6 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, Undergraduate

  • Another Look at the Faunal Remains of CA-SCR-9

    Nims, Reno (2011-06)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    CA-SCR-9 is an important early Middle Period (3100-2800 cal BP) site from the California central coast region that has been used to characterize residential base camps from that time. Previous studies have attempted to analyze the fauna using incomplete and non-representative samples, creating multiple, contradictory conclusions about the foodways of Middle Period peoples. The goal of this study was to synthesize and analyze all identified material to answer questions about the seasonal use of SCR-9, differences between two possible phases of occupation, and the adaptive strategies of Middle Period peoples on the California central coast. Using a representative sample of the fauna, this paper finds that SCR-9‟s inhabitants primarily preyed upon mule deer. However, diverse species of marine mammals, leporids, terrestrial carnivores, birds, and marine fishes were also deposited at SCR-9, and inland site. The faunal remains from SCR-9 alone are not enough to identify relationships between sites, but these marine materials suggest that SCR-9 may have functioned as a seasonal or year round habitation site from which Middle Period peoples traveled to coastal sites such as SMA-218, which is nearly contemporaneous with SCR-9. Other writers have argued that two separate phases are represented ad SCR-9, including the Sand Hill Bluff Phase and the later Año Nuevo Phase. The fauna from these two phases is extraordinarily homogenous, suggesting there were no changes in adaptive strategy, or that rodent activity has mixed the materials, making it impossible to compare fauna from the Sand Hill Bluff and Año Nuevo phases. Fortunately, the assemblage does shed light on differential handling of taxa, and raises questions about the nature of bone grease extraction practices.

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  • Reforming New Zealand's Legislative Council: a study of constitutional change, 1891 and 1912-1920

    Roberts, Marcus (2008)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Comparison of ground invertebrate assemblages across two types of natve forest fragment edge.

    Seldon, David (2002-06)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Evaluating the Seeding Genetic Algorithm

    Meadows, Benjamin (2012)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This work is largely motivated by the PhD thesis of Cameron Skinner [Skinner, 2009], which features a rigorous mathematical and empirical approach to understanding the underlying mechanism behind the functioning of the genetic algorithm. The results are a new understanding of the algorithm in terms of the notions of discovery, selection and combination. Skinner uses these notions to create a modification to the genetic algorithm: the ???seeding??? genetic algorithm. We recognise this innovation as an important contribution to the field of evolutionary algorithms, and our focus in this dissertation will be to test its successes, failures, and the scope of its applicability.

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  • Molecular phylogenetics of Antarctic Sea spiders (Pycnogonida)

    Nielsen, Johanna Fønss (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, but available by request, use the feedback form to request access. Sea spiders, or pycnogonids, are a unique group of exclusively marine invertebrates that are found worldwide. A scarcity of pycnogonid research is reflected in the unclear position of this group with regards to the phylum Arthropoda and lack of certainty in their family-level phylogeny. Traditionally, the pycnogonid phylogeny has relied on the external morphological characters of temperate, shallow water species. The Antarctic sea spider fauna displays a high degree of endemism and a number of species have the potential to address several long-standing questions regarding the pycnogonid evolution. This research uses new sequence data from Antarctic species to provide the most complete molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of the Pycnogonida, and is the first study to formally test a number of alternative hypotheses on the interfamilial relationships of this group of organisms. The BioRoss 2004 pycnogonid collection was classified into 18 different OTUs (5 families & 10 genera) and used, in combination with publicly accessible sequences, to provide samples for this study. Partial regions of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and protein coding COI loci were sequenced for each dataset, and the concatenated data tested for incongruence using the Partition of Homogeneity test. The distance based Neighbour Joining and character based Maximum Likelihood tree-building algorithms were used to reconstruct the pycnogonid phylogeny for each locus independently and as a concatenated dataset. A series of alternative evolutionary hypotheses based on previous studies were examined via the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. The primary hypothesis examined was the cephalic appendage reductive trend, which implies that ancestral sea spider taxa possess the greatest complexity of anterior appendages. On all the individual locus trees the family Nymphonidae were the earliest diverged lineage of pycnogonids, although low resolution at the roots of the trees implies that the data are not strong enough to reject an alternative hypothesis of a basal Ammotheidae group. Pycnogonidae is not the most recently derived sea spider family and the cephalic appendage loss hypothesis is thus rejected. None of the phylogenies supported a close relationship between the Colossendeidae and Nymphonidae families and doubt is raised over the true identification of several GenBank sequences. Polymerous species do not form a combined, ancestral group but are instead more likely to represent recent divergences from three separate families. Strong evidence supports the placement of the transient Austropallene genus (Callipallenidae) at the base of the Nymphonidae family. This study, and ongoing work, has generated large amounts of new sequence data. This can be used in future pycnogonid phylogenetic research and/or in investigations on the highly contentious position of the Pycnogonida with regards to the phylum Arthropoda. A DNA Surveillance website has been created to assist in the molecular identification of pycnogonids from future benthic bio-discovery expeditions (http://www.dna-surveillance.auckland.ac.nz).

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  • The geology and eruptive history of the Table Mountain region, Coromandel Peninsula

    Hayward, Bruce W. (Bruce William) (1971)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Table Mountain region covers an area of 2,200 hectares, 17 kilometres north-east of Thames, and straddles the main Coromandel Peninsula Divide between the headwaters of the Kauaeranga and Waiwawa Rivers. It is a region of steeply dissected, bush clad slopes and rugged bluffs composed of andesite, rhyolite and sediments. These rocks belong to three Groups. The oldest group of rocks consists of andesite lavas, breccias and sediments that form the upper part of the Beesons Island Volcanics sequence and were erupted during the upper Miocene and lowermost Pliocene. Unconformably overlying these is the mid Pliocene Whitianga Group containing rhyolitic lavas and sediments. In the Table Mt. Region this Group has been divided into the Minden Rhyolites and two informal sedimentary formations. The Wainora Formation contains basal volcanic breccias and freshwater, carbonaceous, epiclastic sediments that were deposited in two lakes on the dissected surface of the older andesites. This formation contains impressions of fresh-water mussels and numerous leaves, as well as considerable amounts of silicified wood. Conformably overlying the Wainora Formation are the thicker and more extensive water and aerially deposited pyroclastic sediments and rarer ignimbrites of the Waiwawa Formation. Many of the water laid deposits are inferred to have been formed by hot pyroclastic flows entering a lake. Minden Rhyolite domes were produced, by endogenous and exogenous growth, towards the end of this phreatic eruptive period. Hydrothermal alteration is inferred to be closely associated with the four Minden Rhyolite domes of this region. During the upper Pliocene to lower Pleistocene, the Omahia Andesite Group was intruded. The narrow Waiwawa Intrusive came up along an old intrusive contact between a Minden Rhyolite dome and the Waiwawa Formation sediments. The large Table Mt. andesite mass is believed to have formed by a combination of upwelling of lava along a fissure and actual intrusion. Both the Waiwawa and Table Mt. Intrusives spilled small amounts of lava out over the surface as lava flows. In the two million years since the cessation of volcanic activity in this region, erosion has greatly altered the landscape and emphasized the harder rock masses.

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