313 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, Masters

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • Effective pedagogical strategies for language revitalization in Māori-medium Professional Development Contexts

    Tamati, Sophie (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A methodology for multilevel analysis of scientific collaboration networks : Mapping current computer science research in New Zealand

    Martin, Bernd (2014-05-01)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research scientifically analysed the evolving Complex Network structures of the New Zealand Computer Science research community upon multiple levels (Macro, Meso, Micro, Topics). Methodological approaches utilised interdisciplinary techniques comprised of data mining, social network analyses, scientometrics and data visualisation. The research sought to identify communities, highly influential nodes, research institutions, and their collaborative patterns over the last 5 years. Network metrics revealed insights into the structure of the networks. Collaboration networks were generated using a variety of layout algorithms then visually presented in the form of knowledge maps. Furthermore, Word Co-occurrence networks of terms from both the Titles field and Keywords field were constructed and analysed to reveal topic trends and bursts. The mapping of recent New Zealand Computer Science research developments was accomplished by using Alluvial diagrams. The change of streams over the time period highlights the nature of, and evolving relations within and amongst topics. The visual results of this research provide a natural way to reveal information. To my knowledge, this is the most comprehensive multilevel study of a specific domain (Computer Science) conducted within New Zealand, to date. The applied methods are transferable to other domains and interdisciplinary endeavours. A real world application of the applied methodology could be an enhancement of the existing interdisciplinary portal (www.nzresearch.org.nz/) with the application of multilevel analysis methods. This could enable collaboration and discovery among scientists across all disciplines. An interactive multimedia presentation of this research including high definition maps and a 3D demonstration of the Topic network can be found at: http://tinyurl.com/BerndMartinThesis It accompanies, supports the findings of, and enhances this written research.

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  • Extinction-induced variability in human behaviour

    Kinloch, Jennifer (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    These results [of five experiments] add to the small number of studies showing increased variability in extinction for human behavior, and also show that the degree of effect could be due to reinforcement history and the instructional specificity

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  • Is smacking in New Zealand a public health problem?

    Hosking, James (2005)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Smacking is often considered a personal, moral issue. However, there are benefits to taking an objective, structured approach to smacking, such as a public health approach. Smacking and other related terms are poorly defined. Definitions of ‘acceptable’ smacking are grounded more in socio-cultural norms than in rational argument. Parents smack for a range of reasons, of which discipline and guidance is only one. The distinction between physical punishment and abuse is problematic. There now exists a large and consistent body of observational evidence linking smacking to a range of negative outcomes. It has been suggested that such results may be due to confounding in cross-sectional studies. However, more recent robust prospective designs yield similar results. It seems likely, though not certain, that smacking causes negative health outcomes. It is also very prevalent, both in New Zealand and in many other countries. No widely agreed definitions exist on what constitutes a public health problem. Smacking satisfies epidemiologically-based criteria for a public health problem, but other criteria are also relevant. Inequalities and human rights approaches are important aspects of public health problems, and smacking is both a health inequality and a breach of human rights. Public health approaches may be useful both in understanding the problem of smacking, and in intervening. The application of a public health intervention framework to smacking, such as the Ottawa Charter, reveals promising opportunities for public health action, though further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of such interventions. Both intervention and further research are clearly justified for this significant public health problem.

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  • Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) Scarcity and Zooarchaeological Data Quality in Northwest Coast Archaeological Sites

    Nims, Reno (2016-04-29)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) is a scarcely represented species in Northwest Coast archaeology, but its remains are abundant at Tse-whit-zen, a large, Lower Elwha Klallam village in modern Port Angeles, WA that was occupied over the past 2,800 years. Because sablefish flesh has high nutritional value and it can be easily captured from nearshore waters in its juvenile form, sablefish should have been pursued where it was available. Therefore, the scarcity of sablefish in many Northwest Coast archaeological sites could indicate this species was not abundant in past fisheries. However, current zooarchaeological reports do not contain sufficient information on taphonomic histories, sampling, or zooarchaeological methods to determine whether patterns of sablefish scarcity could actually explained by differential destruction of sablefish remains, sample size effects, screen size effects, or misidentification. In this thesis, I examine how each of these factors may have affected the abundance of sablefish remains in Northwest coast archaeological sites. I evaluate four hypotheses that attribute sablefish representation to zooarchaeological identification methods, screen size, sample size, and post-depositional destruction of fishbone. While I do not explicitly test whether social and ecological factors affect sablefish abundance, sociocultural and environmental variation can be considered likely explanations for the observed patterns of sablefish representation if the other hypotheses are rejected. I test my hypotheses using three scales of archaeological records. First, I reanalyzed six previously analyzed Salish Sea assemblages to assess whether criteria for sablefish identification exist, are valid, and have been applied consistently. Second, I synthesized fishbone data from 35 previously analyzed Northwest Coast assemblages to evaluate the effects of screen size, sample size, and post-depositional destruction on sablefish representation. Finally, I integrate previously unreported fishbone data from the analysis of Tse-whit-zen into the synthesis of previous studies. The Tse-whit-zen materials I report on here represent six discrete time periods in the 1,800-year history of one large area of the site, which encompasses part of a plankhouse, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effects of screening, sample size, and post-depositional destruction at an extremely fine scale. I also use data from the reanalysis of a portion of the Tse-whit-zen fishbone to verify the consistency of sablefish identification for this site. I reject all four hypotheses and conclude that the uneven distribution of sablefish is likely a true reflection of ecological factors, human decision-making, or both factors. Whether sablefish scarcity is related to distributions of sablefish in past environments, or whether humans chose not to pursue sablefish is not known from the current study. Connecting sablefish capture to specific seasons with body-size regression methods may reveal associations between sablefish acquisition and other seasonal fisheries and activities, and help evaluate whether they conflicted with sablefish procurement in some contexts. Although zooarchaeological identification and reporting methods do not appear to account for sablefish scarcity, zooarchaeologists need to include more information about their methods so that the validity of inter-assemblage comparisons can be assessed. Zooarchaeologists maximize the value of their contributions to anthropology, biological sciences, and human ecodynamics when they explicitly report the methods they use to identify animal remains. By reporting the methodological and analytic procedures they used in detail, zooarchaeologists enhance the reader’s confidence in their conclusions and provide future researchers with the information that is required to replicate their results. Which elements were recorded, and the criteria that were used to make taxonomic attributions, fundamentally affect the primary faunal data that researchers use. This study is part of a growing interest among zooarchaeologists in data quality assurance and quality control, which constitute a critical part of every large-scale comparative analysis.

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  • From Command and Control to Local Democracy?: A Survival Analysis Approach to Community-Led Renewable Energy in Scotland

    Harnmeijer, AL (2012-09)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study places barriers to community renewable energy deployment in a broader framework of Social Movement theory, in which community renewables deployment is conceptualized as a form of associative democracy. Drawing on qualitative and anecdotal accounts, interviews and summary reviews, key determinants for successful implementation of community energy initiatives are identified and operationalized. Based on a Scotland-wide survey of community-led renewable energy projects, a competing risk regression is used to estimate the cumulative probability of project completion conditional on technical, organizational and socio-political covariates. While a UK-wide analysis would be necessary to substantiate the findings, the initial results suggest that regional education levels, technology type and organizational land assets significantly influence the likelihood of project completion. No evidence is found for the influence of socio-political variables such as social cohesion or the levels of social integration into the wider energy network. The results support the notion that communities may not have equal opportunities to develop renewable energy or access public support schemes. Specifically, land access constraints and access to local expertise are key to any policy reforms aimed at facilitating effective participation by place-based social enterprises in the renewable energy sector.

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  • Early stage project risk for community renewable energy development in the UK – an econometric approach

    Harnmeijer, AL (2012-11)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Prior to planning consent, risk exposure for renewable energy projects is highly opaque, particularly for small place-based social enterprises (‘communities’). This has constrained the ability of community organisations to plug into the renewable energy sector. This study investigates the constraining and enabling factors determining why certain community projects in the UK successfully attain early stages of project development while others do not. Due to the nature of community enterprise engagement in renewable energy, this requires an understanding of the factors affecting political support for a project from local to council levels, including all factors that are likely to affect planning application outcomes. A number of technical, social, regulatory, financial and organisational capacity risks are identified and operationalised for analysis. A binary discrete choice model is applied to a cross-sectional dataset on Scottish, English, Welsh and Northern Irish community projects to explain successful early stage project outcomes. Results suggest that distance to densely populated areas and access to land are significantly correlated to early stage project outcome, broadly providing evidence that local resources and conditions have an effect on the early stage outcome of community-led renewable energy projects.

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  • Price formation in parimutuel markets

    Geertsema, Paul (2010)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Two types of betting are common in sports betting: fixed odds betting and parimutuel betting. In fixed odds betting, the payout conditional on winning is fixed once the bet is placed and is not affected by the placing of subsequent bets. By contrast, winning bettors in a parimutuel contest share pro-rata in the total betting pool. This means that the payout to winning bettors in a parimutuel contest depends not only on selecting the winning outcome, but also on the amounts bet by other bettors (which cannot be observed at the time a bet is placed). Therefore a parimutuel contest can be viewed as a game at the level of individual bettors. Existing models in the parimutuel literature explain the data by either assuming a single, representative bettor with certain risk preferences or by assuming that a number of risk neutral bettors compete strategically within a game theoretic framework. Our contribution is to construct a novel theoretical framework of parimutuel markets in which we model both strategic interaction and risk preferences at the level of individual insiders, in the presence of exogenous outsiders. We solve this model analytically for the optimal insider betting amount in a static symmetric Nash equilibrium. Using a new dataset of 1.6 million individual horse race bets in New Zealand from 2006 to 2009, we document a strong inverse linear relationship between our model-implied insider risk preferences and the strength of insider beliefs relative to outsiders. That is, as the strength of insiders’ beliefs relative to that of outsiders decrease, implied risk sensitivity moves from risk averse to risk loving. At a level of insider beliefs congruent with actual performance in the data, average implied risk preferences are close to zero, that is, insiders are effectively risk neutral. While risk neutrality is a standard assumption in strategic interaction models of parimutuel betting, our study is the first to provide empirical support for this assumption. Finally, we document a strong relationship (not previously reported in the literature) between the average bet size and the average payout ratio, suggesting that bettors with inside information self-select by placing larger bets.

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  • Alberton’s Sheet Music Collection from 1850-1915

    Vickers, Louisa (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Victorian era in colonial New Zealand is lacking extensive research in regards to sheet music collections, particularly in social settings. This research examines the sheet music collection of the Kerr Taylor family of Alberton to recover the attitudes, recreational avenues, and views of the early Auckland elite. The Alberton sheet music collection is set within the socio-historical context, and a history of the Kerr Taylor family is provided for added context. Individual acquisition of various family members (Patty Taylor, Winifred Kerr Taylor, Mildred Kerr Taylor, and Muriel Kerr Taylor) is discussed, condition of the collection is described, and the collection considered in relation to Victorian values. This is presented as a partial case study, with the answers to the research questions woven into the essay narrative. The Alberton sheet collection reflects the norms of Victorian musical values, and music held an important place in the lives of the Kerr Taylors. Patty Taylor and Winifred, Mildred, and Muriel Kerr Taylor are the most prominent names in the collection, with pieces of sheet music existing in varying states of condition. Names and years are the most common annotation, but there are exceptions. This project adds to the body of knowledge surrounding the Kerr Taylor family and Alberton. The sheet music collection exists in the wider context of the bulk of the Alberton collection, and there is scope a more detailed exposition of the music collection, or for the music collection to be considered within the broader Alberton collection.

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  • An Investigation Into the Interactive Teaching Practices of Librarians in Information Literacy Instruction at the University of Auckland Library

    Zdravkovic, Neda (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The development of constructivist learning theory has greatly influenced the design and delivery of the Information Literacy instructional programmes. Student-centred teaching methodology has been widely adopted in the IL instruction, however, the challenges library presenters face while practicing interactive teaching methods in their classes still require further investigation. This study aims to respond to the need for a deeper understanding of IL instruction from a teachers’ perspective and provide an insight into currently applied interactive practices in IL classroom teaching, as well as associated challenges and effective solutions. An explanatory, sequential mixed methods research design has been applied to further investigate the quantitative information collected in the first phase of the project (an online survey emailed to 55 Subject Librarians at the University of Auckland (UoA)) followed by the second phase of qualitative, in-depth data gathering conducted in the form of nine individual 45 minutes long semi-structured interviews with Subject Librarians at the University of Auckland. The findings confirm the themes already discussed in the library literature, but also reveal new and unexpected elements of IL classroom instruction offered at the tertiary level in New Zealand region. Eleven original interactive classroom activities successfully employed in IL classroom teaching by Subject Librarians at the UoA are also identified during this research project and presented in the report. Suggestions are made for further research.

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  • The value relevance of international financial reporting standards : evidence from New Zealand

    Bridges, Caroline (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this thesis, I examine the value relevance of financial statements for companies that chose to voluntarily adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand between 2005 and 2007, prior to it becoming mandatory for all companies. Specifically, I document the relative and incremental value relevance, respectively, of voluntarily adopting New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards as opposed to domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards on the book value of equity and net income for a sample of 34 companies. The main results of the empirical analysis find that (i) there is no evidence to suggest that the value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, when taken together, is greater than the combined value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards (i.e., New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards do not have relative value relevance); (ii) the book value of equity calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above the book value of equity calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards; and (iii) net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. I also carry out an analysis of the conservativeness of the net income figure measured under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, and find that there is no significant difference in the timeliness or asymmetric timeliness (i.e., conditional conservatism) between net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards and domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. Overall, my thesis finds little evidence that the voluntary adoption of New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards provides accounting information that is more value relevant to that under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards, which is consistent with the conclusion of Hung & Subramanyam (2007) albeit in the German institutional setting. Hence, the benefits of early adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand are questionable.

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  • Differential Effects of Recurring and Nonrecurring Non-Audit Services: New Zealand Evidence.

    Alexander, Deborah (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The provision of non-audit services by auditors to their clients has become a matter of concern to stakeholders. These non-audit fees have grown substantially in relative proportion to the audit fees. This is viewed as a lucrative form of revenue for audit firms but one that potentially could create a lack of auditor independence. Of issue is whether audit firms cut their audit fees to get access to consulting work. This may lead to poor quality audit work. Empirical studies have found a positive relation between audit fees and non-audit work. This seems to be counter-intuitive. There are a number of possible explanations for this relation. Simunic (1984) was the first to find this positive relation and attempted to explain it through analytical means. Solomon (1990) provided further thoughts on this relationship. Beck et al. (1988a) suggested the disaggregation of non-audit services into recurring and nonrecurring non-audit services would have differing effects on audit fees and on auditor independence. Companies in New Zealand have published some key pieces of data for the period from 1995 onwards. A description of the nature of any non-audit services is provided in the auditor,s report and the fees for total non-audit services is presented in the financial statements. The potentially differing effects of recurring and nonrecurring non-audit services have not been examined much in previous research, as data is hard to obtain. This unique data was used to test whether recurring and non-recurring services have differing effects on audit fees. This thesis contributes to the literature by showing that auditors do not discount their fees for either recurring or nonrecurring non-audit services. Further examination of this data suggests companies that purchase consulting services from their auditor are substantially different from those that purchase auditing only or auditing and tax and the determinants of their audit fees differ significantly.

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  • Vitamin D and the burden of disease in New Zealand

    Grey, Corina (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Maths Anxiety: Fact or Fiction

    Frankcom-Burgess, Gillian (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • In search of the interdependent self : explorations among Baptist church members in Jamaica and the United States

    Frey, Rosemary (2004)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Embracing LOLitics: Popular culture, online political humor, and play 

    Tay, Geniesa Jin San (2012-10-01)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Internet, and Web 2.0 tools can empower audiences to actively participate in media creation. This allows the production of large quantities of content, both amateur and professional. Online memes, which are extensions of usually citizen-created viral content, are a recent and popular example of this. This thesis examines the participation of ordinary individuals in political culture online through humor creation. It focuses on citizen-made political humor memes as an example of engaged citizen discourse. The memes comprise of photographs of political figures altered either by captions or image editing software, and can be compared to more traditional mediums such as political cartoons, and 'green screens' used in filmmaking. Popular culture is often used as a 'common language' to communicate meanings in these texts. This thesis thus examines the relationship between political and popular culture. It also discusses the value of 'affinity spaces', which actively encourage users to participate in creating and sharing the humorous political texts. Some examples of the political humor memes include: the subversion of Vladimir Putin's power by poking fun at his masculine characteristics through acts similar to fanfiction, celebrating Barack Obama’s love of Star Wars, comparing a candid photograph of John McCain to fictional nonhuman creatures such as zombies using photomanipulation, and the wide variety of immediate responses to Osama bin Laden's death. This thesis argues that much of the idiosyncratic nature of the political humor memes comes from a motivation that lies in non-serious play, though they can potentially offer legitimate political criticism through the myths 'poached' from popular culture.

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  • The Orbitar

    Riegle-Van West, Kate (2011-05-09)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Orbitar is a new multimedia musical instrument rooted in the ancient art of poi spinning. It is comprised of three components: The Satellites, sound and light generating musical instruments modeled after traditional poi, The Controllers, gloves and a headset which shape the sound and light parameters, and The Console, the receiver for the data coming from The Satellites and The Console, which ultimately creates the final audio output. The Orbitar is a powerful new invention for creating live audio and visual compositions drawing upon 1) the act of play, an important tool for sculpting the brain and reconciling cognitive difficulties, 2) the creation of audio compositions through corporeality and voice, a connection to ritualistic tradition and an important tool for priming the auditory cortex to more effieciently process information, and 3) the use of non-habitual movement and multiple sense, an important tool for relating to the outside world and breaking mechanical tendencies. This paper will 1) outline the history of poi spinning and explain poi’s correlation to flow state, 2) describe the influences behind The Orbitar, 3) layout the theoretical, scientific, artistic, and technological goals as well as the practical applications, 4) outline the debut performance of The Orbitar, OrbitAra, 5) list the project materials and costs, 6) provide a summary, conclusions, and recommendations for future research, and 7) display diagrams and a bibliography.

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  • Kombinatorischer Proteomvergleich und Analyse molekularer Netzwerke in Prokaryoten

    Linz, Simone (2004-01-27)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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