11,872 results for Doctoral

  • Taxonomy and phylogeny of industrial solvent-producing clostridia

    Keis, Stefanie (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 314 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "June 1996". Includes previously published material by the author. University of Otago department: Microbiology.

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  • Dr Edward Shortland and the politics of ethnography

    Lousberg, Marjan Marie (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 321 leaves :col. port., map ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: History.

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  • Power Modelling in Multicore Computing

    Mair, Jason (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Power consumption has long been a concern for portable consumer electronics, but has recently become an increasing concern for larger, power-hungry systems such as servers and clusters. This concern has arisen from the associated financial cost and environmental impact, where the cost of powering and cooling a large-scale system deployment can be on the order of millions of dollars a year. Such a substantial power consumption additionally contributes significant levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, software-based power management policies have been used to more effectively manage a system’s power consumption. However, managing power consumption requires fine-grained power values for evaluating the run-time tradeoff between power and performance. Despite hardware power meters providing a convenient and accurate source of power values, they are incapable of providing the fine-grained, per-application power measurements required in power management. To meet this challenge, this thesis proposes a novel power modelling method called W-Classifier. In this method, a parameterised micro-benchmark is designed to reproduce a selection of representative, synthetic workloads for quantifying the relationship between key performance events and the corresponding power values. Using the micro-benchmark enables W-Classifier to be application independent, which is a novel feature of the method. To improve accuracy, W-Classifier uses run-time workload classification and derives a collection of workload-specific linear functions for power estimation, which is another novel feature for power modelling. To further improve accuracy, W-Classifier addresses a number of common misconceptions in power modelling, which were found to impact both modelling accuracy and evaluation. These misconceptions have arisen from differences in the experimental setup and configuration, such as, execution time, handling of thermal effects and performance event selection. These differences can influence the perceived modelling accuracy, resulting in potentially misleading or erroneous conclusions if sufficient care is not taken. As a result, W-Classifier has adopted a number of additional steps to ensure good modelling practices, which were not available in previous work. In addition to improving modelling accuracy, the workload classification used in W-Classifier can be leveraged by power management policies to provide execution context to the power values. The workload context enables more informed power policies to be implemented, improving the balance between power and performance in achieving effective power management. According to experimental results, the modelling accuracy of W-Classifier is significantly better than previous multi-variable modelling techniques due to a collection of workload-specific power models derived through run-time workload classification. Therefore, W-Classifier can accurately estimate power consumption for a broader range of application workloads, where a separate power model can be used for each distinct workload.

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  • Troubling plagiarism: University students' understandings of plagiarism

    Adam, Lee Ann (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In this thesis, I report on a doctoral study that examined undergraduate university students’ understandings of plagiarism. The thesis addresses a gap in the existing plagiarism research since much of the literature on students’ understandings of plagiarism to date has focused on institutional or staff reports. Although there is a growing body of research reporting on students’ perspectives of plagiarism, there is a paucity of in-depth qualitative studies in this area. The theoretical framework for this study was informed by social constructionist, poststructuralist, and academic literacies perspectives. These informed my research methodology, including my close attention to students’ articulated understandings of plagiarism in relation to broader institutional discourses. Methodologically, the study involved interviews with 21 students drawn from first year lectures at the University of Otago, Aotearoa New Zealand. The students represented a variety of age ranges and levels of university study. The interviews focused on the students’ understandings of plagiarism, as well as their views on learning, assessment, and what constitutes a university education. I used discourse analysis to ‘read’ the students’ responses alongside the plagiarism discourses that appeared in University policy. The thesis findings identify four main discourses that emerged in the students’ comments about plagiarism: ethico-legal discourses, where students used language reflecting a view of plagiarism as a moral or legal issue; fairness discourses, where students positioned plagiarism policy and practices as either fair or not fair; confusion discourses, where students expressed confusion about plagiarism policy and/or practices; and learning discourses, where students spoke about plagiarism as either inhibiting learning or indicating that students had not learned. These discourses were reflective of University policy that positioned plagiarism as a form of dishonesty irrespective of whether or not it was intentional. When asked to reflect on learning, assessment, and the purpose of a university education, most of the students drew heavily on employment discourses where they described universities as places in which to prepare for future employment. From an employment viewpoint, plagiarism policy and practices seemed irrelevant to most students. The findings of this research challenge the way in which plagiarism is framed at the University of Otago. Currently, plagiarism is conceptualised as a textual feature within the finished product of a student’s assignment, and both intentional and unintentional plagiarism are treated as academic dishonesty. I argue that in order to support students’ learning, unintentional plagiarism should be positioned within academic writing. Furthermore, students’ writing should be viewed as a process rather than as a product, and students should be scaffolded in their development as academic writers. I further argue that, because of the dominant ethico-legal discourses surrounding the term ‘plagiarism’, we instead use the term ‘matching text’. This would remove the implication of dishonesty, and allow for an educative response to incidences of unintentional plagiarism.

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  • Spectroscopy of Donor-Acceptor Compounds

    van der Salm , Holly (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A number of donor-acceptor compounds have been investigated using a range of spectroscopic and computational techniques. Donor-acceptor compounds are widely used in molecular electronics applications, and it is of interest to investigate how their properties can be manipulated and probed. Ground state properties are characterised with Fourier Transform (FT) - Raman spectroscopy, which is also used to verify density functional theory calculations. The initially formed excited state (Franck-Condon state) is characterised with electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy. Transient absorption spectroscopy tends to probe the longest-lived excited state, while time-resolved infrared spectroscopy can probe intermediate states and kinetic processes as the time between pump and probe is varied. Experimental techniques are complemented by the use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A series of complexes containing dimethyl or diphenyl amine- substituted dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) in which the ancillary ligand at the metal centre was varied were studied. The properties of these ligands and complexes were found to be dominated by a strong intra-ligand charge transfer (ILCT) transition from the amine to dppz, with little contribution from typical low-energy metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions for complexes. Protonation shifted this ILCT transition to the near-IR; this was characterised with resonance Raman spectroscopy and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. Based on this study, amine-substituted dppz systems were altered in various ways in order to manipulate this ILCT transition. The effect of changing the distance between the amine donor and the dppz acceptor was investigated; this was found to influence the energy of the ILCT transition, the relative intensity of vibrational modes associated with different parts of the molecule, and the excited state lifetime, but the ILCT character appeared to be retained. The effect of the angle between the donor and acceptor units for dppz was altered in various ways. Increasing the donor-acceptor angle was found to increase the energy and decrease the intensity of the ILCT transition, and increase the intensity of an MLCT transition for Re(I) complexes. Experimental and calculated non-resonant Raman cross sections also decreased as donor-acceptor angle was increased. The effect of changing the bridge type between donor and acceptor from conducting thiophene to more insulating triazole was investigated. This increased the energy of the lowest electronic transition, and reduced the degree of ILCT in this transition, with behaviour tending towards more typical dppz as the linker became more insulating. The properties of the ligand 5,6,11,12,17,18 - hexaazatrinaphthalene (HATN) substituted with electron-donating sulfur groups were investigated. The mono-, bi- and tri-Re(CO)3Cl complexes of this ligand showed broad and intense visible absorption, which TD-DFT calculations suggested involved mixed MLCT/ILCT transitions. Resonance Raman spectroscopy was consistent with this, and time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy provided evidence for a mixed MLCT/ILCT excited state. Finally, a series of donor-acceptor compounds that are used in dye-sensitised solar cells are discussed, in order to try and understand what makes some more efficient than others. The first series were zinc porphyrin -based with carbazole -thiophene chains, which increased their visible absorption. The second series were organic dyes, also using a carbazole donor and thiophene chain, but for these compounds the reason for differences in solar cell performance could not be established with the techniques used.

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  • The experiences of Korean immigrants settling in New Zealand: a process of regaining control

    Kim, Hagyun

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The success of all immigrants is significant to the harmony of New Zealand society since the government’s goal is to build an inclusive society. For many Korean immigrants, however, settling in an unfamiliar environment potentially disrupts familiar routines, with deleterious effects on almost all aspects of their well-being. Despite Koreans being the fourth largest group of Asian immigrants, their experiences of settling in this country have been unheard. The purpose of this study is to listen to the voices of Korean immigrants and provide information to the receiving society that will assist with developing ways to make a Korean presence part of the cultural diversity in society. This qualitative, grounded theory study included semi-structured interviews with 25 adult Korean immigrants living in the North Island of New Zealand. Theoretical sampling was used to collect data, which were analysed using methods of constant comparative analysis, conditional matrix and memoing. Through three stages of coding, data were fractured, conceptualised, and integrated to form a substantive grounded theory which has been named; A Process of Regaining Control: A Journey of Valuing Self. Upon arrival, participants confronted circumstances that made realising the anticipated benefits of immigration difficult. They experienced a loss of control in performing previously valued activities. Language barriers and limited social networks, compounded by prejudiced social reception, were associated with their decreased involvement outside the home, leading to fewer options for acquiring knowledge necessary to function autonomously in their new environment. In response, participants worked on Regaining Control by exercising choices over what they do through opting for enacting ‘Korean Ways’ or ‘New Zealand Ways’. They initially sought a culturally familiar environment in which they engaged in activities that involved drawing on previous knowledge and skills. Continuing with accustomed activities utilising ethnic resources provided a pathway to learning about their new surroundings and thus increasing their feeling of mastery in a new country. This experience strengthened participants’ readiness to engage in activities reflective of New Zealand society. The significance of this study is that it discovers that Valuing Self is what the participants wish to accomplish, beyond the scope of mastery in a new environment. Participants continually search for a place whereby they can be accepted and valued as members of society. However, this study reveals that prejudice and discrimination towards immigrants set constraints on engagement in occupations of meaning and choices. Immigrants face socio-environmental restriction when they continue with necessary or meaningful activities, even when they have the ability to execute a particular activity. This finding makes it clear that occupation is inseparable from the societal factors in which it occurs. Further research is necessary to explore societal contexts to enrich knowledge of human occupation and how immigrants’ full participation in civic society can be promoted. Specifically, it is recommended that researchers examine what makes Korean immigrants feel valued as members of society, from the participants’ point of view, in order to assist with the development of the settlement support policy and services that best facilitates their journeys of Valuing Self in New Zealand.

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  • Predation risk and the evolution of odours in island birds

    Thierry, Aude (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is only recently that studies have explored the use of olfaction in birds. Birds are now known to use odour cues for navigation, and locating food. Odours produced by the birds themselves can also function in nest recognition and even mate choice. The odours of most birds stem from the preen wax produced by the uropygial or preen gland. The wax is comprised of a complex mixture of esters and volatiles, and is known to vary in some species with age, sex, season, or environmental conditions. Its function has been associated with feather maintenance, but it may also play a role in sexual selection and chemical communication. In this thesis, I used the preen gland and its preen wax to perform comparative studies on the evolution of odours between island birds and their continental relatives. I used the birds of the Oceania region as a model system, where most passerines originated from continental Australia but have colonised numerous surrounding islands such as New Zealand and New Caledonia. As islands generally lack mammalian predators, and have less parasites and less interspecific competition than continents, these differences in environmental conditions likely shaped functional differences in the preen gland and its products. I measured the size of the preen gland and collected preen wax from a variety of forest passerines in Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia. I found that island birds have larger preen glands and therefore likely produce more preen wax than their continental relatives. I also found that the preen wax composition differed among species, with a shift to birds on islands producing disproportionately lighter and more volatile compounds. I suggest that selection favoured the gain of more volatile molecules in island birds as they were released from the constraint to camouflage their odours that is imposed by mammalian predators on continental areas. It is possible that this also allowed greater communication through olfactory channels in island birds, and such communication is enhanced through the use of more volatile compounds. To support this hypothesis I showed that the South Island robin (Petroica australis) was able to detect and react to the odour of a conspecific (odours produced by preen wax) in the absence of any visual cues. From a conservation perspective, increased volatility of the preen waxes of island birds might place them at increased risk from introduced mammalian predators that use olfaction to locate their prey. However, in both laboratory tests using Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), a common exotic predator, and in field trials using rodent tracking tunnels, I found only limited evidence to suggest the odour of island birds places them at greater risk, and more experiments are needed to test this hypothesis. Finally, my findings of more conspicuous odours in island birds suggest new avenues of research for their conservation, including whether island species that seem especially prone to predation have preen waxes (and thus odours) that are also especially attractive to exotic mammalian predators. Conservation programmes to protect endangered island birds may even benefit from considering whether olfactory cues can be minimised as a method of reducing predation risk.

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  • An examination of certain aspects of industrial relations ideologies : a theoretical analysis and an empirical study of managers

    Geare, Alan J. (1986)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 437 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 423-437. University of Otago department: Management.

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  • Are New Zealand Treaty of Waitangi settlements achieving justice? : the Ngai Tahu settlement and the return of Pounamu (greenstone)

    Gibbs, Meredith (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 332 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Political Studies. "30 September 2001."

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  • Effect of estradiol on the ovarian surface epithelium in older mice

    Gulliver, Linda Shirley Mabelle (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    2 v. (xxxii, 573 leaves) :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "August 2009". University of Otago department: Anatomy and Structural Biology

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  • Expectations and satisfaction in tourism : an exploratory study into measuring satisfaction

    Gnoth, Juergen (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 277 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Marketing.

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  • "Fouling the nest" : the conflict between the 'church party' and settler society during the New Zealand Wars, 1860-1865

    Grimshaw, Michael P (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    328 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Theology and Religious Studies

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  • Construction of quality in early childhood centres

    Farquhar, Sarah-Eve (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    iv, 122 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Threads of inequity: the marginalisation of New Zealand area schools

    Fisk, Robert William (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 471 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. "August 27th, 2002."

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  • The meaning of fascia in a changing society

    Adstrum, Nichola Sue (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Fascia is an anatomical term whose meaning has evolved during the past four hundred years. It is generally applied to the body’s fibrous membranes and the tissue they are composed of, yet this concept appears to be unevenly interpreted and frequently overlooked by bioscientific, clinical, and community health writers. This is of concern as an institutional attachment to a traditional yet possibly not up-to-date understanding of fascia might not best serve the complex health needs of present-day New Zealand (NZ) society. A recent change in the way fascia is acknowledged in the literature may signal a shift from traditional anatomical knowledge to its more holistic interpretation within an emerging interdisciplinary discourse field. This investigation aims to discover whether there may be a similar difference in the way fascia is comprehended by NZ’s multiple discipline-spanning healthcare community within the context of NZ society’s health system, as that diversity, should it exist, might affect cross-disciplinary and broader community discussion about the morphology, performance, and remedial treatment of the body and its soft tissue elements. This study’s use of a transdisciplinary perspective and interpretative methodology for fascia research is linked to Heidegger’s epistemic directive that it is necessary to develop new ways of observing phenomena if we want to expand, rather than simply enhance, pre-existing knowledge of the phenomenon in question. Ethnographic fieldwork methods (semistructured interviews and participant observation) were used to obtain data about how knowledge of fascia is included within the baccalaureate-level anatomy instruction of dentists, doctors, massage therapists, midwives, occupational therapists, osteopaths, and physiotherapists; and in five (Anatomy Trains, CranioSacral Therapy, Fascial Kinetics, Kinesio Taping, and Manual Lymphatic Drainage) introductory-level bodywork seminars, mainly attended by practicing massage therapists and physiotherapists. The research explores how the above-mentioned groups of students’ instructors (this study’s participants) understand and teach their students about fascia. Thematic analysis of the pooled interview transcripts and fieldnotes reveals disparities in how fascia is construed by the participants, and also in how and to what extent it is portrayed to their respective cohorts of students. This study indicates that the participants generally construe fascia either as a range of distinct inert membranous structures, or as a pervasive dynamic soft connective tissue system that manifests in a variety of interrelated forms. While both viewpoints are consistent with the way fascia is concurrently described in the amassed literature, the data suggest the emergent and ostensibly more expansive interpretation of fascia is likely to have been prompted by changes in the fabric of society and its healing practices rather than the continuous progression of an established body of scholarly knowledge. From a Foucaudian position this study’s exposure of what appears to be a discontinuous progression in how fascia is known is important, as such a change could conceivably be enduring and far reaching in its effect. It may therefore be timely to carefully reconsider our own views on this subject.

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  • Quantitation and Localization of Bioactive Natural Products by Spectroscopic Methods

    Killeen, Daniel Patrick (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis describes spectroscopic analyses of plants which derive some, or all, of their commercial value from their secondary metabolites. The primary aim was to assess vibrational spectroscopy as a tool for rapid selection of commercially valuable crops. An equally important research direction was the exploration of the spatial distribution of plant secondary metabolites using Raman microscopy. Raman spectra of powdered carrot (Daucus carota) were used to produce partial least squares regression models capable of quantitating carotenoids, but not polyacetylenes. The Raman and infrared spectra of powdered hops (Humulus lupulus) were used to quantitate α-acids, cohumulone, total bitter acids and xanthohumol. NIR spectra of the same samples could be used to predict the concentrations of α-acids and total bitter acids but not the concentrations of cohumulone or xanthohumol. Raman microscopy was used to show that polyacetylene-rich oils exude from sub-dermal oil ducts in response to damage. This analysis was performed on fresh, sectioned carrot tissue in situ). The same technique was used to demonstrate that β-triketones and flavonoids are localized in the leaf oil glands of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium). Raman spectra of these oil glands could also be used to rapidly distinguish manuka chemotypes. Hops extracellular trichomes (lupulin) could also be used for rapidly chemotyping of hops cultivars and, more importantly, this analysis could be used to rapidly measure commercially important hops chemistry (i.e. xanthohumol concentrations and α:β acid ratios). In the pursuit of these primary objectives, some related research avenues were encountered, and followed. These included: a comprehensive characterization of lupulin volatiles using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography, a similarly comprehensive analysis of lupulin bitter acids using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; isolation and characterization of three new β-triketones and a new flavanone from manuka; and the application of chemometrics to chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance data-sets.

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  • A New Form of Authoritarianism? Rethinking Military Politics in Post-1999 Nigeria

    Adeakin, Ibikunle Edward (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Despite the vast research that has been done on the Nigerian military, virtually all of these studies have failed to critically examine the accepted role of the military in the democratising phase. This is important because the relationship between the political elite and the military in post-military authoritarian states guarantees either democratic consolidation, or its reversal. In Nigeria, despite an appearance of significant progress in subordinating the military institution to democratic civilian authority, the military remains a crucial political actor in the polity. It appears that the military has yet to accept the core democratic principles of civilian oversight of the institution. This thesis, therefore, explores whether a new form of military authoritarianism is emerging in Nigeria, with the aim of understanding Nigeria’s military behaviour in a transitional phase, from prolonged military authoritarianism to democratisation. To examine this military behaviour, Alfred Stepan’s concept of military prerogatives that was used to understand the military’s behaviour in a transitional phase in Latin America is applied to Nigeria. A crucial understanding of authoritarianism in Nigeria is initially discussed in this study using mainly document analysis strategy to examine whether multi-ethnic states, such as Nigeria, tend to have authoritarian systems. Six hypotheses form the core analysis of this thesis: first, that the military has retained significant military prerogatives; second, that retired military officers are gaining influential political and economic positions; third, autonomous military involvement in human rights abuses since 1999; and fourth, that civilian government oversight remains weak, and facilitates military authoritarianism. These hypotheses are primarily analysed using the elite interview technique. During the first half of 2011, the author conducted field research where serving and retired military officers were interviewed. The fifth hypothesis is that the military has intervened in politics post-1999. The examination of this hypothesis relies primarily on key security-related media reports (mostly newspaper editorials) on the military after 1999. The examination of the final hypothesis, that increases in military expenditures might facilitate a new form of military authoritarianism, relies primarily on descriptive statistical analysis. In addition, this study collated relevant historical materials that relate to the military, utilising national archival collections. The empirical findings of this research did not identify a new form of military authoritarianism in Nigeria. The study, however, argues that the unrestricted institutional framework accorded the military has contributed significantly to authoritarian practices in the post-military era in Nigeria. This study discovered that there were similarities between the Brazilian and Nigerian militaries in regard to their military spending during their period in power. Both countries had lower defence budgets. Just as in Brazil, it appears that part of the reason the Nigerian military decided to relinquish power in 1999 had to do with its desire to gain a higher budget, something that was precluded in a military government struggling to retain a sense of legitimacy. The military needed a higher budget to modernise and re-professionalise its institution after more than a decade in power. This feature, which the Nigerian military shares with the Brazilian military, appears to justify the application to Nigeria of Alfred Stepan’s concept of military prerogatives.  

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  • Supporting Asian immigrant English language learners : teachers’ beliefs and practices.

    Che Mustafa, Mazlina (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This phenomenological study explores the beliefs and practices of New Zealand early childhood teachers in supporting English acquisition for Asian immigrant English language learners (ELLs). The focus of the study is on the analysis of early childhood teachers’ beliefs about how they can support English acquisition among Asian immigrant ELLs and how these beliefs influence the teachers’ practices in early childhood education (ECE) settings. The theoretical framework of this research draws on a range of sociocultural perspectives, including (i) the sociocultural positions initially defined by Lev Vygostky (1978), (ii) the notion of guided participation articulated by Barbara Rogoff (2003), (iii) theories of second language acquisition discussed by Lantolf and Thorne (2000), and by Krashen (1982, 1985), and (iv) acculturation as addressed by Berry (2001). The main participants of this study were seven early childhood teachers and six Asian immigrant ELLs from two ECE centres. Four Asian parents participated in interviews to ascertain the parents’ perspectives about their children’s learning of English and their maintenance of home language. Research methods for the teachers included observations and semi-structured pre- and post-observation interviews. For each centre, observations were carried out over a six week period which enabled a series of snapshots of how the teachers supported the ELLs as they acquired English. The findings were analysed using thematic analysis, and presented three themes: English dominance, social cultural adaptation, and guided participation. These themes impacted the learning experiences of the Asian immigrant ELLs and other children attending the ECE as well as the teaching approaches of the early childhood teachers. The findings revealed that there were dissonances between the teachers’ beliefs and their practices, as well as variation between individual teachers’ beliefs and practices. Because of a significant increase in the number of ELLs in New Zealand ECE centres, it is important for early childhood teachers to understand the emphasis upon sociocultural theories in the ECE curriculum, so that they can effectively apply these theories to their practices. This study will provide a basis from which to consider how early childhood teachers in New Zealand can draw upon sociocultural perspectives to better support ELLs as they acquire English, while valuing and supporting their linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

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  • New Zealand learning environments: The role of design and the design process

    Alsaif, Fatimah Mohammed (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Learning environments are important spaces because these are where primary school children spend many hours. These environments can vary from single cell classrooms to modern open plan learning studios. As the design of these learning environments can affect the learning outcomes of students, their design and the design process behind them are important fields of investigation. Involving the users of learning environments in the design process is an important factor to be considered. Studies overseas stress the importance of involving teachers and students in the design process of learning environments. However, studies about learning environments in New Zealand show less consideration for the internal layout of classrooms and the involvement of users in their design process. Thus, this thesis studies and compares the design process behind learning environments in New Zealand with those overseas and the effect of this involvement on the design of primary school internal learning spaces, specifically classrooms. The aim of this thesis is create an understanding of the design process behind primary school classroom learning environments in New Zealand. To achieve the aim, this thesis undertakes five phases of study. The first phase is surveying primary school teachers and architects who design educational spaces, about the design and design process of learning environments in New Zealand. The survey results show that both teachers and architects support participatory design in schools and wish for more student user involvement. The second phase is a trial using social media to encourage more teacher and student participation in designing learning environments. Wordpress and Facebook groups were used for this experiment and teachers and students of primary schools in New Zealand were invited to participate. The trial result appears to indicate that social media does not work in encouraging students and teachers in thinking about the design of learning environments in general without having a specific project as a focus. The third phase is a workshop gathering five teachers and one architect to discuss the detail of the design process behind learning environments in New Zealand. The workshop result suggests that again participants support participatory design but suggest the need for guidance on how to do this, possibly from the Ministry of Education. The fourth phase is a case study of the early stages of a re‐build project for Thorndon Primary School in Wellington city. The case study included interviews, focus groups, observations, and collecting documentation. The main conclusion from the case study is that all parties to the project were in support of participatory design but would have benefitted from guidance as the whole design process and user involvement in it is unclear. The last phase is also case studies but here the focus is on the design process for rearranging the internal layout of two classrooms in two primary schools in Wellington city. The case studies covered observing the involvement of students in the design process, some classroom and brainstorming sessions, and interviews with teachers. The main result of this phase is the observation that students enjoy working on the design of their own environments and that they are able and ready to work as part of such a design process. The key conclusions of this thesis are that all parties involved in this research supported user participation in the design process, but in all the cases investigated there is almost no proper participatory design; students enjoy designing their learning environments and that enjoyment makes them belong and connect to these more; and proper preliminary guidelines for participatory design in learning environments could improve and encourage user involvement in designing learning environments in New Zealand.

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  • The Role of Health Profession Regulation in Health Services Improvement

    Allison, M. Jane (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates the role of health practitioner regulation in health service improvement. Over the last 25 years, service improvement has included management reforms, quality and redesign programmes, multidisciplinary teamwork, the integration of clinical information systems, and new roles for health professionals. Yet despite sustained effort, improvements tend to be localised rather than organisation or system-wide. Remedies have included attention to leadership, change management and service culture. Through the same period, there have been changes to expand and strengthen health practitioner regulation, but scant attention to whether this regulation could contribute to difficulties with health service improvement. A critical realist methodology was used to build an explanation of how regulatory policies could condition health professionals and health service organisations in ways that limit the progress of service improvement. A multilevel approach was used to discover the mechanisms that could operate among policy-makers and the health workforce, generating effects in health service organisations. The study concluded that this explanation contributes new insights to explain persistent difficulties in health service improvement. The research began with the 19th century to understand the social conditions in the construction of the health workforce and health service organisations. Next, it identified the network of modern regulatory stakeholders in healthcare, along with the potential for their policies to operate in conflict or concert depending on the circumstances. Deficiencies were identified in the traditional accounts of health practitioner regulation, which assumes a single profession and sole practice. ‘Regulatory privilege’ was developed as an alternative theory that describes the operation of nine historically constructed regulatory levers among the multiple health professions employed in health service organisations. This theory linked the regulatory and practice levels, to observe the interactions between health practitioner regulation and policies for health service improvement. Drawing on the recent history of health reforms, eight elements were identified that characterise directions for service improvement in healthcare. Investigation of interactions between these nine levers and eight elements identified sources for policy interactions through six sector levels. Interactive effects were identified in: policy design influenced by health practitioner regulation; the leadership and management capability in health service organisations, the design options for delivery of services, the means available to coordinate services, the role opportunities and practice arrangements for health professionals, and the experience of service fragmentation by consumers. This multilevel explanation shows how health practitioner regulation could contribute to difficulties with service improvement, even when health services have adopted best practice in their implementations. It shows how poor alignment between the regulatory and practice levels makes it unlikely that health service organisations could address certain difficulties in the ways suggested by some scholars. Given the sustained directions for health service improvement, these findings could contribute to policy thinking around how to better align the regulatory and practice levels to realise organisation or systemwide improvements in the delivery of healthcare.

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