27,752 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account

    Brock, G (2009)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Student self-assessment

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, LR (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Analysis and Modelling of Probes in Waveguides and Mobile Radio Propagation and Systems Engineering

    Williamson, Allan (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Mountains of Wonder: The Rockies

    Kowalski, KM; Hoskin, Paul (2009-05-13)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • 'Bills of Exchange'

    Hare, Christopher (2000)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Creative Printmaking in New Zealand, 1930-2007: An Annotated Bibliography

    Ward, Fiona (2012)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

    This Annotated Bibliography includes 105 references that record all available published, unpublished and digital material about the history of creative printmaking in New Zealand from 1930 to 2007. As New Zealand academics and printmakers have noted, while other visual media such as painting and photography have always been included in the discourse of art history in New Zealand, for various reasons printmaking has been gradually excluded and marginalised. There is a need to foster an academic and critical interest in printmaking to provide a framework to enable further research and scholarship. This Annotated Bibliography will support future academic and critical explorations of the topic.

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  • Indigenous Visions For Sustainable Development Law? Continuing the Conversation

    Watene, Krushil (2013-08-01)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Language, Religion, and Nationalism: The Case of the Former Serbo-Croatian

    Greenberg, Robert (2013)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Chinese Old and Rare Books at the University of Auckland

    Lin, HQ; Downing, Jian (2014)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Comment on: Cross-border portfolios: assets, liabilities and wealth transfers

    Berka, Martin (2015-10)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Storm over the Starship: A geosemiotic analysis of brand co-ownership

    Conroy, DM; Brookes, R (2011)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Face Value. Perception and Knowledge of Others’ Happiness

    Zamuner, Edoardo (2009)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Isolation of new secondary metabolites from New Zealand marine invertebrates.

    Wojnar, Joanna (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study describes the isolation and structure elucidation of several known and 13 new compounds from New Zealand marine organisms. Furthermore, it describes the development of a digital mask program for the analysis of HSQC spectra of crude sponge extracts. This was used as a screening tool to identify secondary metabolite producers that warranted further analysis. As reports of metabolites from New Zealand nudibranchs are poorly represented in the literature, a study of five New Zealand nudibranch species was undertaken. These coloured and seemingly undefended nudibranchs are known to concentrate or sequester toxic metabolites from their prey, facilitating rapid isolation and structure elucidation of these metabolites. This study resulted in the isolation of a variety of metabolite classes; two new compounds, 13alpha- acetoxypukalide diol (30) and lopholide diol (31) from the nudibranch Tritonia incerta, are described. Examination of the sponge Raspailia agminata resulted in the isolation of a novel family of partially acetylated glycolipids which contain up to six glucose residues. The chromatographic separation of these compounds was a challenge due to the similarity of the congeners and their lack of a chromophore. MSguided isolation eventually led to the purification of agminosides A-E (145-149). An unidentified sponge of the order Dictyoceratida was found to contain a new isomer (186) of the known sesterterpene variabilin. As variabilin-type compounds are predominantly found from sponges of the family Irciniidae, the unidentified sponge is most likely an irciniid. In addition, the sponge contained two prenylated quinones, one of which, 189, is a new isomer of a known sponge metabolite. The sponge Darwinella oxeata contained four new nitrogenous diterpenes of the aplysulphurane (rearranged spongian) skeleton, oxeatamide A (214), isooxeatamide A (215), oxeatamide A 23-methyl ester (216) and oxeatamide B (217).

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  • Telecommunications Inc.: Korea's Challenge to Qualcomm

    Kim, Sung-Young (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Building on the success of the 1990s, in the past decade the Korean state has attempted a transition from a strategy based on catching-up to one based on innovation in the domestic telecommunications industry, which I call ‘Telecommunications Inc.’. Concomitant with this shift is a new set of challenges for the state in supporting companies that seek to reap first-mover advantages. How, if at all, has the Korean state supported the technological upgrading ambitions of domestic firms in the telecommunications industry in an era of greater economic openness? The core contention of this study is that the Korean state has coped with economic openness through adapting institutions. The existence of a ‘quasi-pilot agency’, the extension of new linkages to a wider array of private sector participants, and the emergence of ‘technology-centred forums’ represent the fine-tuning of organisational arrangements to cope with the pressures of global technology-based competition. The emergence of WTO rules appears to have helped recast rather than ruled out developmental strategy in the Korean telecommunications industry. The Korean state has coped with the rise of the global trade regime by adopting development strategies based on ‘exploiting’, which entails increasing state activism in areas not explicitly prohibited and proactively embracing rules that encourages greater state activity. The Korean state has coped by ‘modifying’ such rules to meet strategic industry objectives; either by using overt measures that take advantage of loopholes and ambiguities contained in the legal texts of the WTO and by using covert below-the-radar measures. I demonstrate my argument through an examination of the goals, underlying strategic motivations and the strategy involved in the Korean Government’s promotion of three technological standards related to telecommunications software, fourth generation mobile broadband, and mobile broadcasting.

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  • Demystifying the Mosuo: The behavioral ecology of kinship and reproduction of China's "last matriarchal" society

    Mattison, Siobhan (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Virtually every human endeavor is accomplished with some form of assistance from kin. From subsistence activities to child rearing to the provision of emotional support, relatives are called on to aid their kin. Yet while the importance of families to individuals arguably is universal, family systems are extremely variable in terms of their composition, the services they provide, and how services are organized and allocated. This dissertation examines the factors underlying variation in kinship systems in a population of agropastoralists currently undergoing economic and cultural transition: the ethnic Mosuo of Southwest China. Through the lens of behavioral ecology, it views kinship systems as dynamic, responding flexibly and adaptively to changes in social, cultural and ecological circumstances. The first chapter introduces the basic questions that this dissertation aims to address, the context surrounding my interests in the Mosuo, and basic descriptions of the field site and methodology. The second chapter tests a recent behavioral ecological model of matrilineal inheritance, asking whether Mosuo inheritance varies predictably according to source of wealth. It explains a hypothesized link between matriliny and resource paucity, and provides the first independent evidence in support of the behavioral ecology model under test. In the third chapter, I explore the impacts of economic differences on Mosuo reproduction and kinship, showing that wealth is associated with higher levels of marital commitment, as evidenced by increased stability in reproductive partnerships, and other departures from stated matrilineal norms. The fourth chapter examines the impacts of wealth and residential ecology on paternal investment in children, arguing that in contrast to previous assertions, fathers are important among the Mosuo, and that fathers’ levels of investment in child rearing varies according to the resources they have to provide and local availability of reproductive partners. The fifth and final chapter of my dissertation summarizes the evidence presented in previous chapters and suggests specific avenues for future research. I conclude by emphasizing the power of behavioral ecology to understand the ultimate foundations of kinship.

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  • HD Sheep Model (A-2476) Project Report October 2011

    Reid, Susanne; Bawden, S (2011)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    This Interim review provides a summary of the work that has been undertaken by researchers from SARDI and University of Auckland on the HD Sheep Biomolecular project over the 6 month period from 1st April 2011-30th September 2011. This report does not include data that was incorporated in the previous report unless noted. The aim of this work is to further characterize the ovine model of Huntington's disease (HD) in order to gain a better understanding of disease progression, and to establish it as a therapeutic testing system. Our objective was to develop a model that will recapitulate the progressive, late-onset characteristics of the disease expressing the full-length huntingtin protein with a moderate (in model terms) CAG repeat size. Although not yet conclusive, we have good evidence that the model will fulfill our initial objectives. Support from the CHDI since October 2009 (A-2476) has enabled the characterization and flock expansion of the sheep transgenic model, identification of the transgenic line "Kiwi" as the favored line for future analysis, establishment of tissue collection protocols and molecular/pathological methodologies for monitoring "disease" progression in the model. A limited breeding program has been initiated from two Taffy line animals that exhibit higher mRNA expression than other Taffy animals, along with detectable transgene protein in skin biopsy. Unlike the Kiwi line, we now know Taffy has multiple integration sites, explaining the variable levels of expression seen. This additional breeding will establish if a viable additional line can be generated, showing adequate and stable transmission. The Kiwi line demonstrates reliable and stable expression of the transgene and repeat. MGH capture sequencing has identified the Kiwi transgene insertion site is at a single locus in an intragenic region. Analysis of harvested brain tissues as the animal's age will demonstrate the extent to which the human disease is being recapitulated. The oldest transgenic sheep have been preserved as a result of SOC discussions, given the intrinsic value of their age with respect to observations of disease progression. A SOC decision was also made to delay the harvest of 18 month animals until 2 years, primarily based on the observation of a small number of inclusions seen in 2 of the 3 18 month animals. The decision to delay sacrifice was to allow phenotype advancement. Therefore the only animals harvested and assessed for a molecular phenotype within the time frame of this contract are 6 months old, with the next harvest scheduled for March 2012 (2 year old animals).

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  • Structural studies of the sugar-binding protein from the pneumococcal raffinose transport system

    Paterson, Neil (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a large number of deaths annually due to pneumonia, septicaemia and meningitis, mainly among young, elderly and immunocompromised populations. The primary virulence factor is the polysaccharide capsule that surrounds the cell and confers protection from phagocytosis; in addition the organism surface is decorated with a variety of proteins attached by both covalent and non-covalent means, with many of these also being involved in virulence. The pneumococcus is highly dependent on a wide range of carbohydrates for energy and growth with both phosphotransferase systems (PTS) and adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transport systems utilised in sugar importation. Included among these is an ABC transport system, the Raf system, responsible for the importation and initial metabolism of the trisaccharide raffinose (α-D-Galp-(1→6)-α- D-Glcp-(1→2)-β- D-Fruf) that is highly sequentially homologous to the multiple sugar metabolism (Msm) system from S. mutans. The transporter itself comprises an extracellular raffinose binding protein (RafE), two membrane permease domains (RafF and RafG) and a protein responsible for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding and hydrolysis that has yet to be definitively identified. The 46.6 kDa substrate binding protein from the Raf system, RafE, is attached to the surface of the cell by means of a posttranslational lipoprotein modification and is responsible for the initial detection and capture of raffinose and conveying it to the transmembrane domains. RafE has been successfully overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using a novel interaction with a gel filtration matrix. Biophysical characterisation of RafE revealed the protein to be monomeric with one raffinose binding site per molecule and an affinity of 337μM for raffinose. Affinity for melibiose (α-D-Galp-(1→6)-α- D- Glcp), a substrate of the Msm system, was determined to be 6.84mM although the Raf system is incapable melibiose transport. Purified RafE was crystallised in both native and selenomethionine-labelled forms allowing solution of the phase problem by single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) to a resolution of 2.90Å. Subsequent rational truncation and a change of construct to facilitate polyhistidine tag removal has produced two different crystal forms diffracting to a resolution of 1.04Å with the purification tag in place and 1.40Å iii following tag cleavage. An original solution to ice-ring diffraction was utilised for collection of this latter dataset which obviated the need for potentially problematic cryoprotectant solution. The crystal structures of RafE reveal that the protein adopts the periplasmic binding protein-like II fold, in common with a number of other substrate binding components of ABC transport systems, comprising two α/β/α sandwich domains joined by a hinge region consisting of three cross-linking peptide chains with the active site located in the cleft formed between the domains. These structures allowed identification of key active site residues and also revealed a range of conformational motion between the two domains. The active site is formed from a large aromatic patch, formed from three tryptophan residues aligned with their aromatic faces exposed to the solvent, surrounded by polar and charged residues. To assess the interaction with raffinose, polyhistidine-tag cleaved RafE was crystallised in the presence of raffinose and diffraction data collected to a resolution of 2.80Å. Structure solution using molecular replacement of the separate domains revealed a substantial conformational shift compared to the apo structures, with the two domains rotated approximately 29o towards each other, closing the active site region and trapping raffinose. RafE forms direct hydrogen bonding contacts between nine residues and the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrate coupled with stacking of the sugar rings to the aromatic surface of the tryptophan residues. Molecular modelling of MsmE based on the raffinose bound RafE was used to try to assess the differences contributing to different substrate specificity and revealed changes in the residues forming contacts to the galactose moiety of raffinose but these did not appear to fully explain the dissimilar specificities. As an additional project, work was carried out in an attempt to obtain a crystal structure, with a view to functional elucidation of the choline-binding protein CbpI. This protein is a member of a highly important family for pneumococcal virulence with proteins of diverse function sharing a common surface attachment domain that binds to the choline moieties of teichoic and lipoteichoic acids that intersperse the cell wall. CbpI has been successfully overexpressed, purified and crystallised with diffraction data measured to a resolution of 3.50Å. The diffraction data however display very high mosaic spread and structure solution by molecular replacement has not been successful.

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  • The Use of Type 1 Cytokines to Modulate Immune Responses Raised by the Gene Gun Method of DNA Delivery

    Williman, Jonathan (2007-05)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since its discovery 15 years ago there has been an explosion of research in the field of DNA immunisation. Unfortunately despite early promises that DNA immunisation had the potential to cure almost any infectious disease, autoimmune disease or even cancer, progress towards clinical trials has been slow. This has been due in part to the huge range of permutations possible in delivering the DNA. One approach is to deliver the DNA by gene gun. Gene gun delivery is a very efficient way of transfecting cells however also has a number of possible disadvantages. These drawbacks include a weak immunogenicity in larger animals as well as the tendency to bias towards the development of a strong type 2 response. In an effort to enhance antigen-specific immune responses and counter the type 2 polarisation of gene gun delivery, a series of DNA vaccines were created where the extracellular portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza A/PR8/34 virus was genetically fused the type 1 cytokines IFNγ, IL-12 and IL-23. Interleukin-23 has been recently discovered and even though both IL-12 and IL-23 contain the p40 subunit they seem to have dissimilar functions. The vaccine constructs were first tested in cellular assays in vitro to ensure correct production and biological activity of the attached cytokines. They were then delivered in various combinations to groups of BALB/c mice to test development of immune responses and the effect of different delivery regimes. Finally mice were immunised then challenged with live influenza virus to determine the different DNA vaccines’ protective efficacy. DNA vaccines containing the HA gene alone (pHA) or fused to IFNγ (pIFNγHA), IL-12 (pIL-12HA) or IL-23 (pIL-23HA) were successfully constructed. The fusion of the HA gene to the genes for IFNγ, IL-12 or IL-23 did not significantly disturb the structure of the antigen or prevent the biological actions of the cytokines. Mice immunised three times with pHA had high titres of serum IgG1 antibody and their splenocytes produced approximately equal amounts of IFNγ and IL-5. Co-delivery of IFNγ was unable to alter immune responses regardless of whether it was delivered at the first, last or during all immunisations. Surprisingly co-delivery of IL-12 acted to suppress both antibody and cellular immune responses, possibly through an IFNγ/nitric oxide feedback loop. On the other hand co-delivery of IL-23 tended to enhanced immune responses and, while it did not significantly alter the type 1 to type 2 balance, it was able to increase the ability of mice to clear live influenza virus from their lungs when they were challenged 26 weeks after immunisation. This protection was associated with increased levels of neutralising antibody in the serum of pIL-23HA immunised mice. This research has illuminated several of the pitfalls in the development of DNA vaccines and the use of cytokine as adjuvants. However it has also broadened our understanding of IL-23 and implies that IL-23 could be effectively used to increase the development of longterm immunity after immunisation.

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