323 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, Masters

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • A methodology for multilevel analysis of scientific collaboration networks : Mapping current computer science research in New Zealand

    Martin, Bernd (2014-05-01)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research scientifically analysed the evolving Complex Network structures of the New Zealand Computer Science research community upon multiple levels (Macro, Meso, Micro, Topics). Methodological approaches utilised interdisciplinary techniques comprised of data mining, social network analyses, scientometrics and data visualisation. The research sought to identify communities, highly influential nodes, research institutions, and their collaborative patterns over the last 5 years. Network metrics revealed insights into the structure of the networks. Collaboration networks were generated using a variety of layout algorithms then visually presented in the form of knowledge maps. Furthermore, Word Co-occurrence networks of terms from both the Titles field and Keywords field were constructed and analysed to reveal topic trends and bursts. The mapping of recent New Zealand Computer Science research developments was accomplished by using Alluvial diagrams. The change of streams over the time period highlights the nature of, and evolving relations within and amongst topics. The visual results of this research provide a natural way to reveal information. To my knowledge, this is the most comprehensive multilevel study of a specific domain (Computer Science) conducted within New Zealand, to date. The applied methods are transferable to other domains and interdisciplinary endeavours. A real world application of the applied methodology could be an enhancement of the existing interdisciplinary portal (www.nzresearch.org.nz/) with the application of multilevel analysis methods. This could enable collaboration and discovery among scientists across all disciplines. An interactive multimedia presentation of this research including high definition maps and a 3D demonstration of the Topic network can be found at: http://tinyurl.com/BerndMartinThesis It accompanies, supports the findings of, and enhances this written research.

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  • Extinction-induced variability in human behaviour

    Kinloch, Jennifer (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    These results [of five experiments] add to the small number of studies showing increased variability in extinction for human behavior, and also show that the degree of effect could be due to reinforcement history and the instructional specificity

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  • Alberton’s Sheet Music Collection from 1850-1915

    Vickers, Louisa (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Victorian era in colonial New Zealand is lacking extensive research in regards to sheet music collections, particularly in social settings. This research examines the sheet music collection of the Kerr Taylor family of Alberton to recover the attitudes, recreational avenues, and views of the early Auckland elite. The Alberton sheet music collection is set within the socio-historical context, and a history of the Kerr Taylor family is provided for added context. Individual acquisition of various family members (Patty Taylor, Winifred Kerr Taylor, Mildred Kerr Taylor, and Muriel Kerr Taylor) is discussed, condition of the collection is described, and the collection considered in relation to Victorian values. This is presented as a partial case study, with the answers to the research questions woven into the essay narrative. The Alberton sheet collection reflects the norms of Victorian musical values, and music held an important place in the lives of the Kerr Taylors. Patty Taylor and Winifred, Mildred, and Muriel Kerr Taylor are the most prominent names in the collection, with pieces of sheet music existing in varying states of condition. Names and years are the most common annotation, but there are exceptions. This project adds to the body of knowledge surrounding the Kerr Taylor family and Alberton. The sheet music collection exists in the wider context of the bulk of the Alberton collection, and there is scope a more detailed exposition of the music collection, or for the music collection to be considered within the broader Alberton collection.

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  • The value relevance of international financial reporting standards : evidence from New Zealand

    Bridges, Caroline (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this thesis, I examine the value relevance of financial statements for companies that chose to voluntarily adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand between 2005 and 2007, prior to it becoming mandatory for all companies. Specifically, I document the relative and incremental value relevance, respectively, of voluntarily adopting New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards as opposed to domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards on the book value of equity and net income for a sample of 34 companies. The main results of the empirical analysis find that (i) there is no evidence to suggest that the value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, when taken together, is greater than the combined value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards (i.e., New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards do not have relative value relevance); (ii) the book value of equity calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above the book value of equity calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards; and (iii) net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. I also carry out an analysis of the conservativeness of the net income figure measured under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, and find that there is no significant difference in the timeliness or asymmetric timeliness (i.e., conditional conservatism) between net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards and domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. Overall, my thesis finds little evidence that the voluntary adoption of New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards provides accounting information that is more value relevant to that under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards, which is consistent with the conclusion of Hung & Subramanyam (2007) albeit in the German institutional setting. Hence, the benefits of early adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand are questionable.

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  • Embracing LOLitics: Popular culture, online political humor, and play 

    Tay, Geniesa Jin San (2012-10-01)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Internet, and Web 2.0 tools can empower audiences to actively participate in media creation. This allows the production of large quantities of content, both amateur and professional. Online memes, which are extensions of usually citizen-created viral content, are a recent and popular example of this. This thesis examines the participation of ordinary individuals in political culture online through humor creation. It focuses on citizen-made political humor memes as an example of engaged citizen discourse. The memes comprise of photographs of political figures altered either by captions or image editing software, and can be compared to more traditional mediums such as political cartoons, and 'green screens' used in filmmaking. Popular culture is often used as a 'common language' to communicate meanings in these texts. This thesis thus examines the relationship between political and popular culture. It also discusses the value of 'affinity spaces', which actively encourage users to participate in creating and sharing the humorous political texts. Some examples of the political humor memes include: the subversion of Vladimir Putin's power by poking fun at his masculine characteristics through acts similar to fanfiction, celebrating Barack Obama’s love of Star Wars, comparing a candid photograph of John McCain to fictional nonhuman creatures such as zombies using photomanipulation, and the wide variety of immediate responses to Osama bin Laden's death. This thesis argues that much of the idiosyncratic nature of the political humor memes comes from a motivation that lies in non-serious play, though they can potentially offer legitimate political criticism through the myths 'poached' from popular culture.

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  • Parents, peers, personal aspirations and pedagogy: their impact on students' experiences of secondary school.

    O'Brien, Patrice (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Students who entered West Coast secondary schools in 2008 began Year 9 with achievement in reading comprehension that was higher than national norms (Lai, 2009). By the end of 2008, STAR (reading comprehension) testing revealed that this cohort had begun to show a drop in achievement in reading comprehension against national norms and this continued with a further drop in Year 10 (Lai, 2009). Historically, there have also been relatively low levels of achievement by students in NCEA assessment in the West Coast region. The aim of the research was to use student voice to understand the pattern of achievement of Year 9 and 10 students in West Coast secondary schools. To capture student voice, Year 10 students (n=93) completed surveys about their experiences of secondary school. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of students (n=18). This provided data on the factors identified from local and international research that could influence achievement, for example, student aspirations, parental expectations and pedagogy. Achievement data on reading comprehension were also collected. Students perceptions of factors such as parental support for education, the influence of peer groups and student’s future aspirations were positive and did not suggest that these were implicated in the decreasing levels of achievement. In contrast, the use of student voice suggested that being unsure how to improve their work, teacher expectations that were lower than appropriate for this group of students and a lack of cognitive challenge may have impacted to some extent on student achievement. This research reinforces the importance of testing assumptions and highlights the value of using student voice to improve teaching and learning. It demonstrates that there is much to be gained from consulting students about their experiences of school. Hearing what students have to say about school and their learning has the potential to allow teachers to view their classrooms from a different perspective. This can be the catalyst for changes to teaching approaches and practices.

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  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among New Zealand Children: Improving Quality of Care in the Emergency Department Setting

    Sharpe, S (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: To examine the occurrence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among New Zealand children and to investigate the quality of healthcare delivered in the emergency department (ED) setting to children with mild TBI. Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding the occurrence of TBI among New Zealand children was undertaken alongside a clinical audit examining the quality of healthcare delivered to children with mild TBI who were discharged home after assessment in a children's hospital ED in 2007. Medical records of a random sample of 60 children aged <15 years stratified by ethnicity and age were reviewed. ED processes of care for mild TBI were compared with best practice standards derived from guideline recommendations. Findings: The systematic literature review revealed important gaps in knowledge regarding the burden of mild TBI among New Zealand children. The clinical audit identified that processes of care designed to manage potentially life-threatening acute complications (e.g. selection of children for CT scanning to identify intracranial haemorrhage) were consistent with best practice standards. However gaps existed between current and best practice for aspects of care that could minimise risks of disability. For example, despite a high standard of documentation of data required for estimating the probability of TBI, this information was not applied to clearly identify children with definite or possible TBI. In addition, documentation deficiencies raised concerns regarding whether information is provided in a manner supportive of the cultures and languages of families/wh?nau, missed opportunities for injury prevention advice, and the adequacy of follow-up plans in the community. Conclusion: The identified gaps in research knowledge and quality of care in the ED setting require attention to develop effective integrated services that minimise the risk of disability following childhood TBI.

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  • The role of culture in teaching and learning: Exploring culturally inclusive pedagogy and its possible implications for Tongan boys in secondary schools

    Fa'avae, David (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study explores the role of culture in teaching and learning. It affirms the notion that culture is important in the learning and achievement of Pacific Island students. Using autoethnographic method, the educational narrative of a Tongan male secondary school teacher is articulated and critically analysed. Autoethnography is an approach used by the researcher to look deeply into his experiences as a Tongan student, and now a Tongan secondary school teacher, in understanding the role of culture and ethnicity in the teaching and learning process. Reflecting on his personal narratives is a way to “legitim[ise] [his] knowledge”(Smith, 1999, p. 2) as a minority teacher, seeking to understand possible implications of his practices in Tongan boys’ learning. Themes from the literature review highlight the various ways in which culture is attributed more or less importance in teaching and learning. Both the narrative and themes from the literature affirm that teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand must comprehensively improve their ability to implement culturally inclusive pedagogy that is developed to encompass Pacific students as diverse learners.

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  • Das Unmittelbare Ansetzen Zur Tatbestandsverwirklichung Beim Versuch Gemäß §22 STGB

    Mandery, Maya (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Many are Called, but only FEW are Chosen - E to'atele e valaaulia ae toaititi e filifilia. The perspectives of Samoan males on their roles as Early Childhood educators.

    Sauni, Seiuli (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research report presents the perspectives and experiences of four Samoan male students in the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Education programme. This study explores and highlights the reasons for their involvement in a profession which is predominantly female. Particular focus on this study was on the significance of their roles within their families, church, communities and most importantly, the development of education of young children. Although these men have all had some teaching experience in Samoa before coming to New Zealand, further studies through the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Teacher Education Programme provided them with new knowledge, skills and an understanding of the Early Childhood Curriculum document. Te Whariki (1996) to enable them to teach in Early Childhood centres. The men in this study were the first male students enrolled in this programme. After three years, they graduated with a Diploma of Teaching and are now all working as qualified teachers in Early Childhood centres in New Zealand.

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  • An Investigation into the Relationships Between Selected Variables and Academic Success in a Pre-Registration Nursing Programme in Scotland

    Cameron, Marie (2006-12)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The ongoing high attrition rates from pre-registration nursing programmes in the United Kingdom (Byrne 2006; RCN Scotland 2006) have long been a cause for concern, and have prompted investigation into possible causes (Glossop 2001). The research done so far has linked, amongst others, factors such as academic success, age, academic qualifications, family commitments and finances to attrition from nursing programmes. Scotland has a particularly high attrition rate (RCN Scotland 2006), and this study aims to investigate the relationships between a variety of variables and academic success. An online, quantitative, questionnaire survey of stage two and three pre-registration nursing and midwifery students was carried out. Demographic data, and data relating to academic performance and extra-curricular work was collected. Kruskall-Wallis testing was used to determine the presence of relationships between variables (Petrie and Sabin 2000). Respondents were split almost 50:50 between the over-25 and under-25 age groups. Almost half of the respondents were married or cohabiting, almost a third have children, and almost a third are the primary wage earners in their households. Academic performance in this group was better in stage one of their course than in stage two. A relationship with academic success was demonstrated with age (p=0.01), entry qualifications (p=0.047), course (p=0.031) and branch (p=0.014) in stage one, but only with age (P=0.041) in stage two. The relationships demonstrated in this study correlate with the published evidence (Glossop 2001), but further analysis and research is required, particularly as the survey had a very low response rate and the sample may not be representative of the population of interest.

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  • Primary teachers' understandings of technological knowledge.

    Patterson, Moira (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Myth busting and tenet building: Primary and early childhood teachers' understanding of the nature of science.

    Heap, R (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A fundamental objective of science education is to provide students with the level of scientific literacy necessary to participate in a society increasingly dependent on science and technology. Central to definitions of this scientific literacy is an appreciation of the nature of science (NOS). The purpose of the research project was to identify the understandings of NOS of a cohort of practising primary and early childhood teachers, enrolled in a semester long science course as part of a Bachelor of Education degree. The research sought to examine their initial NOS understandings and mapped these understandings over the duration of the course in order to identify shifts in understanding and aspects of NOS resistant to change. The research was embedded in critical social science methodology. An explicit reflective approach was used throughout the course instruction to teach NOS tenets. Two frameworks were developed to analyse the data gathered, a myths framework and a NOS framework. Analysis of the pre-instruction views showed that the teachers initial understandings of NOS were fragmented, lacking in depth, inconsistent, fluid and revealed many myths of NOS. Over the duration of the course the teachers journals showed shifts in understanding: NOS tenets were more frequently expressed; there was an increase in the complexity of expression; and an increase in the integration or interrelatedness of NOS tenets. Factors which contributed to these shifts in understanding included the use of an explicit approach, consistency between explicit and implicit instruction, reflection, a conceptual change approach and the use of generic science-content-free NOS activities throughout the course. These findings suggest a need for NOS to be addressed in both pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher professional development programmes. The research has indicated that an explicit, reflective teaching approach is pedagogically effective for this need.

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  • Talking our selves : Stories of identities and linguistic possibilities of bilingual teachers working in English medium early childhood services in the Auckland region.

    Harvey, Nola (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis examines the ways in which five bilingual teachers use their two languages in English-medium early childhood services in the Auckland region. Questions regarding the possible mediation of bilingual identities for teachers and children created a further interrogation of teachers' 'lived experiences' of bilingual activity. The research, informed by critical multiculturalism, used a qualitative methodology and Narrative Inquiry that employed a spiral discourse or 'conversation' approach for data collection. The collaborative insights from participants and researcher became the foundation for further analysis. Findings revealed that bilingual teachers in the absence of government policy, worked powerfully to construct a critical bilingual praxis to counter deficit discourses of bilingualism in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Teachers' 'lived experiences' illustrated their deep knowledge of bilingualism and the use of two languages as critical linguistic and cultural resources for teaching and learning. As trusted agents for the educational and home language communities, 'doing self as bilingual teacher' worked cogeneratively to mediate bilingual identities for themselves and for children.

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  • Novel red fluorescent proteins of the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor for in situ imaging of bacteria

    Dalton, James (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Maori Women in Prison : Nga Wahine Ngaro

    Quince, Khylee (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Major thesis assessing Corrections policy and practice in respect of Maori female inmates in New Zealand prisons.

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  • Iron Ore Liquefaction Susceptibility during Shipment

    Lu, Yi (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The severe consequence of liquefaction after an earthquake event has been studied from many case histories in earthquake engineering, but the same liquefaction mechanism applied to the shipping industry of the shipping cargoes has not been well investigated and understood. The aim of this master thesis is to provide a basic understanding of the iron ores’ dynamic behaviour and a preliminary estimation of liquefaction susceptibility during the shipment. The cargo in the vessel can be arguably levelled into a flat surface to prevent liquefaction induced damage before shipping, but any additional time waiting in the port will cost extra millions of dollars. From the review of existing literature, the possibility of triggering a liquefaction failure is low, since not many liquefaction-induced accidents have been reported. Moreover, not many relevant documents were found to investigate this subject. Based on the methodologies of assessing liquefaction susceptibility of sandy materials in earthquake engineering, the entire research was separated into laboratory testing and liquefaction analysis. Three iron ores with very different index properties were evaluated from both fully saturated and partially saturated levels. Based on the cyclic resistance curves from the laboratory undrained triaxial test, a pseudo static analysis was carried out to evaluate the factor of safety (FoS) with corresponding rolling angle. Subsequently, a critical rolling angle of 5 degrees was defined. From the numerical modelling of the cargo stability, it showed the critical rolling angle was defined reasonably well, since all three ores were all above the benchmark under the specific shipping condition and motion. An additional centrifuge testing was performed, but a confident conclusion based on the limited results cannot be given at this stage. Notwithstanding, within a limited time frame, availability of the facility and equipment, lack of detailed parameters (sea wave, cargo geometry, type of motion, etc), a better simulation could not be achieved at this stage. In fact, ship motion is the most important parameter in this dynamic subject and rocking motion is the best simulation. There is no doubt that further analysis and investigation is essential to continue this subject.

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  • Signifyin' Slavery: the Literary Contexts of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

    Hannah, Katherine (2004)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Available to authenticated members of The University of Auckland. An exploration of the literary contexts of Harriet Beecher Stowe's 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' using the texts of both public and private discourse to understand genre, audience and linguistic techniques.

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