250 results for VUW ResearchArchive, Masters, 2011

  • Legendary Obscurity: the Working Life of Malcolm Ross

    Plummer, Matthew Robert (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Malcolm Ross (1948-2003) was a sculptor, painter, photographer, cartoonist and historian who operated at one remove from the art world for the entirety of his career. As a consequence, almost no analysis, criticism or writing on his work exists, and his place within this country's history of art has subsequently been overlooked. This thesis seeks to give art historical and analytical attention to Ross's oeuvre, arguing for his status as one of New Zealand's key conceptual practitioners. It traces the thematic threads which recur throughout his work and argues that the diverse range of artistic and historic investigations he undertook are ultimately unified within his archive at the E.H. McCormick Research Library, Auckland Art Gallery Toi O Tamaki.

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  • Staging the Past: The Period Room in New Zealand

    Stephenson, Kimberley Jane (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Before 1940, few of the nation’s museums actively collected or displayed artefacts associated with the history of European settlement in New Zealand. Over the following three decades, an interest in ‘colonial history’ blossomed and collections grew rapidly. Faced with the challenge of displaying material associated with the homes of early settlers, museums adopted the period room as a strategy of display. The period room subsequently remained popular with museum professionals until the 1980s, when the type of history that it had traditionally been used to represent was increasingly brought into question. Filling a gap in the literature that surrounds museums and their practices in New Zealand, this thesis attempts to chart the meteoric rise and fall of the period room in New Zealand. Taking the two period rooms that were created for the New Zealand Centennial Exhibition in 1939 as its starting point, the thesis begins by considering the role that the centennials, jubilees and other milestones celebrated around New Zealand in the 1940s and 1950s played in the development of period rooms in this country, unpacking the factors that fuelled the popularity of this display mode among exhibition organisers and museum professionals. The thesis then charts the history of the period room in the context of three metropolitan museums – the Otago Early Settlers Museum, the Canterbury Museum, and the Dominion Museum – looking at the physical changes that were made to these displays over time, the attitudes that informed these changes, and the role that period rooms play in these institutions today.

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  • Crystal Forensics of Historical Lava Flows from Mt Ngauruhoe

    Barton, Sophie Jan (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Mt Ngauruhoe is a 900 m high andesitic cone constructed over the last 2500 yr, and is the youngest cone of the Tongariro Massif. It was previously one of the most continuously active volcanoes in New Zealand, with ash eruptions having occurred every few years since written records for the volcano began in 1839. However, it has now been more than 30 yr since the last eruption. Eruptions in 1870, 1949, 1954 and 1974-1975 were accompanied by lava and block-and-ash flows. Detailed sampling of these historical lava and block-and-ash flows was conducted, including sampling from seven different lava flows erupted over the period June-September 1954 to investigate changes in magma geochemistry and crystal populations over short timescales, and to enable observed changes to be related back to known eruption dates. Mineral major and trace element chemistry highlights the importance of mixing between distinct basaltic and dacitic melts to generate the basaltic andesite whole rock compositions erupted. The basaltic end member can be identified from the presence of olivine crystals with Mg# 75-87, clinopyroxene cores with Mg# 82-92, and plagioclase cores of An₈₀₋₉₀. The dacitic melt is identified by SiO₂-rich clinopyroxene melt inclusions, clinopyroxene zoning with Mg# 68-76 and plagioclase rims of An₆₀₋₇₀. Textural evidence from complex mineral zoning and large variability in the widths of reaction rims on olivine crystals suggests that mafic recharge of the more evolved system is frequent, and modelling of Fe-Mg inter-diffusion applied to the outermost rims of the clinopyroxene crystal population indicates that such recharge events have occurred weeks to months or even shorter prior to each of the historical eruptions, and thus likely trigger the eruptions.

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  • A Study of Unconventional Gas Accumulation in Dannevirke Series (Paleogene) Rocks, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand

    Cozens, Nick (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis aims to assess the potential of unconventional gas accumulation of Danevirke aged (65-43 Ma) mudrock of the Canterbury Basin, South Island, New Zealand. Unconventional hydrocarbon resources contained in low-porosity, low-permeability rocks are potentially a large source of natural gas. Recent developments throughout the United States and increasingly so in Australia, signify a shift in exploration efforts from conventional natural gas targets towards unconventional shale gas plays and basin centred gas systems. Despite extensive international progress made in this field of exploration, little is known about New Zealand unconventional hydrocarbon systems. The Canterbury Basin is approximaty 360,000km² in area and is located approximately between 44°S and 46°S. The deepest part of the basin is located offshore and is known as the Clipper Sub-Basin, which exhibits economic basement depths of 6500m. The Clipper Sub-Basin is a late Cretaceous syn-rift horst and graben feature which trends north east-south west and is bound basinward by the Benreoch High and landward by the Canterbury Bight High. Dannevirke aged transgressive rocks overlay these structures and intermittently exhibit gas-charged intervals in low porosity facies. Elevated gas concentrations are recorded in four exploration wells in the Clipper Sub-Basin from gas chromatograph readings (up to 2 .7/00.4%). These high-gas zones correspond to intervals of elevated quartz (up to 72wt%), whereas non-gaseous intervals corresponded to quartz values as low as 30wt%. Scanning electron microscopy results do not reveal biogenic silica populations in the cutting samples examined. High silica is related to diagenetic silica transformations of mica, various clay minerals, pyrite and silica transformations. Although no visible porosity is observed in thin sections, FMI wireline analysis illustrate natural fractures predominately occur in siliceous intervals, where resistive fractures can account up to one fracture per 10m of stratigraphic thickness. These fissile or laminated brittle lithologies are likely hydrocarbon conduits or accumulation intervals for wet gas. RockEval pyrolysis results indicate the siliceous mudrocks are organic le-n, comprising an immature gas-prone source rock which averages 1.5% total organic carbon. Findings made in this research are compared to the. Whangai Formation, considered in this study to be a comparable shale gas system and also to the Monterey Formation of the United States which is a known basin centred gas system. Dannevirke aged sediments found in the Clipper Sub-Basin appear to constitute the requisites of a near-to-source, direct type., basin centred gas system. Implications of this study open up the possibility that New Zealand's widespread Paleocene-Eocene mudrocks are capable of natural gas accumulation and therefore viable natural gas exploration targets in New Zealand.

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  • New Zealand's Green Party and Foreign Troop Deployments: Views, Values and Impacts

    Beuse, Simon (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    this thesis reviews and analyses the Green Party of New Zealand‘s views on the use of force in international relations, particularly when that involves the deployment of NZ troops. It addresses three key questions: 1) When does the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand believe it is legitimate to use military force overseas? 2) How have the Greens attempted to influenced the public debate and the parliamentary decision making process regarding to foreign troop deployments? 3) What impact (if any) did their actions have in the three cases of Afghanistan, East Timor and the Solomon Islands? In order to answer these questions adequately, the thesis begins with an introductory review of New Zealand‘s foreign relations, highlighting key relevant events in the country‘s diplomacy. This chapter will be followed in chapter three by a brief introduction of the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand, its origins, evolution and influences. The main part of the thesis, however, will focus on the country‘s recent foreign troop deployments in East Timor (chapter four), the Solomon Islands (chapter five) and Afghanistan (chapter six) and the actions the Greens undertook to support or oppose those deployments. How the particular political circumstances shaped the nature of these conflicts and the responses to them will be examined in the individual chapters. Finally, in the conclusion I sum up what I believe is the Green Party‘s position and influence on the use of military force. I argue that the Greens have developed a coherent approach to the issue, giving greatest importance to the international legitimacy of the intervention. They have, however, been pragmatic in some respects when it has come to the source of that legitimacy, preferring United Nations support but accepting regional endorsement in the case of the Solomon Islands. Second, I argue that in practice, the Greens had a limited influence on New Zealand‘s military deployments. This has been the case even when the party has been involved in supportive relationships with the government.

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  • Legendary Obscurity: the Working Life of Malcolm Ross

    Plummer, Matthew Robert (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Malcolm Ross (1948-2003) was a sculptor, painter, photographer, cartoonist and historian who operated at one remove from the art world for the entirety of his career. As a consequence, almost no analysis, criticism or writing on his work exists, and his place within this country's history of art has subsequently been overlooked. This thesis seeks to give art historical and analytical attention to Ross's oeuvre, arguing for his status as one of New Zealand's key conceptual practitioners. It traces the thematic threads which recur throughout his work and argues that the diverse range of artistic and historic investigations he undertook are ultimately unified within his archive at the E.H. McCormick Research Library, Auckland Art Gallery Toi O Tamaki.

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  • Gold Mining and Estuarine Evolution: A Study of the Accelerated Sedimentation of Parapara Inlet, Golden Bay, New Zealand

    Risdon, B. V. (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Estuaries are depositional environments formed within drowned river embayments which receive sediment from both marine and terrestrial sources. In many cases a beach-barrier sequence forms subaerially at the mouth of the flooded embayment and the area behind it is termed a barrier estuary. Such estuary types are found around the New Zealand coast especially in areas of relative tectonic stability and their sediments are often used to reconstruct Holocene sea level. Infill of these estuaries is initially dominated by marine flood tide delta sediments, with later infill occurring through fluvial processes. The final stages of infill within these estuaries is poorly understood. Parapara Inlet in Golden Bay, New Zealand, is a Holocene barrier estuary influenced by hydraulic sluice mining within its river catchment. A study of Parapara Inlet was undertaken to discover how human disturbance within a river catchment can affect the evolution of a barrier estuary, by comparing previous models of barrier estuary evolution to the stratigraphy record within Parapara Inlet. 18 vibracores were sampled from Parapara Inlet in November 2009. Radiocarbon dating (AMS) within these cores provided a maximum age of 7090-6910 Cal BP. Deposition within the estuary has occurred in three stages; the first in Pre-Holocene marsh or lake environments; the second after inundation 6500-7500 years Cal BP, as fluvial sediments dominate the centre of the estuary; and thirdly in a series of quartz dominated gravels and sands within 1m of the surface. These units vary from the traditional models of evolution as the topography of the estuary has influenced the extent of deposition within the central mud basin. Mining sediment forced Parapara Inlet into a late stage of evolution, however the amount of sediment provided through sluice mining was not large enough to force the estuary into a supratidal stage.

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  • Rethinking Facadism: The Contemporary New Zealand Villa

    Wright, Hayley (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Zealand Villa is a significant cultural icon of New Zealand. Its architecture encapsulates a rich story of New Zealand's colonial heritage, but preserving this legacy requires respect and understanding in the face of societal change. Presently, villa's are being 'modernised' by owners pressured to maintain the aesthetic 'respectability' of the traditional villa, while simultaneously demanding that their private realms reflect contemporary concerns. Differing expectations and conflict in architectural values results in an irretrievable loss of the villa's cultural integrity. As the villa becomes permanently entrenched in New Zealand's cultural heritage, an 'authentic' depiction of the architecture becomes subjected to facadism. District plans and heritage rules indirectly promote the 'authenticity' of facadism; however the term authentic is presented to the populace under false pretences resulting in spurious imitation forced upon villa's. Facadism results in a Potemkin City; replicated façades, insufficient in and lacking appreciation for, New Zealand's architectural history. This paper questions facadism in comparison to historical and contemporary methods of architectural change. It aims to rethink the notion of facadism and communicate alternative ways of approaching change that is honest and suitable to the aging dwelling and to the occupational demands of contemporary life. A methodology for assessing the New Zealand villa will analyse the social aspects of the traditional design through a contemporary lens. An analytical study will be conducted that will review the social and architectural attributes associated with the traditional villa and how it catered for demands and rituals of the Victorian society. It will evaluate the villa's position in contemporary society and focus attention to the roof as a horizontal facade. Principles will explore how the villa's traditional roof and planning attributes can be applied to contemporary lifestyle and cater for a changing occupancy. A design phase tests the principles through various sites and scales. The desired outcome will present a developed prototype of a 'non frontal' villa designed for the contemporary family unit. It sets out to achieve this through a series of tests exploring how the designed principles can develop a conceptual depiction of a villa. The design outcome of this thesis presents two conclusions. First a contemporary typology of the spatial language of the New Zealand villa and, second, that the villa's facade in contemporary environments has become a three dimensional object with a horizontal nature that needs to be catered for in contemporary architecture.

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  • Crystal Forensics of Historical Lava Flows from Mt Ngauruhoe

    Barton, Sophie Jan (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Mt Ngauruhoe is a 900 m high andesitic cone constructed over the last 2500 yr, and is the youngest cone of the Tongariro Massif. It was previously one of the most continuously active volcanoes in New Zealand, with ash eruptions having occurred every few years since written records for the volcano began in 1839. However, it has now been more than 30 yr since the last eruption. Eruptions in 1870, 1949, 1954 and 1974-1975 were accompanied by lava and block-and-ash flows. Detailed sampling of these historical lava and block-and-ash flows was conducted, including sampling from seven different lava flows erupted over the period June-September 1954 to investigate changes in magma geochemistry and crystal populations over short timescales, and to enable observed changes to be related back to known eruption dates. Mineral major and trace element chemistry highlights the importance of mixing between distinct basaltic and dacitic melts to generate the basaltic andesite whole rock compositions erupted. The basaltic end member can be identified from the presence of olivine crystals with Mg# 75-87, clinopyroxene cores with Mg# 82-92, and plagioclase cores of An80-90. The dacitic melt is identified by SiO2-rich clinopyroxene melt inclusions, clinopyroxene zoning with Mg# 68-76 and plagioclase rims of An60-70. Textural evidence from complex mineral zoning and large variability in the widths of reaction rims on olivine crystals suggests that mafic recharge of the more evolved system is frequent, and modelling of Fe-Mg inter-diffusion applied to the outermost rims of the clinopyroxene crystal population indicates that such recharge events have occurred weeks to months or even shorter prior to each of the historical eruptions, and thus likely trigger the eruptions.

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  • Integrating Passive Thermal Comfort Features with Seismic Retrofitting Techniques for Nonengineered Housing in India

    Bhattacharya, Yasmin (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The lack of seismic provisions for non‐engineered buildings in developing countries is corroborated by the high fatality rates during earthquakes and is a source of major concern. As a means for promoting seismic retrofitting among the low‐income population in India, this study investigates the integration of passive thermal comfort features with retrofitting techniques in order to provide day‐to‐day benefits in addition to the structural safety required for earthquakes. Three separate regions in India with the same level of seismic risk and differing climatic conditions are addressed in this study in order to consider the varying thermal comfort requirements within the same required level of seismic resistance. These are: Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, and Sikkim, which are typical of hot‐dry, composite and cold climates respectively, and are located in areas with high seismicity (Seismic zone IV by Indian seismic code standards). The development of suitable integrative techniques is not solely a structural challenge. A thorough understanding of the population and their needs, the climate and geographical landscape, and most importantly, of the previous research regarding thermal comfort and seismic retrofitting for developing countries is essential. This has been achieved through a literature review, which provides the theoretical framework and identifies which seismic and thermal comfort strategies are appropriate for which type of constructions and climates respectively. Following this, a research‐by‐design methodology is employed to formulate possible integrative solutions. The study finds that the possibilities of integrating passive thermal comfort features with seismic retrofitting for non‐engineered houses are limited. However, the few proposed integrative solutions do have the potential to improve thermal comfort inside the houses in an energy efficient manner if developed further. They are expected to be beneficial for many regions of the developing world which have similar seismic and climatic characteristics.

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  • Manipulating Emotions: A Study of Emotional Evocation in Architecture

    Due, Katherine (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Architecture is understood to inspire awe and affect our emotions and moods. This thesis aims to focus these effects through our emotional sensibilities, questioning the capability of architecture to act as an emotional evocation. The objective of this work is to challenge some current practice within architecture of irreverent and careless applications of atmospheric qualities, where little appreciation is given to the emotional impact these decisions have on the occupants of the spaces. This thesis will outline the use of atmospheric conditions in the creation of an architecture of emotional evocation that presents spaces of two emotional states, proving with this, the existence of particular atmospheric conditions and the emotional impact inherent within them. The result is a design that incorporates spaces embodied with the characteristics associated with either grief or love- emotions chosen to limit the scope of this work. The qualities within these spaces are transferable and felt by the occupants through expression theory and the personification of architectural elements and qualities. A theatre programme tests the design of these emotionally evocative spaces, creating an affiliation between the performance of theatre and the performance capacity of architecture. This thesis concludes with the understanding of the necessity and reliance of associating emotional states to characteristics that can be qualified within an architectural situation. Perception and psychology of emotions are used as a theoretical basis for the understanding of the personal and subjective nature of architectural experience. Concepts of perception and sensation are also imperative in the development of the architectural project in its totality, creating a full experience through the combination and dialogue between the different spaces. The associations and connotations of materials, forms and proportions create a framework for the analysis of case studies attributed to either emotion. These case studies formulate the spatial character of each emotion, incorporating material, form, volume and light as key qualities alterable to produce appropriate emotional atmospheres. Design progresses from sketches of concepts utilised in these case studies and the literature to create two 'languages' according to the two emotional states. These 'languages' are tested in the final design, where the communication between the two emotions is vital in the narrative and experience of the building. The architecture of emotional evocation proves the emotionally stirring qualities of particular architectural atmospheres and the capacity and power of architecture to evoke these emotional states within the occupants. Utilised terms within this thesis include evocation and languages. 'Evocation' implies a passive transference of emotion through the representation of associated qualities within the architecture. 'Languages' is used to envelope the production of these associated qualities, with this thesis creating separate 'languages' for grief and love.

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  • "Re-collecting" Caravan: an Architecturalisation of the New Zealand Cultural Relic

    Clement, Shelly (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    “Re-collecting” Caravan re-interprets caravaning as the basis of a 21st century New Zealand vernacular architecture. Two themes run through this thesis: the caravan as an article of nostalgia, and the caravan in architecture as marginal. The final design outcome is a new typology of holidaying vessels within New Zealand’s camping grounds. This thesis begins with the specific history of the caravan within New Zealand and the facts that surround the reality of caravaning in today’s society: the caravan has become a celebrated cultural relic of our recent past of which is now continually used as a symbol or icon of New Zealand. A fear for the loss of the caravan as a living holiday reality sparked a cultural nostalgia and the foundations for this research. To prevent the loss of the adored functional domestic vessel, the caravan was next analysed for its compositional and phenomenal attributes of which could later help inform an architectural response. It was the ‘retro’ aesthetic combined with the fact that ephemeral cultural artefacts (such as the caravan) do not typically ‘belong’ in the architectural realm that bought about the second theme. Kitsch as a by-product of a re-interpreted retro artefact is addressed before moving on to the design process and final design. Although orientated specifically toward the caravan, this thesis addresses the wider issues of celebrating and liberating the architectural influences of the margins. It deals with kitsch, lifestyles, nostalgia, miniature, popular culture, media, tourism, mobility, and iconism.

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  • Synthesis of N-Glycans Implicated in Asthma and Allergy

    Haslett, Gregory William (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Asthma and allergies affect a large number of people, with over 300 million people worldwide suffering from asthma alone. Although, on the ‟macroscopic‟ level, it is known how allergens trigger allergic reactions, it is not known how an allergen's ‟micro‟ structure causes such a profound allergic response in sensitised individuals. A review of inter-species carbohydrate motifs revealed a striking similarity between carbohydrate moieties (N-glycans) present on antigens derived from species known to give an allergic T helper (Th) 2 response in humans (such as pollen, schistosomes, and food allergens). Preliminary studies on mixtures of allergen extracts have suggested that these carbohydrate motifs (glycoproteins) bias the immune response to an allergic (Th2) response. This project presents work conducted towards the synthesis of three fragments of a larger N-glycan found on allergens. The synthesis of these N-glycans will allow the first detailed study regarding the relationship between N-glycan structure and Th2 bias to be performed and thereby aid in our understanding of the molecular triggers of asthma. Ultimately, this could lead to the elucidation of the mechanisms of the allergic Th2 immune response.

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  • Nautical Symbolism in Christian Maori Architecture

    Radburnd, Pamela (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    It is well known that many Maori cultural traditions and cosmological beliefs are anchored in a sea of knowledge associated with seafaring, navigation and the oceanic environment. Despite the loss of deep-sea voyaging, this thesis explores how nautical reflexes were still very influential on various modes of expression in Christian Maori architecture of three distinct Maori religious movements from the colonial and post-colonial periods. During this investigation, this thesis also identifies a relationship that can be found between the appropriation of nautical symbolism in Christian and Maori architecture. This relationship is examined on two levels: One, in terms of how Christian and Maori iconography has latent nautical meaning and secondly, how nautical symbolism in Christian Maori architecture is more signal than sculptural. The latter identifies the more powerful, metaphysical symbols in Maori architecture and spirituality which make Christian Maori architecture uniquely different from European Christian architecture. This thesis links these qualities in symbolic Christian maori architecture to the psychic and symbolic territories known to the navigator. In doing so, this thesis discovers how nautical symbols occupy a middle ground, an in-between area bridging the known with the unknown and examines their role as mediators between the present and the past; the individual and the collective. This thesis finally presents an architectural design which explores specific aspects of research. In doing so, the use of nautical symbolism and water-based pragmatism through architecture explores how such methods and expressions can influence and transform Western notions of knowledge or conventional notions of contemporary (terrestrial) architecture in New Zealand. To achieve this, nautical concepts from case study material are applied to a contemporary design project in order to open up architecture to its metaphysical dimension rather than focussing on the object (sculptural) that is frozen in time. As a result, this design also celebrates and revives the nautical instinct of Maori in terms of how it can offer new and meaningful ways to design architecture in oceania and New Zealand.

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  • Flexible Hotel Design: Rethinking Hotel Design to Address Short-Term Demand Fluctuations

    Lin, Bohan (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A hotel consists of two major components, the business operations and the physical property. These two components although distinctively different, are very much interdependent and affect the hotel’s ability to succeed. An understanding of this important duality is evident in the increasingly market driven nature of hotel design. More diverse and innovative new hotel concepts are constantly being developed based on the identification of gaps in hotel markets, or the creation of new market segments. However, the common perception of the hotel property as being a static and permanent entity remains the same. Despite the volatile and ever‐changing nature of hotel markets, shortterm demand fluctuations have always been one of the biggest concerns and topics of discussion for hotel management and marketing. While there has been plenty of research into the problems and implications that short‐term demand fluctuations have on hotel performance and profitability, common approaches to dealing with demand changes are very much restricted by the physical hotel design, and limited to strategic management and marketing tactics that are often inadequate to deal with the problem. This thesis identifies a gap in the knowledge between hotel design and short‐term demand fluctuations. Through research and design, it aims to bridge the gap by directing a design response targeted specifically at the nature of shortterm demand fluctuations. The outcome of this thesis is the design of a new hotel proposed for Wellington, New Zealand. The design demonstrates how particular flexible design interventions can allow the hotel property to be more responsive to short‐term demand fluctuations, and its potential to improve business performance and operating efficiency.

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  • Edge of the Grid: Defining Wellington’s Edge through Intensification

    Aitken, Robin (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The concept of growth limits is reoccurring within city theory. If city growth is constrained, then denser development patterns must be used. Contemporary theory on city form is centred on arguments for more sustainable cities, so methods of densification must be sustainable. Very little work in the field of architecture or urban design has been done to investigate the potential of defining the edge to the city through built form. None has been found that translates the edge of a green-belted city into a built form. Therefore, this thesis suggests that in some cases, defining the edge of a green-belted city through built form is a logical step to take in the evolution of these cities. The greenbelt is a widely used tool in cities around the world and has been implemented in various ways. In order to produce a site-specific response to the edge condition created by greenbelt and city, the design is located in Wellington. Wellington is highlighted as an unusual case for the relationship between city and greenbelt for two reasons. The first is that the Wellington Outer Green Belt, formally established in 2004, has grown from a public desire to have a continuous network of recreational tracks running the length of the western edge of the city and protecting the highly valued visual amenity of ridgelines and hilltops. This is opposed to cities which have implemented greenbelts primarily to constrict growth. The second, closely connected to the first, is that the greenbelt boundary has largely been influenced by topographical constraints on settlement patterns and is not an arbitrary planning gesture. Wellington is also unusual because of the inclusion of a town belt in the original colonial layout of the city in 1841. The belt has survived largely intact, and can provide insight into the nature of city growth up against a green edge. This thesis aims to draw together two aspects of city form; the relationship between greenbelt and city and the understanding that denser, intensified settlement patterns provide a more ecological form and therefore poses the hypothesis that defining the edge of the city through intensification can contribute to an ecological city form.

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  • Learning to Lead: What Constitutes Effective Training for Student Leaders in New Zealand Secondary Schools?

    Davies, Bronwyn (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Student leaders in New Zealand secondary schools may include tutors, head students, sports and cultural captains, mentors and prefects. This study is based on the premise that student leaders can provide inspiration to other students and work skilfully to shape the culture of a school. The possibilities that stem from the role of student leader can be endless, yet there seems to be little evidence of consensus regarding what kind of training should be provided for student leaders. This is an investigation of student leadership training programmes. The main purpose is to discover what constitutes effective training for student leaders. This study is designed to provide educators with examples of what effective training could involve. It is a multiple-case study of three different New Zealand secondary schools. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, an observation and a survey. The study uses a distributed leadership framework and thematic analysis of data. This study reveals some aspects of effective student leadership training and, based on findings, includes recommendations for components of future training programmes. The analysis highlights the importance of creating a school environment that supports student leadership. The findings also reveal the value of designing leadership training programmes that adhere to principles of experiential learning.

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  • Floating Development: An Alternative to Land Reclamation for Waterfront Development: A Case Study for Design and Construction of VLFS in Wellington

    Qu, Xin Sharyn (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In countries Japan, Netherlands, and Singapore they experience increasing land scarcity due to concentration of population or flooding issue. The growing concerns over environmental degration and political conflicts due to land reclamation means land-filled is no longer an acceptable way. Thus these countries put greater emphasis on investigating and application of other alternatives, such as floating structure, to allow for urban expansion. In particular, Very Large Floating Structure (VLFS) is becoming increasing popular and promising. This thesis presents a range of water-based development that include urban and architectural scale, historical and recent, and focuses on analysing the urban aspects. Projects of Japan, Netherlands and Singapore are researched at lesser detail for understanding technical, economy and political considerations in a floating development. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities of having floating structure as a way to expand the city. The case study used is of VLFS on the Lambton Harbour of Wellington city, New Zealand, to demonstrate the feasibility.

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  • Confirming Tradition: Confirming Change – A Social History of the Cricket Tours to New Zealand in the 1930s

    Mann, Owen (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study examines the eight tours to New Zealand by visiting cricketing teams between 1930 and 1939. There were four tours made by the Marylebone Cricket Club along with inaugural visits by the West Indies, South Africa, an England Women's XI, and lastly the Julien Cahn XI. These tours were major events for contemporaries, attracting large crowds and much attention in the press. They are a focus for an examination of New Zealand’s relations with other parts of the world, specifically other parts of the Empire. The tours were major sporting events, but also prompted wider popular and public discussion of nationhood, race, gender and the role of sport in society and the Empire. For the New Zealand public in the 1930s, cricket was a game that connected them with their British and imperial heritage during a period of uncertainty. For the cricket community of New Zealand the tours were massive undertakings due to the substantial financial commitment required and poor results, but the tours continued because of the strong associations and core beliefs that cricket nurtured and because of a love of the game. Though these tours contained few moments of on-field achievement for the hosts they say much about how New Zealanders of that decade viewed themselves and others. Drawing primarily on the dense contemporary press coverage 'Confirming Tradition, Confirming Change' examines cricket's capacity to operate as more than a game - it acts as a conduit for understanding the broader social attitudes and beliefs of the time. Each of the tours contains an internal narrative concerning entrenched traditions and bonds and their interplay with newer realities and considerations. Cricket was largely administered by bodies that emphasised the traditions and conservative structures of the game, but the teams themselves represented and engaged with the changing expectations and realities of sport in this decade. Cricket was changing from within, exemplified by the expansion of test cricket but also influenced by external elements such as the growth of radio commentary and cinema. This study examines the eight tours in three chronologically bracketed chapters focusing on issues of race in the tours by the MCC of 1929-30, the West Indies in 1930-31 and South Africa in 1931-32; the issue of gender and identity in the tours by the MCC of 1932-33 and the England Women of 1934-35; and issues of professionalism/commercialism and differences in player and public expectations in the tours by the MCC in 1935-36, 1936-37 and the Julien Cahn XI in 1938-39. Throughout the eight tours there were tensions between tradition and change, sometimes exhibited between New Zealand crowds and visiting teams, sometimes between administrators and players. The tours may have reflected the weakness of New Zealand cricket, but the local players' and spectators' commitment to Empire is apparent through the continued perseverance at a sport that at the time represented imperial loyalty and global British communality.

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  • Crossing the Threshold between Spatial Installation Art and Interior Architecture

    Wiki, Caley (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis explores opportunities to challenge how the nature of spatial installation art might be conceived within the medium of habitable architecture. It explores how spatial installation can take a shift in spatial qualities from space that is occupied to space that is inhabited. It focuses specifically on precedents and opportunities for the use of architectural vocabulary along with materiality, context, ordering systems, and identities to engage the occupant with spatial experience that challenges the boundaries between art and interior architecture. The intent of this thesis is to investigate how such vocabularies can be applied to interior architecture in order to formulate architectural space that society actively interacts in and through. The macro approach embraces multi - functionality allowing freedom for the space to metamorphose when confronted with a new set of social demands by the inhabitant without the space actually needing to physically change. The thesis investigates the threshold between the realms of conceptual spatial art and programmed habitable architectural space. It examines how an ‘installation’ can respond to multiple programmatic requirements and the requirements of habitation, as a means of redefining our presumptions of interior architecture. This thesis investigates the liminal boundaries defining a construction as a work of architecture versus a work of art by considering interior architecture as a vital transition between architecture and art. As a site for this investigation the thesis explores ‘interior architecture’ opportunities along a pedestrian pathway in Wellington, one which is spatially contained by urban buildings on either side. The selection of this site for an investigation of interior architecture immediately challenges traditional presumptive boundaries between interior architecture, architecture, landscape architecture and urban planning. Such a site provides a critical vehicle for investigating the nature of program and habitability within a constructed installation space that crosses the boundaries into architecture.

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