of the units. This suggests that Earth tidal stress, may cause minor (usually temporary) shear surfaces at depths that may be the final trigger for an “at risk” slope that is already preloaded and ready to fail. Several examples where this may be a factor were identified, including all the events at Bramley Drive with a known time of failure. Failure occurred when the rate of vertical Earth tide displacement peaked close to the time of maximum horizontal displacement, which corresponds to a change in the direction of the stress caused by the combined Moon and Sun tide generating potential. Predicting the time of slope failure may be beneficial both locally and globally.

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  • The Food Sovereignty Challenge to the Corporate Food Regime: Food for Thought

    Howard, Darelle Jane (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis forms part of an ongoing project working with Neilson (2012; Neilson & Stubbs, 2016) towards a revised version of regulation theory that is still a workin-progress. I have struggled towards a conceptual framework that distinguishes key concepts ‘model of development’, ‘food regime’ and ‘agricultural system’. I argue that this conceptual framework enables a more thorough analysis of the current era and also provides a tool for conceptualising a new one. I extend on the standard accounts of the concept ‘food regime’ (Friedmann, 1987; McMichael, 1992; 2009b) and attempt to more clearly delineate what I call the ‘agricultural system’, from the regulation/accumulation coupling (i.e. model of development). The corporate food regime while being essentially equivalent to the neoliberal model of development in agriculture, remains distinct from it because the food regime includes, yet is still distinct from, the prevailing model of development which over time transforms the pre-existing regulatory framework of the food regime. Using my conceptual framework, I critique the dominant agricultural system as environmentally destructive and (key to my project) undermining of food sovereignty. The dominant agricultural system is influenced by, though not solely or directly, the prevailing corporate food regime. The current food regime is largely responsible for the threat to food sovereignty in the current era. However, food sovereignty is an inclusive movement that challenges the dominant agricultural system and I put forward the argument that a new food regime should be premised on food sovereignty. I investigate emerging agricultural systems in Rome in order to think about the practical realities of alternatives to the dominant agricultural system that are based on food sovereignty. My field research was based on in-depth interviews using a qualitative approach. I looked at both production and consumption elements of an emerging agricultural system – central to any economic system. I met with GAS Testaccio Meticcio and three local producers, La Nuova Arca, Barikamà and Il Papavero. I pursued a multi-level research agenda that is theoretically informed and grounded in a sense of the big picture and an associated political agenda, and yet goes all the way down to the micro-level of empirical field research. My thesis is structured following this multi-levelled agenda. Beginning with the theoretical foundations I move to a national experience before honing down on the substantive emergence of agricultural systems in Rome. Finally, I integrate these levels in a discussion of a new food regime. Advocating for structural changes that focus on improving food sovereignty is by no means an original stance. However, my contribution comes from my core argument that the best chance of achieving such goals is through the conceptualisation and implementation of a new food regime. The centre-piece of such a regime needs to be a national template and practical strategy for promoting food sovereignty. Although I have made progress developing my revised account of the relationship between regulation and accumulation in agriculture, there are limitations to my framework which I will continue to work on.

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  • Intentional over-qualification: An exploration of motives and outcomes

    Newland , Samantha (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The effects of over-qualification (OQ) are becoming more established, yet little is known about the processes which drive these outcomes, or why outcomes are sometimes positive rather than negative. Less is known about different forms of over-qualification, whether they exist, and, whether they make a difference to such outcomes. Drawing on the theory of needs-supplies fit, the current research examined how two distinct forms of over-qualification (intentional and unintentional) relate to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, organisational commitment, turnover intentions, and job performance. Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Two hundred and twenty-seven respondents (61% female, 39% male) provided data at one time point. Two distinct forms of over-qualification emerged. Ninety participants were intentionally over-qualified and predominantly chose jobs below their qualifications due to work-life balance considerations (e.g., wanting more time for educational pursuits, family, hobbies, and leisure activities). Eighty-four participants were unintentionally over-qualified (i.e., not over-qualified by choice), and fifty-three participants were not over-qualified. Women reported choosing jobs below their qualifications significantly more often than men, as did individuals below the age of 30 years. Unintentional over-qualification proved to be a more harmful form of over-qualification and was linked to a range of undesirable outcomes. Over-qualified employees should not be mass categorised as they have been in many previous studies. Although unintentional over-qualification should be avoided, the same cannot be said for intentional over-qualification. Over-qualified individuals who choose their employment situation appear to represent a largely unrecognised, underutilised, and potentially valuable resource for organisations.

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  • Success Factors in Interactive Design

    Neave, Ryan Neave (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research explores the factors that contribute to success in interactive design in contrast to the traditional design process. The paper explores creativity within design, and how successful collaboration works in an interactive design context. The five stages of creativity are introduced, and then there is discussion about creating with an open mind “when you're open to what's possible, you get something new - that's creativity” (Alda, 2016). Then the study explores the design process by discussing three process models and their uses, particularly their relevance for interactive design. This section also looks at chaos within creating, and describing chaos as a tool for designers to escape the normal way of approaching problems. Next, the thesis looks at the art of collaboration in regards to an interactive project and discusses the importance of structure when intending to collaborate within a team. This section examines models for successful collaboration. In Chapter Two, existing interactive projects are reviewed and summarised in the form of case studies. In Chapter Three, a practise-led research methodology discusses how success factors are explored during the production of nine publicly exhibited interactive projects. The research concludes with success factors for interactive design projects in the form of a tentative new model.

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  • Modelling the hydrodynamics within the mangrove tidal flats in the Firth of Thames

    Haughey, Rebekah Rose (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Understanding how mangroves control shoreline stability, through altering hydrodynamic and sedimentation patterns, is important to predicting how resilient our coastline is to climate change. Recent work has shown that some mangrove ecosystems may modify the morphology, and allow the seabed to evolve upward with rising sea level, and thus alleviating the pressure on coastal adaptation. This study is focussed on improving the understanding of the hydrodynamics within the mangrove habitat in the Firth of Thames, New Zealand. The mangrove habitat within the Firth of Thames is a shallow, muddy and rapidly prograding environment. The main aim of this study was to determine whether or not, the mangroves influence the dynamics of the tidal wave propagation, which in turn can have implications for the sedimentation patterns and shoreline stability within the Firth of Thames. A hydrodynamic model for the Firth of Thames was developed using Delft3D. A coarse resolution grid was created to simulate the offshore tidal wave propagation and used to force a nested, fine resolution grid within the mangrove intertidal flats. A field deployment was completed during May 2016, where in the offshore region water levels, current velocities and suspended sediment measurements were taken, and within the mangrove forest, water levels, bed elevations and vegetation characteristics were measured. Field measurements were used to calibrate both the overall and nested models. Comparisons between model outputs, with and without vegetation included in the model, indicate that the presence of mangroves does influence the tidal wave dynamics across the intertidal flats. Two of the main effects of vegetation were reduced current velocity and tidal amplitude. Regardless of whether mangroves were present, the model showed flood dominance across the upper intertidal flat and ebb dominance at the seaward edge of the intertidal flat. However, with vegetation included this pattern of tidal asymmetry was enhanced, due to the nonlinear effect of friction. A series of numerical experiments were also performed to understand the control of sea bed roughness and vegetation characteristics (vegetation roughness, pneumatophore height, plus pneumatophore and tree density) on the size, spatial changes and timing of tidal currents. Pneumatophore density had the largest influence on model outputs, with increasing pneumatophore density causing a reduction in currents and a delay in the drainage of the ebb tide. Based on the hydrodynamic model outputs and measurements of offshore suspended sediment concentrations, rough calculations were completed to estimate the net flux of sediment into the forest over time. Estimated sediment fluxes were surprisingly similar to the estimated volume deposited sediment between the 2005 and 2016 elevation surveys. Physical processes, such as tidal asymmetry, are likely to have caused the initial accretion and tidal flat development, making it suitable for mangrove growth. However, now that there is a vast area of mangroves, they are altering the hydrodynamics and therefore are also contributing to the accretion and overall stability of the system.

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  • How Interface Elements for Page Turning in eBooks Affect Reader Preference

    Huang, Jiao (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Whether we are young or old, all of us have read many kinds of books and articles from an early age. Reading has influenced us at different stages of our lives, and with the development of modern technology, various kinds of electronic devices such as iPads, mobile phones, and kindles, have gradually taken part in our daily lives and now play an indispensable role. Recently, physical books have been replaced by a new style of literature – eBooks. What is an eBook? What elements affect judgment and attitude of readers to eBooks? How do different styles of interface design for page turning impact readers? These are the main issues needing to be illustrated and researched in this thesis. Elements of interface design such as page turning, content presentation, letterform, typography, illustration, picture, and audio, are all features of eBooks that may impact the reading experience. These elements affect different readers and guide them when they read. The purpose of this research was to investigate how the interface elements for page turning influences the preferences of readers with different backgrounds. A case study investigation of current page turning norms was also undertaken. The case study identified the common interactive elements of page-turning methods typically used in eBooks. This thesis demonstrates that readers with different backgrounds had preferences for different interactive page turning methods. These preferences were impacted by age, gender, occupation and qualification differences amongst the readers who participated. The conclusion is that readers with different backgrounds will prefer different types of interactive elements for page turning.

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  • Teaching Social Skills to Children with Special Needs Using Video Modelling

    Turner, Amy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Video modelling was used to teach 4 different social skills to four children aged between 6 and 10 years. Two of the children had formal diagnosis for autism spectrum disorder, one child had a formal diagnosis of attention deficit disorder and displayed traits of autism, and one child was currently being diagnosed and displayed traits of autism. The 4 different social skills were greeting and small talk, initiation and responding to conversation and play, initiation for conversation and play, and turn taking. The aim of this study was to build on the current literature on the efficacy and usability of video modelling for teaching social skills to children with autism. A single-subject, multiple baseline design was used. The overall results showed that video modelling was effective as a resource for teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorder and other deficits. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed at the end.

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  • Austerity Measures: Presenting Food in British Writing, 1939-1954

    Taylor, David Andrew (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Rationing measures in force in the United Kingdom from the beginning of the Second World War in December of 1939 until July of 1954 ostensibly ensured an egalitarian access to food and resulted in a general levelling-up of standards of nutrition in the general populace. The restrictions and shortages that plagued larders and plates, however, meant that variety and stability became preoccupations for the British public on the home front. Against the backdrop of socially levelling austerity measures, popular writers used the public’s food consciousness to explore anxieties surrounding the demarcation and performance of identities challenged by the threats to Britain’s physical and ideological borders. Food is an invaluable lens through which to examine the shaping of identity during a period that challenged food and ideological security in Britain, particularly with respect to the performance of socioeconomic class differences, national identity and gender binaries. Largely structured by Pierre Bourdieu’s examination of consumption habits as an articulation of class and gender in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (1979), this thesis will examine the ways in which food representation serves as a fulcrum on which social and economic class identities pivot in Evelyn Waugh’s Brideshead Revisited (1948) and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), and the acute awareness of the post-war custodianship of a damaged Britain. Secondly, it will demonstrate the ways in which austerity cookery literature not only upsets and recodifies national identity as constructed by quotidian consumption habits, but also the problematic configuration of duty to ahedonistic rationing as the housewife’s moral obligation to the nation. Expanding on this, it will consider the reconfiguration of Britain’s post-Empire relationship to the world and the enduring legacy of culinary creolisation as demonstrated in Constance Spry and Rosemary Hume’s recipe for Poulet Reign Elizabeth as served at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953, and the claim to the sensual rewards of gastronomy in Elizabeth David’s A Book of Mediterranean Food (1950). Finally, it will examine the ways in which Virginia Woolf’s Between the Acts (1941) and Barbara Pym’s Jane and Prudence (1953) critique and subvert ways in which a mind-body duality structures the notions of gendered appetites, and the authors’ appetites for a transcendence of the fascism of the patriarchy undergirding the twentieth century. While the austerity years are often perceived as representing a dearth of culinary culture in Britain, it is better appreciated as a period of rich innovation and adaptation, where the yearning for security and identity forged complex texts ambivalent about Britain’s past, present and future.

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