322 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, Masters

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • Effective pedagogical strategies for language revitalization in Māori-medium Professional Development Contexts

    Tamati, Sophie (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A methodology for multilevel analysis of scientific collaboration networks : Mapping current computer science research in New Zealand

    Martin, Bernd (2014-05-01)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research scientifically analysed the evolving Complex Network structures of the New Zealand Computer Science research community upon multiple levels (Macro, Meso, Micro, Topics). Methodological approaches utilised interdisciplinary techniques comprised of data mining, social network analyses, scientometrics and data visualisation. The research sought to identify communities, highly influential nodes, research institutions, and their collaborative patterns over the last 5 years. Network metrics revealed insights into the structure of the networks. Collaboration networks were generated using a variety of layout algorithms then visually presented in the form of knowledge maps. Furthermore, Word Co-occurrence networks of terms from both the Titles field and Keywords field were constructed and analysed to reveal topic trends and bursts. The mapping of recent New Zealand Computer Science research developments was accomplished by using Alluvial diagrams. The change of streams over the time period highlights the nature of, and evolving relations within and amongst topics. The visual results of this research provide a natural way to reveal information. To my knowledge, this is the most comprehensive multilevel study of a specific domain (Computer Science) conducted within New Zealand, to date. The applied methods are transferable to other domains and interdisciplinary endeavours. A real world application of the applied methodology could be an enhancement of the existing interdisciplinary portal (www.nzresearch.org.nz/) with the application of multilevel analysis methods. This could enable collaboration and discovery among scientists across all disciplines. An interactive multimedia presentation of this research including high definition maps and a 3D demonstration of the Topic network can be found at: http://tinyurl.com/BerndMartinThesis It accompanies, supports the findings of, and enhances this written research.

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  • Extinction-induced variability in human behaviour

    Kinloch, Jennifer (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    These results [of five experiments] add to the small number of studies showing increased variability in extinction for human behavior, and also show that the degree of effect could be due to reinforcement history and the instructional specificity

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  • Is smacking in New Zealand a public health problem?

    Hosking, James (2005)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Smacking is often considered a personal, moral issue. However, there are benefits to taking an objective, structured approach to smacking, such as a public health approach. Smacking and other related terms are poorly defined. Definitions of ‘acceptable’ smacking are grounded more in socio-cultural norms than in rational argument. Parents smack for a range of reasons, of which discipline and guidance is only one. The distinction between physical punishment and abuse is problematic. There now exists a large and consistent body of observational evidence linking smacking to a range of negative outcomes. It has been suggested that such results may be due to confounding in cross-sectional studies. However, more recent robust prospective designs yield similar results. It seems likely, though not certain, that smacking causes negative health outcomes. It is also very prevalent, both in New Zealand and in many other countries. No widely agreed definitions exist on what constitutes a public health problem. Smacking satisfies epidemiologically-based criteria for a public health problem, but other criteria are also relevant. Inequalities and human rights approaches are important aspects of public health problems, and smacking is both a health inequality and a breach of human rights. Public health approaches may be useful both in understanding the problem of smacking, and in intervening. The application of a public health intervention framework to smacking, such as the Ottawa Charter, reveals promising opportunities for public health action, though further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of such interventions. Both intervention and further research are clearly justified for this significant public health problem.

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  • Price formation in parimutuel markets

    Geertsema, Paul (2010)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Two types of betting are common in sports betting: fixed odds betting and parimutuel betting. In fixed odds betting, the payout conditional on winning is fixed once the bet is placed and is not affected by the placing of subsequent bets. By contrast, winning bettors in a parimutuel contest share pro-rata in the total betting pool. This means that the payout to winning bettors in a parimutuel contest depends not only on selecting the winning outcome, but also on the amounts bet by other bettors (which cannot be observed at the time a bet is placed). Therefore a parimutuel contest can be viewed as a game at the level of individual bettors. Existing models in the parimutuel literature explain the data by either assuming a single, representative bettor with certain risk preferences or by assuming that a number of risk neutral bettors compete strategically within a game theoretic framework. Our contribution is to construct a novel theoretical framework of parimutuel markets in which we model both strategic interaction and risk preferences at the level of individual insiders, in the presence of exogenous outsiders. We solve this model analytically for the optimal insider betting amount in a static symmetric Nash equilibrium. Using a new dataset of 1.6 million individual horse race bets in New Zealand from 2006 to 2009, we document a strong inverse linear relationship between our model-implied insider risk preferences and the strength of insider beliefs relative to outsiders. That is, as the strength of insiders’ beliefs relative to that of outsiders decrease, implied risk sensitivity moves from risk averse to risk loving. At a level of insider beliefs congruent with actual performance in the data, average implied risk preferences are close to zero, that is, insiders are effectively risk neutral. While risk neutrality is a standard assumption in strategic interaction models of parimutuel betting, our study is the first to provide empirical support for this assumption. Finally, we document a strong relationship (not previously reported in the literature) between the average bet size and the average payout ratio, suggesting that bettors with inside information self-select by placing larger bets.

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  • Alberton’s Sheet Music Collection from 1850-1915

    Vickers, Louisa (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Victorian era in colonial New Zealand is lacking extensive research in regards to sheet music collections, particularly in social settings. This research examines the sheet music collection of the Kerr Taylor family of Alberton to recover the attitudes, recreational avenues, and views of the early Auckland elite. The Alberton sheet music collection is set within the socio-historical context, and a history of the Kerr Taylor family is provided for added context. Individual acquisition of various family members (Patty Taylor, Winifred Kerr Taylor, Mildred Kerr Taylor, and Muriel Kerr Taylor) is discussed, condition of the collection is described, and the collection considered in relation to Victorian values. This is presented as a partial case study, with the answers to the research questions woven into the essay narrative. The Alberton sheet collection reflects the norms of Victorian musical values, and music held an important place in the lives of the Kerr Taylors. Patty Taylor and Winifred, Mildred, and Muriel Kerr Taylor are the most prominent names in the collection, with pieces of sheet music existing in varying states of condition. Names and years are the most common annotation, but there are exceptions. This project adds to the body of knowledge surrounding the Kerr Taylor family and Alberton. The sheet music collection exists in the wider context of the bulk of the Alberton collection, and there is scope a more detailed exposition of the music collection, or for the music collection to be considered within the broader Alberton collection.

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  • An Investigation Into the Interactive Teaching Practices of Librarians in Information Literacy Instruction at the University of Auckland Library

    Zdravkovic, Neda (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The development of constructivist learning theory has greatly influenced the design and delivery of the Information Literacy instructional programmes. Student-centred teaching methodology has been widely adopted in the IL instruction, however, the challenges library presenters face while practicing interactive teaching methods in their classes still require further investigation. This study aims to respond to the need for a deeper understanding of IL instruction from a teachers’ perspective and provide an insight into currently applied interactive practices in IL classroom teaching, as well as associated challenges and effective solutions. An explanatory, sequential mixed methods research design has been applied to further investigate the quantitative information collected in the first phase of the project (an online survey emailed to 55 Subject Librarians at the University of Auckland (UoA)) followed by the second phase of qualitative, in-depth data gathering conducted in the form of nine individual 45 minutes long semi-structured interviews with Subject Librarians at the University of Auckland. The findings confirm the themes already discussed in the library literature, but also reveal new and unexpected elements of IL classroom instruction offered at the tertiary level in New Zealand region. Eleven original interactive classroom activities successfully employed in IL classroom teaching by Subject Librarians at the UoA are also identified during this research project and presented in the report. Suggestions are made for further research.

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  • The value relevance of international financial reporting standards : evidence from New Zealand

    Bridges, Caroline (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this thesis, I examine the value relevance of financial statements for companies that chose to voluntarily adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand between 2005 and 2007, prior to it becoming mandatory for all companies. Specifically, I document the relative and incremental value relevance, respectively, of voluntarily adopting New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards as opposed to domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards on the book value of equity and net income for a sample of 34 companies. The main results of the empirical analysis find that (i) there is no evidence to suggest that the value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, when taken together, is greater than the combined value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards (i.e., New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards do not have relative value relevance); (ii) the book value of equity calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above the book value of equity calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards; and (iii) net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. I also carry out an analysis of the conservativeness of the net income figure measured under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, and find that there is no significant difference in the timeliness or asymmetric timeliness (i.e., conditional conservatism) between net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards and domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. Overall, my thesis finds little evidence that the voluntary adoption of New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards provides accounting information that is more value relevant to that under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards, which is consistent with the conclusion of Hung & Subramanyam (2007) albeit in the German institutional setting. Hence, the benefits of early adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand are questionable.

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  • Embracing LOLitics: Popular culture, online political humor, and play 

    Tay, Geniesa Jin San (2012-10-01)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Internet, and Web 2.0 tools can empower audiences to actively participate in media creation. This allows the production of large quantities of content, both amateur and professional. Online memes, which are extensions of usually citizen-created viral content, are a recent and popular example of this. This thesis examines the participation of ordinary individuals in political culture online through humor creation. It focuses on citizen-made political humor memes as an example of engaged citizen discourse. The memes comprise of photographs of political figures altered either by captions or image editing software, and can be compared to more traditional mediums such as political cartoons, and 'green screens' used in filmmaking. Popular culture is often used as a 'common language' to communicate meanings in these texts. This thesis thus examines the relationship between political and popular culture. It also discusses the value of 'affinity spaces', which actively encourage users to participate in creating and sharing the humorous political texts. Some examples of the political humor memes include: the subversion of Vladimir Putin's power by poking fun at his masculine characteristics through acts similar to fanfiction, celebrating Barack Obama’s love of Star Wars, comparing a candid photograph of John McCain to fictional nonhuman creatures such as zombies using photomanipulation, and the wide variety of immediate responses to Osama bin Laden's death. This thesis argues that much of the idiosyncratic nature of the political humor memes comes from a motivation that lies in non-serious play, though they can potentially offer legitimate political criticism through the myths 'poached' from popular culture.

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  • The Orbitar

    Riegle-Van West, Kate (2011-05-09)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Orbitar is a new multimedia musical instrument rooted in the ancient art of poi spinning. It is comprised of three components: The Satellites, sound and light generating musical instruments modeled after traditional poi, The Controllers, gloves and a headset which shape the sound and light parameters, and The Console, the receiver for the data coming from The Satellites and The Console, which ultimately creates the final audio output. The Orbitar is a powerful new invention for creating live audio and visual compositions drawing upon 1) the act of play, an important tool for sculpting the brain and reconciling cognitive difficulties, 2) the creation of audio compositions through corporeality and voice, a connection to ritualistic tradition and an important tool for priming the auditory cortex to more effieciently process information, and 3) the use of non-habitual movement and multiple sense, an important tool for relating to the outside world and breaking mechanical tendencies. This paper will 1) outline the history of poi spinning and explain poi’s correlation to flow state, 2) describe the influences behind The Orbitar, 3) layout the theoretical, scientific, artistic, and technological goals as well as the practical applications, 4) outline the debut performance of The Orbitar, OrbitAra, 5) list the project materials and costs, 6) provide a summary, conclusions, and recommendations for future research, and 7) display diagrams and a bibliography.

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  • Kombinatorischer Proteomvergleich und Analyse molekularer Netzwerke in Prokaryoten

    Linz, Simone (2004-01-27)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Myth busting and tenet building: Primary and early childhood teachers' understanding of the nature of science.

    Heap, Irene (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A fundamental objective of science education is to provide students with the level of scientific literacy necessary to participate in a society increasingly dependent on science and technology. Central to definitions of this scientific literacy is an appreciation of the nature of science (NOS). The purpose of the research project was to identify the understandings of NOS of a cohort of practising primary and early childhood teachers, enrolled in a semester long science course as part of a Bachelor of Education degree. The research sought to examine their initial NOS understandings and mapped these understandings over the duration of the course in order to identify shifts in understanding and aspects of NOS resistant to change. The research was embedded in critical social science methodology. An explicit reflective approach was used throughout the course instruction to teach NOS tenets. Two frameworks were developed to analyse the data gathered, a myths framework and a NOS framework. Analysis of the pre-instruction views showed that the teachers initial understandings of NOS were fragmented, lacking in depth, inconsistent, fluid and revealed many myths of NOS. Over the duration of the course the teachers journals showed shifts in understanding: NOS tenets were more frequently expressed; there was an increase in the complexity of expression; and an increase in the integration or interrelatedness of NOS tenets. Factors which contributed to these shifts in understanding included the use of an explicit approach, consistency between explicit and implicit instruction, reflection, a conceptual change approach and the use of generic science-content-free NOS activities throughout the course. These findings suggest a need for NOS to be addressed in both pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher professional development programmes. The research has indicated that an explicit, reflective teaching approach is pedagogically effective for this need.

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  • Parents, peers, personal aspirations and pedagogy: their impact on students' experiences of secondary school.

    O'Brien, Patrice (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Students who entered West Coast secondary schools in 2008 began Year 9 with achievement in reading comprehension that was higher than national norms (Lai, 2009). By the end of 2008, STAR (reading comprehension) testing revealed that this cohort had begun to show a drop in achievement in reading comprehension against national norms and this continued with a further drop in Year 10 (Lai, 2009). Historically, there have also been relatively low levels of achievement by students in NCEA assessment in the West Coast region. The aim of the research was to use student voice to understand the pattern of achievement of Year 9 and 10 students in West Coast secondary schools. To capture student voice, Year 10 students (n=93) completed surveys about their experiences of secondary school. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of students (n=18). This provided data on the factors identified from local and international research that could influence achievement, for example, student aspirations, parental expectations and pedagogy. Achievement data on reading comprehension were also collected. Students perceptions of factors such as parental support for education, the influence of peer groups and student’s future aspirations were positive and did not suggest that these were implicated in the decreasing levels of achievement. In contrast, the use of student voice suggested that being unsure how to improve their work, teacher expectations that were lower than appropriate for this group of students and a lack of cognitive challenge may have impacted to some extent on student achievement. This research reinforces the importance of testing assumptions and highlights the value of using student voice to improve teaching and learning. It demonstrates that there is much to be gained from consulting students about their experiences of school. Hearing what students have to say about school and their learning has the potential to allow teachers to view their classrooms from a different perspective. This can be the catalyst for changes to teaching approaches and practices.

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  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among New Zealand Children: Improving Quality of Care in the Emergency Department Setting

    Sharpe, S (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: To examine the occurrence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among New Zealand children and to investigate the quality of healthcare delivered in the emergency department (ED) setting to children with mild TBI. Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding the occurrence of TBI among New Zealand children was undertaken alongside a clinical audit examining the quality of healthcare delivered to children with mild TBI who were discharged home after assessment in a children's hospital ED in 2007. Medical records of a random sample of 60 children aged <15 years stratified by ethnicity and age were reviewed. ED processes of care for mild TBI were compared with best practice standards derived from guideline recommendations. Findings: The systematic literature review revealed important gaps in knowledge regarding the burden of mild TBI among New Zealand children. The clinical audit identified that processes of care designed to manage potentially life-threatening acute complications (e.g. selection of children for CT scanning to identify intracranial haemorrhage) were consistent with best practice standards. However gaps existed between current and best practice for aspects of care that could minimise risks of disability. For example, despite a high standard of documentation of data required for estimating the probability of TBI, this information was not applied to clearly identify children with definite or possible TBI. In addition, documentation deficiencies raised concerns regarding whether information is provided in a manner supportive of the cultures and languages of families/wh?nau, missed opportunities for injury prevention advice, and the adequacy of follow-up plans in the community. Conclusion: The identified gaps in research knowledge and quality of care in the ED setting require attention to develop effective integrated services that minimise the risk of disability following childhood TBI.

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  • 'Integrity Matters: An Inquiry into Social Workers' Understandings': a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work, School of Health and Social Services, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Appleton, Cherie (2011-04)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This small scale study recruited a sample of qualified and experienced social work practitioners to explore the research question: “How do social workers in Aotearoa New Zealand perceive, understand and interpret the concept of integrity and how do they assess it as being relevant in their work?” The aim of this research was to capture and reflect the participants’ voices in relation to their perceptions, appreciation and application of the notion of integrity to their work. The reasons for choosing to interrogate the topic of integrity were three-fold: i) I was intrigued with the word ‘integrity’ which I perceived to be much used and rarely defined or contextualised in social work conversations, Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct. ii) I suspected that the term ‘integrity’ could be a container or integrating concept for a range of values and virtues such as respect, dignity, spirituality, trustworthiness. iii) I wondered if in the process of discovering the practitioner voices in relation to integrity we might also reveal factors or processes that could strengthen critical reflection, enhance job satisfaction, and increase resilient practice. Beginning with an e-survey, participants identified and described some of their definitions and key concepts in relation to integrity. The e-survey provided material that was used in subsequent focus group interviews to further explore participants’ understandings and experiences of integrity. The data collected from the focus group interviews then underwent a thematic analysis and coding process. Findings from this process were distilled and collected under two main headings: Practitioners ‘constructing’ integrity and practitioners ‘maintaining’ integrity. Several themes such as practitioners ‘making meaning’ of integrity, professional and personal integrity, integrity in the workplace, practitioners ‘doing’ integrity and practitioners experiencing challenges to integrity were identified and explored. The discussions and conclusions reached as a result of this study contribute to the advancement of social work knowledge and offer social work practitioners a perceptive framework for enhanced professional reflexivity around constructing and measuring integrity with the possibility of balancing and strengthening integrity in their practice.

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  • The role of culture in teaching and learning: Exploring culturally inclusive pedagogy and its possible implications for Tongan boys in secondary schools

    Fa'avae, David (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study explores the role of culture in teaching and learning. It affirms the notion that culture is important in the learning and achievement of Pacific Island students. Using autoethnographic method, the educational narrative of a Tongan male secondary school teacher is articulated and critically analysed. Autoethnography is an approach used by the researcher to look deeply into his experiences as a Tongan student, and now a Tongan secondary school teacher, in understanding the role of culture and ethnicity in the teaching and learning process. Reflecting on his personal narratives is a way to “legitim[ise] [his] knowledge”(Smith, 1999, p. 2) as a minority teacher, seeking to understand possible implications of his practices in Tongan boys’ learning. Themes from the literature review highlight the various ways in which culture is attributed more or less importance in teaching and learning. Both the narrative and themes from the literature affirm that teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand must comprehensively improve their ability to implement culturally inclusive pedagogy that is developed to encompass Pacific students as diverse learners.

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  • Nonlinear Elasticity: experimental results and finite element modeling of hard neoprene elastomer failure

    Pogacnik, Justin (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Failure in hard neoprene can be a very serious occurrence in industry. Since the material is resistant to oils, it is a popular choice for O-rings and hoses for use in fuel and oil lines. Notable elastomer failures include that of the Challenger space shuttle's O-rings and the (TM)Firestone tires incident. Since elastomers are such a large part of daily life with a wide variety of uses, quantifying failure in these materials can mean the di erence between life and death, not just an inconvenient nuisance. It is desirable to not only determine the experimental failure properties of elastomer materials, but also to be able to use nite element analysis (FEA) to predict the behavior and failure of elastomers. In a world where engineering designs are becoming increasingly progressive and complex, engineers and scientists are relying more and more on FEA to predict the safety level of products. It is of utmost importance to ensure that the physical behavior of elastomers is successfully captured in FEA.

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  • Das Unmittelbare Ansetzen Zur Tatbestandsverwirklichung Beim Versuch Gemäß §22 STGB

    Mandery, Maya (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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