430 results for Doctoral, 2008

  • Dissolved organic matter in New Zealand natural waters

    Gonsior, Michael (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 186 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "1st of April 2008". University of Otago department: Chemistry.

    View record details
  • The transformation of Alexander's court : the kingship, royal insignia and eastern court personnel of Alexander the Great

    Collins, Andrew William (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 272 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Classics.

    View record details
  • Moving beyond acknowledgment : an investigation of the role of spirituality and religion within the professional practice of social work in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Stirling, Blair (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    For the past two decades there has been an ever expanding interest in the implications of spirituality and, or, religion within the professional practice of social work (Anderson and Angell, 1999; Bishop, Avila-Juarbe, & Thumme, 2003; Cornett, 1992; Northcut, 1999; Northcut, 2000; Praglin, 2004 ; Sheridan, Wilmer and Atcheson,1994). Increasingly, scholars and social workers alike have been considering the appropriateness of inclusion and the practical implications involved. This interest has developed to include attention to spirituality within varying ethical codes and definitions of social work. This is evident in international social work organisations such as the IFSW (International Federation of Social Workers) and IASSW (International Association of Schools of Social Work). Both have begun to include religious and, or, spiritual concerns into professional practice principles. In Aotearoa New Zealand the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers (ANZASW) is a member of these international bodies; thus the profession is bound to the above principles. Additionally, the Aotearoa New Zealand Social Workers Registration Board (SWRB) code of practice reflects the standards and ethical codes of the ANZASW. Moreover, spirituality and, or, religion is an important aspect for different client groups within the Aotearoa social services context. This is particularly so within bicultural frameworks. Despite this, little attention has been given to exploring how social workers and social service agencies in Aotearoa New Zealand integrate this aspect in their work with clients to meet the varying ethical requirements. Additionally, little investigation has been undertaken to explore the implications religion and, or, spirituality might have within the Aotearoa New Zealand Social Services context. To date a number of conversations have occurred with regard to spirituality and religious concerns for Tangata Whenua, and to a lesser degree Tagata Pasifika. This study seeks to address the paucity of information by undertaking a mixed methods investigation of the role religion and spirituality has within Aotearoa New Zealand social work.

    View record details
  • The clinical anatomy of the anterior neck muscles

    Kennedy, Ewan (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The role of the anterior neck muscles in cervical dysfunction has become an area of interest in the physiotherapy literature, resulting in the development of new methods for assessing and treating dysfunction of these muscles. However, these methods are based primarily on electromyographic (EMG) and various imaging studies, and lack a detailed anatomical or biomechanical foundation. The purpose of this work was to examine the morphology and basic biomechanics of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM); scalenus anterior, medius, and posterior; longus capitis and colli; rectus capitis anterior and lateralis muscles with a view to better understanding the capabilities of these muscles. This will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of cervical disorders and inform more evidence based approaches to treatment. This research was completed in three stages: dissection of the fascicular anatomy of the anterior neck muscles in embalmed cadavers; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of these muscles in young volunteers; and biomechanical modelling. Descriptive and morphological data from both the dissection and MRI studies were recorded, and cross-referenced for input into the biomechanical model. The biomechanical study involved calculating the peak force capabilities of each fascicle, and deriving the orientation and distribution of these forces across the cervical motion segments using CT scans. The result was a detailed breakdown of the peak torque, compression and shear forces generated by the anterior neck muscles at a fascicular level, calculated with reference to each cervical motion segment. The dissection study revealed several interesting findings regarding the structure of these muscles, adding considerable detail to anatomical textbook descriptions. Findings are described for each individual muscle. The MRI study found substantially larger muscle volumes than found in the dissection study, due to changes both with age and embalming. Biomechanical modelling demonstrated that in the neutral position the anterior neck muscles are not capable of exerting large forces, and do not act equally on all the cervical motion segments. Moment generating capacity into flexion was dominated by the SCM, and increased at lower levels in the cervical spine. All muscles were capable of producing compression, and total compression capacity remained relatively even at different cervical levels. Shear capacity was minimal, and was only potentially produced by the SCM in the lower cervical spine. The anterior neck muscles are complex and interesting muscles for which textbook descriptions tend to be simplified. These muscles act closely on the cervical motion segments, producing largely compressive forces. The more deeply placed longus and scalene muscles demonstrated a limited capacity for producing flexion moments, especially compared to the SCM. At C2-3 the SCM produced a net extension moment, suggesting that at this level (and above) the longus capitis and colli may proportionally play a greater role in cervical flexion. However, the force capabilities of these muscles remain very small and may be insufficient to produce actions attributed to these muscles in the clinical literature. This research presents data fundamental to understanding the function of these muscles, and which has the potential to contribute towards many different biomechanical applications in future research.

    View record details
  • Developing compound-specific stable isotope tools for monitoring landfill leachate

    Benbow, Timothy J (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis has developed a suite of compound specific stable isotope tools to monitor landfill leachate and identify the infiltration of leachate to ground water and surface water. These tools have the power to indicate the fractional contribution multiple discrete sources of pollution are making to a single location. This journey began by developing two solid phase extraction (SPE) methods to extract non-polar and polar organic compounds from leachate with minimal fractionation of hydrogen or carbon isotopes. Non-polar compounds were successfully extracted using ENV+ SPE cartridges and polar compounds were successfully extracted using Strata-X SPE cartridges. The isotopic fractionation of non-polar compounds during ENV+ extraction varied significantly (up to 245⁰/₀₀ and 1.8⁰/₀₀ for D and ¹³C respectively, when eluted with acetonitrile and ethyl acetate, as recommended by manufacturers) but the fractionation of compounds eluted with dichloromethane was negligible (less than instrumental precision). Polar compounds were eluted from Strata-X cartridges with negligible isotopic fractionation using methanol. The direct comparison of SPE and liquid-liquid extraction found SPE to extract slightly more compound from leachate then liquid-liquid extraction (especially for polar compounds) and the isotopic compositions of compounds did not change with extraction methods. These new analytical methods subsequently were used to determine the isotopic compositions of organic compounds dissolved in leachates from three New Zealand landfills. The molecular and isotopic signature of leachate varied significantly between landfills, indicating the isotopic fingerprint of organic compounds in leachate is unsuitable as a universal tracer of leachate. However, compounds such as terpien-4-ol, methylethylbenzene and juvabione maintained their isotopic composition over short geographical distance-indicating their potential as site-specific tracers of leachate. Organic compounds analysed on a transect across the landfill boundary indicated polar compounds were more mobile than semi-volatile compounds and possessed a more conservative isotopic composition. However, hexadecanoic acid extracted from leachate and ground water was highly depleted in ¹³C (-72 ⁰/₀₀ to -40⁰/₀₀), indicative of methanogenic and sulfate reducing bacteria. These bacteria only live in highly reducing environments such as leachate; therefore their presence in the pristine environment can potentially indicate the release of leachate from the landfill. The final experiments traced the uptake and utilisation of leachate by periphyton. The isotopic composition of bulk periphyton, fatty acids and phytol indicated that microbial assimilation and utilisation of nutrients is a complex process. Fatty acid biomarkers for green algae and diatoms showed signs of leachate derived nutrients, however the availability of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, water and light) caused significant changes in metabolic processes and isotopic compositions. Under slow growing conditions, the [delta]¹³C composition of periphyton became enriched in ¹³C as solar irradiation levels decreased (including shading by detritus and periphyton), while the [delta]D composition of fatty acid was controlled by the internal recycling of hydrogen. This study indicated the power of compound specific isotope analysis as a tool to detect the release of landfill leachate from a landfill, especially at locations with multiple potential sources of contaminants, and provides a sound platform for future research.

    View record details
  • Distribution and ranging of Hector's dolphins : implications for protected area design

    Rayment, William (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 410 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "June 2008". University of Otago department: Marine Science

    View record details
  • Basin analysis of the late Eocene - Oligocene Te Kuiti Group, western North Island, New Zealand

    Tripathi, Anand Ratnakar Prasad (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Paleogeography - Te kuiti group (Map 1-13) in print copy

    View record details
  • Rheology of the Alpine Fault Mylonite Zone: deformation processes at and below the base of the seismogenic zone in a major plate boundary structure

    Toy, Virginia (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Alpine Fault is the major structure of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary through New Zealand’s South Island. During dextral reverse fault slip, a dominant slip. Formation of this highly-oriented fabric would have led to significant geometric softening and enhanced strain localisation. During this high strain deformation, pre-existing Alpine Schist fabrics in polyphase rocks were reconstituted to relatively well-mixed, finer-grained aggregates. As a result of this fabric homogenisation, strong syn-mylonitic object lineations were not formed. Strain models show that weak lineations trending towards ~090 degrees and kinematic directions indicated by asymmetric fabrics and CPO pattern symmetry could have formed during pure shear stretches up-dip of the fault of ~ 3.5, coupled with simple shear strains, gamma >=30. The preferred estimate of simple:pure shear strain gives a kinematc vorticity number, Wk>=0.9997. Rapid exhumation due to fault slip resulted in advection of crustal isotherms. New thermobarometric and fluid inclusion analyses from fault zone materials allow the thermal gradient along an uplift path in the fault rocks to be more precisely defined than previously. Fluid inclusion data indicate temperatures of 325±15 degrees C were experienced at depths of ~ 4.5 km, so that a high thermal gradient of ~75 degrees C/km is indicated in the near-surface. This gradient must fall off to -slip quartz CPO fabrics indicate deformation temperatures did not exceed 650 degrees C at >=7.0-8.5±1.5 kbar, ie. 26-33 km depth. During exhumation, the strongly oriented quartzite fabrics were not favourably oriented for activation of the lower temperature basal slip system, which should have dominated at depths 25μm, indicating maximum differential stress of ~55 MPa for most mylonites). It is likely that the preferentially oriented prism slip system was activated during these events, so the Y-maximum CPO fabrics were preserved. Simple numerical models show that activation of this slip system is favoured over the basal system, which has a lower critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) at low temperatures, for aggregates with strong Y-maximum orientations. Absence of pervasive crystal-plastic deformation of micas and feldspars during activation of this mechanism also resulted in preservation of mineral chemistries from the highest grades of mylonitic deformation (ie. amphibolite-facies). Retrograde, epidote-amphibolite to greenschist-facies mineral assemblages were pervasively developed in ultramylonites and cataclasites immediately adjacent to the fault core and in footwall-derived mylonites, perhaps during episodic transfer of this material into and subsequently out of the cooler footwall block. In the more distal protomylonites, retrograde assemblages were locally developed along shear bands that also accommodated most of the mylonitic deformation in these rocks. Ti-in-biotite thermometry suggests biotite in these shear bands equilibrated down to ~500±50 degrees C, suggesting crystal-plastic deformation of this mineral continued to these temperatures. Crossed-girdle quartz CPO fabrics were formed in these protomylonites by basal dominant slip, indicating a strongly oriented fabric had not previously formed at depth due to the relatively small strains, and that dislocation creep of quartz continued at depths =0.98), but require a similar total pure shear component. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in the simple shear component with time, consistent with incorporation of new hanging-wall material into the fault zone. Pre-existing lineations were only slowly rotated into coincidence with the mylonitic simple shear direction in the shear bands since they lay close to the simple shear plane, and inherited orientations were not destroyed until large finite strains (<100) were achieved. As the fault rocks were exhumed through the brittle-viscous transition, they experienced localised brittle shear failures. These small-scale seismic events formed friction melts (ie. pseudotachylytes).The volume of pseudotachylyte produced is related to host rock mineralogy (more melt in host rocks containing hydrated minerals), and fabric (more melt in isotropic host rocks). Frictional melting also occurred within cataclastic hosts, indicating the cataclasites around the principal slip surface of the Alpine Fault were produced by multiple episodes of discrete shear rather than distributed cataclastic flow. Pseudotachylytes were also formed in the presence of fluids, suggesting relatively high fault gouge permeabilities were transiently attained, probably during large earthquakes. Frictional melting contributed to formation of phyllosilicate-rich fault gouges, weakening the brittle structure and promoting slip localisation. The location of faulting and pseudotachylyte formation, and the strength of the fault in the brittle regime were strongly influenced by cyclic hydrothermal cementation processes. A thermomechanical model of the central Alpine Fault zone has been defined using the results of this study. The mylonites represent a localised zone of high simple shear strain, embedded in a crustal block that underwent bulk pure shear. The boundaries of the simple shear zone moved into the surrounding material with time. This means that the exhumed sequence does not represent a simple ‘time slice’ illustrating progressive fault rock development during increasing simple shear strains. The deformation history of the mylonites at deep crustal P -T conditions had a profound influence on subsequent deformation mechanisms and fabric development during exhumation.

    View record details
  • Evolvable Virtual Machines

    Nowostawski, Mariusz (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Evolvable Virtual Machine abstract architecture (EVMA) is a computational architecture for dynamic hierarchically organised virtual machines. The concrete EVM instantiation (EVMI) builds on traditional stack-based models of computation and extends them by notions of hierarchy and reflection on the virtual machine level. The EVM Uni- verse is composed of a number of autonomous and asynchronously communicating EVM machines. The main contribution of this work lies in the new model of computation and in the architecture itself: a novel, compact, flexible and expressive representation of distributed concurrent computation. The EVMA provides a way of expressing and modelling auto-catalytic networks composed of a hierarchical hypercycle of autopoietic subsystems characterised by self-adaptable structural tendencies and self-organised criticality. EVMA provides capabilities for: a) self-learning of dynamical patterns through continuous observation of computable environments, b) self-compacting and generalisa- tion of existing program structures, c) emergence of efficient and robust communication code through appropriate machine assembly on both ends of communication channel. EVMA is in one sense a multi-dimensional generalisation of stack machine with the pur- pose of modelling concurrent asynchronous processing. EVMA approach can be also seen as a meta-evolutionary theory of evolution. The EVMA is designed to model systems that mimic living autonomous and adaptable computational processes. The EVMI prototype has been designed and developed to conduct experimental studies on complex evolving systems. The generality of our approach not only provides the means to experiment with complex hierarchical, computational and evolutionary systems, but it provides a useful model to evaluate, share and discuss the complex hierarchical systems in general. The EVMA provides a novel methodology and language to pursue research, to understand and to talk about evolution of complexity in living systems. In this thesis, we present the simple single-cell EVMI framework, discuss the multi-cell EVM Universe architecture, present experimental results, and propose further extensions, experimental studies, and possible hardware implementations of the EVMI.

    View record details
  • Spatially-structured niching methods for evolutionary algorithms

    Dick, Grant (2008-08-14)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Traditionally, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) operates on a single population with no restrictions on possible mating pairs. Interesting changes to the behaviour of EAs emerge when the structure of the population is altered so that mating between individuals is restricted. Variants of EAs that use such populations are grouped into the field of spatially-structured EAs (SSEAs). Previous research into the behaviour of SSEAs has primarily focused on the impact space has on the selection pressure in the system. Selection pressure is usually characterised by takeover times and the ratio between the neighbourhood size and the overall dimension of space. While this research has given indications into where and when the use of an SSEA might be suitable, it does not provide a complete coverage of system behaviour in SSEAs. This thesis presents new research into areas of SSEA behaviour that have been left either unexplored or briefly touched upon in current EA literature. The behaviour of genetic drift in finite panmictic populations is well understood. This thesis attempts to characterise the behaviour of genetic drift in spatially-structured populations. First, an empirical investigation into genetic drift in two commonly encountered topologies, rings and torii, is performed. An observation is made that genetic drift in these two configurations of space is independent of the genetic structure of individuals and additive of the equivalent-sized panmictic population. In addition, localised areas of homogeneity present themselves within the structure purely as a result of drifting. A model based on the theory of random walks to absorbing boundaries is presented which accurately characterises the time to fixation through random genetic drift in ring topologies. A large volume of research has gone into developing niching methods for solving multimodal problems. Previously, these techniques have used panmictic populations. This thesis introduces the concept of localised niching, where the typically global niching methods are applied to the overlapping demes of a spatially structured population. Two implementations, local sharing and local clearing are presented and are shown to be frequently faster and more robust to parameter settings, and applicable to more problems than their panmictic counterparts. Current SSEAs typically use a single fitness function across the entire population. In the context of multimodal problems, this means each location in space attempts to discover all the optima. A preferable situation would be to use the inherent spatial properties of an SSEA to localise optimisation of peaks. This thesis adapts concepts from multiobjective optimisation with environmental gradients and applies them to multimodal problems. In addition to adapting to the fitness landscape, individuals evolve towards their preferred environmental conditions. This has the effect of separating individuals into regions that concentrate on different optima with the global fitness function. The thesis also gives insights into the expected number of individuals occupying each optima in the problem. The SSEAs and related models developed in this thesis are of interest to both researchers and end-users of evolutionary computation. From the end-user’s perspective, the developed SSEAs require less a priori knowledge of a given problem domain in order to operate effectively, so they can be more readily applied to difficult, poorly-defined problems. Also, the theoretical findings of this thesis provides a more complete understanding of evolution within spatially-structured populations, which is of interest not only to evolutionary computation practitioners, but also to researchers in the fields of population genetics and ecology.

    View record details
  • Listening Needs of Distance Learners: A Case Study of EAP Learners at the University of the South Pacific

    Chand, Rajni Kaushal (2008-06)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This study focuses on student listening needs in the context of the English for Academic Purposes program taught by distance education at the University of the South Pacific. It explores the relationship between learners’ awareness of the learning strategy they use for developing their listening skills and their teachers’ knowledge of the strategy use and listening needs of learners. Using an ethnographic case study approach, the study was conducted at various campuses and centres of the University of the South Pacific. Interviews were conducted with five EAP/study skills teachers; five subject/course teachers; 19 past learners and 10 present learners of the EAP/study skills course. Questionnaire data was also obtained from 19 past learners and 153 present learners. In addition, a course material analysis was carried out. The study confirms and adds weight to the conclusions of earlier researchers such as Berne (1998), and Mendelsohn (2001) who explain that discrepancies exist between L2 listening research and practice. The findings of this research indicate that teachers differ from their learners in terms of learners’ knowledge and understanding of listening skills and learning strategies in use. The findings also indicate that even though learning had taken place in this distance education context some face-to-face teaching would have been desirable. A combination of distance teaching with longer teacher–learner contact for distance teaching of listening skills is recommended, since regular contact between teachers and learners is seen by learners as very beneficial and more likely to lead to a better development of listening skills. It also helps create an awareness of learners’ present and future listening needs. The nature of distance teaching at the University of the South Pacific, and the challenges faced by both teachers and learners are discussed in this study, and the requirement for further needs analysis in regard to distance EAP courses are noted. The study concludes with recommendations for strategy training for distance learners as well as for raising teacher awareness about the importance of strategy teaching. It is also recommended that similar studies be undertaken in other language skills courses offered by distance at universities like USP such as reading, writing and speaking courses.

    View record details
  • Molecular identification of membrane transporters associated with secretion in the ileum and colon of the common brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula

    Harfoot, Natalie Ann (2008-12)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Electrolyte transport in the intestine of the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) differs from that observed in eutherian mammals. This study has used molecular physiology to identify and characterise the expression and distribution of membrane transporters potentially responsible for these differences in electrolyte transport in the possum intestine. In the possum ileum, secretagogues stimulate an electrogenic Cl--independent HCO3- secretory response but secretagogue-stimulated Cl- secretion does not occur in this tissue. Based on the ion dependence and pharmacology of the stimulated secretory response, the expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), pancreatic Na+ HCO3- cotransporter (pNBC) and Na+ K+ 2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) were investigated in the ileum. Reverse transcription PCR experiments showed that CFTR, pNBC and NKCC1 mRNA transcripts were expressed in the ileal epithelium. It was then demonstrated by in situ hybridisation that both CFTR and pNBC were localised predominantly in the crypts and the levels of expression decreased along the crypt-villous axis towards the lumen. Significantly, the in situ hybridisation results showed that there were low levels of NKCC1 transcript in the ileal epithelium. Western blot studies confirmed that mature CFTR and pNBC proteins were expressed in the ileum, while NKCC1 protein was not detected. The findings of the present study suggest that the absence of Cl- secretion in the ileum is because NKCC1 expression is not elevated in the epithelium. The expression of mature CFTR and pNBC protein suggest that these membrane transporters are involved in the stimulated electrogenic HCO3- secretory response. The evidence also suggests that CFTR may mediate HCO3- efflux in the ileum. In contrast, secretagogues do not stimulate an electrogenic secretory response in the proximal and distal colon. This study has shown that CFTR, NKCC1 and pNBC proteins are expressed in the proximal and distal colon. Both NKCC1 and pNBC transcripts were localised to the crypt base in the proximal colon. However, it was shown that CFTR has a punctuate distribution and the transcript was predominantly observed in the upper crypt and surface cell region. This study indicated that NKCC1 and pNBC were distributed in a different region of the epithelium compared to CFTR. It was concluded that the distribution of these membrane transporters in different regions of the epithelium accounts for the absence of a stimulated electrogenic secretory response in the possum colon. Given that no stimulated electrogenic secretory response is observed in the colon, it is suggested that HCO3- secretion by the ileum may have an important physiological role in maintaining an appropriate fluid and pH composition for fermentation in the colonic lumen.

    View record details
  • Different ways of knowing? Understanding disabled students’ and teacher aides’ school experiences within a context of relational social justice

    Rutherford, Gill (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Disabled students’ experiences of working with teacher aides constitute a recent focus of international inquiry. To date in New Zealand, there has been no specific investigation of this aspect of education, despite the widespread reliance on teacher aide support as the primary means of responding to disabled students’ presence in schools. Similarly, there are very few New Zealand studies in which teacher aides are the primary participants. This thesis seeks to address this absence in New Zealand educational research by exploring students’ and teacher aides’ experiences of working together, in order to understand the impact of assigning responsibility for students who have complex learning support requirements to teacher aides who require no qualification, training, or experience to work in this role. This interpretive qualitative study is positioned in a multi-dimensional framework of current disability, social justice, and sociology of childhood theorising. A series of semi-structured meetings were held with ten students, aged eight to seventeen years, who attended schools in the South Island of New Zealand. As well, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eighteen teacher aides who worked in a range of primary, intermediate, and secondary schools in the same geographic area as the student participants. Data were interpreted utilizing both inductive and deductive means of analysis. Students’ participation in the research and their contributions to the findings demonstrated their competence, agency, and heterogeneity. Students conveyed a sense of the importance and value of the teacher aide’s role, if clearly defined and carried out in a positive, professional manner within the context of supportive schools. The findings relating to teacher aides’ experiences highlighted the diverse, ambiguous nature of their roles, conceptualised as a continuum of support ranging from aiding teachers in inclusive contexts, to aiding students in assimilationist circumstances, to assuming the role of teacher or babysitter for students in exclusive educational environments. Analysis of teacher aides’ experiences revealed the fundamental importance of relationships in coming to know students in terms of their humanness and competence, and in underpinning teacher aides’ efforts to do the right thing by students. Participants also identified the need for all adults involved in the policy and practice of education to develop shared understandings of respectful, socially just ways of thinking about disability and childhood as the foundation of a common commitment to teach all students well. The insight generated by participants, who represent perhaps the least powerful of students and employees in New Zealand schools, illuminates some of the most significant changes that need to occur in the thinking and practices of people involved in educational policy-making, teacher and teacher aide education, and schools. Addressing these educational deficits may contribute to the development of a socially just education system that is respectful of and responsive to human difference while recognising and respecting our mutual humanness.

    View record details
  • Transforming Folk: Innovation and Tradition in English Folk–Rock Music

    Burns, Robert G. H. (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    From a mixed methodology perspective that includes ethnology, musicology and cultural anthropology, I argue that, despite initial detachment from folk revivalism, English folk–rock has moved closer to aspects of tradition and historical status and has embraced a revivalist stance similar to that of the folk revivals that occurred earlier in the twentieth century. Whereas revivalism often rejects manifestations of mass culture and modernity, I also argue that the early combinations of folk music and rock music demonstrated that aspects of preservation and commercialisation have always co–existed within this hybrid musical style. English folk–rock, a former progressive rock music style, has emerged in the post–punk era as a world music style that appeals to a broad spectrum of music fans and this audience does not regard issues such as maintenance of authenticity and tradition as key factors in the preservation process. Rock music has remained a stimulus for further change in folk music and has enabled English folk–rock to become regarded as popular music by a new audience with diverse musical tastes. When folk music was adapted into rock settings, the result represented a particular identity for folk music at that time. In a similar way, as folk music continues to be amalgamated with rock and other popular music styles, or is performed in musical settings representing new cultures and ethnicities now present in the United Kingdom, it becomes updated and relevant to new audiences. From this perspective, I propose that growth in the popularity of British folk music since the early 1970s can be linked to its performance as English folk–rock, to its connections with culture and music industry marketing and promotion techniques, and to its inclusion as a 1990s festival component presented to audiences as part of what is promoted as world music. Popularity of folk music presented at world music festivals has stimulated significant growth in folk music audiences since the mid–1990s and consequently the UK is experiencing a new phase of revivalism – the third folk revival.

    View record details
  • Mapping first semester challenges : first-year students making sense of their teaching and learning environments

    van der Meer, Jacques (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis investigates first-year students' challenges in making sense of the learning and teaching environment during their first semester at university. The aims for the research are threefold. Firstly, mapping the range of challenges students at one university faced in their learning and teaching environments in the first semester. Secondly, developing a greater understanding of those challenges. Thirdly, identifying what educational initiatives the university could consider that might assist students to meet those challenges. The challenges were examined in the context of changes in higher education. My interest and motivation for this research project concerns improved practices in the first-year teaching and learning environment, rather than improved students. This means that I did not look for deficits within students, but for indications of what helps or does not help students' introduction to the new environment of academia. By mapping students' challenges in the first semester, I hope to contribute to the understanding of academic staff of the range of challenges students have to deal with. The interpretation of the results and my line of argument are partly influenced and shaped by the theoretical framework of academic literacies, and the notion of de-familiarisation. For this project, two data sources were used. The first source was data from a survey carried out in May 2004 amongst students enrolled in 100-level courses. The second source was data from interviews conducted with first-year students in the same year. In considering the analysis as a whole, a number of key issues could be discerned. These related to communication, academic skills, access to resources and help, and engagement and connection. The results showed that some of these issues had less to do with educational practices, and more to do with contested understandings of the nature of university education, and the nature of students now entering university. I argue that underlying these issues there are contentious questions of who should adjust or adapt to whom: students to the university, or the university to students? Students' reported experiences further suggest that some teachers seemed more aware than others that first-year students face particular challenges. Students did not consider their experiences as reflective of the university as a whole. The university was experienced as an institution with divergent ways of organising courses, of valuing aspects of university learning, and of interpreting seemingly similar things. This suggests that where students experienced challenges, these were not necessarily a function of students' characteristics, or students' attitudes to studying, but of particular course environments. The overall picture that presents itself, then, is that there are challenges that could be considered unnecessary. Whereas few students would experience all of the challenges identified in the results chapters, I argue that there are some aspects that warrant improvement. Improvement initiatives in first-year education, however, are not necessarily considered important by all academic staff. This is another contested issue in universities. A more explicit introduction of first-year students to academia as a range of heterogeneous communities would respond to first-year students' needs for familiarisation and clarity, as well as reflect some of the values that universities could be said to espouse. Successful interventions in first-year education, however, will also depend on ongoing dialogue with staff about various contested issues, the changed and changing context of higher education, and related challenges and opportunities.

    View record details
  • Analysis and Modelling of Probes in Waveguides and Mobile Radio Propagation and Systems Engineering

    Williamson, Allan (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Power, Politics And Policy: Creating, Deploying And Resisting Meaning In New Zealand Public Sport Policy

    Piggin, Joseph (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    All policy involves the transmission of language and ideas and therefore power. Public sport and recreation policy, through which millions of tax dollars are allocated and which disseminates knowledge and understandings about sport and recreation, is one arena where power relations are constantly formed, reformed and challenged. To understand more about the exercise of power in New Zealand sport and recreation policy, this research examines the dissemination and challenge of policies written by Sparc (Sport and Recreation New Zealand), the organisation responsible for public sport and recreation policy in New Zealand. Three questions were used to understand the exercise of power in New Zealand public policy. These questions included: How is knowledge about sport and recreation produced and disseminated through public policy? How is ‘the truth’ about sport and recreation proclaimed and constructed in public policy? How can individuals affected by sport and recreation policy challenge existing relations of power? Theoretically, this research draws on Foucauldian conceptions about power, knowledge, truth and the self. Foucault argued that individuals and groups exercise power discursively, by promoting and deploying certain dominant discourses (or understandings) to the exclusion of other (subjugated) knowledges. As such, the way in which individuals within a society understand knowledge, truth and the self is governed by dominant discourses, and is continually formed discursively over time. Discourses are deployed through a variety of means, including the writing, implementation and resistance of public policy. Methodologically, the thesis merges Foucault’s archaeological and genealogical approaches to studying discourses. Further, it is guided by a critical discourse analysis, which enables the researcher to question the assumptions behind policy discourses. Data is gathered from various sources, including policy documents, public debate over policy, media articulations of policy and interviews with individuals involved in the writing and resistance of public policy. This research highlights four distinct practices (or techniques) that illustrate how power is exercised in public sport and recreation policy. These techniques include an analysis of bio-power, techniques used to analyse, control, and define the body; governmentality, which dictates the range of possible actions of individuals and citizens; games of truth, through which ‘the truth’ is part of a constant discursive debate; and parrhesia, a practice through which citizens can lessen the effect of dominant discourses on their lives. These practices are analysed through specific case studies within the discursive terrain of public sport and recreation policy. With each case study both theoretical considerations and practical suggestions for policy making are offered. Four findings are discussed. Firstly, public policy can discursively and problematically construct understandings of the world through policy goals and measurements. Secondly, the thesis suggests that while public sport and recreation policy is often defended by policy makers as scientific and rational, its writing and implementation is formed by a number of other understandings which cannot be reconciled with the espoused, positivist logic. Thirdly, the thesis suggests that because policy writing is an ongoing process, and because of changing social conditions, ‘the truth’ about particular policies is also susceptible to change. Fourthly, despite protestors of public policy often believing their resistance is in vain, this study suggests that their efforts do appear to influence the subsequent writing of policy. The research concludes with reflections about the problematic discursive effects of public policy as well as a consideration of the potential for groups and individuals to challenge or resist understandings about sport and recreation which they do not agree with. In turn, it offers recommendations about the future development of sport public policy, as well as a reflection of this particular type of research approach used. Finally, using this research as a pivot point, sites for future research are considered. In particular, an examination of the effect of public policy on individuals’ lived experiences (as distinct from communities or nations) might be of interest, as would an investigation of effects of global discourses about sport, recreation and physical activity on national public policy.

    View record details
  • Novel Hybrid Materials And Their Applications

    Small, Aaron Charles (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The development of novel hybrid materials of cellulose fibres and substrates with nanoparticles, conducting polymers and quantum dots, opens up novel application for new packaging materials and paper based products for the ‘smart packaging’ and ‘functional products’ areas that are emerging in the paper and packaging industries. Examples of these materials which have been developed here include cellulose fibres and substrates functionalised with magnetic nanoparticles, electrically conducting polypyrrole, and photoluminescent zinc sulfide quantum dots. Such materials were synthesised and then characterised using Alternating Gradient Magnetometry (AGM), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AA), Cotec Profilometer Measurements, DC Conductivity Measurements, Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), SQUID Magnetometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Vibrational Sample Magnetometry (VSM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Ferrimagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (particle size 12-26 nm) were synthesised by a simple aqueous precipitation method and had a magnetic saturation of approximately 60 emu g⁻¹, a coercive field of approximately 12-120 Oe, and a remnant magnetisation of approximately 11 emu g⁻¹. Magnetite coated Kraft fibres (1.2 – 3.15 wt. % Fe) were synthesised by adding a colloidal suspension of magnetite nanoparticles to a suspension of Kraft fibres. The fibres retained their inherent properties, such as tensile strength and flexibility, but inherited the magnetic properties of the magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles remained unchanged on bonding - presumably through hydrogen bonding between the surface hydroxyl groups of the cellulose and the oxygen present in the magnetite. Newsprint, Kraft Board and Cotton fabric were coated with polypyrrole using a chemical polymerisation method. SEM shows a complete coating, whereby the fibres are completely encapsulated by the polymer, including individual fibrils. Again, bonding is facilitated through hydrogen bonding between the surface hydroxyl groups of the cellulose and the lone pairs of the nitrogen in the polypyrrole backbone. Samples were doped with p-toluenesulfonic acid to increase conductivity, of which up to 4 S cm⁻¹ was achieved. The samples were coated with magnetite nanoparticles using a starch binder, and tested for their application in EMI shielding. A maximum shielding effectiveness of 43 % in the 1-18 GHz range and 47 % in the 16-40 GHz range was obtained using cotton fabrics coated with both polypyrrole and magnetite. A synergistic effect is observed on using a polypyrrole and magnetite coating. Photoluminescent ZnS quantum dots, synthesised using an aqueous precipitation method, were doped with Mn²⁺ and Cu²⁺ to achieve emissions at approximately 600 nm (Mn²⁺) and 530 nm (Cu²⁺) on irradiation with UV light. The quantum dots had a particle size of approximately 2 nm, and were present in the zinc blende phase. Doped ZnS-coated Kraft fibres (5 – 30 wt. % Zn) were synthesised by a number of methods, the most successful being the ‘in-situ’ method, in which a uniform and complete coating was afforded. The fibres retained their inherent properties, such as tensile strength and flexibility, but inherited the photoluminescent properties of the ZnS quantum dots. The quantum dots remained unchanged on bonding - presumably through hydrogen bonding between the surface hydroxyl groups of the cellulose and the sulfur present in the ZnS quantum dots. ZnS quantum dots doped with Mn² and Cu²⁺ were successfully formulated for inkjet printing by capping with mercaptosuccinic acid. Upon irradiation with UV light, emissions at approximately 600 nm (Mn²⁺-doped) and 530 nm (Cu²⁺-doped) were observed. These were successfully inkjet printed in intricate patterns onto a number of substrates, including photographic quality inkjet paper, cotton, and wool.

    View record details
  • Decolonising Māori tourism : representation and identity

    Amoamo, Maria (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 379 leaves :col. ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Tourism. "November 2008"

    View record details
  • Isolation of new secondary metabolites from New Zealand marine invertebrates.

    Wojnar, Joanna (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study describes the isolation and structure elucidation of several known and 13 new compounds from New Zealand marine organisms. Furthermore, it describes the development of a digital mask program for the analysis of HSQC spectra of crude sponge extracts. This was used as a screening tool to identify secondary metabolite producers that warranted further analysis. As reports of metabolites from New Zealand nudibranchs are poorly represented in the literature, a study of five New Zealand nudibranch species was undertaken. These coloured and seemingly undefended nudibranchs are known to concentrate or sequester toxic metabolites from their prey, facilitating rapid isolation and structure elucidation of these metabolites. This study resulted in the isolation of a variety of metabolite classes; two new compounds, 13alpha- acetoxypukalide diol (30) and lopholide diol (31) from the nudibranch Tritonia incerta, are described. Examination of the sponge Raspailia agminata resulted in the isolation of a novel family of partially acetylated glycolipids which contain up to six glucose residues. The chromatographic separation of these compounds was a challenge due to the similarity of the congeners and their lack of a chromophore. MSguided isolation eventually led to the purification of agminosides A-E (145-149). An unidentified sponge of the order Dictyoceratida was found to contain a new isomer (186) of the known sesterterpene variabilin. As variabilin-type compounds are predominantly found from sponges of the family Irciniidae, the unidentified sponge is most likely an irciniid. In addition, the sponge contained two prenylated quinones, one of which, 189, is a new isomer of a known sponge metabolite. The sponge Darwinella oxeata contained four new nitrogenous diterpenes of the aplysulphurane (rearranged spongian) skeleton, oxeatamide A (214), isooxeatamide A (215), oxeatamide A 23-methyl ester (216) and oxeatamide B (217).

    View record details