12,112 results for Doctoral

  • Māori Orality and Extended Cognition: A cognitive approach to memory and oral tradition in the Pacific

    Murphy, David James (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Though philosophers have long held that interpretive anthropology and the cognitive science of religion (CSR) are opposed, this thesis offers an extended empirical assessment of the issues surrounding the implications of utilizing ethnographic material within a cognitive study of religious transmission. Using case studies from the Pacific, I consider a core question arising in both interpretative and cognitive disciplines, namely: how have oral cultures been able to preserve and transmit bodies of sacred knowledge cross-generationally without any external administrative tools (i.e. text)? First, I focus on the historical and ethnographic details of traditional Māori orality. I look at how orally transmitted knowledge was managed through the external cognitive resources associated with religious ritual. Here I find evidence within Pacific oral traditions that the problem of managing knowledge was overcome through tools and strategies that augmented memory and oral skill. I give special attention to the traditional Māori structuring of learning environments. Next I consider how macro-spatial tools – such as landmarks, and place names – helped support working memory and information management, and show that orientations to landscape are vital to ensuring collective memory. This thesis also demonstrates how culturally learned tools and strategies support the stability of religious cultural transmission. The use of external cognitive resources implies the complexity of managing and organizing sacred knowledge. Put simply, focusing on the historical accounts from the Pacific reveals a rich suite of culturally evolved tools and strategies for the transmission of religious knowledge. I show that tools such as ritual, myth, mnemonic techniques, and artifacts enable and stabilise such transmission. I hold, that such cultural environments constitute cognitive tools that are meaningfully described as cultural cognitive systems. Thus, combining descriptive accounts with the theoretical orientations of the cognitive sciences motivates what I call a ‘cognitive ecological’ model of mind. I argue that the cognitive ecological model is important because it orients researchers to the role that culturally evolved tools play in: (1) dramatically extending the human brain’s power to reckon with its surroundings and: (2) coordinating such knowledge across social groups and over time. The cognitive ecological model of mind I propose in this study is important for three reasons: First, it challenges the received view within the CSR – what I call the ‘Standard Internal Model’ (SiM) – which holds that the transmission of religious representations carries low cognitive demands (i.e. it is cognitively optimal). In contrast to SiM, the Pacific materials discussed here suggest that the oral transmission of sacred knowledge is cognitively demanding, culturally costly, and locally contingent. Second, my thesis demonstrates that historical and ethnographic evidence contains information that is vital for progress in the CSR since qualitative resources document how niche specific cultural practices often facilitate the acquisition and coordination of the complex knowledge resources over time. The ethnographic data supports the local optimality contention. Third, my thesis reveals that formulating tractable models for cultural transmission within the CSR is benefitted by an interdisciplinary approach. Such a prospect, I urge, is vital for intellectual progress between the humanities and the CSR. As such, and contrary to received opinion, my thesis shows how the CSR and the cultural anthropology of religion share a common intellectual fate.

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  • Portfolio of Compositions: Systematic composition of cross-genre hybrid music

    Mayall, Jeremy Mark (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The research focus of this PhD thesis is the development of a new technique for composing original musical compositions in which elements from different musical genres are hybridised. The innovative aspect of achieving balanced hybridity is the development of a systematic approach to selecting and synthesising or hybridising key musical elements across a range of different genres. The major component of this submission is a portfolio of nine original works with attached CD/DVD recordings. 1. Tracking Forward for viola, backing track and video 2. The Long White Cloud for chamber band and electronics 3. ‘Colorless green ideas sleep furiously’ for orchestra 4. Push for Miles for electric bass and backing track 5. Norse Suite for viola and cello 6. The Foggy Field a studio construction 7. Into the Nocturnal Sunshine for flute, viola, cello, drums and electronics 8. One Night, New Breath for taonga puoro, viola, drums and electronics 9. Sketches of an Intergalactic Earworm for piano trio and boombox The accompanying documentation clarifies, and contextualises the creation and presentation of these works; and illuminates the aesthetic underpinnings and compositional techniques developed and utilised as a part of this hybrid-genre compositional approach. The structure of the supporting exegesis is in two parts: the methodology of practice-based research, and reflective investigation. Part One (Chapters 1 and 2) is an introductory overview; an observation of the existing literature and related work, relevant creative practice in the composer’s previous work; and the compositional methodology – including an explanation of the genre matrix. Part Two (Chapters 3 to 12) analyses the use of genre, the balance of hybridity, and relevant compositional techniques utilised in the development of each individual piece.

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  • Age, growth and feeding ecology of five co-occurring fishes in southern New Zealand

    Jiang, Weimin (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 340 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Marine Science

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  • The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1955-58 - How the crossing of Antarctica moved New Zealand to recognise its Antarctic heritage and take an equal place among Antarctic nations

    Hicks, Stephen Walter (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The thesis analyses the expedition (TAE) led by Dr.Vivian Fuchs and Sir Edmund Hillary from three vantage points: 1)the years from 1948 to 1955 leading up to the expedition 2) the interaction between the IGY and the TAE projects and 3) the role of the US Navy as the expedition unfolded. The thesis also investigates key events including the purchase of the ship Endeavour from Britain, the competition for leadership of the UK and NZ parties, the 'dash to the Pole' by Hillary, and the search for base sites and routes to the Polar Plateau. The thesis contains an overview historical introduction, a comprehensive literature review as well as a broad-based set of conclusions.

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  • Pocket beach wave processes and current systems investigated via field and numerical modelling studies: A case study of Okains Bay

    Eisazadeh Moghaddam, Arash (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Confined coasts in general, and pocket beach environments in particular, are under huge development pressures worldwide, not least due to their sheltered nature and perceived shoreline stability. However, understanding of their physical functioning is poor in comparison to that of open coast beaches. This study aims to improve understanding in terms of the existing gaps in knowledge of wave processes and nearshore currents, and also to examine the importance of local wind and tide factors in generating nearshore currents, in micro-tidal pocket beaches. The boundaries of embayments are generally recognized as important controls of their beach processes and responses, yet little detailed knowledge exists of how the exact embayment dimensions and characteristics influences these processes. One key embayment feature the influence of which is poorly understood is the downcoast headland. In this thesis, field observations plus Zanuttigh and Van der Meer’s (2008) approach, and the SWAN wave model were used to evaluate the downcoast headland effects on wave processes within Okains Bay, an example pocket beach environment. The results showed that incident wave heights and directions were significantly influenced by wave reflection processes from the downcoast headland inside the bay. The intensity of reflection effects on wave characteristics inside the pocket beach varied according to approaching wave direction. Reflection effects reduced when waves approached from angles close to parallel to the headlands, increasing towards headland-perpendicular wave approaches. Field observations and the XBeach model were used to examine whether or not tides can significantly influence nearshore currents within example and model pocket beach environments. Results indicated that tides can be the primary driver of nearshore currents close to the bed inside micro-tidal pocket beaches, depending on incident wave conditions. In areas of micro-tidal pocket beaches exposed to direct approaching waves, currents were wave driven, while in areas further into the bay that experienced headland filtering of their wave environment, currents were mainly tide generated. The results of this study demonstrated how the current circulation system within micro-tidal pocket beaches is related to the incoming directions of offshore waves. If high energy waves approach oblique or normal to the shoreline (with the assumption that the shoreline is at 90° to the headlands), the current system was found to consist of longshore currents influenced by headlands, plus a rip current in the center of the shoreline or a toporip in proximity to headlands. The location of the rip current or toporip was determined by the direction of approaching incident waves. This study also examined the behavior of local winds in a pocket beach environment and their consequent effects on nearshore currents. Results for Okains Bay show that local winds tended to blow in offshore and onshore directions, as the bay is located in a valley, so orographic effects channel and shift the wind directions to angles close to offshore and onshore directions inside the bay. Results also indicated that local winds influence the hydrodynamic currents of pocket beaches that are confined by elevated topography, producing semi-cross shore influences since the winds are topographically channelled to blow in predominantly offshore and onshore directions. This research significantly refines our understanding of micro-tidal pocket beach wave and current processes, including quantification of the filtering effects of headlands on their wave environments, revealing the various and variable influences of tides and winds compared to in open coast beaches; and, significantly, highlighting the role of downcoast headland wave reflection effects. With regard to the latter, this research elucidates some key process differences between pocket and embayed beaches and clarifies reasons why the application of embayed beach models that include refraction and diffraction but exclude reflection effects to the study of pocket beaches is inappropriate for studying pocket beaches. This research also provides methodological and topic suggestions for future research on pocket beach environments, including how to use the improved hydrodynamic knowledge of this study in future studies seeking to better understand pocket beach sediment systems, a topic that was beyond the scope of the current research.

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  • 'The Inside View' Investigating the use of Narrative Assessment to Support Student Identity, Wellbeing, and Participation in Learning in a New Zealand secondary school.

    Guerin, Annette Patricia (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand education policies and documents (Ministry of Education, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011a, 2014a) situate students at the centre of assessment processes that are underpinned by the New Zealand Curriculum. They identify building student assessment capability as crucial to achieving improvement in learning. Documents recognize the impact of quality interactions and relationships on effective assessment. However these core beliefs about assessment are not observed to guide teaching practices for all students. Disabled students remain invisible in assessment data and practices within New Zealand secondary schools. There appears to be little or no assessment data about learning outcomes for this group of students. This thesis investigates possible ways to recognize the diversity of student capability and learning through the use of narrative assessment. It challenges the absence of disabled students in assessment landscapes as educator roles and responsibilities within assessment, teaching and learning are framed within an inclusive pedagogy. This research project focuses on how a team of adults and two students labeled as disabled make sense of assessment and learning within the context of narrative assessment in the students’ regular high school. The project examines the consequences of narrative assessment on student identity, wellbeing and participation within learning. The study offers opportunities to observe how specialists from outside of the school respond to the use of narrative as they work with the two student research participants. This study undertakes a critical inquiry that recognises the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi – partnership, protection and participation – as pivotal to inclusive practice where all students are valued as learners. It investigates how narrative assessment can honour these principles in everyday teaching practice. The project aims to inform education policy and practice, with a view to enriching learning outcomes and opportunities for disabled students who are frequently marginalized by inequitable assessment processes. It is argued that narrative assessment can support the construction of student identity and wellbeing. It can support the recognition of disabled students as partners in their learning. However the value of narrative assessment can be undermined by the responses of educators and other professionals who continue to work within deficit models of assessment, teaching and learning. Within this thesis adult participants from family and education contexts have clear ideas about the value and validity of assessment practices and processes that do not respect a presumption of competence or a need to establish a relationship with a student being assessed. Their views challenge everyday practices that fulfill assessment contracts, but ignore Treaty of Waitangi and New Zealand Curriculum commitments. Their views can inform better ways of working between specialists and schools supporting disabled students.

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  • Optical probes of free charge generation in organic photovoltaics

    Barker, Alexander J. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) show considerable promise as a source of low cost solar energy. Improving our understanding of the processes governing free charge photogeneration in OPVs may unlock the improvements in efficiency required for their widespread implementation. In particular, how do photogenerated charge pairs overcome their mutual columbic attraction, and what governs the branching between bound and free charge pairs that is observed to occur shortly after their creation? Ultrafast laser techniques such as transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy are the only tools capable of probing the time scales associated with these processes (as short as 10⁻¹⁴ seconds). Challenges include achieving sufficient sensitivity to resolve the tiny signals generated in thin films under solar-equivalent excitation densities, and distinguishing and quantifying overlapping signals due to separate phenomena. We present the development of a versatile and ultra-sensitive broadband TA spectrometer, along with a comprehensive analysis of the noise sources limiting sensitivity. Through the use of referenced shot-to-shot detection and a novel method exploiting highly chirped broadband probe pulses, we are capable of resolving changes in differential transmission < 3 × 10⁻⁶ over pump-probe delays of 10⁻¹³–10⁻⁴ seconds. By comparing the absorption due to photogenerated charges to measurements of open-circuit voltage decay in devices under transient excitation, we show that TA is able to quantify the recombination of freely extractable charge pairs over many decades of pump-probe delay. The dependence of this recombination on excitation density can reveal the relative fraction of bound and free charge pairs. We apply this technique to blends of varying efficiency and find that the measured free charge fraction is correlated with published photocharge yields for these materials. We access a regime at low temperature where thermalized charge pairs are frozen out following the primary charge separation step and recombine monomolecularly via tunneling. The dependence of tunneling rate on distance enabled us to fit recombination dynamics to distributions of recombination rates. We identified populations of charge-transfer states and well-separated charge pairs, the yield of which is strongly correlated with the yield of free charges measured via their intensity dependent recombination. We conclude that populations of free charges are established via long-range charge separation within the thermalization timescale, thus invoking early branching between free and bound charges across an energetic barrier. Subject to assumed values of the electron tunneling attenuation constant, we find critical charge separation distances of ~ 3–4nm in all materials. TA spectroscopy probes the absorption of excited states, with the signal being proportional to the product of population density and absorption cross-section of the absorbing species. We show that the dependence of signal on probe pulse intensity can decouple these parameters, and apply a numerical model to determine the time-dependent absorption cross-section of photogenerated excitons in thin films of semiconducting polymers. Collectively, this thesis presents spectroscopic tools and applications thereof that illuminate the process of free charge generation in organic photovoltaics.

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  • Spiritual vegetarianism: identity in everyday life of Thai non-traditional religious cult members

    Makboon, Boonyalakha

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis examines how the participants who are Thai and vegetarians integrate vegetarianism into their lives, and how they produce and maintain their vegetarian identity element. This video-ethnographic study was conducted in Thailand over the course of five months, with particular attention to three participants who are members of non-traditional religious cults in Thailand, where vegetarianism is a normal practice. Utilizing multimodal (inter)action analysis (Norris, 2004, 2011a), I conducted a micro analysis by teasing apart the participants’ real-time interactions, investigating how different modes come to play together to make certain actions possible. The analysis also incorporates other data from observational notes, sociolinguistic interviews and photographs. I discovered that the participants produced a spiritual vegetarian identity element in accordance with their religious belief. The participants produced multiple identity elements, including but not limited to their spiritual vegetarian identity element, at differentiated levels of the participants’ attention/awareness. At the time of the study, my participants did not continuously produce their spiritual vegetarian identity element, and thus a spiritual vegetarian identity was not their most salient identity element. However, I found that vegetarianism plays a significant role in the participants’ lives as they always produced their spiritual vegetarian identity element in connection with other identity elements. This results from the fact that these identity elements were developed within a religious context which was embedded in the historical body (Nishida, 1985) of the participants. Religion has exerted a substantial influence on many aspects of their lives and their resulting identity elements.

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  • Performance analysis of fielding and wicket-keeping in cricket to inform strength and conditioning practice

    MacDonald, Danielle Catherine

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this thesis was to contribute to the scientific understanding of the performance demands of One Day International (ODI) fielding and wicket-keeping, and to provide recommendations for improving athlete performance, assessment and coach education. Two comprehensive literature reviews of the physical, technical, physiological and tactical components of fielding and wicket-keeping were conducted. Given the gaps identified in the literature reviews, an online mixed method survey of cricket players, coaches and trainers was designed to investigate the performance requirements of the wicket-keeper, close, inner and outer circle fielders. Players and coaches rated agility the most important physical attribute for the wicket-keeper (4.7/5), close fielders (4.6/5), and inner circle fielders (4.8/5). Speed (4.8/5) and agility (4.6/5) were rated most important for outer circle fielders. Coaches raised the issue of the lack of a cricket specific agility test. An emerging theme for all categories was the importance of the mental aspects of the game such as positive attitude and concentration, particularly for the wicket-keeper. To validate the use of video footage for performance analysis a comparison was made between televised and purposefully collected video for event coding. The variables of interest were derived from the literature reviews and corroborated by the survey. The ICC for intra-coder reliability for all but two variables was between 0.88 and 1.00 the exceptions were lateral footwork (step 0.83 and shuffle 0.55) likely due to the subjectivity of defining footwork patterns. The televised footage under-reported the frequency of wicket-keeping activity (≈4.5%), except for lateral footwork, which was under-reported by the purposefully collected video (≈13.5%) due to the movement being perpendicular to the camera view. Even though fielding activity was under-reported (≈4.25) by televised footage, this footage was deemed to be most appropriate, as the collected footage resulted in a field of view that made the finer details of fielding difficult to distinguish. Performance analysis studies on fielding and wicket-keeping were carried out using televised footage from the 2011 ODI World Cup. The majority of the wicket-keepers movements were lateral (75%); primarily repetitive low intensity movements interspersed with explosive movements such as diving and jumping. Wicket-keeping glove-work skills (69%) were the most performed skill activity, the quality of which was quantified using a catching efficiency measure (93%). Close, inner and outer circle fielders had variable involvement in fielding activities. Close fielders were involved in 20% of the fielding activity, the bowler the most (58%) involved. The inner circle fielders were involved in 50% of fielding contacts; of whom cover was the position most involved (21%) Inner circle fielders had to display the greatest range of skills within the field, such as catching from different heights, varied throwing and ground fielding techniques. Outer circle fielders were involved with 30% of the fielding contacts; the outer circle position most involved was long on (14%). Long sprints were the hallmark of outer circle fielding, following the sprint, they often had to perform explosive movements such as a dive or a jump to field the ball; they rarely had the opportunity to stop and position themselves to perform their skill. Additionally, catching (75%,89%, 85%) throwing (0%,12%, 33%) and overall fielding performance (89%,98%,99% ) were quantified using efficiency calculations for close, inner and outer circle fielders respectively. The findings of the literature reviews and studies expanded upon the only previous study to quantify fielding performance, and informed the development of performance profiles of fielding and wicket-keeping. Subsequently recommendations for assessment, training and coaching have been made, which will be integrated into New Zealand Cricket resources. Most notable are suggestions for improving the existing skill and physical testing batteries

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  • The cultural transmission of cookery knowledge : from seventeenth century Britain to twentieth century New Zealand

    Inglis, Raelene (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 354 leaves :ill., map ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology.

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  • Feeding the lambs : the influence of Sunday Schools in the socialization of children in Otago and Southland, 1848-1901

    Keen, David Stuart (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 250 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • 'The danger of vertigo' : an evaluation and critique of Theōsis in the theology of Thomas Forsyth Torrance

    Habets, Michael (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 387 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Theology and Religious Studies

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  • ICTs and Rural Development in South India: Problematising Empowerment, Social Capital and Volunteering

    Chatbar, Rakhee (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines the deployment of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) in rural India. It seeks to contribute to scholarly discussions in the field of ICT4D by examining one particular project, the M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation’s Village Knowledge Centres (VKCs) and the Village Resource Centres (VRCs) initiative in rural South India. Drawing from substantive field research conducted in the state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, this thesis examines the three key developmental outcomes of the VKCs initiative — empowerment, social capital, and volunteering. The thesis argues that the VKCs initiative has not successfully met the key development objectives as the opportunities offered are not transformative and do not alter existing structural conditions. This is because the micro-contextual variations within and across rural communities are not adequately integrated into the design and implementation of the project. The thesis also argues that the VKCs initiative in rural India is significantly impacted by larger global and national structures. A more robust engagement by the NGO that considers the inter-connectedness of institutional, social and cultural structures and micro-contexts is central to harness the potential of ICTs to deliver development objectives. In undertaking this study, the thesis makes the following research contributions. First, the thesis responds to scholarly demand for empirically based engagements as a key means to ascertain the potential of ICTs for development. Secondly, the thesis broadens the theoretical and empirical understanding of empowerment, social capital and volunteering in ICT4D. Finally, the thesis proposes a number of practical recommendations for policy makers. The thesis aims to contribute to research in ICT4D, studies on rural development in India, and to future strategies for incorporating ICTs more effectively in development planning and practice.

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  • Generation and structural characterisation of transient gaseous species.

    Atkinson, Sandra Jane (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gas electron diffraction (GED) is a technique that has been developed to study the molecular structure of species in the gas phase. This thesis focuses on the reconstruction of the Canterbury GED apparatus (moved from Edinburgh, UK) and the requirements for modifying the apparatus to incorporate a mass spectrometer (MS) so diffraction and MS data can be obtained within a single experiment. The combined GED-MS system has been identified in previous work in the Masters group as a necessary development for studying the structure of short-lived species generated in situ. This is particularly true for the study of ketene, which as shown in this thesis, can be generated from several precursors as part of a multiple product pyrolysis system. While GED data for ketene generated from acetic anhydride has been refined, the species formed from the pyrolysis of Meldrum’s acid were determined to be too difficult to deconvolute without additional experimental data from MS. A computational study of possible ketene derivatives that could be studied with a GED-MS apparatus is also presented. Lastly, this thesis details a structural study of the gas-phase structures of tris(chloromethyl)amine and a family of substituted disilane systems which have been determined in the gas phase for the first time. A comprehensive GED, Raman spectroscopy and ab initio study have been undertaken for tris(chloromethyl)amine [N(CH2Cl)3] which is shown to have a different structure in the solid and gas phase. Further work in the form of a molecular dynamics investigation has been identified as necessary to describe the low amplitude motion of one of the CH2Cl groups in the gas phase to allow for the GED refinement to be completed. The work on the substituted disilane systems X3SiSiXMe2 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and X3SiSiMe3 (X = H, F, Cl, Br) demonstrates the effect of increased halogen substitution on the electronic effects of the disilanes, and the effect that the methyl groups have as larger halogens increase the steric bulk of the system.  

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  • Preparation of monolayer tethers via reduction of aryldiazonium salts.

    Lee, Lita (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the preparation of surface-attached monolayer tethers from electroreduction of aryldiazonium ions using a protection-deprotection strategy. Monolayers of ethynylphenyl, carboxyphenyl, aminophenyl and aminomethylphenyl were prepared. Glassy carbon (GC) and pyrolysed photoresist film (PPF) surfaces were modified electrochemically and characterised by redox probe voltammetry. The monolayer tethers were coupled with electro-active ferrocenyl (Fc) and nitrophenyl (NP) groups for the indirect electrochemical estimation of the surface concentration. Film thickness measurement was carried out using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) depth profiling technique. The surface concentration and film thickness measurement results were consistent with the formation of monolayer films after removal of the protecting groups. Preparation of mixed monolayers was studied using three different modification strategies: i) grafting from a solution containing two different protected aryldiazonium ions, ii) sequential grafting of two different protected aryldiazonium ions, and iii) grafting of protected aryldiazonium ions followed by removal of the protecting group and reaction of an amine or carboxylic acid derivative directly with the GC surface. The composition of the mixed layer prepared using the first method is difficult to control, whereas the possibility of multilayer formation cannot be discounted using the second method. Multilayer formation is unlikely using the third method. The electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction at mixed monolayer films was investigated briefly. The origin of the two reduction peaks frequently observed for electroreduction of aryldiazonium ions at carbon surfaces was studied. Electroreduction was carried out at GC and HOPG surfaces. The reduction peak at the more positive potential is surface sensitive, while the peak at the more negative potential is not. However, both reduction peaks lead to deposition of films and it is tentatively proposed that the more positive peak corresponds to reduction at a ‘clean’ GC electrode, and the more negative peak corresponds to reduction at the already grafted layer.

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  • Analysis, development and management of glucose-insulin regulatory system for out of hospital cardiac arrest (ohca) patients, treated with hypothermia.

    Sah Pri, Azurahisham (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hyperglycaemia is prevalent in critical care and increases the risks of further complications and mortality. Glycaemic control has shown benefits in reducing mortality. However, due in parts to excessive metabolic variability, many studies have found it difficult to reproduce these results. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) patients have low survival rates and often experience hyperglycaemia. However, these patients belongs to one group who has shown benefit from accurate glycaemic control (AGC), but can be highly insulin resistant and variable, particularly on the first two days of stay. Hypothermia is often used to treat post-cardiac arrest patients or out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and these same patients often simultaneously receive insulin. In general, it leads to a lowering of metabolic rate that induces changes in energy metabolism. However, its impact on metabolism and insulin resistance in critical illness is unknown, although one of the adverse events associated with hypothermic therapy is a decrease in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. However, this decrease may not be notable in the cohort that is already highly resistant and variable. Hence, understanding metabolic evolution and variability would enable safer and more accurate glycaemic control using insulin in this cohort. OHCA patients were undergone preliminary analysis during cool and warm, which includes insulin sensitivity (SI), blood glucose (BG), and exogenous insulin and dextrose. Patients were analysed based on overall cohort, sub-cohorts, and 6 and 12 hour time block. Generally, the results show that OHCA patients had very low metabolic activity during cool period but significantly increased over time. In contrast, BG is higher during cool period and decreased over time. The analysis is equally important as the controller development since it provides scientific evidence and understanding of patients’ physiology and metabolic evolution especially during cool and warm. Model-based methods can deliver control that is patient-specific and adaptive to handle highly dynamic patients. A physiological ICING-2 model of the glucose-insulin regulatory system is presented in this thesis. This model has three compartments for glucose utilisation, effective interstitial insulin and its transport, and insulin kinetics in blood plasma, with emphasis on clinical applicability. The predictive control for the model is driven by the patient-specific and time-varying insulin sensitivity parameter. A novel integral-based parameter identification enables fast and accurate real-time model adaptation to individual patients and patient condition. Stochastic models and time-series methods for forecasting future insulin sensitivity are presented in this thesis. These methods can deliver probability intervals to support clinical control interventions. The risk of adverse glycaemic outcomes given observed variability from cohort-specific and patient-specific forecasting methods can be quantified to inform clinical staff. Hypoglycaemia can thus be further avoided with the probability interval guided intervention assessments. Simulation studies of STAR-OHCA control trials on ‘virtual patients’ derived from retrospective clinical data provided a framework to optimise control protocol design in-silico. Comparisons with retrospective control showed substantial improvements in glycaemia within the target 4 - 7 mmol/L range by optimising the infusions of insulin. The simulation environment allowed experimentation with controller parameters to arrive at a protocol that operates within the constraints found earlier during patient analysis. Overall, the research presented takes model-based OHCA glycaemic control from concept to proof-of-concept virtual trials. The thesis employs the full range of models, tools and methods to optimise the protocol design and problem solution.

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  • Creating New Zealand: Pākehā constructions of national identity in New Zealand literary anthologies

    Wild, Susan (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The desire to construct a sense of home and the need to belong are basic to human society, and to the processes of its cultural production. Since the beginning of New Zealand’s European colonial settlement, the determination to create and reflect a separate and distinctive collective identity for the country’s Pākehā population has been the primary focus of much local creative and critical literature. Most literary histories, like those of Patrick Evans (1990) and Terry Sturm (1991), have followed the narrative of progression – established initially in E.H. McCormick’s Letters and Art in New Zealand (1940) – away from colonial dependency through delineated stages from provincial and cultural nationalist phases to the achievement of a bicultural and multicultural consensus in a globalized, international context. This thesis questions the progressivist assumption which often informs that narrative, arguing instead that, while change and progress have been evident in the development of local notions of identity in the country’s writing over time, there is also a pattern of recurrent concerns about national identity that remained unresolved at the end of the last century. This complex and nuanced picture is disclosed in particular in the uncertain and shifting nature of New Zealand’s relationship with Australia, its response towards expatriates, a continuing concern with the nature of the ‘reality’ of ‘New Zealandness’, and the ambivalence of its sense of identity and place within a broader international context. New Zealand’s national anthologies of verse and short fiction produced over the twentieth century, and their reception in the critical literature that they generated, are taken in the thesis as forming a microcosmic representation of the major concerns that underlie the discourse of national identity formation in this country. I present an analysis of the canonical literary anthologies, in particular those of verse, and of a wide range of critical work focused on responses to the historical development of local literature. From this, I develop the argument that a dual, interlinked pattern, both of progress and of reversion to early concerns and uncertainties, is evident. The thesis is structured into six chapters: an introductory chapter outlines the national and international historical contexts within which the literary contestation of New Zealand identity has developed; the second outlines the contribution of influential literary anthologies to the construction of various concepts of New Zealandness; three chapters then address particular thematic concerns identified as recurring tropes within the primary and secondary literature focused on the discourse of national identity – the ‘problem’ of the expatriate writer, the search for ‘reality’ and ‘authenticity’ in the portrayal of local experience, and New Zealand’s literary response towards Australia; and the Conclusion, which summarizes the argument presented in the thesis and provides an assessment of its major findings. A Bibliography of the works cited in the text is appended at the end of the thesis.

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  • Tricksters, technology and spirit: practising place in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Buxton, Maggie

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Place is a tricky concept. On the surface it seems a relatively simple notion, yet underneath there are layers of contested meanings. At the same time, places face ‘wicked’ problems – issues difficult to solve by traditional methods and approaches. For these reasons there is a call from across disciplines, for flexibility and creativity in place research. This thesis weaves together technology, art, spirituality and science to create a place practice inspired by tricksters. Tricksters appear in the narratives of most cultures as liminal, paradoxical and indeterminate figures. In this research they have new relevance at a time when the boundaries of life, including the lines between sacred and profane, are no longer clearly defined. They are an inspiration for a new form of place practice which creatively weaves together ubiquitous technologies, indigenous and speculative ontologies, and integral research methodologies. The proposition is that geo-locative mobile technologies can support the work of those who work with spiritual sites, and also support the spirit or spirits of those places, when used within a trickster-inspired place practice. What are the opportunities and issues that arise from this approach? Geo-locative mobile technologies augment physical spaces with digital content and can act as mediators between the self, the physical world, digital worlds and other worlds beyond. Technology is not usually associated with spirit. However, in this research technology paradoxically plays a role in supporting the spirit of place and contributes to a progressive understanding of that term. The place practice that informed this study was situated around three spiritually significant sites: a cemetery, a marae and a public park. Within each case study, a bricolage of inter-, intra-, and transpersonal data collection methods was enacted. Integral philosophies and trickster traits combined to create the unique methodology. This research joins traditionally separate discourses: spirit of place, tricksters, and geo-locative mobile technology. It addresses the need for more creative ways of working in and with place, and raises legal, moral, cultural, and political issues in the use of mobile technologies in indigenous and/or sensitive contexts. Findings demonstrate that mobile technologies can shift perceptions of self and place, make institutional knowledge more accessible, and build connections in the third space where cultures, histories, peoples and realities meet. In these ways the practice supports the spirit of place.

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  • The son enthroned in conflict : a socio-rhetorical interpretation of John 5.17-23

    Huie-Jolly, Mary R (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xviii, 333 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Theology

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  • Actions of attention, and attention to action: investigating the relationship between visual attention, episodic representation, and language

    Webb, Andrew (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Cognitive representations of episodes are likely to play an important role in the neural mechanisms representing the syntactic and semantic structure of natural language sentences. However, there is little consensus on how observed episodes are represented in the brain, and how those episode representations can be transformed to and from corresponding sentence descriptions. This work investigates the theory that there is a direct structural relationship between the representation of episodes and sentences describing those episodes, and that the underlying mechanism which informs the representation of an episode is based upon the sequence of sensorimotor actions involved in observing that episode. This gives rise to two predictions: firstly that there is a canonical sequence of sensorimotor actions involved in observing actions, and secondly, that changing that sequence leads to systematic changes in descriptions of those actions. Experimental results confirm that there is a strong default sensorimotor sequence involved in the observation of a range of transitive actions. However, in part due to the robustness of the default sensorimotor sequence, the second prediction was not confirmed.

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