468 results for Doctoral, 2009

  • The properties of elliptic curves containing singularities over the field Zp

    Jamieson-Lane, Alastair David (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The study of elliptic curves is an important part of modern cryptography. In this report we consider the properties of singular elliptic curves over the field Zp, showing that they can always be factorized, that their equations always take a given form and that there are always p + 1 ± 1 points satisfying this equation over the field Zp.

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  • The CEO role in New Zealand: perceptions and interpretative schema tensions and paradoxes

    McNally, Beverley (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the perceptions of the CEO role in large New Zealand organisations. The study is a response to calls from scholars for more empirical work on executive leadership specifically, as it pertains to the CEO role, which scholars have identified as an under-researched and less clearly understood construct. A modified grounded theory approach was utilised to establish the research participants' perceptions of the CEO role. Specifically, this thesis focuses on how the participants interpret and construct meaning from the interactions occurring within their context. The sample for the study comprised 30 participants, 22 CEOs and 8 executives in non-CEO roles. The criteria for selection related to the position an individual held in an organisation. The individual was, or had been, a CEO in a large New Zealand organisation or was directly involved with the CEO role, for example, a board chairperson. The primary data were collected from semi-structured interviews of between one to two hours in duration. Informal interviews, company publications and documentation, and the relevant research literature supplemented the primary data. The concurrent data collection and analysis identified two interpretative schemas that guide and inform the CEO role. These were the leadership interpretative schema and the institutionalised interpretative schema. The participants in this study articulated the enactment of their leadership within the frame of the leadership interpretative schema. However, the predominant schema informing the CEO role was the institutionalised interpretative schema. The contact between the two schemas represented collisions. Such collisions, in turn, created a set of tensions and paradoxes for the CEO. In seeking a clearer explanation of these tensions and paradoxes, the study identified the basic social structural process of the CEO role as a social institution. This thesis re-conceptualises the CEO role as a social institution. As such it is a multifaceted construct with its own set of social norms that create, guide and sustain a social order governing the behaviour of the CEO. Situated within this social structural process the study identified the social psychological process balancing the tensions and paradoxes. The study identified that the CEOs perceived the need to be able to balance the tensions and paradoxes within their context if they are to enact their role effectively. In other words, an effective CEO is perceived as acting as a mediator, successfully mediating between the dualities created by the conflicting expectations of the two interpretative schemas. Establishing context as a primary factor within the study allowed the contextual factors that enhanced or inhibited the enactment of the CEO role in New Zealand to receive their due emphasis. Such a focus was responsible for allowing the social, cultural, legal and economic forces, within the context of the CEO, to be brought to the fore. These, in turn, were perceived by the participants as having their genesis within in the religious, economic and historical traditions of New Zealand's European colonialism, and in their responses to it. In this study, context is embraced as a means for allowing the voices of the participants to be brought forward and be heard, whereas, the concept of voice has been traditionally ascribed to the weak, minorities, and disadvantaged (Baez, 2002). Paradoxically, this research identified that CEOs perceive themselves as having little voice. This despite the perception, both within society and within organisations, that CEOs have considerable power and status and therefore have the ability to voice their 'true feelings'. The analysis identified that they perceive constraints and silencing with regard to certain aspects of their role, suggesting further research on the CEO responses to such constraints is required. The outcomes of this study have implications for research and practice. In terms of the former, there are opportunities for researchers to build on the findings of the study thereby, contributing to the body of knowledge. With regards to practice, the study raises implications for those involved in the governance function, policy-makers and those having responsibilities for the development of individuals to fill the CEO role.

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  • The CEO Role in New Zealand: Perceptions and Interpretative Schema - Tensions and Paradoxes

    McNally, Beverley (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the perceptions of the CEO role in large New Zealand organisations. The study is a response to calls from scholars for more empirical work on executive leadership specifically, as it pertains to the CEO role, which scholars have identified as an under-researched and less clearly understood construct. A modified grounded theory approach was utilised to establish the research participants' perceptions of the CEO role. Specifically, this thesis focuses on how the participants interpret and construct meaning from the interactions occurring within their context. The sample for the study comprised 30 participants, 22 CEOs and 8 executives in non- CEO roles. The criteria for selection related to the position an individual held in an organisation. The individual was, or had been, a CEO in a large New Zealand organisation or was directly involved with the CEO role, for example, a board chairperson. The primary data were collected from semi-structured interviews of between one to two hours in duration. Informal interviews, company publications and documentation, and the relevant research literature supplemented the primary data. The concurrent data collection and analysis identified two interpretative schemas that guide and inform the CEO role. These were the leadership interpretative schema and the institutionalised interpretative schema. The participants in this study articulated the enactment of their leadership within the frame of the leadership interpretative schema. However, the predominant schema informing the CEO role was the institutionalised interpretative schema. The contact between the two schemas represented collisions. Such collisions, in turn, created a set of tensions and paradoxes for the CEO. In seeking a clearer explanation of these tensions and paradoxes, the study identified the basic social structural process of the CEO role as a social institution. This thesis re-conceptualises the CEO role as a social institution. As such it is a multifaceted construct with its own set of social norms that create, guide and sustain a social order governing the behaviour of the CEO. Situated within this social structural process the study identified the social psychological process balancing the tensions and paradoxes. The study identified that the CEOs perceived the need to be able to balance the tensions and paradoxes within their context if they are to enact their role effectively. In other words, an effective CEO is perceived as acting as a mediator, successfully mediating between the dualities created by the conflicting expectations of the two interpretative schemas. Establishing context as a primary factor within the study allowed the contextual factors that enhanced or inhibited the enactment of the CEO role in New Zealand to receive their due emphasis. Such a focus was responsible for allowing the social, cultural, legal and economic forces, within the context of the CEO, to be brought to the fore. These, in turn, were perceived by the participants as having their genesis within in the religious, economic and historical traditions of New Zealand's European colonialism, and in their responses to it. In this study, context is embraced as a means for allowing the voices of the participants to be brought forward and be heard, whereas, the concept of voice has been traditionally ascribed to the weak, minorities, and disadvantaged (Baez, 2002). Paradoxically, this research identified that CEOs perceive themselves as having little voice. This despite the perception, both within society and within organisations, that CEOs have considerable power and status and therefore have the ability to voice their 'true feelings'. The analysis identified that they perceive constraints and silencing with regard to certain aspects of their role, suggesting further research on the CEO responses to such constraints is required. The outcomes of this study have implications for research and practice. In terms of the former, there are opportunities for researchers to build on the findings of the study thereby, contributing to the body of knowledge. With regards to practice, the study raises implications for those involved in the governance function, policy-makers and those having responsibilities for the development of individuals to fill the CEO role.

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  • Improving News Media Communication of Sustainability and the Environment: An Exploration of Approaches

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The majority of earlier studies on media and the environment have concentrated on media contents, effects, and associated problems and limitations. The focus here on 'approaches to improvement' advances research in this field a step forward. This research proposes three broad 'approaches to improvemen' and undertakes four case studies to provide an exploration of their potentials. First is the 'educational approach' of building journalists' knowledge. Two cases studies illustrate the high potentials of this approach. Assessment of a mid-career training initiative in environmental reporting reveals positive impacts on journalists' knowledge, reporting skills, and job satisfaction. Evaluation of a university journalism module on sustainability shows increases in students' understanding of the meaning and multidimensional nature of sustainability, and their appreciation of the need for enhancing public awareness through media coverage. Second is the 'social responsibility approach' of media receptiveness towards a more responsible role in communicating these issues. An analysis of newspersons' views reveals partial support for this approach – although they were somewhat unreceptive to media environmental policies as a way of expressing social responsibility, they tended to be receptive towards an educative role. However, journalistic routines and norms may restrict an educative approach to news reporting. Third is the 'message framing approach' of employing effective and persuasive communication strategies in the framing of mediated information to influence understanding and perception. An experimental assessment of an information campaign on 'sustainable consumption', designed based on this approach finds some increases in community understanding and concern; thus, illustrating the potentials of this approach. Finally, drawing from the findings of the case studies and other observations in the literature the study identifies the interdependencies between the three approaches and the interconnected network of other influencing factors that are likely to determine their success – thus providing a clearer perspective of their viability in the real world.

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  • A Critical Study of Kumpulan Militant Malaysia, its Wider Connections in the Region and the Implications of Radical Islam for the Stability of Southeast Asia

    Mohammad Aslam, Mohd Mizan (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study analyzes the existence and political history of Kumpulan Militan Malaysia (Malaysia Militant Group-KMM); the most spectacular Muslim militant group to recently emerge from Malaysia. Using an interpretive framework derived from typology of radicalism, this study exposes the roots of the group and its transformation into a militant movement. Based on extensive fieldwork, numerous interviews and in-depth research of related documents, this study demonstrates that the existence of KMM cannot be dissociated from Afghanistan’s global Jihadist campaign. This study analyzes the activities of KMM in the context of radical Islam in the South East Asia region and its wider connection, particularly with the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI). Findings from fieldwork research conducted with active and ex-members of KMM and JI are presented to find the answer to the question pertaining the involvement of these two groups in terrorism activities in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian contemporary social and political scenarios have been build-up from a long history of rebellious freedom fighters against colonial super-powers. In addition to nationalism, Islamization has also played a significant role in establishing freedom movements in the 1940s and 1950s. Systematic pressure under colonial powers and harsh policies implemented by ultra nationalists to these groups resulted in a series of rebellions and defiance such as what happened in Indonesia, Southern Thailand and the Southern Philippines. Historical facts led to radicalism in these countries, which are important for gaining a better knowledge about Muslim radicalism in Southeast Asia also presented in this thesis. The ‘typology of radicalism’ - the transformation from ‘nominal believers’ to activists, extremists, radicals and terrorists is explained in this research. Understanding Islam and their willingness to perform Jihad as was carried out in Afghanistan has had a significant impact on today’s militants. Finally, this research suggests the best methods for overcoming radicalism and diffusing KMM and JI’s threat in Southeast Asia.

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  • Telecommunications Inc.: Korea's Challenge to Qualcomm

    Kim, Sung-Young (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Building on the success of the 1990s, in the past decade the Korean state has attempted a transition from a strategy based on catching-up to one based on innovation in the domestic telecommunications industry, which I call ‘Telecommunications Inc.’. Concomitant with this shift is a new set of challenges for the state in supporting companies that seek to reap first-mover advantages. How, if at all, has the Korean state supported the technological upgrading ambitions of domestic firms in the telecommunications industry in an era of greater economic openness? The core contention of this study is that the Korean state has coped with economic openness through adapting institutions. The existence of a ‘quasi-pilot agency’, the extension of new linkages to a wider array of private sector participants, and the emergence of ‘technology-centred forums’ represent the fine-tuning of organisational arrangements to cope with the pressures of global technology-based competition. The emergence of WTO rules appears to have helped recast rather than ruled out developmental strategy in the Korean telecommunications industry. The Korean state has coped with the rise of the global trade regime by adopting development strategies based on ‘exploiting’, which entails increasing state activism in areas not explicitly prohibited and proactively embracing rules that encourages greater state activity. The Korean state has coped by ‘modifying’ such rules to meet strategic industry objectives; either by using overt measures that take advantage of loopholes and ambiguities contained in the legal texts of the WTO and by using covert below-the-radar measures. I demonstrate my argument through an examination of the goals, underlying strategic motivations and the strategy involved in the Korean Government’s promotion of three technological standards related to telecommunications software, fourth generation mobile broadband, and mobile broadcasting.

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  • An investigation into how the cell cycle and the Notch signalling pathway regulate pronephrogenesis in Xenopus laevis

    Naylor, Richard (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • In vitro modelling of human reactive gliosis

    Lim, Joanne (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Studies on the structure of membrane bound and membrane associated proteins using scattering

    O'Ryan, Liam (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Membrane proteins are poorly represented in the structural databases, despite the fact that approximately 30% of all open reading frames code for them. Investigations into the structure of three membrane proteins are reported in this thesis: OpcA, the outer membrane adhesin from the pathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis; Kir2.1, the inwardly rectifying potassium channel from Mus musculus; PSD95, the post-synaptic density scaffold protein from Rattus norvegicus. Recombinant OpcA was isolated from a bacterial expression system, refolded from inclusion bodies and purified in the presence of detergent. The purified protein was used in several structure determination experiments: OpcA was found to adopt a micelle sharing dimeric state in solution by small angle X-ray scattering; the location of detergent within crystals of the protein was explored by low-resolution neutron crystallography; and ligand binding was investigated by high resolution X-ray crystallography experiments. Perdeuterated OpcA was also purified and crystallised, and was found to diffract neutrons during a test scan. Finally, the structures of Kir2.1 and PSD95 were investigated by small angle scattering. A cytoplasmic domain construct of Kir2.1 was found to be have a tetrameric structure. Rigid body modelling was performed on PSD95 using the experimental small angle scattering curve to fit the domains of the protein.

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  • Production of Biodiesel Using a Continuous Gas-Liquid Spray Reactor

    Behzadi, Sam (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    With funding provided by Technology New Zealand, in partnership with Flo-Dry Engineering limited, and the University of Auckland this research examined successfully the production of biodiesel to meet New Zealand energy requirements. The overall aim of the project was to examine the production of biodiesel from feedstock available in New Zealand such as beef tallow. The primary focus was to improve the economic viability of the biodiesel process through an improved reaction mechanism. These improvements were made possible with the use of a continuous process using gas–liquid reaction.

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  • Characterisation of the molecular complexes that regulate the G2/M checkpoint of the eukaryotic cell cycle

    Collings, Melanie (2009-10-01)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Mathematical modelling of pathogen-prey-predator interactions

    Siekmann, Ivo (2009-02-20)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Ecosystems are characterised by a wealth of highly complex interdependencies. Mathematical models have already contributed considerably to gaining a better understanding of prey-predator interactions and epidemic spread; however often, such models also lead to new problems: A classical example from prey-predator dynamics is the paradox of enrichment, which the second chapter of this thesis deals with. A very recent branch of research is the extension of epidemiological models by a pathogen population: Whereas infection transmission is usually modelled by direct contacts of infected and susceptibles, in the new approach the infection is spread by a pathogen population. In chapter 3 a new model is described where in addition to the pathogen population that moves freely in the environment the replication process in the host is integrated. In chapters 4 and 5, prey-predator models with prey infection are investigated. After the analysis of the local behaviour, all models are extended by diffusive spread of the species. Random changes of environmental conditions are integrated by perturbing the populations with density-dependent noise. All models presented in this thesis are related but not restricted to phytoplanktonzooplankton systems. In fact, the results lead to much more general conclusions about competition in ecosystems.

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  • The Nature of Legislative Intent

    Ekins, Richard (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Efficient Estimation in Threshold Regression

    Yu, Ping (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Integrated modelling of structure-foundation systems

    Wotherspoon, Liam M. (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A problem endemic in the development of the built environment is poor communication between structural and geotechnical specialists. Through better communication and considering the structure and foundation as an integrated system, new opportunities may arise for achieving superior performance. This thesis investigates the seismic performance of the integrated system through the development of integrated structure-foundation models using the Ruaumoko structural analysis program. A detailed representation of the structural and foundation systems was created using Ruaumoko, providing insight into the response of a range of integrated structure-foundation systems during seismic loading. In developing both shallow and deep foundation models, some modifications were made to Ruaumoko elements in order to improve the foundation model, but generally existing element configurations were used to represent foundations. Multiple structural and foundation designs were developed using a range of approaches. Use of a range of shallow foundation design methods identified the significant impact that moment loading had on foundation performance. Partial uplift of footings was identified as detrimental to footing performance as it shifted the rotational axes, increasing moment loads and reducing effective footing area. Pinned connections between the structure and shallow footings eliminated these effects at the expense of significant redistribution of actions in the structure and increased displacements. Variation of soil conditions showed that softer soil was most likely to reduce demands on the structure at the expense of foundation non-linearity. Reduced stiffness and increased radiation damping characteristics of raft foundations compared to footing foundation systems reduced the demands on three storey structures for all soil conditions. Increased structural demands were identified for the ten storey structure as a result of the reduced impact of foundation characteristics on the response of the integrated system. The level of rotational restraint at the head of pile foundations had a considerable effect on the structure and the foundation, with free-head piles developing the largest pile displacements and actions. Reduced rotational stiffness caused a substantial change in the distribution of structural actions, while increasing rotational restraint moved the characteristics closer to the response of fixed base models. Softer soil conditions greatly increased non-linearity in the foundation soil without any definitive improvement in structural performance.

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  • Accessing the in between: The conditions of possibility emerging from interactions with information and communications technologies in Auckland, New Zealand

    Mitchell, Phillipa Marlis (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The complex interactions between individuals, institutions and information and communications technologies (ICTs) have generated a growing body of research that seeks greater knowledge of the processes at work and their consequences. Situated firmly within this area, this thesis challenges the dominance of the generalised and largely technologically deterministic narratives within the field by seeking to constitute such knowledge in a different way. Geography provides a useful standpoint from which to challenge these narratives owing to its enduring engagement with time and space, concepts implicit in any discussion of ICTs effects. Emerging work on code space, transurbanism and timespace are specifically used to negate the persistent dualistic treatment of time and space which is argued to be hampering geographic research in this field. Methodologically drawing from a non representational style this thesis uses these emerging understandings to access the in between, a mental space of performance; which involves the process of drawing from tacit knowledge, cognitive perceptions of the spatial and temporal environment and emotions, in order to explore the conditions of possibility that individuals are becoming aware of through their interactions with ICTs. Four empirical interventions are used to ground these emerging understandings into the reality of everyday encounters with ICTs in Auckland, New Zealand. The first focuses on the role of local government in the development of Auckland’s ICT infrastructure, a complex and contingent process. The second concentrates on the provision of a Real Time Passenger Information System at Auckland bus stops, exposing individuals to new timespaces while waiting for the bus. The third considers students opinions of the e-learning mechanisms used in two first year geography courses. The final intervention examines the role ICTs play in South Africans and South Koreans imagining, negotiation and mediation of the migration process to Auckland. In conclusion, this thesis contributes to how geography constitutes knowledge about ICTs at three different levels. Empirically, the four interventions contribute grounded findings to the debates in the geographic literature over interactions with ICTs. Methodologically, the conditions of possibility institutional and individual actors are beginning to perceive through their encounters with ICTs are revealed as are the timespaces that may eventuate from these. Theoretically, to understand how the interactions between individuals and ICTs are performed this thesis demonstrates the need to interrogate the in between as a process, not just a gap or blank.

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  • Toward empirical IP host traffic measurement in passive network measurement

    Lee, Dong Jin (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    An IP flow represents a group of packets that share the same attribute such as their source address. The ever-growing network traffic produces an enormous number of flows. Recent studies attempt to simplify and mine flows in order to understand the network’s behaviour. The traditional technique of packet aggregation to 5-tuple flows provides understanding of the flows themselves, but fails to capture an understanding of the aggregated end-point that generates flows: the IP host. This thesis describes the design, development and analysis of a measurement method that identifies an IP host from network traffic. A conceptual model of IP host aggregations has been designed to summarize traffic: from 5-tuple to 2-tuple and finally to 1-tuple IP host. Using the framework, various observations and analyses have been conducted at the host level, including empirical distributions and behaviour relationships. Several host characteristics and applications are examined from real-world network data, such as characterizing host interaction variability and identifying hosts that are potentially significant.

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  • Anatomically-based, subject-specific modelling of lower limb motion during gait

    Oberhofer, Katja (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes in Pacific adults: The Diabetes Heart and Health Study (DHAH), Auckland, New Zealand 2002/03

    Sundborn, Gerhard Benjamin McDonald (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis aims were to describe health related socio-economic profiles, alcohol consumption patterns, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (known and undiagnosed) and to quantify levels of overweight and obesity and other cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults of Pacific ethnic groups and to compare these findings to Europeans in Auckland, New Zealand.

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  • Microencapsulated phase change materials for thermal energy storage: development, evaluation, and application

    Smith, Michael Christopher (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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