176 results for VUW ResearchArchive, Masters, 2008

  • Yummy Mummy?: (Re) Appearance of the Maternal Body in Popular Women's Magazines in New Zealand

    Taylor, Deborah (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Images and detailed descriptions of the postnatal maternal body have become more common in popular women's magazines than they have in the past. Although researchers generally accept that popular media's representations of the female body contribute to body image concerns among some women, there has been little research that has focused on the recent media constructions of the maternal body or the effects of this increased visibility. This is an important area of research as there are indications that media representations of the postnatal body, in particular body size, are beginning to have negative affects on women's wellbeing in pregnancy and after childbirth. This thesis examines how women's bodies are being represented in popular culture when they become mothers, and what discourses these representations make available to new mothers. The research involved analysing references to the maternal body found in a convenience sample of popular NZ women's magazines. The research, framed within feminist poststructuralist theories, used thematic analysis and discursive analytic tools to explore textual and visual representations of the maternal body found in the magazines. Three major constructions of mothers emerged from the analysis; these were 'sexy', 'healthy' and 'labouring' mothers. Women who, through 'body work' such as diet and exercise, had lost weight and dressed glamorously were depicted as sexy, healthy and praised for their efforts. Mothers who regained a slender, glamorous appearance were often referred to as 'yummy mummies'. Women who lost 'too much weight' were considered to be ill and were individually pathologised as having psychological problems. Mothers were encouraged to diet and exercise as soon as possible after childbirth, with scant reference to possible health concerns for mother or baby, and were targeted by the diet industry. Postfeminist and neoliberal discourses of empowerment, choice and self-care were used to promote and justify these images of mothers. Findings suggest appearance of new mothers was emphasised wherein the 'undisciplined' normal maternal body was denigrated as dull, unattractive and unworthy. Analysis indicated that a new cultural imperative for women to return to slenderness as soon as possible is being evoked. Given the new media pressures being imposed there is a clear need for research with new mothers themselves. Such research will illuminate a period in womens lives that had previously slipped below the radar of culturally prescribed strict beauty standards, but is now under the glare of the media spotlight.

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  • New Zealand Building Code Clause G7 Compliance Assessment Tool: Development and Implementation

    Stewart, Krystle (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Zealand Building Code Clause G7 (NZBC G7) minimum requirement for natural light is not being met in around half of New Zealand apartments post-construction. The main reasons for this are an acceptable solution that is not effective for apartment buildings and a lack of tools for Territorial Authorities to assess accurately whether an apartment will meet the minimum requirement. This report outlines the process involved in developing a simplified tool to assess quickly natural light compliance in apartments and preparing it for implementation. The tool was developed through simulation of factors that affect daylight performance at the point in the room specified in the Code: the back of habitable rooms. From these simulations statistical analysis was used to develop mathematical relationships between building features and light levels. These relationships were used to create a tool that specifies whether an apartment would require simulation to prove compliance with NZBC G7. Calibration measurements were performed, comparing simulated and real measurements in 97 apartments with the predictions of the tool. These demonstrated that the tool provides reliable results, hence determining the accuracy of the predictions provided by the tool. The final step in the research was for potential end-user groups to evaluate the usability and functionality of the tool. The conclusion of this process is that a tool has been developed that is simple and easy to use, is sufficiently accurate for application by Territorial Authorities as a decision tool and can be easily implemented.

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  • What's Left? - an Exploration of Social Movements, the Left and Activism in New Zealand Today

    Taylor, Dylan (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Surveys of the situation and prospects of the contemporary Left over the past three decades have frequently underscored themes of fragmentation, decline, even terminal demise. This thesis explores the question of the contemporary Left through interviews conducted with participants in New Zealand social movements. The general theoretical literature around the Left and social movements has consistently highlighted a number of social changes and challenges facing the Left today: the split between old and new Lefts following the rise of the new social movements; economic transformation (for instance, post-Fordism), and changes in class composition; the rise of neo-liberalism, and the dislocating effects of globalization; intellectual challenges, such as the demise of Marxism and the rise of post-modern philosophy; challenges to the state, and the arrival of a "post-political" condition. Analysis of the New Zealand literature around the Left and social movements shows congruent arguments and themes, as well as suggesting Antipodean specificities. To examine these contentions, a series of interviews were conducted with participants in "Left" social movements. These interviews suggest both congruence with some of the arguments in the literature and complexities that do not confirm these generalizations. In particular, the suggestion that a third phase of the Left is emerging, characterized by the joining of culturalist and materialist emphases, appears somewhat confirmed. In addition, a number of the challenges signalled in the literature were singled out by interviewees as pressing - for instance, neo-liberalism and the mediatisation of politics. With respect to the modes of action of social movements connected to the Left, there was here too some confirmation of themes from the literature - for instance, the importance of networking. On the other hand, the widespread theme of the wholesale decline of collective actions was put into question by those interviewed. While no definitive conclusions can be drawn from such a study, the interviews suggest the Left may be entering a period of renewal.

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  • One More Rainy Day

    Goulter, Tom (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    FADE IN: LED-screen filtered stock footage: TIDAL WAVES decimate cities. MEDIEVAL WOODCUTS of the Deluge, Noah's boat on huge waves. INT. BOOKSHOP - DAY.The MONTAGE CONTINUES on a shiny LED SCREEN: LIGHTNING STORMS crackle above a RAGING VOLCANO. TRIBAL PAINTINGS of winged serpents sparking from flame. The screen sits at the centre of a TABLE FULL OF BOOKS. A SIGN beside the table: " MARTIN WEAREY - SIGNING INSTORE TODAY". A patient LINE of customers queue for the author. Onscreen, SNOWSTORMS obscure the FAINT SUN. CUSTOMERS glance occasionally at the onscreen display: NORSE ART depicts THE WORLD TREE withering in ice. At the queue's HEAD, a trestle-table at which sits MARTIN himself, beside a large DUSTJACKET PHOTO of same. He's a pudgy fellow in his LATE 60s, greying hair roughly combed. Martin SMILES as a fan presents him with a STACK OF BOOKS ...

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  • A Place for Shadows: A Prolegomena to the Authorship Practices and Films of Joanna Margaret Paul

    Whyte, Dick (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This is an "authorship" study of New Zealand artist Joanna Margaret Paul, with specific reference to her "experimental film" works. Though I will draw on a wide range of theorists, my overall approach is what Laura Marks calls "intercultural cinema." For Marks the term "intercultural cinema" refers to a specific "genre" or "movement" of experimental films created by authors caught "between two or more cultural regimes of knowledge." Intercultural film-makers include feminist, queer, indigenous and immigrant authors (any "minority" which possesses its own "regime of knowledge" and makes experimental film) living in "Western metropolitan areas," whose dominant culture is capitalist, masculine, "hegemonic, white and Euro-American" (a second regime of knowledge). What draws intercultural cinema together (and indeed, one could argue, experimental film in general) is an oppositional stance toward capitalist ideology, the commodification of the art object and the uniformity of classical narrative forms. As David Bordwell and Kristen Thompson write, experimental films are "often deliberate attempts to undercut the conventions of commercial narrative filmmaking" and, as Marks writes, intercultural cinema "flows against waves of economic neocolonialism," and is "suspicious of mass circulation... [as] making commercial cinema still involves significant compromises."

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  • The Thinking Body: a Study of the Architectural Ramifications of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Rendering of the Human Body's Capacities

    August, Karan (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Phenomenology offers a conceptual framework that connects and strengthens the architect' s intuitive understanding of the human experience of space with the theorist's more critical approach. Phenomenology is an ideal vehicle for architectural theorists to avoid the friction between first-hand or subjective experience and generalised or abstracted accounts of experience. In this thesis I extract an account of the human experience of space that is implicit in the Philosopher Maurice Merleau-Pontys work. I consider how this understanding has been employed in architectural scholarship and practice. In particular, I argue that the human body renders the richness of space through deliberate engagement with the indeterminate and independent possibilities of the world. In other words, as the body intentionally engages with the world, it synthesises objects that create determinate spatial situations. I account for Merleau-Ponty's depiction of the body' s non-rule governed, non-reflective, normative directiveness towards spaces and elements, and label it the thinking body. Furthermore I examine how the philosophical theory of Merleau-Ponty is represented in the explicitly theoretical works of Juhani Pallasmaa. In turn I then consider how the thinking body is physically and conceptually realised in the buildings of Carlo Scarpa. Finally I find that Juhani Pallasmaa's description of the phenomenological experience of space is incompatible with Merleau-Ponty's. The strategic importance of these different accounts emerges when projecting their implications for designed space. Pallasmaa' s account points towards an architecture that prioritises sensory experiences synthesised by the mind. The design focus of Merleau-Ponty's philosophy leads to spatial practices in line with Carlo Scarpa, that are sympathetic to the causal qualities of an intentional bodily engagement with spatial situations. In accord with Merleau-Ponty I argue that human body is our medium for the world and as such creates the spatial situation we engage with from a formless manifold of possibilities.

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  • Exploratory Study of the Development of REDD Incentives in Bolivia

    Jannes, Stoppel (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    International climate change mitigation efforts have been establishing strategies and programs to achieve Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in developing countries like Bolivia. This research aims to assess these developments and examine the major challenges in the conceptualisation, planning and implementation of these strategies in Bolivia. A review of international negotiations and of current literature on various surrounding issues supplied this research with the needed secondary data. Primary data on Bolivian perspectives and visions on the arising challenges of REDD developments were gathered in January and February 2008. The semi-structured interviews aimed to cover a cross societal range of participants from govt to local forest-inhabitant level. Partially, due to climatic instability, the field-research was hampered by a national flood disaster that challenged the gathering of local forest-inhabitant's visions and perspectives. Through this methodology this research defined key issues in the development of international REDD funding governance and in the challenges of national and local policy and project implementation measures. These are evaluated in consideration of global and local equity and climate-justice issues, offer earthcentric considerations in the evolution of REDD and therefore attempt to contribute to the underlying discourse on ecological ethics in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

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  • Seeing Themselves: Cultural Identity and New Zealand Produced Children's Television

    Shepherd, Ngaire (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Zealand television environment is a complex one, and its ability to instil a sense of 'cultural identity' for New Zealand viewers has been regularly debated. Local children's programming is an area that can sometimes be overlooked in these important discussions. Children's programming in New Zealand is almost entirely publicly funded and is therefore legislatively tied to 'reflecting' cultural identity for a New Zealand child audience. This raises questions about how cultural identity is defined and understood within this industry, especially considering the inherent differences between a child audience and adult programme makers. These questions are engaged with through an examination of how cultural identity is discussed by funders, producers and audiences of four locally produced television brands: What Now?, Sticky TV, Studio 2 and Pukana. This thesis considers cultural identity to be a social construction that is both fluid and, in a New Zealand context, tied to certain expectations of 'New Zealandness'. This fluidity is examined through a discourse analysis of how funders, producers and audiences talk about each programme as well as cultural identity, in order to examine similarities and differences in how each group conceptualises this important funding concept. The argument is formed that cultural identity is understood in different terms: for children cultural identity is foremost about belonging to and 'seeing themselves' in a larger community of New Zealand children, while programme makers are concerned with the problematic notion of 'reflecting' "kids' worlds".

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  • The Hydrological Viability of Te Harakiki Wetland, Waikanae

    Law, Rebecca Anne (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Wetlands are unique natural resources that play an important role in the hydrological cycle. There is a dynamic link between wetland hydrology and inputs from both surface and groundwater resources. Shallow groundwater abstraction near the Te Harakiki wetland at Waikanae has the potential to impact on the wetland' hydrosystem. To assess the likelihood of this occurring, a detailed analysis of recent changes, the hydrological regime, and the water balance of the Te Harakiki Wetland system was undertaken. The hydrological regime of the wetland system was assessed by various monitoring sites established around Te Harakiki to measure rainfall, soil moisture, surface and groundwater levels. Analysis of (decadal) historical aerial photographs allowed changes in spatial extent of the open water habitat (lagoon) and the urban area of Waikanae Beach. Comparisons were made between wetland extent, population increase and urban area expansion. These data, together with a simple water balance, and historical climatic records, were used to explain the drastic decrease in wetland extent. Climatic factors and goundwater are the major driving forces behind the wetland's hydrologic regime. The surface water outflow from the system is greater than the surface water inflow, but this may be affected by the tides. The surface and groundwater systems in the area are closely linked. They have similar responses to rainfall events. Groundwater abstraction in the area appears to have minimal impact on the water level within the wetland. The exact nature and extent of abstraction around the wetland is unknown. The reduction in flood pulsing as a result of channel modification, and the fragmentation of the area for the construction of the oxidation ponds are the likely explanation. The current restoration efforts in regard to controlling pest species and excluding stock from the wetland have halted the decline in wetland area. The future of the Te Harakiki wetland system is now more positive.

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  • Evaluating a Group-Based Sustainability Intervention Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Davie, Morgan Geddes (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Meeting the challenge of anthropogenic climate change will require widespread adoption of more sustainable behaviours. However, although attitudes towards sustainable behaviours are positive, actual change is lagging behind. Three studies explored the success of a classroom intervention programme that was intended to support individual change towards more sustainable behaviour in the domains of energy conservation and consumer responsibility. It was expected that identification with the small action groups used in the programme would have a positive effect. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1977) and the social identity perspective (Turner, 1999) were used as a framework for analysis. Studies one and two examined the success of the intervention programme across two iterations. Behaviour measures used in study one were inadequate but effective measures were developed for the second study. The intervention programme was very successful in achieving behaviour change and improving attitudes towards and intentions to perform sustainable behaviour. The TPB was supported by both studies, although there were unexpected inconsistencies in the variables predicting intent. Contrary to expectations, there was no effect found for group identification. Differences were also found between those participants who chose to focus on energy conservation and those with a focus on consumer responsibility, suggesting that the consumption group approached environmental behaviour in a more holistic way. Study three was a qualitative analysis of diary entries by participants in study one. A participant narrative of sustainable behaviour was constructed and related to attribution theory, particularly the Martinko and Thomson (1998) synthesis model. The narrative substantially matched the TPB but some problematic aspects of the intent construct in the TPB were identified. There was also evidence of a positive effect of group membership that had not been captured by the group identification variable. Potential interpretations and consequences of these findings were discussed.

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  • The Impact of Anthropogenic Land-Use Change on Soil Organic Carbon, Oporae Valley, Lake Tutira, New Zealand

    Boys, Roderick Charles James (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    During the anthropocene land use change has exacerbated erosion of the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) rich topsoil in the Oporae Valley. As well as reducing the SOC content of the contemporary topsoil, the large scale redistribution of sediment has created a quantifiable long-term SOC sink in paleosols. Using contemporary native forest soils as a proxy, pasture covered topsoils contain ~40% less SOC (a loss of 5,338 T/[square kilometer] SOC). The pre-human paleosol at ~200 cm, an average 32 cm thickness, contains 9180 T/[square kilometer]. Significantly more SOC buried at depth than what currently exists in the contemporary topsoil indicates the relative importance of paleosols as C stores and the role of land use change on SOC. The preservation characteristics of a paleosol in the Oporae Valley are determined by slope angle and the relative position they hold in relation to the inter-fingering of the alluvial toeslope with the colluvial footslope. Groupings of [radioisotope carbon-14] ages in and above the pre-human paleosol allow for calculation of terrestrial sedimentation rates. At ~0.9 mm yr^-1 the terrestrial pre-human sedimentation rate averaged over the valley floor is approximately half (0.53) of the corresponding pre-human lake rate of ~1.7 mm yr^-1. As a proportion of the lake's anthropogenic sedimentation rate at ~4.8 mm yr^-1, the terrestrial anthropogenic sedimentation rate has slightly increased to ~2.8 mm yr^-1 (0.58 of the lake sedimentation rate). These initial findings demonstrate the potential for further research in this area, so that ongoing land-use change can be accurately incorporated into terrestrial carbon accounting.

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  • Ten Years of Public Private Partnership in Jakarta Drinking Water Service (1998-2007): Eastern Jakarta Drinking Water Service by Thames PAM Jaya

    Iwan, Renalia (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Clean water is crucial for survival and economic development. Everyday, people need a sufficient amount and a suitable quality of water for drinking, cleaning and sanitation. However, rapid population growth, pollution and climate change have made water a scarce resource, which everyone competed. The United Nations Development Program's recent report stated that more than 1 billion people, up to this day, are without access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Lack of access to clean water can cause social, economic and health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find solutions to this problem. To solve the problem of water scarcity, International Financial Institutions introduced Public Private Partnership (PPP) in the management of water sector. PPP is a concept which involves private sector participation in the management of drinking water service. In PPP, water is recognized as an economic good which is recognised under the 1992 Dublin Principles. It was hoped that by placing an economic value on water, efficient and equitable use of water can be achieved. It was also hoped that it would encourage conservation and protection of water resources. However, studies show opposite results from the Principle. Jakarta drinking water service is one example of a failed PPP. Jakarta, the Capital City of Indonesia, adopted Public Private Partnership (PPP) in the management of its drinking water service in 1998. The twenty five years concession contract was granted to Thames Water International (TWI) and its local partner, Kekarpola Airindo (KATI), now known as Thames PAM Jaya (TPJ). This company is responsible for the management of Eastern Jakarta drinking water service. This research was aimed to evaluate Thames PAM Jaya (TPJ) performance on water provision in Eastern Jakarta, ten years into the twenty five years concession by undergoing a qualitative research method. A range of semi-structured interviews were used to: gain perceptions and opinions of each stakeholder on the Public Private Partnership (PPP), identify the advantages and/or disadvantages of the water privatization in the capital city and to identify the constraints and limitations facing the private sector. Participants involved in this research include Government officials, Thames PAM Jaya, Jakarta Water Supply Regulatory Body (JWSRB), non governmental organizations (NGOs), and TPJ customers. The analysis concludes that Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Eastern Jakarta does not bring improvement to the region's drinking water service. Thames PAM Jaya (TPJ) had failed in fulfilling targets set in the Cooperation Agreement. Lack of transparency and public tendering in the process of forming the public private partnership may have contributed to this poor performance because the proper search for a competent partner was short circuited. Political interference in the bidding process is a form of corruption in which the company granted the contract was clearly complicit. The water tariff in Jakarta is not only the highest in Indonesia, but it is also the highest in the Southeast Asia region. The quality of its service, however, is still of poor quality. Limited access to water due to its high price and low service has resulted in water hacking and the on-going use of groundwater. The Cooperation Agreement, on the other hand, has locked the Government of Indonesia into a long term partnership which is very disadvantageous for the government and the residents. Private sector involvement should be the last alternative to improve the management of the water supply service in Indonesia.

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  • The Recent Carbonate Sediments of Palmyra Atoll, Northern Line Islands, Central Pacific Ocean

    Clark, Oscar (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Palmyra Atoll is an isolated carbonate reef system located approximately 1600 km south of Hawaii in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Sediment samples from the lagoons and tidal zones were analyzed for grainsize and composition, and the results used to compile detailed maps and interpret the environments and lithofacies present. A distinct grainsize distribution was observed forming concentric bands ranging from coarse gravel rubble on the outer reef through to finer material in the interior of the atoll in the deep lagoons, where peloidal muds prevail. Five lithologic facies have been identified and typical sediments are poorly sorted and near-symmetrical in their grainsize distribution. On average, sediments are medium sand. A distinct chlorozoan assemblage was observed with coral and calcareous red algal fragments forming half of the sediment, with varying amounts of molluscs, Halimeda and foraminifera being the lesser major constituents. Lagoonal and tidal sediments showed little variation in composition between locations and lacked clear compositional zonation, characteristic of other larger atolls of the Pacific. Palmyra Atoll is unique in that it has had little human intervention for the last sixty years and as a result uninhibited natural processes are occurring. It is also unique in that it displays relatively deep for its size (<55 m), steep-sided compartmentalized lagoons that have abundant fine material (upward of 70% silt or finer), a feature not commonly observed at other Pacific atolls. This fine material has been identified as a peloidal mud and its mode and rate of deposition may be partly controlled by the abundant zooplankton in the lagoons. Recent sediments of Palmyra Atoll are almost entirely carbonate, originating from reef organisms inhabiting the atoll. The only other material is small amounts of siliceous sponge skeletons.

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  • Human Activities and Flood Hazards and Risks in the South West Pacific: a Case Study of the Navua Catchment Area, Fiji Islands

    Duaibe, Katalaine (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Human activity is increasingly becoming a factor contributing to 'disasters' that occur worldwide. As evident in the Asian Tsunami of 2004, the high levels of loss of life and livelihood, and damage to property were largely due to the population density and human development of the physical landscape of the stricken region. The magnitude of natural hazards coupled with the high population density and low levels of development can have disastrous or catastrophic impacts on a nation as a whole, especially in small island states. Furthermore, the lack of governance structures, legislative compliance, and regulatory land use and planning coupled with the perception of risk of the general public, can all contribute to the magnitude of disasters. The flood plains of Navua, a small rural town outside of Fiji's capital and prone to all types of flooding, are explored to determine the extent to which human activities impact on the magnitude of flooding and flood damage. Human activities such as land degradation, deforestation of catchment areas, increased population density along the Navua riverbanks inadequate land use planning, zoning, and control of flood plain development; and inadequate drainage, and management of discharges are examined when determining the factors that have contributed to the increased incidence of flooding of the past 100 years until 2004. The evolution of different governmental approaches to hazard and risk management in Fiji is also explored. It is observed that while considerable progress has been made to address the factors causing high risk, there is still an emphasis on hazard mitigation rather than risk reduction. A model framework for flood risk management is referred to, where the elements at risk are the land-use characteristics of the Navua Catchment. As such, part of the treatment of risks is seen as requiring adequate risk management standards that fit into the broader 'all-hazards management' approach adopted by the Pacific Island Nations including Fiji.

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  • Participation in Employment and Education of Young Maori Women: the Effects of Domestic Constraints and Settlement Patterns

    Warburton, Dale (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    While the employment rate of women in New Zealand has trended upwards since the end of the Second World War, employment is still highly variable by ethnicity, age and region. One of the least engaged categories are young (15-24 years) Maori women. They have much lower employment rates than their Pakeha counterparts (42% and 64% respectively) and this is not offset by greater involvement in education. At 33%, Maori actually have much lower education rates than Pakeha women (46%). Instead young Maori women are more heavily involved in unpaid work. A very high 44% report spending time taking care of a child at home during the week, versus only 21% of their Pakeha counterparts. Although there is a general awareness of these differences, there has been no systematic enquiry into the origins of the low engagement of young Maori women or its contemporary manifestations. This thesis offers an integrated analysis of labour supply and time allocation of young Maori women, drawing on insights from economic theory and past studies of female Maori labour supply. It is among the first master's thesis to utilise unit record data from the New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings. Access to data on individuals and their location is essential if geographers are going to be able to join other disciplines in modelling human behaviour. In this case I use the census records on individuals in order to test three hypotheses: Firstly, those young Maori women have greater exposure to household compositions which generate domestic responsibilities that compete with the devotion of time to paid employment. Secondly, that when Maori and Pakeha are both faced with these responsibilities, there is a stronger negative effect on the likelihood of a young Maori woman securing employment, relative to her Pakeha counterparts. Finally, that young Maori women are more likely to live in geographical areas that adversely affect their likelihood of being employed than their Pakeha equivalent. Access to the census has the benefit of including as variables the characteristics of the household in which young women are living. In doing so it extends the standard empirical models of female labour supply to include elements from the literature on child labour, household labour supply models in agricultural settings, as well as the analysis of pluri-activity, all of which model young women's behaviour in the context of the economic and social structure of the household. What I demonstrate is not that young Maori women's labour participation is any more sensitive than Pakeha to constraints which I take household structure to impose, but simply that labour constraining structures are themselves far more prevalent in the case of young Maori women. It is the greater demands such households impose on the need for child care, elderly care and help in the community that combine with the lower demand for the labour of young Maori women often in non-metropolitan settings which combine to generate the much higher market inactivity rates we see particularly among Maori women in their early twenties. Being able to demonstrate this point using individual records on virtually the full population of young Maori and Pakeha women is the major contribution of this thesis.

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  • Late Cenozoic Stratigraphy of the Southern Terror Rift, Antactica: Implications for Tectonic and Climatic Evolution

    Hansaraj, Dhiresh (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis presents an integrated analysis of late Cenozoic (last 14 Ma) glacimarine stratigraphy within the Terror Rift in southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The study area is located in the Windless Bight region of the McMurdo Ice Shelf (NW corner of the Ross Ice Shelf), which overlies a 600 to 1000 m-deep bathymetric moat surrounding Ross Island in the depocentral axis of the Victoria Land Basin (VLB). The VLB, one of a number of extensional sedimentary basins within the West Antarctic Rift System, comprises a 7-km-thick succession of syn- and post-rift glacimarine sediments that accumulated during the Oligocene and Miocene periods, respectively. Renewed rifting, known as the Terror Rift, in the centre of the VLB began between 17 to 14 Ma and has accommodated as much as one third of the entire Cenozoic basin-fill. The development of rift-related alkalic volcanoes associated with the Erebus Volcanic Province from c. 5 Ma has produced localised flexural basins/moats around Ross Island that have preserved a thick Pliocene-Pleistocene stratigraphic record. A new stratigraphic architecture is presented for southern Terror Rift based on: (1) the acquisition, processing and interpretation of 73 kilometres of over-ice shelf multi-channel seismic reflection data; (2) correlation of seismic stratigraphy with the integrated chrono-, litho- and cyclostratigraphy of the 1285 m-deep ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project drill core (AND-1B) using a synthetic seismic-well tie, and time-depth data from a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Five seismic units bounded by regionally-mappable unconformities, which thicken into the centre of the basin, are identified and their relationship to the existing seismic stratigraphy of western VLB (Fielding et al. 2007) is established. In addition, a further 17 mappable seismic surfaces bounding higher-frequency depositional units are identified. The seismic units are interpreted on the basis of characteristic features, seismic facies, and correlations with the lithostratigraphy of the core. 1). Rg (light green) surface is the oldest regionally-mappable reflector. It directly overlies a redeposited volcanic unit sampled by the AND-1B core and yielded an age of ~13.8 Ma, dated using the 40Ar/39Ar method. The unconformity is undulating, dislocated by normal faults, truncates underlying strata, and is characterised by stratal onlap above. The 500 m-thick interval of Late Miocene strata between surface Rg (1260 metres below sea floor (mbsf) in the AND-1B core) and surface Rh (760 mbsf) comprises seismic Unit M1. Within Unit M1 a prominent reflector Rg1 (1100 mbsf) separates a subjacent, c. 160 m-thick interval of diamictite-dominated glacial-interglacial sedimentary cycles deposited from a proximal, predominantly-grounded, cold polar-style ice sheet, from an overlying c. 250 m-thick interval diamictite-mudstone-dominated cycles representing a warmer, wet-based more dynamic ice sheet in the western Ross Sea. The considerable thickness of Unit M1, its association with normal faulting, and correlation with the Rg surface in western VLB implies that this unit is associated with renewed rifting and initiation of the Terror Rift. However the unit may have a polyphase origin as the erosion associated with the Rg1 unconformity and the overlying dry-based, polar glacial deposits also correspond to a major period of global cooling and inferred Antarctic ice sheet expansion at 13.8 Ma, in marine oxygen isotope records (the Mi-4 glaciation). 2). Rh (dark green) surface is also characterised by truncation of underlying strata and onlap by overlying strata, is also dislocated by normal faulting, and marks the base of a c. 150 m-thick unit of proximal sub-marine volcanic deposits. Within the study area, Rh (~770 mbsf) is correlated with the base of White Island basaltic deposits dated at c. 7 Ma. Unit M2 comprises in its lower interval the proximal volcanic material associated with the submarine apron of White Island volcano, which is overlain at the Rh1 seismic reflector (600 mbsf), of alternating cycles of ice proximal diamictite and open marine diatomite and terrigenous mudstone. Unit M2 represents continued rift-related subsidence and sedimentation based on its association with syn-depositional normal-faulting and volcanism. The core stratigraphy implies that a wet-based margin of a dynamic Antarctic ice sheet oscillated across the study area during the Late Miocene (13.8-7 Ma). 3). Ri (red) surface is correlated with the "b-clino" surface in western VLB and marks regional subsidence possibly associated with marine transgression. In the study area the surface is correlated with the onset of load-induced sea-floor subsidence associated with the emplacement of Mt. Bird (e.g. 4.6 Ma). It is generally characterised as a downlap surface and mildly truncates underlying strata. The lower c. 80 m of the c. 180 m-thick, overlying seismic Unit M3 is dominated by seismically-homogenous diatomite representing up to 300 ka of open-marine deposition in western Ross Sea. The upper part of Unit M3 corresponds to cycles of diatomite and diamictite interpreted as successive glacial-interglacial advances and retreats of the grounding-line. Noteworthy is the coincidence of a dynamic ice margin and periodically open Ross Sea with global warmth of the Early and middle Pliocene period. 4). Rj (turquoise) surface is scoured and undulating, and is marked by underlying stratal truncation. Overlying Unit M4 (c. 300-150 mbsf) comprises five distinct Milankovitch-scale, glacial-interglacial diatomite-diamictite cycles that can be mapped across the entire study area and are coincident with Late Pliocene cooling and expansion of ice sheets: both on the Northern hemisphere and in the Ross Embayment. The Rj surface has an age c. 3 Ma and is coincident with expansion of grounding-lines elsewhere on the Antarctic margin onto the continental shelf. This surface is also correlated with the beginning of a phase of significant cone building on Ross Island that promoted the local creation of accommodation space and preservation of strata. 5). Rk (pink) surface represents an unconformity dated at c. 2 Ma. It is expressed by pronounced truncation of underlying strata and onlap by strata above. Overlying Unit M5 (c. 145-0 mbsf) is characterised by diamictite dominated cycles and a return to a cold, polar, dry-based ice sheet with conditions similar to today.

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  • Haere Mai Me Tuhituhi He Pukapuka: Muri Iho Ka Whawhai Ai Tatou: Reading Te Rangikaheke

    Loader, Arini May (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis reads Te Rangikaheke's texts through the editorial, Te Arawa and biographic dimensions of the writer and the texts. Te Rangikaheke was a prolific nineteenth century writer who produced over 800 pages of manuscript material. 1 Although he has enjoyed a moderate amount of scholarly attention, this has tended to focus on attribution, cataloguing and tracing publication, transcription and translating, commentary on authenticity and literary quality and his account of history. Specifically, the first core chapter explores issues concerning the editing of Te Rangikaheke's manuscripts by Governor George Grey and the effects of Grey's editing decisions on the texts. This chapter explores the nature of the relationship between Grey and Te Rangikaheke, the effects of this relationship on Te Rangikaheke's texts, and what the dualities of Pakeha/Maori and Governor/Native might mean in terms of the texts. Responding to the calls of American Indian Literary Criticism for studies of Indigenous topics to engage deeply with the contexts of iwi and place, the second core chapter looks at Te Rangikaheke as an Arawa writer and explores issues around identity and articulating an Arawa literary history. Finally, a biography of Te Rangikaheke elaborated from previously known and new biographic details combined with a close reading of his name and three of Te Rangikaheke's letters. Ultimately, it is anticipated that this thesis will forge new pathways into in the study of Wiremu Maihi Te Rangikaheke and his writing, and that these new pathways will clear some much needed space in which a deeper analysis of Te Rangikaheke's writing can be articulated. Furthermore, beyond its focus on a single writer, this thesis extends the scholarship on nineteenth century Maori writing, Maori historical studies, and Maori intellectual history and in this way speaks to a contemporary Indigenous intellectual agenda.

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  • Principle & Pragmatism: the New Zealand Fair Trade Consumer and Their Perspectives on the Future of Fair Trade

    Watterson, William George (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Using exploratory, qualitative focus groups, this thesis investigates the perspectives, motivations and concerns of a specific group of dedicated New Zealand Fair Trade consumers, the reasons surrounding their willingness to pay an ethical premium, and the ways they learn about Fair Trade products. It also explores the complex inter-relationship between their ethical beliefs and purchase behavior, and their perspectives on the future of the Fair Trade movement. The research contributes to the growth of ethical and Fair Trade consumerism, thereby linking the development of sustainable livelihoods in the North to development and export opportunities for small-scale producers in the South. The findings of this study could have important implications for the development of sensitized marketing strategies and more effective consumer education campaigns directed at this increasingly significant segment. It could also help translate the ideas and concerns of Fair Trade consumer into opportunities for Fair Trade organizations and developing country producers. The responses of Fair Trade consumers are sorted into themes, which are then discussed in the subsequent chapters. The final chapter pulls these analyses together to form a final set of conclusions, the implications of those conclusions on international development, and my subsequent recommendations. The findings of this research indicate that New Zealand Fair Trade consumers are people of principle and pragmatism who are committed to both ethical ideals and practical development results. They are concerned about environmental issues and the tension between consumption and sustainability, and also about the co-option of the Fair Trade 'image' by mainstream business as a method of corporate green-washing. Participants' testimonies indicate that Fair Trade provides a way of reducing social distance between consumers in the north and producers in the south. It is also a useful tool for promoting and developing global citizenship among northern consumers. The participants generally do not regard Fairtrade labeling as a long-term solution but rather a necessary interim 'band-aid' that can both support modest development in the south whilst educating northern consumers on the wider injustices in world trade. They also suggest that Fair Trade could more effectively catalyze this transformation of northern consumer to 'global citizen' by using marketing as a tool for consumer education. The thesis makes recommendations concerning the implementation of more strategic Fair Trade marketing campaigns and branding efforts, as well as the need to explore deeper ways of storytelling across all aspects of Fair Trade media in order to further engage northern consumers. It highlights the importance of maintaining a tension in the Fair Trade movement between unwavering commitment to ethical principles on one hand, and flexibility and a willingness to adapt to changing world circumstances and consumer/producer needs on the other. It also recommends that Fair Trade organisations remain in dialogue with other ethical movements like sustainability in order to better understand and address these needs.

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  • The Geomorphology of Farewell Spit and Its Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise

    Tribe, Helen M (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Sand-dominated barriers are highly sensitive coastal systems which alter their morphology in response to rising sea level, undergoing extensive sediment reworking as wave activity reaches further inland. Farewell Spit, South Island, New Zealand, is a sand-dominated barrier spit which extends 25kms eastward from the mainland, enclosing the northwestern corner of the macro-tidal Golden Bay. During spring tide cycles low-lying areas of the Spit become completely inundated. The aim of this study is to establish the morphological stability of Farewell Spit and its potential response to the latest IPCC projected eustatic sea-level rise of 0.48m (A1B scenario) by the end of this century. GIS analysis of aerial photographs and the identification of 137Cs signatures within the dunes have shown a high degree of mobility in the Spit's features over the past 55 years. Vegetation increased by 75%, mainly due to the introduction of A arenaria, which has also led to the development of foredunes prograding up to 142m over the tidal flats. Barchan dunes on the Spit are also highly mobile migrating at up to 30m/y. The high amount of sediment movement along the spit is reflected in the sedimentology of the tidal flats, which show layers of aeolian transported fine, well-sorted sand several centimetres thick. The predominance of medium sand shows that reworking appears to have occurred on these flats due to storm events in Golden Bay, and like the dunes, 14C dating indicates they are very young features Projected sea-level rise was modelled to assess the vulnerability of low-lying areas of the Spit to tidal flooding. Deeper water levels in the two tidal channels which currently flood across the Spit are expected and there is a risk of additional channels opening, one being very near to the contact between the Spit and mainland. The mobility of the dune systems may however buffer some of these processes by providing natural defences against the sea. Barrier roll over does not appear to be an important process as it appears to be too wide to allow for washover. It is concluded that under current sea-level rise predictions Farewell Spit will not transgress landward but will be subject to exacerbated erosion.

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  • The importance of Incorporating Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) into the Secondary Curriculum in Order to Minimise the Problems of Waste on South Tarawa

    Moy, Sina (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Waste is an increasing problem in Small Island States (SIDs) such as Kiribati. In Kiribati the major concern is on the capital island, South Tarawa with more than 6,500 tons of solid waste generated each year. With only a tiny strip of land supporting a large population, it is no wonder it resulted as the highest population density compared to Tokyo. More than half of the Kiribati population lives on the capital, South Tarawa with an estimation of 150 people per/km^2 Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)/Environmental Education (EE) are taught through Social Studies, Science and other disciplinary subjects only in primary up to junior secondary school. The missing link of this ESD/EE can be found at the secondary level. The main aim of this research is to find out ways of incorporating ESD/EE at secondary level in order to help minimise waste issues that are present on urbanised South Tarawa. By formalising education for sustainable development/environmental education into the secondary school syllabus, it will help young citizens of Kiribati prepared as active members of society. As the Ministry of Education (NZ) states "nvironmental education provides a relevant context for identifying, exploring, and developing values and attitudes that can ensure students' active participation in maintaining and improving the quality of the local, national, and global environment."(Education for sustainability). This thesis argues that it is important to include Education for Sustainable Development into secondary school syllabus in order to help minimise the waste issues that have been experienced by the people living on South Tarawa.

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