10,685 results for Doctoral, All rights reserved

  • Collaborative Software Visualization in Co-located Environments

    Anslow, Craig (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Most software visualization systems and tools are designed from a single-user perspective and are bound to the desktop and IDEs. These design decisions do not allow users to analyse software collaboratively or to easily interact and navigate visualizations within a co-located environment at the same time. This thesis presents an exploratory study of collaborative software visualization using multi-touch tables in a co-located environment. The thesis contributes a richer understanding of how pairs of developers make use of shared visualizations on large multi-touch tables to gain insight into the design of software systems. We designed a collaborative software visualization application, called Source-Vis, that contained a suite of 13 visualization techniques adapted for multi-touch interaction. We built two large multi-touch tables (28 and 48 inches) following existing hardware designs, to explore and evaluate SourceVis. We then conducted both qualitative and quantitative user studies, culminating in a study of 44 professional software developers working in pairs. We found that pairs preferred joint group work, used a variety of coupling styles, and made many transitions between coupling and arrangement styles. For collaborative group work we recommend designing for joint group work over parallel individual work, supporting a flexible variety of coupling styles, and supporting fluid transitions between coupling and arrangement styles. We found that the preferred style for joint group work was closely coupled and arranged side by side. We found some global functionally was not easily accessible. We found some of the user interactions and visual interface elements were not designed consistently. For the design of collaborative software visualizations we recommend designing visualizations for closely coupled arrangements with rotation features, providing functionality in the appropriate locality, and providing consistent user interactions and visual interface design. We found sometimes visualization windows overlapped each other and text was hard to read in windows. We found when pairs were performing joint group work the size of the table was appropriate but not for parallel individual. We found that because the table could not differentiate between different simultaneous users that some pair interactions were limited. For the design of multi-touch tables we recommend providing a high resolution workspace, providing appropriate table space, and differentiating between simultaneous user interactions.

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  • The intraovarian cellular origins of GDF9 and BMP15 in the mouse and aspects of their biological properties

    Mester, Brigitta (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are both members of the TGF-ß protein superfamily and are known to be essential for normal follicular development in mammals. Several studies have highlighted the species-specific effects of BMP15 and GDF9, which could be attributed, at least in part to the differences in the follicular expression patterns and to different forms of the secreted proteins. In the mouse, GDF9 is required for follicular development, whereas BMP15 appears to be only required near ovulation with contradictory reports as to the timing of BMP15 expression. However, mouse BMP15 and GDF9 are known to have the capability of acting together synergistically. The aims of this thesis were to characterise in the mouse ovary, the expression patterns (localisation and levels) of Bmp15 and Gdf9 mRNA throughout follicular development, and to determine the peri-ovulatory expression of the corresponding proteins. In situ hybridisation and quantitative PCR analyses of ovarian samples and follicular cells collected from control and superovulated mice confirmed that Gdf9 and Bmp15 mRNA are expressed exclusively in oocytes from primary and early secondary stage follicles respectively. qPCR analysis of denuded oocytes (DO) revealed a tight correlation, and therefore co-regulation, between the expression levels of Bmp15 and Gdf9 irrespective of follicular developmental stage, with steady expression until the preovulatory LH surge when down-regulation of Bmp15 and Gdf9 occurred. Throughout the follicular developmental stages examined, Gdf9 was expressed in greater abundance relative to Bmp15, with a Bmp15:Gdf9 mRNA ratio of 1:4.12. [...] In conclusion, oocyte-derived Bmp15 and Gdf9 mRNA expression is co-regulated throughout follicular development in mice, with Gdf9 being more abundant than Bmp15, which might be an important factor in determining high ovulation quota. The expression of the target genes is down-regulated as the oocyte reaches developmental competence following the preovulatory LH surge. Protein expression data provided evidence that in vivo the immature mouse oocyte is capable of secreting all BMP15 protein forms previously detected in vitro. After the preovulatory LH surge, all visible protein forms are associated with the somatic follicular cells, in particular with the expanded cumulus mass. Of particular interest is the presence of the large protein complexes in the cumulus cell lysates, which suggests a storage and activation process involving ECM proteins, similar to the mechanism reported for other TGF-ß superfamily members, such as TGF-ß1 and myostatin. The finding that the BMP15 precursor protein is biologically active with a different activity to that of the processed mature protein form suggests that the full-length precursor protein may regulate or provide at least a portion of the biological activity of BMP15 in mice.

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  • Evolution Made Visible: The Worlds of Thomas Jeffery Parker (1850-1897) the Noted New Zealand Zoologist

    Crane, Rosemary Helen Beatrice (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A biographical approach to the working life of Thomas Jeffery Parker FRS (1850-1897) provides scope for an in-depth investigation of how zoological knowledge became visible in late-nineteenth century New Zealand. A noted zoologist, Parker arrived in Dunedin in 1880 to a joint appointment as Professor of Biology in the University of Otago and Curator of the Museum. He had spent eight years working as demonstrator in Thomas Henry Huxley’s (1825-1890) laboratory in London. He brought with him a conviction that evolution provided the fundamental organising principle of biology. Once in Dunedin he set about making evolution visible. This study examines the various facets of Parker’s work that achieved this goal. I explore the lively debates arising from the public lectures he gave, in which he promoted evolution. In Dunedin, founded by Scottish Free Church Presbyterians in 1848, public interest in science-and-religion remained high throughout the late-nineteenth century. This study suggests that Parker’s own religious sensibilities lay between the agnosticism of Huxley and the faith of his Wesleyan father, the anatomist William Kitchen Parker (1823-1890). I also investigate Parker’s role in disseminating popular versions of biology, from the podium and through articles, to various audiences. His roles in the sociable side of scientific activities included organizing exhibits for conversaziones and international exhibitions. Parker’s efforts are placed within the context of Dunedin’s vibrant rational entertainment scene. Parker exchanged, bought, sold and collected specimens for the Otago University Museum in order to provide a comprehensive teaching collection. I appraise Parker’s previously little-understood role in museum collection building and explore his material practices in creating objects and their display according to evolutionary principles. Parker’s embryological studies of kiwi and phylogeny of the moa formed a major contribution to New Zealand biology. Methodologically speaking, he followed a traditional path of comparative anatomy. A close-reading of his more than forty papers of technically dense work reveal a conservative mind and a dedication to developmental morphology. Aware of changing epistemologies, he incorporated a statistical approach to his analyses. In this study, I suggest Parker created knowledge through drawing. Analysis of his illustrations reveals his concern with clear exposition. I show how the he used illustrations as part of the process of visual communication not simply as an adjunct. Generations of students learnt zoology using Parker’s system of ‘types’ a pedagogy he inherited from Huxley. They assimilated evolutionary principles via A Textbook of Zoology, which organized the animal kingdom in a typically late-nineteenth century progressive fashion. This two-volume book, co-authored with William Aitcheson Haswell (1854-1925) in Sydney and published posthumously, remains in print. An analysis of its creation shows how disciplinary shifts within zoology were fixed to the page. This study also uses Parker to explore wider concerns in the history of science. These include praxis and materiality, the popularization of science, the rise of the learned journal and broader aspects of print culture, and the geographic location of knowledge creation.

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  • Effect of alcohol exposure in early gestation on brain development

    Li, Yuhong (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, has been extensively studied in the human. Animal studies show that alcohol exposure during very early development may result in severe brain damage, often incompatible with a postnatal life. However, for surviving offspring it is unknown whether they suffer long term brain damage. The final assembly of the mature brain results from a controlled balance between proliferation of glial and neuronal precursors and programmed cell death. The overall aim of the current study was to use a physiologically relevant mouse model to assess the acute and long-term effects of binge alcohol exposure on the early embryo, to simulate human pregnancy at the third week of gestation when pregnancy may be undetected. A number of paradigms were used to assess the acute dose-response effect, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) profile and the extent of cell death following alcohol exposure on gestational day (G) 7.5. The exposure paradigms were single binge IG6.5, IG4.5, IP4.5, or an extended binge IG4.5+, IG3.0+. Two control groups were Con6.5 and Con4.5+. Acute cell death was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), activated caspase-3 staining, and transmission electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was investigated using S-phase immuno-labeling, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) birthdating and immuno-detection (BrdU/anti-BrdU). The long-term effects were investigated at G18.5 and postnatal day (PN) 60. Unbiased stereological methods were used to assess the effect of ethanol exposure at G7.5 on neocortical volume, cell number and density of neurons, glial cells, and capillary cells at PN60. The first principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation resulted in acute apoptotic cell death in the ectoderm of the mouse embryo. Cell death was dependent on both peak BAC and the duration of elevated BAC. Significant increased cell death (TUNEL labeling) was observed in groups IG6.5 (9.43 ± 2.08%) and IG4.5+ (8.97 ± 2.12%) compared with control groups Con6.5 (2.14 ± 0.09%) and Con4.5+ (2.81 ± 0.36%). There was no significant increased cell death in ethanol exposed groups IG4.5 (3.43 ± 0.45%), IP4.5 (3.68 ± 0.67%), or IG3.0+ (1.72 ± 0.24%). TEM analysis revealed that cell death exhibited characteristics of the apoptotic pathway. The second principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation resulted in acute arrested proliferation in the ectoderm of the mouse embryo. The S-phase proliferation was significantly decreased within the whole ectoderm in the ethanol exposed group IG6.5 (45.58 ± 2.34%) compared with control group Con6.5 (62.08 ± 3.11%). The third principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation induced the long term effect of laminate disorganization in the neocortex. The incidence of abnormal lamination was 87.5% in IG6.5 compared with 16.7% in IG3.0+ and 14.3% in Con6.5. Although ethanol exposure increased embryonic reabsorption, decreased litter size, and increased abnormal offspring, neocortical volume, and the total number of neurons, glial cells, and capillary cells was not affected. The total number (10⁶) of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells respectively was 12.221 ± 0.436, 4.865 ± 0.167, and 2.874 ± 0.234 in IG6.5; 11.987 ± 0.416, 4.942 ± 0.133, and 2.922 ± 0.130 in IG3.0+; and 11.806 ± 0.368, 5.166 ± 0.267, and 3.284 ± 0.217 in controls, at PN60. These results provide important information pertinent to fetal outcome for those women who drink heavily in early pregnancy. The results also demonstrate the importance of the pattern of ethanol exposure and blood alcohol concentration in determining the magnitude of ethanol's teratogenic impact. Ethanol exposure on G7.5 that resulted in a high transient BAC, induced disorganized neocortical lamination, indicative of a permanent structural change. This disruption may result in altered neocortical function and requires further investigation.

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  • Synthesis and characterisation of poly(acrylic acid) microspheres containing β-cyclodextrin

    Bibby, David C. (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xviii, 160 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "February 1999"

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  • Analysis of fungal inteins

    Bokor, Annika Anna Maria (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxvi, 298 leaves :col. ill ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Biochemistry. "November 1, 2010"

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  • Self-Regulation During A Reading-To-Write Task: A Sociocultural Theory-Based Investigation

    Wall, Bunjong (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Most composition studies focus on students’ writing processes and written products without integrating reading into their research activities. More recently, researchers have acknowledged the reciprocal reading-writing relationship and begun to examine reading-to-write or discourse synthesis processes. Research shows that discourse synthesis is cognitively demanding and that most second language writers lack linguistic, mental, and sociocultural resources to perform this task effectively. Existing studies have not emphasised the role of self-directed speech as a self-regulatory strategy while students read multiple texts in order to write. This thesis addresses this gap in the literature. Informed by sociocultural theoretical notions that cognition is socially mediated and that speech is instrumental in learning and development, this qualitative multiple-case-studies thesis examined how five Thai EFL tertiary students applied their knowledge and skills, following explicit concept-based instruction on discourse synthesis, textual coherence, and argumentation. The researcher designed and delivered a four-week intervention in which the learning concepts, materials, and verbalisation were instrumental in promoting conceptual understanding and reading-to-write performance. Explicitly taught verbalisation or self-directed speech, together with learning materials specifically designed as schemes for task orientation, was a key for self-regulation as participants read multiple texts in order to compose an argument essay. The study adopted an activity theoretical framework and microgenetic analysis. The analysis aimed to describe the participants as social beings and to outline their self-regulation as it unfolded during a mediated reading-to-write activity. Data from a pre-task questionnaire on strategy use and from a post-task written self-reflection form together with video-recorded data during the end-of-intervention discourse synthesis task and interview data were triangulated to examine how reading-to-write activities were mediated and regulated. Findings were organised around four main themes: participants as readers and writers of English, essay argument structure, microgenetic findings of unfolding self-regulatory behaviour during the discourse synthesis activity, and developmental gains as perceived by the participants during concept-based instruction. The findings in this study show that participants’ reading and writing difficulties and argumentation were, in part, shaped by the social, historical and cultural factors in the Thai EFL context, and that participants’ strategic application of verbalisation and learning materials mediated their developmental changes and self-regulation. During the discourse synthesis task, participants used self-directed speech as a strategy and demonstrated varying degrees of self-regulation over various task aspects. Successful task completion indicated purposeful mediated learning with strong orientation towards the task, based on conceptual understanding, specific goals, and voluntary inclusion of learning materials as psychological tools. All participants reportedly viewed verbalisation as a useful strategy and most participants were able to describe their increased theoretical understanding of the concepts explicitly taught. However, their conceptual understanding did not always translate into their actual performance. These findings raise pedagogical implications and highlight the need for human mediators to make explicit the learning concepts, materials and strategies, so that theoretical understanding and learning tools can lead to meaningful task performance. Based on the above findings, this thesis proposes a self-regulation model and calls for future research to investigate how explicit verbalisation training can be systematised.  

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  • Hostility in the House of God: An "Interested" Investigation of the Opponents in 1 and 2 Timothy

    Thornton, Dillon T. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    To my knowledge, Pietersen’s study (2004) is the only monograph published in the last twenty years that has focused on the opponents in the Pastoral Epistles, but his work is not exegetical. In this thesis, I concentrate on 1 and 2 Timothy, the two letters purportedly dispatched to Ephesus. I assemble the relevant pericopae of the letters and offer an exegetical analysis of them, with the intention of providing, first, a composite sketch of the ideology of the opposing group and, second, an in-depth account of the way the faithful Pauline community was to engage these opponents. The first chapter of the thesis is devoted to preliminary issues and methodology. I argue that 1 and 2 Timothy constitute two types of letter, both dispatched in the late first century to the Christian community in Ephesus, each addressing a stage of the conflict in which the community was engaged. I further argue that the polemical portions of the letters reveal specific information about this conflict. I then formulate a stringent method for the study of Paul’s opponents. I summarize and critique historical-critical methodologies and bring the most recent work on theological interpretation of Scripture into dialogue with these methodologies. The result is a new approach to the study of opponents, one that remains rigorously tethered to the primary text and that is characterized by ecclesial concern. In chapters two to six, I apply this method to 1 and 2 Timothy. In chapter two, I offer an exegetical analysis of the explicit units of 1 Timothy, those units where we have clear and certain reference to the opponents (1:3-7, 18-20; 4:1-5; 6:2b-5, 20-21a). Chapters three and four focus on the implicit units in 1 Timothy, those units where we have highly probable reference to the opponents (1:8-11; 2:9-15; 4:6-10; 5:9-16; 6:6-10). In chapter five, I turn to 2 Timothy, analyzing the three explicit units (2:14-26; 3:1-9; 4:1-5) and the one implicit unit of the letter (2:8-13). In chapter six, I bring together the full gamut of data uncovered in the exegetical chapters, offering overall conclusions about the opponents in 1 and 2 Timothy. As a follow-up to this, I enumerate what I perceive to be the most important implications of the findings for the house of God today. My findings may be summarized as follows. I conclude that the opponents came from within the Christian community in Ephesus and that their teaching is best described as an erroneous eschatological position that derived from the complexity of Paul’s views. Each doctrinal and ethical issue raised in the explicit and implicit units of the letters can be explained as a distortion of Pauline doctrine. Additionally, I contend that the opponents had an active “didactic/evangelistic ministry” in Ephesus, for which they received remuneration. They likely set out to recruit as large a following, and as large an income, as possible, but found a particularly fruitful field among the women in Ephesus. As I formulate my view of the opponents, I critique a number of the extant theories, including “Gnostic,” Jewish, and Proto-Montanist identifications. I also conclude that the author engages with the false teachers in significant ways throughout the letters. I draw attention to a number of literary and theological maneuvers that are intended to counteract the opponents’ influence and/or to bolster the faithful community’s confidence as they struggle against the opponents. These include the way the author turns features of the opponents against them, his use of the faithful saying formula, the way he relates the Triune God and the principal adversary, Satan, to the opponents, and the way the author portrays the gospel as an unstoppable force in his own ministry. Though the author pictures the opponents as enemies of God, he also highlights the fact that the opponents are not beyond the reach of God’s grace; thus, Timothy is called to minister the saving word to them. In the explicit and implicit units, the author instructs Timothy to occupy himself with five specific activities: reflection on his commissioning and on the apostolic gospel, rejection of the opponents’ claims, proclamation of the healthy teaching, demonstration of the gospel in actions that are pleasing to God, and correction of the false teachers themselves. The wider faithful community is at least implicitly included in the activities of rejection, demonstration, and correction.

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  • Dissolved organic matter in New Zealand natural waters

    Gonsior, Michael (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 186 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "1st of April 2008". University of Otago department: Chemistry.

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  • Public Theology, Core Values and Domestic Violence in Samoan Society

    Ah Siu-Maliko, Mercy (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The purpose of this research is to formulate a theologically coherent perspective on the complex social and moral questions facing contemporary Samoan society. It does so by constructing a contextual Samoan public theology, based on the core Samoan-Christian values of alofa (love), fa’aaloalo (respect), soalaupule (consensual dialogue), tautua (selfless service) and amiotonu (justice). Drawing on scholarship on public theology, as well as relevant interdisciplinary sociological, cultural and religious studies, the thesis examines the nature and constituent elements of public theology, both in the West and in Samoa. To construct a framework for a public theology for Samoa based on its core values, the study examines the significance of the fa’asamoa (Samoan way of life) and its value system. Key to this framework is an understanding of the fusion between Samoan values and Christian values. Because ‘the public’ are the subjects of public theology, a crucial element of the construction of a Samoan public theology is the incorporation of the views of representative voices within Samoan society. Using constructivist grounded theory and talanoa Pacific research methodologies, seventy-five interviews from representatives of government, civil society, churches and villages garner valuable information on Samoans’ core values and their relevance for a public theology. The information on core values gleaned from research participants and other scholarship reveals how they can be brought to bear on social issues in the Samoan public sphere – the ‘why, who, what and how’ of a Samoan public theology. This collective knowledge suggests concrete ways of shaping theological discourse and moral action in contemporary Samoan society. The thesis ends with a contextual application of core Samoan-Christian values, as a public theology response to the social problem of domestic violence in Samoa.

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  • Enhancing the performance of wastewater microalgae through chemical and physical modifications in High Rate Algal Ponds

    Sutherland, Donna Lee (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    High rate algal ponds (HRAPs) are an advanced pond that provide efficient and cost-effective wastewater treatment, as well as the ability to recover nutrients in the form of microalgal biomass. Microalgal photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and subsequent growth, coupled with aerobic bacteria degradation of organic compounds, are fundamental to the process of wastewater treatment in HRAPs, yet are often limited in these ponds and, in particular, microalgal photosynthesis is well below the reported theoretical maximum. Understanding how the physico-chemical environment affects microalgal performance is therefore critical to improved wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery, yet has been the subject to few studies to date. This research focused on the enhancement of microalgal photo-physiology, growth and nutrient removal efficiency (NRE) through modification to the physical and chemical environment in wastewater HRAPs. In this study, I first examined the seasonal dynamics of microalgal performance in full-scale wastewater HRAPs. While both retention-time corrected chlorophyll biomass and photosynthetic potential increased from winter to summer, the summer-time performance was considered to be constrained, as indicated by the decreased light absorption, light conversion efficiency and NRE. The physico-chemical environment in the full-scale HRAPs were characterised by high day-time pH, high light attenuation and long, straight channels with low turbulence. This led to questions regarding 1) effects of nutrient supply, in particular carbon and 2) the role of the HRAP light climate on microalgal performance. I addressed these questions using a series of experiments that involved either changing the nutrient concentration and its supply or by modifying the light environment, through changes in pond operational parameters including CO2 addition, influent dilution, pond depth, hydraulic retention time (HRT), mixing speed and frequency. The overall results from these experiments showed that carbon was the primary and light the secondary limiting factors of microalgal performance. These limitations negatively affected light absorption, photosynthesis, productivity and NRE. While each operational parameter tested impacted on microalgal performance, to some degree, CO2 addition had the greatest influence on light absorption, photosynthetic efficiency and productivity, while continuous mixing had the greatest effect on NRE. Adding CO2 increased light absorption by 110% and 128%, maximum rate of photosynthesis by 185% and 218% and microalgal biovolume by between 150 – 256% and 260 – 660% (species specific), when cultures were maintained at pH 8 and 6.5, respectively. Providing sufficient mixing to achieve continuous turbulence enhanced NRE by between 300 – 425% (species specific), increased biomass concentrations between 150% and 4000% (species specific) compared to intermittent and no mixing, respectively, and increased harvest-ability of colonial species. However, at present, both CO2 addition and mechanical mixing attract high capital and operational costs. Modification to these technologies would be required to meet the objectives of cost-effective wastewater treatment and biofuel production. A more immediate and cost-effective solution demonstrated in this study was the altering pond depth, influent concentration and HRT. Doubling pond depth from 200 to 400 mm increased both microalgal nutrient removal and photosynthetic efficiencies which led to areal productivity increasing by up to 200%. When increased pond depth was coupled with decreased HRT, light absorption and photosynthetic performance further increased due to decreased internal self-shading and improved pond light climate. For nutrients, high influent loads increased productivity, while moderate loads increased effluent water quality. Overall, this work demonstrated that optimising the chemical and physical environment of wastewater treatment HRAPs (CO2 addition to maintain pH at 6.5 – 7, 400 mm pond depth, continuous mixing with vertical speed of 200 mm s-1, moderate nutrient load (15- 30 g m-3) and moderate HRT (4 / 6 days summer / autumn) can enhance microalgal biomass productivity, nutrient recovery as well as improve effluent water quality, particularly during summer when growth can be constrained.

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  • Puna kōrero: iwi and schools working together to support Māori student success

    Rewai-Couch, Melanie R (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the notion that iwi and schools working together can contribute to culturally responsive curriculum and schooling. It investigates how some schools have formed genuine education partnerships with iwi, and provides answers to the following question: in what ways are iwi and schools working together to support Māori students? An understanding of communities of practice, and what Māori student success looks like, are essential. Imperatives for education partnerships and the educational policy, and drivers for partnership are foundational in understanding and connecting collaboration between iwi and schools with the wider educational picture in Aotearoa New Zealand. In New Zealand, Māori are not as successful as their non-Māori peers. Approaches to achieving education equity, including collaboration with iwi and Māori, is important for informing education approaches and strategy. How those approaches are informed, developed and implemented is equally important in achieving models likely to positively affect Māori achievement in education. This is also important in ensuring that participation expectations of iwi are co-constructed, reasonable and appropriately resourced. The theoretical base of this study draws upon the literature review on collaboration between Māori/iwi and the New Zealand education system, as well as international literature on supporting Indigenous students, using a community of practice approach. The metaphor of ‘puna kōrero’ is used in this research, as an approach allowing for consideration of different sites of investigation using an organic, kaupapa (issue, topic) Māori perspective. The three puna kōrero explored are Te Kauhua: A Ministry of Education funded professional development programme for schools and iwi; iwi voices: six iwi education representatives speak about their experiences working with schools and advancing their iwi education aspirations; Wai Study Help: an English-literacy programme operating in a kura kaupapa Māori (Māori immersion schooling) setting that has partnerships with its local university and iwi. From these puna kōrero, implications for iwi, schools and the Ministry of Education are considered. iii Exploration of the three puna kōrero identified passionate leadership and purposeful membership, funding and resourcing, monitoring and defining success, whakawhanaungatanga (nurturing relationships with others) and involvement of whānau (family) as key themes. Motivations for schools and iwi to work together are explored, along with rationale for the Ministry of Education’s support of iwi-school communities of practice. A framework for iwi-school communities of practice is proposed, including recommendations for iwi, schools and the Ministry of Education.

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  • Scalable and adaptable security modelling and analysis.

    Hong, Jin Bum (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Modern networked systems are complex in such a way that assessing the security of them is a difficult task. Security models are widely used to analyse the security of these systems, which are capable of evaluating the complex relationship between network components. Security models can be generated by identifying vulnerabilities, threats (e.g., cyber attacks), network configurations, and reachability of network components. These network components are then combined into a single model to evaluate how an attacker may penetrate through the networked system. Further, countermeasures can be enforced to minimise cyber attacks based on security analysis. However, modern networked systems are becoming large sized and dynamic (e.g., Cloud Computing systems). As a result, existing security models suffer from scalability problem, where it becomes infeasible to use them for modern networked systems that contain hundreds and thousands of hosts and vulnerabilities. Moreover, the dynamic nature of modern networked systems requires a responsive update in the security model to monitor how these changes may affect the security, but there is a lack of capabilities to efficiently manage these changes with existing security models. In addition, existing security models do not provide functionalities to capture and analyse the security of unknown attacks, where the combined effects of both known and unknown attacks can create unforeseen attack scenarios that may not be detected or mitigated. Therefore, the three goals of this thesis are to (i) develop security modelling and analysis methods that can scale to a large number of network components and adapts to changes in the networked system; (ii) develop efficient security assessment methods to formulate countermeasures; and (iii) develop models and metrics to incorporate and assess the security of unknown attacks. A lifecycle of security models is introduced in this thesis to concisely describe performance and functionalities of modern security models. The five phases in the lifecycle of security models are: (1) Preprocessing, (2) Generation, (3) Representation, (4) Evaluation, and (5) Modification. To achieve goal (i), a hierarchical security model is developed to reduce the computational costs of assessing the security while maintaining all security information, where each layer captures different security information. Then, a comparative analysis is presented to show the scalability and adaptability of security models. The complexity analysis showed that the hierarchical security model has better or equivalent complexities in all phases of the lifecycle in comparison to existing security models, while the performance analysis showed that in fact it is much more scalable in practical network scenarios. To achieve goal (ii), security assessment methods based on importance measures are developed. Network centrality measures are used to identify important hosts in the networked systems, and security metrics are used to identify important vulnerabilities in the host. Also, new network centrality measures are developed to improvise the lack of accuracy of existing network centrality measures when the attack scenarios consist of attackers located inside the networked system. Important hosts and vulnerabilities are identified using efficient algorithms with a polynomial time complexity, and the accuracy of these algorithms are shown as nearly equivalent to the naive method through experiments, which has an exponential complexity. To achieve goal (iii), unknown attacks are incorporated into the hierarchical security model and the combined effects of both known and unknown attacks are analysed. Algorithms taking into account all possible attack scenarios associated with unknown attacks are used to identify significant hosts and vulnerabilities. Approximation algorithms based on dynamic programming and greedy algorithms are also developed to improve the performance. Mitigation strategies to minimise the effects of unknown attacks are formulated on the basis of significant hosts and vulnerabilities identified in the analysis. Results show that mitigation strategies formulated on the basis of significant hosts and vulnerabilities can significantly reduce the system risk in comparison to randomly applying mitigations. In summary, the contributions of this thesis are: (1) the development and evaluation of the hierarchical security model to enhance the scalability and adaptability of security modelling and analysis; (2) a comparative analysis of security models taking into account scalability and adaptability; (3) the development of security assessment methods based on importance measures to identify important hosts and vulnerabilities in the networked system and evaluating their efficiencies in terms of accuracies and performances; and (4) the development of security analysis taking into account unknown attacks, which consists of evaluating the combined effects of both known and unknown attacks.

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  • The regulation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7 phosphate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Blackmore, Nicola Jean (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Allosteric regulation of important enzymes is a mechanism frequently employed by organisms to exert control over their metabolism. The shikimate pathway is ultimately responsible for the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids in plants, microorganisms and apicomplexans. Two enzymes of the pathway, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) and chorismate mutase (CM) are located at critical positions along the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway and are often tightly feedback regulated in order to control the flux of metabolites through the pathway. This research presents studies on the allosteric function of these two enzymes. These studies emphasise the complexity of the intersecting network of allosteric response, which alters the catalytic activity of each enzyme in response to metabolic demand for the aromatic amino acids.

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  • Climate Variability: changing weather patterns over New Zealand

    Parsons, Simon (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The original intention of this thesis was to investigate Climate Change (CC), in particular the meteorological impacts of CC on New Zealand (NZ). Succinctly, “to understand what NZ’s future weather may entail”. However, as the research progressed it has led to the larger circulation and has highlighted the teleconnections that are present and the importance of the wider circulation and to NZ . It is apparent that the larger scale circulation needs to be considered in conjunction with, if not before, the synoptic scale. Thus, in order to understand NZ’s future weather first we must understand the Southern Hemisphere and the circulation within it. CC is often described in a broad global scale and it is difficult to translate and relate these mechanisms into day to day weather terms, which have the advantage of being commonly understood. Synoptic Climatology (SC) can bridge this gap by simplifying the wide variety of weather into a small grouping of types, and thus can provide an understandable alternative. To undertake this research an existing SC scheme known as the Kidson Types (KTs) was extended with the use of General Circulation Model (GCM) output. The KTs have been widely used in NZ, thus work detailing their future would be advantageous. The GCMs were able to reproduce the observed frequencies of occurrence of the KTs during the late 20th century. Future projections for the late 21st century surprisingly showed little change in annual type frequencies. To investigate this further a sensitivity study was undertaken, which revealed that the methodology was insensitive to annual type frequency change. The range of response from the GCM projections also inhibited determining significant changes in KT frequencies. Additionally, trend analysis using four realisations from one GCM noted both positive and negative trends in some of the types. This also highlights the difficulty in using GCM output, as a larger ensemble can diffuse results and in a small ensemble individual GCMs can unduly bias the results. Further scrutiny of the KT was then undertaken. An investigation of the KTs to ascertain their influence in the wider circulation using the ERA Interim (ERA-I) reanalysis and trends within the KT using a long term reanalysis data set, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR). Due to the high year to year variability in the KTs, significant trends were only determined in the 20CR with a reduction in the Zonal Regime representing the occurrence of strong westerly flows over NZ. A composite analysis was also undertaken to evaluate the KTs within the Southern Hemisphere (SH). A positive pressure anomaly was detected far from the Kidson domain, which is defined over NZ, during the SW type. This motivated another study on SH Blocking. Blocking is a large scale phenomena that can influence the paths of synoptic systems and thus potentially cause or exacerbate adverse weather events. Blocking is an area of climate research that requires further work, as there is a deficit of GCM studies in the SH. This study utilised a Persistent Positive Anomaly (PPA) methodology which is advantageous as the spatial pattern, latitude and longitude, of the Blocking Events (BEs) is determined. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use GCM output using the PPA methodology in the SH and this is also the first blocking study using Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP)5 GCM output in the SH. A reduction of BEs was observed over the South Pacific Ocean (SPO) region during summer and spring, in the GCM projections between 2041-2070 and 2071- 2100. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) has been suggested as an influence on blocking frequency in previous work and this relationship was studied. A high negative correlation between SAM + and BEs was observed in summer with the reanalysis and GCM historical output. This correlation was reduced in 21st century. However, further work is needed in this study in order to gain an understanding of the mechanisms and linkages between SAM and the BEs.

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  • Education and the boarding school novel : examining the work of José Régio

    Santos, Filipe D. Saavedra (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is centred on the work of Portuguese writer José Régio (1901-1969). He was a teacher-writer and, arguably, the most philosophical of Portuguese school novel authors. In his novel ‘A Drop of Blood’ (1945), Régio shows interest in the formation of the artist as the special object of education – the ‘marked man’ –, whose sensitivity distances him irremediably from the crowd. He adopted the radical individualism of Nietzsche not in order to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ this or that schooling model but to exemplify the perpetual clash, inherent in mankind, between the individual and the group, the artist and the non-artistic person, the young and the adult, the son and the father and the self and the world. Published Proquest ebook version: http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/canterbury/detail.action?docID=4799556 (UC Staff and Student use only)

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  • A multi-criteria approach to the evaluation of food safety interventions.

    Dunn, Alexander Hiram (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand faces a range of food safety hazards. Microbial hazards alone were estimated to cause over 2,000 years of lost healthy life in 2011 (Cressey, 2012) and $62m in medical costs and lost productivity in 2009 (Gadiel & Abelson, 2010). Chemical hazards are thought to be well managed through existing controls (Vannoort & Thomson, 2009) whereas microbial hazards are considered harder to control, primarily due to their ability to reproduce along the food production chain. Microbial hazards are thought to cause the majority of acute foodborne gastroenteritis. This research reviewed food safety literature and official documentation, and conducted 55 interviews, mostly with food safety experts from different stakeholder groups, to examine the food safety decision-making environment in New Zealand. This research explores the concept of the ‘stakeholder’ in the context of food safety decision-making and proposes an inclusive ‘stakeholder’ definition as any group which is able to affect, or be affected by, the decision-making process. Utilising this definition, and guided by interviews, New Zealand stakeholders in food safety decision-making were identified and classified as follows: •Regulators •Public health authorities •Food safety scientists/academics •Consumers •Māori •Food Businesses (further classified as): o Farmers o Processors o Food retailers o Exporters Interviews with stakeholders from these groups highlighted twelve criteria as being relevant to multiple groups during food safety intervention evaluation: •Effectiveness •Financial cost •Market Access •Consumer Perceptions •Ease of Implementation •Quality or Suitability •Quality of Science •Equity of Costs •Equity of Benefits •Workplace Safety •Cultural Impact •Animal Welfare There are a number of different ways to measure or assess performance on these criteria. Some are able to be quantitatively measured, while others may require the use of value judgements. This thesis used the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) metric for quantifying effectiveness during the testing of different MCDA models. This thesis reviews the MCDA process and the food safety specific MCDA literature. There are different ways of conducting MCDA. In particular, there are a large number of models available for the aggregation phase; the process of converting model inputs, in the form of criteria scores and weights, into model recommendations. This thesis has described and reviewed the main classes of model. The literature review and interview process guided the construction and testing of three classes of MCDA model; the Weighted Sum, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and PROMETHEE models. These models were selected due to their having different characteristics and degrees of complexity, as well as their popularity in the food safety and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) literature. Models were tested on the problem of selecting the most appropriate intervention to address the historic Campylobacter in poultry problem in New Zealand during the mid-2000s. Experimentation was conducted on these models to explore how different configurations utilise data and produce model outputs. This experimentation included: •Varying the format of input data •Exploring the effects of including/excluding criteria •Methods for sensitivity analysis •Exploring how data inputs and outputs can be elicited and presented using visual tools • Creating and using hybrid MCDA models The results of this testing are a key output of this thesis and provide insight into how such models might be used in food safety decision-making. The conclusions reached throughout this research phase can be classified into one of two broad groups: •Those relating to MCDA as a holistic process/methodology for decision-making •Those relating to the specific models and mathematical procedures for generating numerical inputs and outputs This thesis demonstrates that food-safety decision-making is a true multi-criteria, multi-stakeholder problem. The different stakeholders in food-safety decision-making do not always agree on the value and importance of the attributes used to evaluate competing intervention schemes. MCDA is well suited to cope with such complexity as it provides a structured methodology for the systematic and explicit identification, recording and aggregation of qualitative and quantitative information, gathered from a number of different sources, with the output able to serve as a basis for decision-making. The MCDA models studied in this thesis range from models that are simple and quick to construct and use, to more time consuming models with sophisticated algorithms. The type of model used for MCDA, the way these models are configured and the way inputs are generated or elicited can have a significant impact on the results of an analysis. This thesis has identified a number of key methodological considerations for those looking to employ one of the many available MCDA models. These considerations include: •Whether a model can accommodate the type and format of input data •The desired degree of compensation between criteria (i.e. full, partial or no compensation) •Whether the goal of an analysis is the identification of a ‘best’ option(s), or the facilitation of discussion, and communication of data •The degree of transparency required from a model and whether an easily understood audit trail is desired/required •The desired output of a model (e.g. complete or partial ranking). This thesis has also identified a number of practical considerations when selecting which model to use in food safety decision-making. These include: •The amount of time and energy required of stakeholders in the generation of data inputs (elicitation burden) •The degree of training required for participants •How data inputs are to be elicited and aggregated in different group decision-making environments •The availability of MCDA software for assisting an analysis Considering the above points will assist users in selecting a suitable MCDA model that meets their requirements and constraints. This thesis provides original and practical knowledge to assist groups or individuals looking to employ MCDA in the context of food-safety intervention decision-making. This research could also serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate a different selection of MCDA models.

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  • Morphosyntactic development of typically- and atypically-developing Bangla-speaking children.

    Sultana, Asifa (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Aims: Verb morphology, arguably, is identified as an area of exceptional challenge for the language development of both young typically-developing children, and children with language difficulties (Leonard, 2014a; Rice & Wexler, 2001). The developmental patterns of verb acquisition are found to be strongly governed by the typological properties of the ambient language; often language errors found in fusional languages (e.g. English and German) are significantly different from those found in agglutinative languages (e.g. Turkish and Tamil) (cf. Phillips, 2010). Therefore, the purpose of the study was to explore the developmental trends in the acquisition of verb morphology in Bangla, a language with agglutinative features. The first objective was to examine the morphosyntactic development of typically-developing (TD) Bangla-speaking children with regard to three verb forms, namely the Present Simple, the Present Progressive and the Past Progressive. A second objective was to examine the development of the three verb forms among a group of children with language impairment (LI). Rationale: Since Bangla is spoken by a large population, the acquisition data of Bangla represents a significant number of people, and the findings from the acquisition studies, when considered for intervention purposes, serve a considerably large population. Also, given that the normative data of language acquisition is unavailable for Bangla which leads to the absence of a language-specific assessment and intervention for LI children, the present study is expected to have importance for Bangla-speaking contexts. Method: Before the main study commenced, a pilot study was conducted with 19 Bangla-speaking TD children aged between two and four (years) in order to explore the developmental characteristics of the verb forms and to evaluate the research instruments identified for the actual study. The main study included 70 TD children between 1;11 and 4;3 years who were recruited from six daycare centres of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The children participated in three elicitation tasks, each to elicit one verb form, and a 20-minute play session that yielded a spontaneous language sample from each child. The researcher scored children’s performances on the three tasks, and transcribed the language samples using transcription software (Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts). The elicitation tasks were used to determine children’s mastery of the forms, whereas the language samples were used to calculate a set of language measures associated with morphological development. The study also included a group of nine children with LI between 3;11 and 9;4 years who participated in the same set of tasks as the TD children. These children were recruited from a special school in Dhaka. Findings: The results revealed that, for both TD and LI children, the Present Simple form was acquired with highest accuracy which was followed by the scores in the Present Progressive and the Past Progressive forms respectively. The error patterns indicated a qualitative progress even in children’s errors, which was consistent with the accuracy rates of the target forms. Based on the TD children’s performance on the three tasks, a developmental sequence for the three Bangla verb forms was proposed. Results also identified that Mean length of Utterance (MLU) did not have stronger associations with the tasks scores than did Age. Among the determinants tested, Bound Morpheme Type (BMT) was identified to have the strongest associations with the task scores. Analyses of the data from the LI children revealed a significant difference between the TD and the LI children on all three tasks and the other language measures. When compared against the proposed developmental stages, the children within the LI group were found to different in terms of their morphosyntactic capacities. A sub-group of LI children also did not conform to any stages of typical development. Conclusions: Results of the present study offer directions for future investigations in a wide range of areas of Bangla morphosyntax that need to be examined with both TD and LI children. Moreover, factors associated with language development that the present study did not examine (e.g. the role of input) also need to be addressed in future studies. Above all, there is a strong need for ongoing investigations in order to identify a comprehensive picture of morphosyntactic development of Bangla-speaking TD children, which can then lead to the assessment of a range of language impairments in Bangla.

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  • A spatial analysis of dengue fever and an analysis of dengue control strategies in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    Alkhaldy, Ibrahim (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Dengue fever poses a constant serious risk and continues to be a major public health threat in Saudi Arabia, particularly in the city of Jeddah where, since 2006, despite formally introduced Control Strategies, there has been a significant increase in the number of cases. International literature suggests that a range of variables can influence the persistence of dengue, including climatic conditions, the quality of the urban environment, socioeconomic status and control strategies. The overall aims of this research are to understand neighbourhood influences on the pattern of dengue fever across Jeddah City and to make a preliminary determination of the enabling factors for, and barriers to, the effective implementation of the Control Strategies for dengue fever in Jeddah City. A mixed methods research design using quantitative and qualitative data was used. Quantitative data were obtained from administrative sources for dengue fever cases and some of the spatial and temporal variables associated with them, but new variables were created for neighbourhood status and the presence of surface water. Qualitative data are drawn from key informant interviews with 15 people who were, or who had been, working on dengue fever Control Strategies. A qualitative descriptive analysis was based on pre- determined and emergent themes. The spatial and temporal analysis of the variables related to dengue fever in Jeddah City neighbourhoods revealed that neighbourhood status has a direct relationship with dengue fever cases, which is mediated through population density and the presence of non- Saudi immigrants. While there was no relationship with the presence of swamps, seasonal variations in the incidence of dengue were most pronounced in neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status. The qualitative review of dengue Control Strategies indicated five themes: (1) workforce characteristics and capability, (2) knowledge about dengue fever in Saudi Arabia and Jeddah City, (3) operational strategies for dengue fever control in Jeddah City, (4) the progress of implementation, and (5) overall view of the Government strategies in Jeddah City. This analysis found that the Strategies were well regarded but that aspects of implementation were not always effective. Nevertheless, both quantitative and qualitative results showed the persistence dengue fever problems in Jeddah City neighbourhoods and suggested how cases might be controlled. The number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah City neighbourhoods could continue to rise if the direct and indirect variables affecting dengue fever at the neighbourhood level are not well controlled. Careful attention to the further monitoring of patterns of dengue and specific neighbourhood Control Strategies are recommended, and established Control Strategies need to be implemented as designed. Nonetheless, there is still a need to develop new approaches that can examine and address neighbourhood level issues of dengue fever control.

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  • The Influence of Music Congruence and Message Complexity on the Response of Consumers to Advertisements

    Seneviratne, Buddhakoralalage Leelanga Dananjaya (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The overall aim of this study was to examine how the characteristics of two salient stimuli -music and message- of an audio advertisement influence the psychological state of consumers and how such a state subsequently determines their cognitive and affective responses to the advertisement. In achieving this aim, this study was guided by a combination of two cognitive resource utilisation theories, Limited Capacity Model of Motivated Mediated Message Processing (Lang, 2000) and Resource-Matching Hypothesis (Anand & Sternthal, 1989). In particular building upon inconsistency and load theories, this study proposed that certain stimulus characteristics prompted certain states of a consumer’s cognition. These two stimulus characteristics were the congruence of musical stimulus and the complexity of the message stimulus. The model then predicted the potential effect of these characteristics on certain psychological states (Psychological Discomfort and Cognitive Load) leading to affective (Attitude towards Advertisement) and cognitive (encoding, storage, and retention) responses. To empirically examine this model, an online experiment (using a 2 x 2 between-subject x 2 with-in subject mix design) was conducted, in which a mixed sample of 284 subjects was exposed to a set of audio advertisements especially designed for this study. Unfamiliar music in conjunction with a fictitious brand was used and the exposure level was maintained at low. ANCOVA, MANCOVA, two-stage hierarchical regression analysis, and Repeated-measures MANCOVA were administered to test the hypotheses presented in the conceptual model. Among major findings were that the multiple informational structures in a complex message positively influenced cognitive load, while congruent music was capable of attenuating the level of cognitive load. Incongruent music, on the other hand, was capable of generating a dissonance state experienced as psychological discomfort that in turn increased the level of cognitive load as a result of listener’s trying to resolve such a state. Both dissonance and cognitive load negatively influenced attitude towards advertisements, and the affect primacy of attitude formation appeared to be more applicable. Though high cognitive load clearly undermines encoding, storage, and retrieval processes, no evidence was found to support the Resource-matching Hypothesis. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the cognitive load offset by the congruent music would increase advertisement effectiveness by enabling its message to carry more information and by generating more favourable attitudes.

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