12,847 results for Doctoral

  • Exploring Mechanisms of Change in the Rehabilitation of High-Risk Offenders

    Yesberg, Julia A. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The success or failure of many different types of treatment is often measured by one type of outcome. For example, treatment for substance abuse might be judged to have failed if a patient “goes on a bender” some time after completing the programme. The same is true for offender rehabilitation. Treatment success or failure is usually determined by whether or not an offender is reconvicted of a new offence in a specified follow-up period. We know from the literature that offender rehabilitation can have modest but significant effects on reducing recidivism. Yet we know little about what brings about these reductions (i.e., how the treatment worked). This thesis explores possible mechanisms of change in offender rehabilitation. I propose that although a reduction in recidivism is an important long-term outcome of treatment, there are a number of additional outcomes that have the potential to explain not only if but how treatment works and why it is unsuccessful in leading to a reduction in reoffending for some offenders. Study 1 is a typical outcome evaluation of New Zealand’s rehabilitation programmes for high-risk male offenders: the High Risk Special Treatment Units (HRSTUs). I compared the recidivism rates of a sample of HRSTU completers with a comparison sample of high-risk offenders who had not completed the programme (a between-subjects design). I found that relative to the comparison group, treatment completers had significantly lower rates of four different indices of recidivism, varying in severity. The remainder of the thesis explored possible mechanisms of change within the HRSTU sample (a within-subjects design). Study 2 examined immediate outcomes of treatment, which I defined as within-treatment change on dynamic risk factors. I found that offenders made significant change on the Violence Risk Scale during treatment, but there was no significant relationship between treatment change and recidivism. Studies 3 and 4 examined intermediate outcomes of treatment, which I defined as barriers (risk factors) and facilitators (protective factors) that influence the process of offender re-entry. Study 3 validated an instrument designed to measure these factors: the Dynamic Risk Assessment for Offender Re-entry (DRAOR). I found that the tool had good convergent validity and reliably predicted recidivism above a static risk estimate. Study 4 used the newly validated DRAOR to test an explanation for the lack of a direct relationship between treatment change and recidivism. I tested whether treatment change had an indirect relationship with recidivism through its influence on the re-entry process. I found that treatment change was related to a number of re-entry outcomes; however, only two models could be tested for mediation because the re-entry outcomes themselves lacked predictive ability. Nevertheless, findings from Study 4 suggest the re-entry process is an area worthy of further investigation. Taken together, the findings from this thesis highlight the importance of considering alternative treatment outcomes in addition to whether or not a programme leads to a reduction in long-term recidivism outcomes. Answering the question of how treatment works requires an exploration into possible mechanisms of change. This thesis was only a preliminary investigation into such mechanisms; however, the findings have both practical and theoretical implications for the way we conceptualise how treatment programmes work. Developing a greater understanding of mechanisms of change in offender rehabilitation has the potential to lead to the design and delivery of more effective programmes.

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  • Electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional crystals

    Hatami, Hani (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the last few years, two dimensional crystals have become available for experimental studies. Good examples of such systems are monolayers and bilayers of graphene and monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS₂ and WSe₂. The availability of two dimensional crystals has encouraged physicists to study the electronic and magnetic properties of such systems. This thesis adds to the theoretical knowledge about electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional crystals with the focus on graphene and MoS₂. As a general theme in this thesis, we calculate how in general these systems interact with electric and magnetic fields and what their response is to such stimuli. In particular, we have studied the response of monolayer graphene to an in-plane electric field. We have also looked at spin-orbit coupling effects that arise from applying perpendicular or in-plane external electric fields, especially their consequences for transport properties of bilayer graphene. We investigated the electronic properties of charge carriers confined in a mesoscopic ring structure using a gate voltage in bilayer graphene. We also showed how spin-orbit coupling can affect the electrical properties of such rings. We found how spin-orbit coupling can affect the transport properties in bilayer graphene. We also investigated the RKKY or indirect exchange coupling between magnetic moments in monolayer MoS₂ through calculating wave vector dependent spin susceptibility. We examined the electronic properties of electrons and holes confined electrostatically into a bilayer graphene ring. We presented an analytical solution for finding energy levels in the ring. We showed that the magnetic field dependence of the lowest energy level with fixed angular momentum in bilayer graphene rings, in contrast to usual semiconductor quantum rings, is not parabolic but displays an asymmetric “Mexican hat“. We found that introducing spin-orbit coupling in the ring can flatten this Mexican hat. We studied the effect of an orbital Rashba type effect, induced by an in-plane electric field in monolayer graphene. Using perturbation theory, we showed that this term can affect the energy levels in a crossed electric and magnetic field such that the electron and hole levels repel each other. We calculated the AC transport of monolayer graphene in the linear-response regime and showed that taking the orbital Rashba term into account casts doubt on the universality of the minimum conductivity of monolayer graphene. We studied the effect of spin-orbit coupling in transport properties of bilayer graphene systems by calculating tunnelling through npn and np junctions. We showed that at sufficiently large spin-orbit strength, normal transmission through a barrier which is forbidden in bilayer graphene becomes finite. We predict that in a weak Rashba spin-orbit regime, outgoing electrons show signals which are spin polarized. We also showed that considering spin-orbit coupling only in the barrier of an npn junction can invert the spin of the incoming electrons. Finally, we obtained analytical expressions for the wave vector-dependent static spin susceptibility of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, considering both the electron-doped and hole-doped cases. These results are then applied to the calculations of physical observables of monolayer MoS₂. We claculated that the hole-mediated RKKY exchange interaction for in-plane impurity-spin components decays with a different power law from what is expected for a two-dimensional Fermi liquid. In contrast, we calculated that the out-of-plane spin response shows the conventional long-range behaviour.

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  • Capturing recurring concepts in high speed data streams

    Sakthithasan, Sripirakas

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research addresses two key issues in high speed data stream mining that are related to each other. One fundamental issue is the detection of concept change that is an inherent feature of data streams in general in order to make timely and accurate structural changes to classification or prediction models. The shortcomings in the past research were addressed in two versions of a change detector that were produced during this research. The second major issue is the detection of recurring patterns in a supervised learning context to gain significant efficiency and accuracy advantages over systems that have severe time constraints on response time to change due to safety and time critical requirements. Capturing recurrent patterns requires the detection of concept change with minimal false positives. This research addresses this latter problem as a pre-requisite to formulating a novel mechanism for recognizing recurrences in a dynamic data stream environment. The first approach to change detection, termed SeqDrift1 that relies on a detection threshold derived using the Bernstein bound and sequential hypothesis strategy ensured much lower false positive rates and processing time than the most widely used change detector, ADWIN. The second version of the change detector, SeqDrift2, achieved significant improvement on detection sensitivity over SeqDrift1. This was achieved through two separate strategies. The first was the use of reservoir sampling to retain a larger proportion of older instances thus providing for better contrast with newer arriving instances belonging to a changed concept. The second strategy was to trade off false positive rate for detection delay in an optimization procedure. The net result was that SeqDrift2 achieved much lower detection delay than SeqDrift1 but sacrificed some of its false positive rate when compared to SeqDrift1, while still retaining its superiority with respect to this measure vis-à-vis ADWIN and other change detectors. Having proposed a robust and efficient mechanism for change detection two different meta-learning schemes for recurrent concept capture were proposed. A novel framework using the two schemes consists of concept change detectors to locate concept boundaries, a Hoeffding tree compressor to exploit the application of Discrete Fourier Transform on Decision Trees to produce compact Fourier Spectra, a forest of Hoeffding Trees to actively learn and a pool of Fourier spectra to be reused on similar recurring concepts. In the first scheme, termed Fourier Concept Trees (FCT), each Fourier spectrum is separately stored and reused on similar concepts. Accuracy and memory advantages have been empirically shown over an existing method called, MetaCT. In the second scheme, instead of storing each spectrum on its own, an ensemble approach, Ensemble Pool (EP), was adopted whereby several spectra were aggregated into single composite spectrum. The major advantage of this strategy over the first was the reduction in storage overhead as redundancies in separate spectra are eliminated by merging into one single entity. In addition, Fourier spectrum generation is optimized with theoretical guarantees to suit high speed environments. Extensive experimentation that demonstrated the benefits including accuracy stabilization, memory gain, reusability of existing models etc., has been done with a number of synthetic and real world datasets. This includes a case study on a Flight simulator system which is one of the target applications of this research.

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  • The Potential for Augmented Reality to Bring Balance betweenthe Ease of Pedestrian Navigation and the Acquisition of Spatial Knowledge

    Wen, James (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Being completely lost in an unfamiliar environment can be inconvenient, stressful and, at times, even dangerous. Maps are the traditional tools used for guidance but many people find maps difficult to use. In recent years, new tools like outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) have become available which allow virtual navigation cues to be directly overlaid on the real world, potentially overcoming the limitations of maps. However, it has been hypothesized that lower effort invested in processing navigation guidance may lead to diminished spatial knowledge (SK) thereby making users of such navigation tools far more vulnerable to getting lost should the tools fail for any reason. This thesis explores the research question of how AR and maps compare as tools for pedestrian navigation guidance as well as for SK acquisition and if there is a potential for AR tools be developed that would balance the two. We present a series of studies to better understand the consequences of using AR in a pedestrian navigation tool. The first two studies compared time-on-task performance and user preferences for AR and Map navigation interfaces on an outdoor navigation task. The results were not aligned with expectations, which led us to build a controlled testing environment for comparing AR and map navigation. Using this simulated setting, our third study verified the assumption that AR can indeed result in more efficient navigation performance and it supported the hypothesis that this would come at the cost of weaker SK. In our fourth study, we used a dual task design to compare the relative cognitive resources required by map and AR interfaces. The quantitative data collected indicated that users could potentially accept additional workload designed to improve SK without incurring significantly more effort. Our fifth and final study explored an interface with additional AR cues that could potentially balance navigation guidance with SK acquisition. The contributions of this thesis include insights into performance issues relating to AR, a classification of user types based on navigation tool usage behavior, a testbed for simulating perfect AR tracking in a virtual setting, objective measures for determining route knowledge, the capacity that pedestrian navigation tool users may have for performing additional tasks, and guidelines that would be helpful in the design of pedestrian navigation tools.

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  • The Effect of Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning on the Immune Response

    Williams-Spence, Jennifer Mae (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) describes the phenomenon where brief intermittent periods of limb ischaemia are used to protect the heart and other organs from subsequent prolonged ischaemic insults. RIPC has been identified as a promising intervention for use during cardiac surgery and has consistently shown a beneficial effect in animal models; however, the results of early clinical trials have not been as successful. The exact mechanisms involved in mediating RIPC have not yet been characterised and a better understanding of the pathways through which RIPC exerts its protective effects will be essential in order to progress the translation of this intervention into the clinical setting. There is increasing evidence that RIPC modifies the inflammatory response, therefore the central aim of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate how RIPC affects the human immune system. We performed a double-blind randomised controlled trial of RIPC in 96 high-risk cardiac surgery patients and found no evidence that the intervention reduced myocardial injury or altered peri-operative expression levels of the key inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10, during simple or more complex procedures. There was a trend towards higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the preconditioned patients; however, confounding variables in the trial design and the heterogeneous patient population limited our ability to interpret the results. We next conducted a paired-analysis trial with 10 healthy male volunteers to assess the direct effect of preconditioning on the early immune response, away from any form of ischaemic injury or comorbidities. We found that RIPC directly and significantly decreased serum levels of the chemokines MIP-1α and MIP-1β, but did not increase the serum concentrations of a range of key cytokines or alter the cytokine producing potential of peripheral blood leukocytes. These findings strongly suggest that a cytokine is not likely to be the humoral mediator associated with transmitting the RIPC protective signal. RIPC did not alter the immunophenotype or extravasation of peripheral leukocyte populations, or the proliferative and cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to pharmacological, physiological, and antigen-specific stimuli. However, preconditioning did appear to reduce the ability of monocytes and neutrophils to respond to activation signals, as indicated by lower levels of CD11b expression in stimulated cultures, and a significant increase in the basal production of IL-22 was also detected in PBMC cultured for 6 days following preconditioning. These alterations may reduce neutrophil and monocyte tissue infiltration and limit the inflammatory response during the early window of RIPC-induced protection and enhance tissue and wound repair several days later. A multivariate analysis confirmed that there was a significant difference in the response between the control and RIPC treatments and the main contributing factors were identified as changes in neutrophil and T cell activation, serum levels of MIP-1α and β, and production of IL-10 and IL-22 from PBMC cultured for 6 days. Overall, our results suggest that RIPC has a subtle but direct effect on the systemic innate immune response during the early window of protection in healthy volunteers, whereas the effects on the adaptive immune system seem to be considerably delayed. The changes detected following RIPC are likely to contribute to protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury but not solely account for the extent of the beneficial effects of RIPC detected in animals. Our findings reinforce the safety profile of this intervention and have defined a number of immune parameters that are altered by preconditioning for focusing future research.

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  • Dynamic process of user adaptation to complex mandatory information systems

    Wanchai, Paweena

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The introduction of a complex system, such as an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, requires users to adapt to the simultaneous requirements of the new system and the associated organisational and business process changes. Unsuccessful adaptation to complex mandatory systems generates significant financial and opportunity costs to organisations and makes some employees feel dissatisfied with their jobs. Previous information systems (IS) research provides important insight into IS use. However, there is a lack of an in-depth study of the process of user adaptation that explains how user adaptation behaviours change over time and what triggers users to modify their system use behaviours. This study unveils the dynamic adaptation process and offers an explanation of how adaptation behaviours unfold over time. The fieldwork was conducted in four organisations in Thailand: one private, one state-owned, one non-profit and one multinational. An embedded multiple-case study design was applied in this research. Using the critical incident technique, 46 in-depth interviews were conducted with ERP users, managers and IT specialists. Grounded theory informed both the method of data analysis and the technique for theory building. As a result of an inductive theorising process, three intertwined core themes emerged. The first theme, user adaptation behaviours, reflects the different ways in which users respond to the evolving work practices that an ERP system imposes. The second theme, situational conditions, reveals the underlying conditions that influence the user adaptation process including social-task-user conditions and system-business process comprehension. The third theme, triggers, refers to events that change user perceptions towards the system or changes in the work environment. This study produces an emergent, substantive theory that explains how individuals dynamically adapt to complex mandatory IS. These adaptation behaviours, which are shaped by situational conditions, manifest in the form of reluctant, compliance, faithful and enthusiastic adaptation behaviours. Through their interaction with the system, individuals are constantly assessing the system in relation to the existing situational conditions. The adaptation behaviours espoused at any given time can be subsequently modified through task-related, organisational-related and system-related triggers.

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  • Comparative analysis of construction procurement systems based on transaction costs

    Rajeh, Mohammed

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Within construction procurement, Transaction cost economics (TCE), offers a mechanism to understand ‘unseen’ costs associated with the pre and post-contract work. Pre-contract, these include costs related to information gathering and procurement. Post-contract they include activities of contract administration and enforcement. This research investigates the relationship between procurement system and transaction costs (TCs) in the New Zealand construction industry, developing a theoretical model of relationship between procurement systems and TC. The model was operationalized and developed into a questionnaire. A cross-sectional sample approach was deployed, involving questionnaire survey, interviews, and research verification through ‘real world’ cases. Data was sought from professionals in management, design and operations (i.e. project managers, architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, and procurement officers). These professionals represented several construction organizations and NZ Councils (Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin). TCs were measured using time-spent conducting procurement related activities as a surrogate for cost. Professionals evaluated their time spent on procurement activities using a 5-point Likert scale, comparing the Traditional and Design-Build delivery systems. 96 responses (74 usable) were received from a sampled population of 360 (27% response). This data was triangulated with interviews to test and explain the model. The tests included Validity and Reliability Tests, Path Analysis, Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The primary analytical technique used was Structural Equation Modelling to yield information on Goodness-of-Fit, model development and comparison, and confirmatory strategies. SPSS Amos 21 statistical software was used for data analysis and model development. The data demonstrated univariate and multivariate normality assumptions underlying SEM testing of research hypotheses. Of 43 hypotheses tested, six null hypotheses were rejected, demonstrating a positive relationship between the costs of information, procurement, administration, and enforcement with TCs. Additionally environmental uncertainties have indirect significant impact on TCs. The results suggest procurement systems have indirect impact on TCs, which is fully mediated by costs of information, procurement, administration, and enforcement. Finally, for research results verification, the models were applied to real-life cases (four Traditional, two Design-Build). TCs were calculated using regression equations based on factor loadings in the Traditional and Design-Build models. It was found that TCs in the Traditional system amounts to 18.5% of the annual salary cost of a project manager (as an indicator quantum), while in the Design-Build system, it amounts to 14.5% of the annual salary cost of a project manager. This study applies a new theoretical model for procurement selection based on TCs, investigating and empirically demonstrating the influence of procurement system on TCs in construction. It also offers a new plausible explanation for the factors influencing TCs in procurement. The findings have practical implications on construction business practice due to their robust empirical nature and theoretical framework, which might enhance the performance of the construction industry. The study contributes to the procurement selection in construction, by introducing a new conceptual model for the link between procurement systems and TCs. It has extended the current practices for procurement selection by estimating TCs for different procurement systems, specifically for the Traditional and Design-Build systems for comparison. This study emphasizes ‘in-house’ TCs from the perspective of the client, consequently the study recommends that the work be expanded to determine the ‘out-of-house’ TCs from the contractor perspective. Furthermore that to expand the relevance of the findings further work using the same methodology should be used to measure TCs for other procurement systems for comparison purposes. Finally, this study calculates TCs within projects, so it was recommended to further explore intra-organizational TCs in construction.

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  • Structure and function of food webs in acid mine drainage streams

    Hogsden, Kristy Lynn (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a significant environmental issue worldwide, which often causes severe contamination and marked species losses in receiving streams. However, little is known about how this stress alters food webs and ecosystem function. I conducted a literature review, which revealed that AMD-impacted streams generally had depauperate benthic communities dominated by a few tolerant species and impaired ecosystem processes. Next, using survey and experimental-based approaches, I investigated food web structure and energy flow in these highly stressed streams, which typically have low pH (< 3), high concentrations of dissolved metals (Al, Fe), and substrata coated with metal hydroxide precipitates, on the South Island, New Zealand. Inputs of AMD caused substantial loss of consumers and reduced the overall number of links between species generating small and simplified food webs, with few invertebrates and no fish. Comparative analysis of food webs from a survey of 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals, indicated that anthropogenic sources had a stronger negative effect on food web properties (size, food chain length, number of links); an effect driven primarily by differences in consumer diversity and diet. However, the presence of fewer trophic levels and reduced trophic diversity (detected using isotopic metrics), were common structural attributes in AMD-impacted webs along a pH gradient, regardless of impact level. Furthermore, complementary dietary analyses of consumer gut contents and stable isotope signatures (δ13C and 15N) confirmed that primary consumers fed generally on basal resources and that there were few predatory interactions, which reflected low densities of small-bodied chironomids. This suggests that food quantity was unlikely to limit primary consumers but that reduced prey availability may be an additional stressor for predators. In these radically re-structured food webs, trophic bottlenecks were generated at the primary consumer level and energy flow to higher consumers was disrupted. However, streams still retained some limited function, including slow leaf litter breakdown, which provided detrital resources and supported the small food webs. Overall, my findings have furthered our understanding of these highly stressed stream ecosystems by providing new insights into interactions among species and trophic levels that structure food webs and enable function.

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  • Restricted Verb Phrase Collocations in Standard and Learner Malaysian English

    Abd Halim, Hasliza (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The English used in Malaysia is one of the varieties of New Englishes and this variety has emerged due to the spread of English around the world (Platt, et al., 1983; Pillai, 2006). In the case of Malaysia, Malay is the national language and standard English exists to be the language of an elite (Bao, 2006), also as a language of interaction. Over years of playing its various roles as a language of interaction, there has emerged a variety of English that is distinctively Malaysian (Asmah, 1992). Baskaran (2002) points out that English is now adopted and adapted in the linguistic ecology of Malaysia, and all Malaysians should be proud of it with all its local ‘nuances and innuendos’. Malaysian English today is ‘a rich tapestry of a typical transplanted variety of English’. Malaysian English (ME) is one of the new varieties of English, with some distinct features include the localized vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar as well as pragmatic features (Pillai, 2006; Pillai and Fauziah, 2006, p.39). The present study has embarked on a specialised study of vocabulary. In particular, it examined the English collocations produced by non-native speaker English users in Malaysia. The study provided insight into the nature of the internal norms of English used in Malaysia to see how these English restricted collocations being used by this group of learners. The investigation focused on the learners’ productive knowledge of Verb-Noun collocations of their written English with the impact of exposure and frequency. Nesselhauf (2003) has the opinion that verb-noun combinations are the most frequently mistaken so they should perceive particular attention of learners. Investigating collocation in English language learning is paramount as such study may inform us on the use of restricted collocations in English language teaching and learning in Malaysian context. The findings in Chapter 4 and 5 suggest that the frequency of the cloze verb does have an effect as predicted by Kuiper, Columbus and Schmitt (2009). This is so because frequency is a measure of likely exposure. The more frequent an item is in corpora, the more likely a learner is to be exposed to it. What is needed is a much more nuanced notion of exposure. The findings in Chapter 6 proves that the malformed collocations make sense could be a way of making the World English perspective relevant after all. A new testing approach is proposed; semantic plausibility metric, which is used as a tool for this study, can be useful used as a measure of vocabulary acquisition as well as looking at learners’ test taking strategies. The findings of the present research on Malaysian English collocations contribute new knowledge to the existing understanding and literature on the acquisition of collocations.

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  • Influences of fisher attitudes and behaviour on regulation non-compliance: A case study from the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand recreational blue cod fishery

    Thomas, Alyssa S. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although it has been noted that fisheries is 90% managing people, most management regimes focus solely on the other 10%; the biological aspect. Furthermore, despite the growing popularity of recreational fishing and increased awareness of its biological effects, there exists even less literature on the human dimensions in this domain than in commercial fisheries. In New Zealand, the Marlborough Sounds recreational blue cod fishery is strictly regulated, due to its popularity and a top-down management regime, with limited fisher involvement. Despite substantial biological information on the fishery, there is only one piece of human dimensions research, carried out before the current management regime came into force. This thesis responds to calls for greater integration of human behaviour into fisheries analyses and management. Specifically, the aim is to explore fisher attitudes towards and compliance with the fishery regulations. The research presented here is a combination of intercept and online surveys of over 500 fishers and is interdisciplinary in nature. Four related studies, aimed towards publication, provide important insights for a more inclusive management style in the future. The first chapter examines fisher attitudes and the factors shaping them, a poorly understood area. Responses reveal that although overall, fishers were dissatisfied with the current regulations, inexperienced and non-locally-resident fishers display more positive attitudes towards the regulations. The second core chapter examines regulation non-compliance, a worldwide fisheries problem that can undermine the effectiveness of a management regime. As rule-breaking behaviour is often a sensitive behaviour, two indirect methods (Randomized Response and Item Count) are tested against direct questioning in estimating violations of three recreational blue cod fishing regulations. Results show mixed effectiveness for the indirect methods, with a significantly higher estimate of non-compliance estimate obtained for only one of the three regulations. The third core chapter uses structural equation modeling to examine the drivers of non-compliance with the size and daily limits for blue cod. Knowledge of these drivers is essential to increasing voluntary compliance with the regulations and these results demonstrate that social norms are the largest influence for both the regulations. Finally, the fourth core chapter examines the potential effects of the maximum size limit on the number of blue cod discarded as well as fisher satisfaction and compliance. A scenario approach reveals that either increasing or eliminating the maximum size limit could offer significant gains compared with the control scenario. The four chapters contribute to the global literature on subjects including fisher attitudes, estimating sensitive behaviours, drivers of non-compliance, discards in recreational fisheries and natural resource management. Taken together, the results reaffirm the benefits of including the human dimensions in fisheries management regimes. For the Marlborough Sounds recreational blue cod fishery, a shift away from the current, top-down and biologically focused management regime is suggested. I also argue that a more inclusive management strategy may be the best chance for success and allow the fishery to be saved for future generations; a goal shared by both fishers and management.

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  • Foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) during lactation: new insights from dietary biomarkers

    Lenky, Crystal (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Despite extensive studies on Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in McMurdo Sound since the 1960s, uncertainty still remains regarding female foraging habits during the lactation period. Based on their large body mass at the start of lactation and large relative mass loss at the end, the current hypothesis is that Weddell seals fast or feed to a neglible extent during lactation. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested to date, as evidence for foraging is indirect and is based primarily on dive behaviour. The work presented in this thesis describes the development of a new dietary method, the biomarker method, and its application for studying the foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals during lactation. Biomarkers were used to (1) monitor the onset of feeding in individual animals, and (2) determine what prey females were feeding on using characteristic/taxon-specific biomarker patterns. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays were developed to detect and quantify dietary biomarkers in biological samples, mainly tissues, serum and plasma. Trimethylamine N-oxide, arsenobetaine, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, homarine and glycine betaine were first measured in thirty-three prey and potential prey species of Weddell seals collected from the Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound regions of Antarctica. These same compounds were then measured in the plasma of twelve female Weddell seals over the lactation period at the Hutton Cliffs seal colony, McMurdo Sound in 2006. Time-depth recorders monitored seal dive activity over the same period. The data obtained from both NMR and LC-MS/MS assays showed that biomarkers in Antarctic species varied both in content and concentration. The compound homarine, which occurs primarily in cephalopods, is suitable for distinguishing between major food groups of known prey of Weddell seals (i.e., fishes versus cephalopods). DMSP, a compound that occurs primarily in fish common in McMurdo Sound (e.g., Trematomus bernacchii and Pagothenia borchgrevinki) but not in significant amounts in Dissostichus mawsoni or Pleuragramma antarcticum, two main prey items for Weddell seals, may also be a suitable biomarker for distinguishing between major and minor prey types. The detection of plasma TMAO, AsB and homarine indicated that 75% of Weddell seals studied fed during lactation. The presence of these three compounds indicates the seals were preying upon a combination of fish and cephalopods. Two lactating females started foraging as early as 9 to 12 days postpartum and elevated biomarker levels were concurrent with increased dive activity. The onset of foraging and dive behaviour amongst individuals was highly variable; however, the results suggests that the number of females who feed during lactation may be more prevalent and initiated at an earlier stage than previously thought. This may have implications for future reproductive success given effects of climate change on sea ice abundance and resource availability. Overall, the work presented in this thesis provides new insights into the foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals during lactation and has added to the current knowledge of the biomarker distribution within the Antarctic ecosystem.

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  • Democratic Vanguardism: Modernity, Intervention and the making of the Bush Doctrine

    Harland, Michael Ian (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the way in which Americans and their leaders viewed the world. The tragic events of that day helped give rise to a foreign policy strategy commonly referred to as the “Bush Doctrine.” At the heart of this doctrine lay a series of propositions about the need to foster liberal democracy as the antidote to terrorism. President George W. Bush proclaimed in a variety of addresses that democracy now represented the “single surviving model” of political life to which all people aspired. In the course of making this argument, President Bush seemed to relate his policies to an overarching “teleology” of progress. This discourse implied that the United States might use force to hasten the emergence of liberal norms and institutions in selected states. With a sense of irony, some commentators soon referred to the Bush administration’s position as “Leninist” because of its determination to bring about the so-called “end of history” today. Yet, surprisingly, these critics had little more to add. This thesis is an attempt to assess in greater depth the Bush administration’s claim to comprehend historical eschatology. Developing a concept termed “democratic vanguardism,” this study investigates the idea of liberal modernity, the role of the United States as a force for democracy, and the implications of using military intervention in the service of idealistic ends. It examines disputes among political theorists, public intellectuals and elected statesmen which help to enrich our understanding of the United States’ efforts under President Bush at bending history to its will.

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  • Non-probative Photos Promote the Truth of Positive Claims

    Cardwell, Brittany A. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    People’s judgments are prone to the influence of feelings, even cognitive feelings such as the ease with which related information comes to mind (Alter & Oppenheimer, 2009; Schwarz & Clore, 2007). In 14 experiments, we¹ found evidence that non-probative photos — ones that relate to what people are evaluating, but that provide no relevant information for their task — produce cognitive feelings that lead people to evaluate claims more positively. In Part 1, we examined the extent to which photos promote the truth of positive and negative claims. People saw the names of several fictitious wines. Some wine names appeared with a photo that depicted the noun in the name; other wine names appeared without a photo. For each wine people decided whether a positive or a negative claim about it was true. Photos selectively promoted the truth of positive claims, did so most when they could help people comprehend wine names, and swayed people’s judgments about the taste of wines. In Part 2, we showed that those findings translated to when people judged claims about their own (and other people’s) experiences. People “interacted” with several unfamiliar animals (on a computer). Later, people saw the animal names again, sometimes with a photo of the animal and sometimes alone, and decided whether it was true that they (or other people) had positive or negative experiences with the animals. Photos selectively led people to think positive claims were true, and exerted their strongest effects when they could most help people bring related thoughts and images to mind². ¹ Although the research in this thesis is my own, I conducted it in a lab and supervised a team comprised of research assistants and honors students. I also received advice and direction from my supervisors. Therefore, I often use the word “we” in this thesis to reflect that fact. As you will also see, I use the word “we” in a different context to refer to what is known (or not known) in the wider scientific community. ² Portions of this thesis were adapted from: Cardwell, Newman, Garry, Mantonakis, & Beckett (manuscript under review). Photos that increase feelings of learning promote positive evaluations. Cardwell, Henkel, & Garry (manuscript in preparation). Non-probative photos lead people to believe positive claims about their recent pasts. But I have expanded on the introduction, results and discussion.

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  • Pay-for-performance in primary health care: A comparative study of health policymaking in England and New Zealand

    Smith, Verna May (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    England and New Zealand introduced pay-for-performance schemes in their primary health care systems, with incentives for general practitioners to achieve improved population-based health outcomes, between 2001 and 2007. These schemes were part of health reforms to change the relationship between the state and the medical profession, giving the state increased influence over the quality and allocation of publicly funded health care. Two schemes of differing size, scope and impact were implemented. This research takes a comparative approach to exploring each policymaking process, utilising quasi-natural experimental conditions in these two Westminster governing systems to test the relevance of Kingdon’s multi-theoretic Multiple Streams Framework and other theoretical approaches to explain policy variation and change. The research documented and analysed the agenda-setting, alternative selection and implementation phases in the two policymaking processes and identified the key drivers of policymaking in each case study. A qualitative methodology, based upon documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with 26 decision-makers, leaders and participants, was used to develop the two case studies, providing rich descriptive details and rare insights into closed policymaking approaches as seen by the participants. From this case study evidence, themes were drawn out and reviewed for consistency with Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework as it has been interpreted and adapted by Zahariadis. The case study evidence and themes were considered in a framework of comparative analysis where patterns of similarity and difference were established. The utility of Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework in interpreting the case study evidence was assessed. This analysis demonstrated that Kingdon’s Framework, as interpreted by Zahariadis, had high descriptive power for both case studies but failed to predict the patterns of non-incremental change observed or the importance of institutional factors such as ownership and governance arrangements for public services, interest group structure and historical antecedents seen in the two policymaking processes. The research finds that the use of bargaining in England and not in New Zealand is the reason for major differences in speed, scope and outcomes of the two pay-for-performance schemes. Institutional structures in the general practice sub-system are therefore the primary driver of policy change and variation. These acted as enablers of non-incremental change in the English case study, providing incentives for actors individually and collectively to design and rapidly to implement a large-scale pay-for-performance scheme. The institutional features of the general practice sub-system in New Zealand acted as a constraint to the development of a large-scale scheme although non-incremental change was achieved. Phased approaches to implementation in New Zealand were necessary and slowed the delivery of outcomes from the scheme. With respect to other drivers of policy change and variation, the role of individual actors as policy and institutional entrepreneurs was important in facilitating policy design in each country, with different types of entrepreneurs with different skills being observed at different stages of the process. These entrepreneurs were appointed and working within the bureaucracy to the direction of decision-makers in both countries. England and New Zealand shared ideas about the benefits of New Public Management approaches to public policymaking, including support for pay-for-performance approaches, and there was a shared positive socio-economic climate for increased investment in health services. The research provides evidence that Westminster governing systems are capable of purposeful and orderly non-incremental health policy change and that Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework, which theorises policy formation in conditions of ambiguity, needs to be enhanced to improve its relevance for such jurisdictions. Recommendations for its enhancement are made.

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  • Relations between Modern Mathematics and Poetry: Czesław Miłosz; Zbigniew Herbert; Ion Barbu/Dan Barbilian

    Kempthorne, Loveday Jane Anastasia (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This doctoral thesis is an examination of the relationship between poetry and mathematics, centred on three twentieth-century case studies: the Polish poets Czesław Miłosz (1911-2004) and Zbigniew Herbert (1924-1998), and the Romanian mathematician and poet Dan Barbilian/Ion Barbu (1895-1961). Part One of the thesis is a review of current scholarly literature, divided into two chapters. The first chapter looks at the nature of mathematics, outlining its historical developments and describing some major mathematical concepts as they pertain to the later case studies. This entails a focus on non-Euclidean geometries, modern algebra, and the foundations of mathematics in Europe; the nature of mathematical truth and language; and the modern historical evolution of mathematical schools in Poland and Romania. The second chapter examines some existing attempts to bring together mathematics and poetry, drawing on literature and science as an academic field; the role of the imagination and invention in the languages of both poetics and mathematics; the interest in mathematics among certain Symbolist poets, notably Mallarmé; and the experimental work of the French groups of mathematicians and mathematician-poets, Bourbaki and Oulipo. The role of metaphor is examined in particular. Part Two of the thesis is the case studies. The first presents the ethical and moral stance of Czesław Miłosz, investigating his attitudes towards classical and later relativistic science, in the light of the Nazi occupation and the Marxist regimes in Poland, and how these are reflected in his poetry. The study of Zbigniew Herbert is structured around a wide selection of his poetic oeuvre, and identifying his treatment of evolving and increasingly more complex mathematical concepts. The third case study, on Dan Barbilian, who published his poetry under the name Ion Barbu, begins with an examination of the mathematical school at Göttingen in the 1920s, tracing the influence of Gauss, Riemann, Klein, Hilbert and Noether in Barbilian’s own mathematical work, particularly in the areas of metric spaces and axiomatic geometry. In the discussion, the critical analysis of the mathematician and linguist Solomon Marcus is examined. This study finishes with a close reading of seven of Barbu’s poems. The relationship of mathematics and poetry has rarely been studied as a coherent academic field, and the relevant scholarship is often disconnected. A feature of this thesis is that it brings together a wide range of scholarly literature and discussion. Although primarily in English, a considerable amount of the academic literature collated here is in French, Romanian, Polish and some German. The poems themselves are presented in the original Polish and Romanian with both published and working translations appended in the footnotes. In the case of the two Polish poets, one a Nobel laureate and the other a multiple prize-winning figure highly regarded in Poland, this thesis is unusual in its concentration on mathematics as a feature of the poetry which is otherwise much-admired for its politically-engaged and lyrical qualities. In the case of the Romanian, Dan Barbilian, he is widely known in Romania as a mathematician, and most particularly as the published poet Ion Barbu, yet his work is little studied outside that country, and indeed much of it is not yet translated into English. This thesis suggests at an array of both theoretical and specific starting points for examining the multi-stranded and intricate relationship between mathematics and poetry, pointing to a number of continuing avenues of further research.

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  • An investigation of droplet evaporation characteristics in an ultrasound environment

    Protheroe, Michael Desmond

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study investigates and quantifies the effect of an imposed ultrasound field on the evaporation of water droplets in, for example, humidifiers used in medical respiratory treatments. The purpose of the ultrasound field is to accelerate the droplet evaporation process. This would have benefits in terms of improved efficiencies, more compact equipment sizes and better process controllability. A preliminary investigation was carried out to identify the most promising mechanisms for the effect of the imposed ultrasound field on the evaporating droplets – this being the enhancement of the normal mass and heat transfer processes involved. From this, theoretical models of normal and ultrasound enhanced droplet evaporation were developed to predict the rates of water evaporation and also changes to the droplet size distribution during evaporation. An experimental investigation was carried out to measure water droplet evaporation rates and changes to the droplet size distribution under normal and ultrasound enhanced conditions. It was found that the ultrasound field improved droplet evaporation rates in all cases tested, even at very low power levels. Improvements varied from 1 – 30%. An increase in the strength of the ultrasound field increased the improvement in evaporation rate. However, air flow above a certain threshold diminished this improvement by disrupting the ultrasound field. Investigation of the changes to the droplet size distribution indicated that at high ultrasound power levels and low air flow rates a significant amount of droplet coalescence occurred which caused the droplet distribution for the remaining droplets to shift to much larger droplet sizes. Results from theoretical models compared well to the experimental results for most experimental conditions. Differences between model and experiment occurred for the very small droplet sizes and where the effect of the ultrasound field caused maximum droplet coalescence and heating of the air and these areas warrant further future investigation. It was concluded that the ultrasound enhancement of water droplet evaporation does occur by enhancing the heat and mass transfer processes involved, that improvements in evaporation rate up to 30% could be achieved and that this could be applied to medical respiratory equipment to improve its operation and efficiency.

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  • Exploring the development of biological literacy in Tanzanian junior secondary school students

    Juma, Zawadi Richard (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Internationally, scientific literacy is a major goal of science education in the twenty first century. In Tanzania, where there is a widespread lack of public understanding about major health issues, biological literacy is needed so that people can make decisions about the socio-scientific issues that confront them. To that end, the Tanzanian school curriculum aims to connect students’ understandings of Biology to their everyday lives but few studies have been conducted that show whether these aims have been achieved, especially in junior secondary school. This ethnographic case study investigates the ways in which the junior secondary school Biology curriculum in Tanzania supports or constrains the development of biological literacy and how institutional context, particularly as it relates to urban and rural schools, influences the delivery of the Biology curriculum. Teachers’ and Year Four students’ of secondary schools views about school Biology were sought in the course of this study and the issues that emerged were analysed using social constructivist and social constructionist theoretical frameworks. Data were collected through student questionnaires, student focus group interviews, teacher interviews, and classroom observations. The research sites included rural and urban schools, and government and private schools. The findings suggest that the Biology curriculum and the ways it is delivered do not adequately address the students’ needs and therefore is unlikely to enable them to become biologically literate. Rural schools are less well equipped than urban schools to deliver the curriculum and teachers and students face bigger challenges. A key finding was that Tanzanian young people have a strong desire to learn more about reproductive Biology and health issues but these are not prioritised in the current curriculum. In light of these findings, curriculum changes are recommended to provide learning opportunities for students to gain biological knowledge and skills that are relevant to their daily lives.

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  • Family Language Policies of Refugees: Ethiopians and Colombians in New Zealand

    Revis, Melanie Sandra (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There has been a surprising dearth of research on language maintenance and shift in New Zealand over the last decade. This thesis addresses this gap by examining incipient patterns of language maintenance and shift in families in two refugee communities in Wellington. Earlier research suggests that immigrants may maintain their ethnic languages in spite of societal factors pressuring language shift for up to three generations. By then, however, language shift is often completed, with the third generation using the majority language only (Fishman 1991). In a largely monolingual country such as New Zealand, this shift may be accomplished in only two generations (Holmes et al. 1993). Understanding the language dynamics at the micro level that eventually lead to language maintenance or shift requires more research into actual language use among family members than traditional methods provide. This investigation therefore uses ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews and recordings of naturally-occurring interactions between mothers and their children to highlight the challenges involved in transmitting a minority language. Using Spolsky’s (2004) tripartite model of language policy, I investigate family language beliefs, practices, and management in the refugee-background Ethiopian and Colombian communities. The Amharic-speaking Ethiopian community consists mostly of first and second generation members. They first settled in New Zealand in the 1990s and now display awareness of the challenges of maintaining their language. Most Ethiopian parents consider it their responsibility to teach their children Amharic in the home and many have introduced explicit language policies to promote Amharic use. These families exhibit an ‘impact belief’ (De Houwer 1999) which links their positive beliefs about Amharic with their management of family language practices. Nevertheless, in some cases children subvert and contest explicit language management and become primary agents of language shift. Supporting the parents’ efforts, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church provides a social space where Amharic may be used backed by an explicit policy which requires all members to use the language when at church. This policy provides valuable institutional support and cultural capital for Amharic and contributes to the vitality of the language in Wellington. The Colombian community has had a relatively shorter stay in Wellington, with the first members arriving as recently as 2008. Colombian mothers want to transmit Spanish and many seem confident that their children will maintain the language. In particular, they consider the Colombian variety of Spanish to be a source of pride and a core value (Smolicz 1992), as many participants closely link this variety to their Colombian identity. They further capitalise on the prestige of Spanish as a world language that motivates them to use it even outside their ethnic community. However, few families have put in place explicit language policies to use Spanish in the home; instead, many regard it as a more urgent concern that their children learn English. Overall, despite the community members’ positive attitudes towards their ethnic languages, their efforts to transmit these languages appear to be constrained by the fact that English is invested with considerable cultural capital (Bourdieu 1977) in New Zealand. English acquisition often takes priority, particularly for many newly arrived Colombian families. The participants’ refugee experiences, length of residence in New Zealand and the societal status of their ethnic languages seem influential factors on the degree of control they assume over their children’s language practices. Families also dynamically adapt their language policies to the circumstances, for example by introducing an explicit minority language policy after their children have acquired what they consider to be enough English. Despite a strong desire for their children to continue speaking the ethnic language, the parents have many other (non-linguistic) responsibilities and they frequently lack knowledge about “success strategies” for minority language transmission. Moreover, the children often take significant agency by introducing English into the home domain, in some cases even influencing other family members to use it, and thus initiating language shift. The detailed interactional data in this research provides insight into the different ways parents have instantiated their varying language policies and negotiated home language choice with their children. In sum, this research provides insight into language transmission efforts at the family level, and, using data from observations, interviews and recordings of mother-child interaction, describes in detail the unfolding of language maintenance dynamics. The thesis presents valuable insight into the underlying beliefs about Amharic and Spanish, the role of explicit language management strategies, parental socialisation and discourse styles and children’s agency. As the first such research covering two recent refugee communities it will hopefully assist the individual families to socialise their children in a way that enables them to become proficient minority language speakers. This will ensure a linguistically rich future for New Zealand.

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  • Screening for Antisocial Development

    Tyler-Merrick, Gaye Margaret (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Teachers report that there are an increased number of students engaging in persistent antisocial behaviour in their classrooms. Teachers need to identify these students early because if there is early identification then there is the potential for early intervention, which in turn may prevent negative long-term outcomes for these students as well as long-term costs to society. The aims of this study were (1) develop a psychometrically sound, cost effective, three-step multiple gating behaviour screening procedure that teachers could use in their kindergarten/classroom so that they could identify those students at-risk of antisocial development, (2) examine if the third gate of this procedure was necessary for the accurate identification of these students, and (3) could such a screening procedure be adapted for classroom teacher use in New Zealand kindergartens and schools. Forty eight teachers from three kindergartens and 10 primary/intermediate schools volunteered for the study, of which 34 teachers completed all three gates of the screening procedure. Results indicate the three gate screening procedure was easily adapted for kindergarten and classroom use with, at Gate 3, teachers’ self-recording 30 direct observations of a nominated and control student during their normal teaching lesson with good accuracy. All three gates were effective in identifying those students at-risk of antisocial development but Gates 1 and 2 were the most effective in terms of accuracy, time and resourcing. The teachers found the three gate procedure manageable, required very little training and did not interrupt classroom routine or schedules. The implications of these findings are discussed.

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  • International Student Mobility and Internationalisation of Universities - The role of serendipity, risk and uncertainty in student mobility and the development of cosmopolitan mind-sets through knowledge and intercultural competence. Employability, students’ future mobility aspirations and the EU’s support of international student mobility

    Weibl, Gabriel (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The background to this study lies in the discrepancy between the perceptions of international student mobility in the context of the internationalisation of higher education by the EU and universities on one hand and international students themselves in terms of their motivations to study abroad on the other hand. This is a comparative study based on three main case studies, of six universities in New Zealand, Oxford University in the UK and the Charles University in the Czech Republic. It explores the students’ experiences abroad in terms of their intercultural competence, the shaping of identities, the acquisition and transfer of knowledge, the possible forming of cosmopolitan mind-sets and empathy, perceptions of employability and their future mobility aspirations. This thesis also considers the barriers and ‘push and pull’ factors of mobility, perceptions of risk and uncertainty in regards to mobility and the role of serendipity in student mobility, which has been overlooked in the literature on mobility and migration. The theoretical framework of the study builds on social capital theory, Europeanisation and the ‘do-it-yourself biography’ theory. The nature of this topic, however, suggested the employment of the concepts of globalisation, transnationalism and consideration of other forms of capital, such as the total human capital, mobility capital and transnational identity capital. This is predominantly a qualitative, mixed-method and longitudinal research project, which uses surveys, case studies, interviews and the data collecting tool called grounded theory. It triangulates data to support and enhance the analytical validity of the thesis. This research concludes that student experiences abroad as well as the internationalisation efforts of universities and the EU would benefit from the introduction of education for global citizenship, which should focus on the intercultural competencies of students. The thesis suggests sociocultural elements for example the cosmopolitan mind-set can enhance the economic, academic and political rationales of internationalisation, such as employability.

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