456 results for Doctoral, 2009

  • Effect of estradiol on the ovarian surface epithelium in older mice

    Gulliver, Linda Shirley Mabelle (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    2 v. (xxxii, 573 leaves) :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "August 2009". University of Otago department: Anatomy and Structural Biology

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  • Spirituality in New Zealand hospice care

    Egan, Richard Michael Martin (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 362 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "July 2009". University of Otago department: General Practice

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  • Open population capture-recapture models and diabetes in Otago

    Cameron, Claire (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 207 leaves :ill., ; 30 cm Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Mathematics and Statistics

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  • Kia Whakamaramatia Mahi Titi : Predictive measures for understanding harvest impacts on Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    Clucas, Rosemary (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    1 v. (various pagings) :ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "July 26, 2009". University of Otago department: Mathematics and Statistics

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  • The experiences of international and New Zealand women in New Zealand higher education

    Anderson, Vivienne (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis reports on an ethnographic research project that explored the experiences and perspectives of a group of women in New Zealand higher education, including international and New Zealand students and partners of international students. The study had two aims. The first was to disrupt the inattention to gender and to students' partners and families in New Zealand international education research and policy. The second was to problematise Eurocentric assumptions of (predominantly Asian) international students' 'cultural difference', and of New Zealanders' homogenised sameness. The theoretical framework for the study was informed by a range of conceptual tools, including feminist, critical theory, post-structural, and postcolonial perspectives. In drawing on feminist perspectives, the study was driven by a concern with acknowledging the importance and value of women's lives, looking for women where they are absent from policy and analysis, and attending to the mechanisms through which some women's lives are rendered invisible in internationalised higher education. In considering these mechanisms and women's lives in relation to them the study also drew on post-structural notions of discourse, power, and agency. It explored how dominant discourses in internationalised higher education reveal and reproduce historically-grounded relations of power that are intentionally or unintentionally performed, subverted and/or resisted by women and those they encounter. Using Young's (1990, 2000) approach to critical theory, the study also considered alternative ways of constructing internationalised higher education that were suggested in women's accounts. As a critical feminist ethnography the study was shaped by my theoretical framework (above), critical literature on heterogeneous social groups, and feminist concerns with relationship, reciprocity and power in the research process. Fieldwork took place during 2005 and 2006 and involved two aspects: the establishment and maintenance of an intercultural group for women associated with a higher education institution, and 28 interviews with 20 women over two years. Interviewees were recruited through the group and included eight international students, nine New Zealand students and three women partners of international students. Study findings challenged the assumption that international and local students are distinct and oppositional groups. They also highlighted the importance of recognising the legitimate presence of international students' partners and accompanying family members at all levels in higher education. International and New Zealand women alike found the intercultural group a useful source of social and practical support and information, and a point of access to other sources of support and information. Women reflected on moving between many different kinds of living and learning contexts, highlighting the importance of: clear processes and pathways for accessing information and practical support when experiencing transition; teaching that is engaging, effective, and responsive; and opportunities to develop connections with other people both on and off campus. Rather than revealing clear patterns of difference or sameness across women, the study highlighted the importance of policy, research, teaching and support practices that are open and responsive to women's actual viewpoints and needs, and that neither re-entrench difference nor assume sameness.

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  • The properties of elliptic curves containing singularities over the field Zp

    Jamieson-Lane, Alastair David (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The study of elliptic curves is an important part of modern cryptography. In this report we consider the properties of singular elliptic curves over the field Zp, showing that they can always be factorized, that their equations always take a given form and that there are always p + 1 ± 1 points satisfying this equation over the field Zp.

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  • The role of colour and odour in fruit selection by diurnal, endemic skinks (Oligosoma) in Aotearoa / New Zealand

    Marshall, Jane Elizabeth (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The flora of Aotearoa/ New Zealand has evolved in association with birds and lizards as the dominant frugivores and seed dispersers. There is a wide range of ripe fruit colours within the native fleshy-fruited plants spanning the visible light spectrum from red to violet, with the notable exception of green. The evolution of fleshy-fruit and fruiting related trait, may be a result of the selection pressures exerted by different frugivore guilds. This study was conducted to ascertain if endemic diurnal lizards, Oligosoma species (Scincidae: Lacertilia), display features associated with visual based foraging, colour sensitivity and colour preferences, which are necessary conditions to infer a co-evolutionary mutualism between fleshy-fruited plant species and lizards as seed dispersers, which may have influenced the evolution of fruit colour. Many lizards have exceptional colour vision, with the ability to see a wide range of the visual light spectrum from short wave ultra violet to long wave red. They are able to discriminate all aspects of colour: hue, brightness and saturation. Fruit colour within Coprosma (Rubiaceae), is extremely variable, between and within species. The study of fruit colour preferences within this genus and particularly within species with polymorphic fruit colour provides a valuable comparison of frugivore preference to fruit with little inter and intraspecific variation, therefore minimising potentially confounding factors due to phylogeny. Fruit-colour choice experiments were conducted offering fruit from two colour categories based on postulated frugivore preferences; red and red orange fruit has been associated with avian frugivores whilst white and pale fruit has been associated with lizard frugivory in New Zealand. Experiments were conducted both ex-situ, in environmentally controlled laboratories and in-situ at Macraes Flat, Otago. Pilot trials indicated that the background colour on which fruit were presented was important in fruit choice and consequentially, all fruit were offered on a background which provided contrast to both fruit colour categories. The laboratory trials showed some weak evidence for a preference of white and pale blue fruit however, in-situ trials showed a strong preference for white over red fruit. Field studies were conducted to ascertain the composition of fleshy-fruit in the diets of lizards and the results were consistent with those expected for a generalist omnivore; many of the small fruits available to lizards were consumed however, the results indicated that plant abundance does not adequately explain fruit consumption at this field site. A preference index showed that white and pale fruited plants, Melicytus alpinus and Coprosma spp., were preferred over more abundant orange and red fruited plants. Fruit odour was investigated to determine if fruit choice was mediated primarily by visual cues as opposed to odour cues. Fruit choice trials with the fruit concealed from view indicated that fruit choice was based primarily on visual cues in Oligosoma skinks. It is concluded that lizards demonstrate the necessary conditions to infer that as frugivores, they may have influenced the evolution of fruit colour and that within the open habitats of Aotearoa/ New Zealand, the shrubs, particularly the divaricate shrubs may have provided sufficient environmental conditions to establish a mutualism between plants and lizards resulting in the evolution of small, white and other low chroma fruits.

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  • Conduct of counsel causing or contributing to a miscarriage of justice

    O'Driscoll, Stephen James (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Crimes Act 1961 and the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 provide that a person accused of a criminal offence in New Zealand has the right to be represented at trial by counsel. The purpose of representation by counsel is to protect the accused's interests; ensure that the accused is able to present their defence to the Court; ensure that the accused receives a fair trial; and ensure that the accused is not the subject of a miscarriage of justice. It is implicit that criminal defence counsel must be competent if they are to be effective advocates on behalf of their clients. If counsel is not competent, there is a risk that counsel's acts or omissions may cause or contribute to a miscarriage of justice. The Crimes Act 1961 allows an accused to appeal against their conviction on the basis that they have been the subject of a miscarriage of justice through the conduct of their counsel. The thesis analyses the Supreme Court decision of R v Sungsuwan that sets out the test that an appellate court must consider when deciding to allow an appeal based on the conduct of counsel. The thesis examines 239 Court of Appeal decisions between 1996 and 2007 that have considered appeals from jury trials where at least one of the grounds of appeal was that defence counsel caused or contributed to a miscarriage of justice. The thesis notes the increasing trend to use quot;conduct of counselquot; as a ground of appeal. In 1996 there were 4 appeals; in 2006 there were 43 such appeals and in 2007 there were 29 appeals. During the period under review the Court of Appeal allowed the appeal and specifically held that counsel's conduct, either alone or in combination with other grounds, caused or contributed to a miscarriage of justice in 41 cases. The thesis analyses the common complaints made by an accused against trial counsel and the common areas where the Court of Appeal upheld complaints against counsel. The thesis takes into account the Lawyers and Conveyancers Act 2006 and the Lawyers and Conveyancers (Lawyer: Conduct and Client Care) Rules 2008 that came into existence on 1 August 2008. The new legislation places particular emphasis on the obligations of counsel to uphold the rule of law and to facilitate the administration of justice in New Zealand. Counsel also has an obligation to protect the interests of their clients. The thesis concludes that the plethora of cases coming before the Court of Appeal, and the number of appeals allowed by the Court, demonstrate defence counsel do not always protect the interests of their clients and can cause or contribute to a miscarriage of justice. The thesis makes a number of recommendations that may reduce the risk of both an accused appealing on the basis on the conduct of counsel and an appeal being allowed on the basis of the conduct of counsel. In particular, it is suggested that there should be greater degree of co-operation between the New Zealand Law Society and the Legal Services Agency to ensure the maintenance of high standards among criminal defence lawyers.

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  • The CEO role in New Zealand: perceptions and interpretative schema tensions and paradoxes

    McNally, Beverley (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the perceptions of the CEO role in large New Zealand organisations. The study is a response to calls from scholars for more empirical work on executive leadership specifically, as it pertains to the CEO role, which scholars have identified as an under-researched and less clearly understood construct. A modified grounded theory approach was utilised to establish the research participants' perceptions of the CEO role. Specifically, this thesis focuses on how the participants interpret and construct meaning from the interactions occurring within their context. The sample for the study comprised 30 participants, 22 CEOs and 8 executives in non-CEO roles. The criteria for selection related to the position an individual held in an organisation. The individual was, or had been, a CEO in a large New Zealand organisation or was directly involved with the CEO role, for example, a board chairperson. The primary data were collected from semi-structured interviews of between one to two hours in duration. Informal interviews, company publications and documentation, and the relevant research literature supplemented the primary data. The concurrent data collection and analysis identified two interpretative schemas that guide and inform the CEO role. These were the leadership interpretative schema and the institutionalised interpretative schema. The participants in this study articulated the enactment of their leadership within the frame of the leadership interpretative schema. However, the predominant schema informing the CEO role was the institutionalised interpretative schema. The contact between the two schemas represented collisions. Such collisions, in turn, created a set of tensions and paradoxes for the CEO. In seeking a clearer explanation of these tensions and paradoxes, the study identified the basic social structural process of the CEO role as a social institution. This thesis re-conceptualises the CEO role as a social institution. As such it is a multifaceted construct with its own set of social norms that create, guide and sustain a social order governing the behaviour of the CEO. Situated within this social structural process the study identified the social psychological process balancing the tensions and paradoxes. The study identified that the CEOs perceived the need to be able to balance the tensions and paradoxes within their context if they are to enact their role effectively. In other words, an effective CEO is perceived as acting as a mediator, successfully mediating between the dualities created by the conflicting expectations of the two interpretative schemas. Establishing context as a primary factor within the study allowed the contextual factors that enhanced or inhibited the enactment of the CEO role in New Zealand to receive their due emphasis. Such a focus was responsible for allowing the social, cultural, legal and economic forces, within the context of the CEO, to be brought to the fore. These, in turn, were perceived by the participants as having their genesis within in the religious, economic and historical traditions of New Zealand's European colonialism, and in their responses to it. In this study, context is embraced as a means for allowing the voices of the participants to be brought forward and be heard, whereas, the concept of voice has been traditionally ascribed to the weak, minorities, and disadvantaged (Baez, 2002). Paradoxically, this research identified that CEOs perceive themselves as having little voice. This despite the perception, both within society and within organisations, that CEOs have considerable power and status and therefore have the ability to voice their 'true feelings'. The analysis identified that they perceive constraints and silencing with regard to certain aspects of their role, suggesting further research on the CEO responses to such constraints is required. The outcomes of this study have implications for research and practice. In terms of the former, there are opportunities for researchers to build on the findings of the study thereby, contributing to the body of knowledge. With regards to practice, the study raises implications for those involved in the governance function, policy-makers and those having responsibilities for the development of individuals to fill the CEO role.

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  • An environmental history of the Otago Peninsula : dialectics of ecological and cultural change from first settlement to 1900

    West, Jonathan Lewis (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 209 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "25 July 2009". University of Otago department: History

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  • A Perceptual Basis for Noun Phrase Syntax

    Walles, Hayden (2009-06-25)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Human language is the result of both biological and cultural evolution. To have the best chance of understanding language we must seek all the constraints of that evolution. In the first part of my thesis I propose the general hypothesis that the sensorimotor system is one of those constraints and argue that regardless of whether language is the result of biological evolution, cultural evolution, or both, we should expect idiosyncrasies of the sensorimotor system to be reflected in linguistic structure. The bulk of the thesis explores a particular version of this hypothesis – namely that visual attention and classification of objects are reflected in noun phrase syntax. Within the noun phrase the noun stem (e.g. “dog”) and number morphology (e.g. “-s”) are contributed by separate syntactic elements; I argue that this reflects a separation of functionality in the sensorimotor system. To begin an exploration of this hypothesis I draw upon existing models of visual attention by Itti and Koch (2000) and object classification by Mozer and Sitton (1998), adapting and combining them into a new computational model. The key new idea in the model is that object classification is cardinality blind which means its output is the same whether presented with one token of a class or many tokens of the class. This allows groups of similar objects to be handled at once. I implement a model of classification which, like primate object classification, is location invariant. In my model cardinality blindness emerges naturally from location invariance. I argue the same thing happens in primates, reviewing neurophysiological evidence for this. To cater for a cardinality-blind classifier I also implement extensions to a standard model of visual attention. The combined classifier and attentional models elegantly reproduce a number of human results, including Gestalt grouping by similarity, global precedence (Navon, 1977) and the role of stimulus similarity in visual search (Duncan and Humphreys, 1989). These results show that the model does useful work in an account of the visual system. With the visual foundation established I propose a simple model of the interface between visual cognition and noun phrase syntax. Within my model the information corresponding to the noun stem is produced by the classifier and is cardinality blind so carries no number information. The information corresponding to singular or plural number morphology is produced separately by the attentional system. The decomposition of information in my model corresponds to the same decomposition of information in noun phrases. I conclude that cardinality blindness in the visual system can explain this aspect of noun phrase syntax, supporting the general hypothesis that natural language syntax reflects properties of the sensorimotor system and inviting further theories of this nature.

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  • Feedback and revision: A protocol analysis

    Rajoo, Margaret (2009-10-20)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Written feedback is a widespread practice and has garnered considerable positive and negative attention. The responses that teachers provide on students’ writing are essential to encourage and develop students’ writing. However, an in-depth understanding of the thought processes of student writers as they attend to written feedback is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thought processes and reactions of student writers towards written teacher feedback. Using a case study methodology, verbal protocols of eight postgraduate students were recorded as they attended to teacher feedback on their essays. Written texts, written teacher comments, and a questionnaire survey supplemented the data. The findings from this study indicate that the participants attended to written feedback recursively. Second, the act of thinking aloud led to noticing the disparities highlighted in the feedback. Finally the results suggest that students’ engagement with written teacher feedback is a social activity that encompasses a complex and dynamic interpersonal process between student writers and their feedback provider. This study concludes by raising several implications for teaching and learning. It suggests that it is important for teachers to be aware of the impact of feedback. Additionally, this study proposes that the think-aloud technique is useful as an implement in teaching writing, being a means of helping students reflect on feedback and develop their writing. Finally, it points out that both cognitive and sociocultural approaches to think-aloud data offer insights into the thought processes of writers.

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  • Effects of Exercise Training Modalities on Fat Oxidation in Overweight and Obese Women

    Phillips, Vicky (2009-11-27)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    View Appendix J of this thesis via the DOI provided in this record: Phillips, V.K., Legge, M., & Jones, L. M. (2008). Maximal Physiological Responses between Aquatic and Land Exercise in Overweight Women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 959-964.

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  • Constructing the "World's Scenic Wonderland": photomontage in New Zealand illustrated weekly newspapers, 1900-1930

    Tuato'o Ross, Cathy (2009-12-18)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The term “photomontage” has three syntactic senses, as: (i) the phenomenon, (ii) the practice/process, (iii) the resulting individual image. All three of these meanings are examined in this thesis in relation to the context, construction and content of the pictorial supplements of selected representative New Zealand illustrated weekly newspapers from 1900 to 1930. A photomontage in the third sense is an image that has been constructed or assembled from multiple photographic sources, although it can equally accurately be applied to an image constructed from some combinations of photographic, typographic, drawn and found material. It is a term closely associated with the Berlin Dada; however, while they may have coined the term, they did not invent the genre or its techniques. As Hannah Hoch, one of the key proponents of this group, acknowledged, photomontage was already used “very modestly but quite consciously” in photoreportage (Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife 219). This thesis demonstrates the frequency and prominence of photomontage in photoreportage in the New Zealand illustrated weekly press during the first three decades of the twentieth century. While a single photograph is a picture on its own, skilful combinations of multiple photographs and other elements have the power to communicate ideas.1. Through a combination of convention, adaptation and innovation, photomontage provided visual tools for the construction and representation of ideas about New Zealand. Nostalgia for the recent pioneering past and the more distant imagined idyll of pre-colonial times led to the emergence of myths, which were frequently portrayed in photomontage. Photomontage strategies were also used to construct representations of key ideals of contemporary society, with its plans and hopes for a future of continued progress. At a time when New Zealand was itself a nation under construction, the illustrated weekly newspapers provided a forum for the visual construction of the country’s past, present and future, and the promotion of these conceptions of national identity to a large national and international audience. Taking the view that construction is as important as content in the creation of meaning, a typology of key photomontage strategies is at the centre of this thesis. Following Giedeon’s pronouncement that for the historian “there are no banal things”, formulaic and repetitive formats are taken apart and analysed alongside complex and innovative examples (Giedion 3). The production of photomontages in the weekly newspapers provided an opportunity for design professionals to demonstrate and develop their abilities, and to communicate ideas. A few named individuals are presented, with a focus on their contribution to the visual culture of the time and on the degree of agency with which they operated. To a large extent, however, the published montages were the result of collected and anonymous fragments, and the contributions of anonymous photographers and designers are given equal consideration. 1 Paraphrasing Cesar Domela Nieuwenhuis (“Photomontage” 1931), a member of De Stijl and later of the Circle of New Advertising Designers.

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  • Monitoring bird abundance on New Zealand pastoral farms

    Weller, Florian Gerhard (2009-08-30)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis describes a two-year case study monitoring the densities of four species of common farmland birds on sheep and beef farms on New Zealand's South Island. The main objectives of the study were twofold: i) to establish baseline population estimates and investigate their seasonal dynamics and habitat associations in order to add to the understanding of ecology and ecosystem roles of these species; ii) to estimate the performance of line transect distance sampling for bird monitoring on farmlands, and evaluate the suitability of this approach in a the establishment of a national New Zealand bird monitoring programme for common and widespread species. Lastly I present a simulation-based power analysis of an experiment using the bird estimation methods intended to test the relative influences of habitat quality and predation by introduced mammals on farmland bird populations. The study formed part of the ARGOS project (Agriculture Research Group on Sustainability) which examines the environmental, social and economic sustainability of New Zealand’s farming systems. This transdisciplinary investigation compares environmental impacts of organic, Integrated Management, and conventional farming. Population densities of Skylark Alauda arvensis, Common Blackbird Turdus merula, Song Thrush Turdus philomelos, and Australian Magpie Gymnorhina tibicen were monitored on twelve pastoral farms located between the Banks Peninsula (Canterbury) and Owaka (Southland). Each farm was visited nine to ten times between November 2005 and August 2007. Birds were counted on ten 500m unbounded line transects per visit and farm while recording detection distances and several field parameters, and densities per farm and species were estimated in the distance sampling modelling program Distance™ 6.0. Multiple covariate modelling was used to incorporate the influence of the field parameters on detection probability (Chapter One), and the specific effect of individual covariates on the detection function was examined (Chapter Two). Model averaging was performed with the aid of Akaike scores. The effects of habitat parameters on species detectability and estimated density were modelled using Hierarchical General Linear Models. The average estimated detection probability (0.53) and average precision of detectability and density estimates (coefficients of variation of 0.12 and 0.21 respectively) compared well with international results. Farm-level woody vegetation cover emerged as the main driver of detectability for all four species, and few seasonal or geographical effects were found. Covariates of detectability were found to play a major role in improving model fit (especially time since sunrise and wind speed), but there were few clear directional trends within species. The effects of observer's varying monitoring experience and broad habitat type were the most consistently observed covariates of detectability. This indicates a need to include additional factor interactions when estimating bird density. In general, the distance sampling approach was successful in producing unbiased density estimates. An assessment of linear correlations between raw index counts and distance sampling estimates demonstrated that raw count data would be insufficiently accurate for magpies. However the less involved indexing method could produce reliable relative estimates for skylarks and thrushes, and also for blackbirds provided that vegetation cover was factored into the estimates. For these species, such uncorrected count methods could be used for the comparison of populations between farms using organic, Integrated Management or conventional farming systems, as I found no detectability differences between farm management types. Nor was there any indication of differences in bird densities between farms these management systems (Chapter Three). This outcome contrasts to findings of several international studies. Percentage of woody vegetation was found to have the strongest effect on bird numbers, being positively correlated with thrush and blackbird and negatively with skylark densities; the percentage of introduced species within woody vegetation negatively affected blackbird numbers. Thrushes and blackbirds also showed strong seasonal population dynamics, part of which could be traced to seasonal changes in availability for detection. In contrast, the abundance of magpies did not vary seasonally or with percentage of woody vegetation. Average densities for skylarks, blackbirds, thrushes and magpies were 0.53, 0.41, 0.23 and 0.18 birds per hectare respectively. These numbers were generally lower than those derived from other ARGOS surveys carried out on the same farms using a different modelling approach (a global detection model with post-stratification instead of farm-specific models). The discrepancies can be traced to specific differences in methodology and farm coverage. My survey method achieved higher precision than the ARGOS approach, but is probably less suited to the monitoring of uncommon species and the efficient tracking of long-term trends. The abundances of skylarks, blackbirds and thrushes in my study were much higher than recorded in the United Kingdom. While the effect of habitat composition as examined in my study is regarded as the main determinant of bird biodiversity on farms, predation by small introduced mammalian predators has also been shown to have a strong influence on bird populations. I tested the statistical power of a proposed experiment to disentangle the relative influences of habitat quality and predation on the density of breeding birds (Chapter Four). Bird densities on a group of matched farm pairs with "simple" versus "complex" habitat structures would be monitored while imposing a predator press (sustained predator control) on half the farms for a number of breeding seasons in a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design. I developed a simplified computer model of bird population dynamics that simulated differential recruitment on a pair of control and treatment farms, incorporating several types of stochastic variations to approximate the expected accuracy of estimating bird densities in the field. The simulation predicted that an effect of predator control would be detected at the 5% signficance level in 75% of the cases provided that four farm pairs were monitored and bird population estimate precision was below 40%. The simulation demonstrated that improved precision of bird density estimation has a large effect on experimental power to learn how farm bird communities could best be restored. This experiment could be carried out during the duration of a standard PhD thesis project or as an addendum to a larger ongoing monitoring effort. Implementation of this kind of experiment and longitudinal monitoring of farmland bird abundance would be one of many benefits for New Zealand. Comprehensive nationwide monitoring schemes exist in several countries, but no such programme yet exists in New Zealand. The results of my case study are combined with the findings of two workshops held in 2004 and 2005 that explored options for the establishment of a national monitoring scheme in Chapter Five. The programme would likely be volunteer-based and should cover as much of New Zealand's land area as possible and include all terrestrial habitats and species. A random stratified sampling strategy employing line or point transects with distance band suitable for analysis with distance sampling methods should be employed. I argue the advisability of using finer-grained distance bands to enable reasonable modelability of detections, and recommend the use of a double sampling approach to calibrate density estimates and the implementation of a pilot study to establish needed sampling effort and test field method feasibility. A programme built along these lines could provide valuable long-term population trends, early warning of species declines or pest eruptions, insights into ecosystem health, and will benefit conservation interests. Judging from the results of my case study, distance sampling would be the recommended method to use in this context.

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  • Anzac Day meanings and memories : New Zealand, Australian and Turkish perspectives on a day of commemoration in the twentieth century

    Davis, George Frederick (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This study examines the changing perceptions of Anzac Day in New Zealand, Australia and Turkey in the twentieth century. Changing interpretations of Anzac Day reflect social and political changes in the nations over that time. Anzac Day is an annual commemoration which has profound significance in the Australian and New Zealand social landscape. It has undergone significant changes of meaning since it began, and may be regarded as being an example of the changeable script of memory. The thesis argues that memory and landscape intersect to influence the way commemorative gestures are interpreted. Personal and community memories are fluid, influenced by the current historical landscape. This means that each successive Anzac Day can have different connotations. The public perception of these connotations is traced for each of New Zealand, Australia and Turkey. Anzac Day reflects the forces at work in the current historical landscape. Within that landscape it has different meanings and also functions as an arena for individual and community agency. On Anzac Day there are parades and services which constitute a public theatre where communities validate military service. Individual and communal feats are held high and an ethic or myth is placed as a model within the social fabric. Anzac Day is contested and reflects tides of opinion about war and society and the role of women. It is also the locale of quiet, personal contemplation, where central family attachments to the loved and lost and the debt owed by civilian communities to the military are expressed. Generational change has redefined its meanings and functions. Anzac Day was shaped in a contemporary historical landscape. It reflected multi-national perspectives within British Empire and Commonwealth countries and Turkey. For Turkey the day represented a developing friendship with former foes and was couched within Onsekiz Mart Zaferi, a celebration of the Çanakkale Savaşlari 1915 victory in the Dardanelles campaign. As Anzac Day evolved, Turkey, the host country for New Zealand and Australian pilgrims, became the focus of world attention on the day. Gallipoli is now universally recognised as the international shrine for Anzac Day.

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  • The sleeping taniwha: Exploring the practical utility of kaupapa Maori in firm performance

    Ruwhiu, Diane (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis takes the position that firm performance is derived from the value embodied by combinations of distinct socio-cultural resources and capabilities. In particular, this thesis explores practice in the context of Māori business to understand the mutual influences between economic exchange and social-cultural structures in terms of achieving improved firm performance. I begin by suggesting that much of the knowledge development and community practice in organisational analysis is subsumed within a Kuhnian conventionalism, which is not useful to gaining a deeper understanding of firm performance. I argue that what is required is an approach that emphasises the contextual development of society and organisation (embodied by social and cultural relations). This brings to the fore the pragmatist epistemology of practical knowledge, an approach to research and analysis of organisations that is at the heart of this research. Practical knowledge connects to the pragmatic orientation of Indigenous logics in this instance kaupapa Māori, which draws us to a perspective of knowledge that is experiential, contextual, diverse and inclusive. The effectiveness of a practical knowledge perspective by means of its pragmatic epistemology allows us to understand Māori businesses operating within a distinctive frame of socio-economic rationality providing a broader utility leading to culturally constituted forms of practice. It was through this lens that I engaged with the proposition regarding firm performance prompting us to look at the field of leadership (habitus), exchange (inter-capital exchange) and relationships (field) in particular. A major emphasis was a search for an appropriate method that would provide an avenue of authentic engagement with the cultural context embodied by kaupapa Māori. In terms of empirical investigation this thesis advances the utility of narrative as an expository technique and interpretive device that accords full recognition of Māori socio-cultural systems of relationships, historic circumstances and current practices. Conducted over three years (December 2004 and June 2006), the fieldwork component involved multiple strands of narrative in the form of dialogue, stories, metaphors, documentation and experiences of myself, other individuals and Māori economic development hui, or gathering. A key finding of this thesis is that kaupapa Māori as expressed through business practice offers a practical utility in relation to the capability of and potential outcomes for improved firm performance. I argue that there are unique characteristics of Māori business practice, which are grounded in the epistemological stance of kaupapa Māori in combination with Western philosophies and techniques of organisation that contribute to the performance of Māori businesses. In addition, I argue that it offers a view of the organisation as something beyond a disembodied system of market exchange and recognises the embeddedness of social processes in each culture will bring specific cultural nuances to the formulation of what constitutes organisational success. Finally, I suggest that kaupapa Māori research, grounded by the epistemological and ontological assumptions of an Indigenous paradigm provides opportunities for gaining greater insight into the dynamics of organisation and management research.

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  • The CEO Role in New Zealand: Perceptions and Interpretative Schema - Tensions and Paradoxes

    McNally, Beverley (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the perceptions of the CEO role in large New Zealand organisations. The study is a response to calls from scholars for more empirical work on executive leadership specifically, as it pertains to the CEO role, which scholars have identified as an under-researched and less clearly understood construct. A modified grounded theory approach was utilised to establish the research participants' perceptions of the CEO role. Specifically, this thesis focuses on how the participants interpret and construct meaning from the interactions occurring within their context. The sample for the study comprised 30 participants, 22 CEOs and 8 executives in non- CEO roles. The criteria for selection related to the position an individual held in an organisation. The individual was, or had been, a CEO in a large New Zealand organisation or was directly involved with the CEO role, for example, a board chairperson. The primary data were collected from semi-structured interviews of between one to two hours in duration. Informal interviews, company publications and documentation, and the relevant research literature supplemented the primary data. The concurrent data collection and analysis identified two interpretative schemas that guide and inform the CEO role. These were the leadership interpretative schema and the institutionalised interpretative schema. The participants in this study articulated the enactment of their leadership within the frame of the leadership interpretative schema. However, the predominant schema informing the CEO role was the institutionalised interpretative schema. The contact between the two schemas represented collisions. Such collisions, in turn, created a set of tensions and paradoxes for the CEO. In seeking a clearer explanation of these tensions and paradoxes, the study identified the basic social structural process of the CEO role as a social institution. This thesis re-conceptualises the CEO role as a social institution. As such it is a multifaceted construct with its own set of social norms that create, guide and sustain a social order governing the behaviour of the CEO. Situated within this social structural process the study identified the social psychological process balancing the tensions and paradoxes. The study identified that the CEOs perceived the need to be able to balance the tensions and paradoxes within their context if they are to enact their role effectively. In other words, an effective CEO is perceived as acting as a mediator, successfully mediating between the dualities created by the conflicting expectations of the two interpretative schemas. Establishing context as a primary factor within the study allowed the contextual factors that enhanced or inhibited the enactment of the CEO role in New Zealand to receive their due emphasis. Such a focus was responsible for allowing the social, cultural, legal and economic forces, within the context of the CEO, to be brought to the fore. These, in turn, were perceived by the participants as having their genesis within in the religious, economic and historical traditions of New Zealand's European colonialism, and in their responses to it. In this study, context is embraced as a means for allowing the voices of the participants to be brought forward and be heard, whereas, the concept of voice has been traditionally ascribed to the weak, minorities, and disadvantaged (Baez, 2002). Paradoxically, this research identified that CEOs perceive themselves as having little voice. This despite the perception, both within society and within organisations, that CEOs have considerable power and status and therefore have the ability to voice their 'true feelings'. The analysis identified that they perceive constraints and silencing with regard to certain aspects of their role, suggesting further research on the CEO responses to such constraints is required. The outcomes of this study have implications for research and practice. In terms of the former, there are opportunities for researchers to build on the findings of the study thereby, contributing to the body of knowledge. With regards to practice, the study raises implications for those involved in the governance function, policy-makers and those having responsibilities for the development of individuals to fill the CEO role.

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  • Is mandatory reporting of child abuse an appropriate child protection tool for adolescents?

    Lawson, Deborah Karen (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xx, 484 leaves :forms ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "May 2009". University of Otago department: Law

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  • Improving News Media Communication of Sustainability and the Environment: An Exploration of Approaches

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The majority of earlier studies on media and the environment have concentrated on media contents, effects, and associated problems and limitations. The focus here on 'approaches to improvement' advances research in this field a step forward. This research proposes three broad 'approaches to improvemen' and undertakes four case studies to provide an exploration of their potentials. First is the 'educational approach' of building journalists' knowledge. Two cases studies illustrate the high potentials of this approach. Assessment of a mid-career training initiative in environmental reporting reveals positive impacts on journalists' knowledge, reporting skills, and job satisfaction. Evaluation of a university journalism module on sustainability shows increases in students' understanding of the meaning and multidimensional nature of sustainability, and their appreciation of the need for enhancing public awareness through media coverage. Second is the 'social responsibility approach' of media receptiveness towards a more responsible role in communicating these issues. An analysis of newspersons' views reveals partial support for this approach – although they were somewhat unreceptive to media environmental policies as a way of expressing social responsibility, they tended to be receptive towards an educative role. However, journalistic routines and norms may restrict an educative approach to news reporting. Third is the 'message framing approach' of employing effective and persuasive communication strategies in the framing of mediated information to influence understanding and perception. An experimental assessment of an information campaign on 'sustainable consumption', designed based on this approach finds some increases in community understanding and concern; thus, illustrating the potentials of this approach. Finally, drawing from the findings of the case studies and other observations in the literature the study identifies the interdependencies between the three approaches and the interconnected network of other influencing factors that are likely to determine their success – thus providing a clearer perspective of their viability in the real world.

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