11,872 results for Doctoral

  • Exploring Mechanisms of Change in the Rehabilitation of High-Risk Offenders

    Yesberg, Julia A. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The success or failure of many different types of treatment is often measured by one type of outcome. For example, treatment for substance abuse might be judged to have failed if a patient “goes on a bender” some time after completing the programme. The same is true for offender rehabilitation. Treatment success or failure is usually determined by whether or not an offender is reconvicted of a new offence in a specified follow-up period. We know from the literature that offender rehabilitation can have modest but significant effects on reducing recidivism. Yet we know little about what brings about these reductions (i.e., how the treatment worked). This thesis explores possible mechanisms of change in offender rehabilitation. I propose that although a reduction in recidivism is an important long-term outcome of treatment, there are a number of additional outcomes that have the potential to explain not only if but how treatment works and why it is unsuccessful in leading to a reduction in reoffending for some offenders. Study 1 is a typical outcome evaluation of New Zealand’s rehabilitation programmes for high-risk male offenders: the High Risk Special Treatment Units (HRSTUs). I compared the recidivism rates of a sample of HRSTU completers with a comparison sample of high-risk offenders who had not completed the programme (a between-subjects design). I found that relative to the comparison group, treatment completers had significantly lower rates of four different indices of recidivism, varying in severity. The remainder of the thesis explored possible mechanisms of change within the HRSTU sample (a within-subjects design). Study 2 examined immediate outcomes of treatment, which I defined as within-treatment change on dynamic risk factors. I found that offenders made significant change on the Violence Risk Scale during treatment, but there was no significant relationship between treatment change and recidivism. Studies 3 and 4 examined intermediate outcomes of treatment, which I defined as barriers (risk factors) and facilitators (protective factors) that influence the process of offender re-entry. Study 3 validated an instrument designed to measure these factors: the Dynamic Risk Assessment for Offender Re-entry (DRAOR). I found that the tool had good convergent validity and reliably predicted recidivism above a static risk estimate. Study 4 used the newly validated DRAOR to test an explanation for the lack of a direct relationship between treatment change and recidivism. I tested whether treatment change had an indirect relationship with recidivism through its influence on the re-entry process. I found that treatment change was related to a number of re-entry outcomes; however, only two models could be tested for mediation because the re-entry outcomes themselves lacked predictive ability. Nevertheless, findings from Study 4 suggest the re-entry process is an area worthy of further investigation. Taken together, the findings from this thesis highlight the importance of considering alternative treatment outcomes in addition to whether or not a programme leads to a reduction in long-term recidivism outcomes. Answering the question of how treatment works requires an exploration into possible mechanisms of change. This thesis was only a preliminary investigation into such mechanisms; however, the findings have both practical and theoretical implications for the way we conceptualise how treatment programmes work. Developing a greater understanding of mechanisms of change in offender rehabilitation has the potential to lead to the design and delivery of more effective programmes.

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  • Electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional crystals

    Hatami, Hani (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the last few years, two dimensional crystals have become available for experimental studies. Good examples of such systems are monolayers and bilayers of graphene and monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS₂ and WSe₂. The availability of two dimensional crystals has encouraged physicists to study the electronic and magnetic properties of such systems. This thesis adds to the theoretical knowledge about electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional crystals with the focus on graphene and MoS₂. As a general theme in this thesis, we calculate how in general these systems interact with electric and magnetic fields and what their response is to such stimuli. In particular, we have studied the response of monolayer graphene to an in-plane electric field. We have also looked at spin-orbit coupling effects that arise from applying perpendicular or in-plane external electric fields, especially their consequences for transport properties of bilayer graphene. We investigated the electronic properties of charge carriers confined in a mesoscopic ring structure using a gate voltage in bilayer graphene. We also showed how spin-orbit coupling can affect the electrical properties of such rings. We found how spin-orbit coupling can affect the transport properties in bilayer graphene. We also investigated the RKKY or indirect exchange coupling between magnetic moments in monolayer MoS₂ through calculating wave vector dependent spin susceptibility. We examined the electronic properties of electrons and holes confined electrostatically into a bilayer graphene ring. We presented an analytical solution for finding energy levels in the ring. We showed that the magnetic field dependence of the lowest energy level with fixed angular momentum in bilayer graphene rings, in contrast to usual semiconductor quantum rings, is not parabolic but displays an asymmetric “Mexican hat“. We found that introducing spin-orbit coupling in the ring can flatten this Mexican hat. We studied the effect of an orbital Rashba type effect, induced by an in-plane electric field in monolayer graphene. Using perturbation theory, we showed that this term can affect the energy levels in a crossed electric and magnetic field such that the electron and hole levels repel each other. We calculated the AC transport of monolayer graphene in the linear-response regime and showed that taking the orbital Rashba term into account casts doubt on the universality of the minimum conductivity of monolayer graphene. We studied the effect of spin-orbit coupling in transport properties of bilayer graphene systems by calculating tunnelling through npn and np junctions. We showed that at sufficiently large spin-orbit strength, normal transmission through a barrier which is forbidden in bilayer graphene becomes finite. We predict that in a weak Rashba spin-orbit regime, outgoing electrons show signals which are spin polarized. We also showed that considering spin-orbit coupling only in the barrier of an npn junction can invert the spin of the incoming electrons. Finally, we obtained analytical expressions for the wave vector-dependent static spin susceptibility of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, considering both the electron-doped and hole-doped cases. These results are then applied to the calculations of physical observables of monolayer MoS₂. We claculated that the hole-mediated RKKY exchange interaction for in-plane impurity-spin components decays with a different power law from what is expected for a two-dimensional Fermi liquid. In contrast, we calculated that the out-of-plane spin response shows the conventional long-range behaviour.

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  • Heterosexual couples, gender discourse, and the production of relational subjectivity

    Morris, Brian (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study is situated in feminist and poststructural theory. The focus of the study is heterosexual relationships. In particular, the study investigates the shaping effects of patriarchal discourses on the relational subjectivity of a woman partner; how a woman partner responds to and refuses this shaping; and why and how a man might change his positioning in relation to his partner. The data were generated through focus group discussions with women, and individual interviews with men. An initial women’s focus group generated core data for analysis, which was followed by interviews with men, and then a final focus group of women. Documentary practices, derived from narrative therapy, were used to capture and bridge discussions between these three stages of data generation. A poststructural analysis investigated the production of relational subjectivity in the context of heterosexual relationships. Analysis of data included a focus on relational subjectivity as reported by one of the initial focus group women. A deconstructive analysis of material from the initial focus group showed the shaping of women’s relational subjectivities at the intersection of dominant patriarchal and resistant practices. This deconstructive analysis is supported by analyses of material from the men’s interviews, and from the final focus group of women. Further, based in knowledge generated from the initial women’s focus group, an idea for heterosexual relationship as egalitarian is developed in the analysis. The thesis argues that heterosexual relationship is often dominated by patriarchal ideas and practices that privilege the male partner. The thesis offers a philosophical location with the potential to reposition heterosexual relationship to a safe and egalitarian place. An exploration is offered about how men might take up ethical practices so that the repositioning of heterosexual relationship can be maintained, and patriarchally sustained male privilege held accountable. The thesis suggests that the ethical ideas and practices offered for egalitarian heterosexual relationship might be extrapolated to gender relations in general. My accountability as a male researcher is embedded in the process of the study, with feminist supervisors, in the research methodology with the final focus group of women, and in critical reflexivity in the data analysis. In particular, an example is provided which shows the researcher reflexively analysing one moment in the data generation where a research participant was offered a possible non-preferred position. The contribution of this study is to bring Derridean ideas on ethical action to relational subjectivity in heterosexual relationship. Its timeliness is evidenced by the demand from the women participants, and others, for men to engage in respectful and ethical relationship practices. At the same time the study argues that its timeliness is still in the making, produced in the democracy to come that is being brought into existence when the potential for respectful and ethical relationship is enacted in practice. The responsibility for inventing such practices rests with men.

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  • Te Rongoā Kākāriki: Kanohi-ki-te-kanohi, e pai ana?

    Williams, Margaret H.

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In Aotearoa New Zealand the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is three times higher for Māori than New Zealand European and is increasing. Participation of Māori newly diagnosed with T2DM with the Te Rongoā Kākāriki (Green Prescription, GRx) health service is lower than for New Zealand European. This thesis has four linked aims: i) to examine differences in the engagement and active participation (adherence) (Chapter 4), ii) to compare changes in physical and metabolic measures (Chapter 5) using a kanohi-ki-te-kanohi (face-to-face) mode of delivery or waea (telephone) for Māori and New Zealand European, iii) to better understand the perceptions, knowledge and activities of the participants that enabled them to participate (Chapter 6) and iv) to understand better how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes through the GRx health service. This GRx research study was a randomised trial (ACTRN012605000622606) using a kaupapa Māori framework and research principles, with a mixed methods approach, in which Māori and New Zealand European women and men newly diagnosed with T2DM were randomised to either kanohi-ki-te-kanohi (face-to-face) mode of delivery or waea (telephone) for six months. Physical and metabolic measurements were made, questionnaires completed and interviews undertaken at baseline, six and 12 months. After 12 months medical records were accessed for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid measures associated with metabolic risk. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine for differences among the categorical variables of ethnicity, mode of delivery and gender. A total of 152 (96 women, 56 men) participants aged 30-86 years consented to participate and completed baseline measurements. Recruitment was less than the target (240), but equal numbers of Māori and New Zealand European were recruited, from GRx referrals that were predominantly non-Māori. The participants included 68 Māori, 70 New Zealand European and 14 ‘Other’ (neither Māori nor New Zealand European). The main findings excluded the ‘Other’ group. More New Zealand European than Māori remained in the randomised trial at six (74% vs. 51%) and 12-months (56% vs. 30%), respectively. There was a trend for more participants to remain in the kanohi-ki-te-kanohi (face-to-face) (68%) compared with the waea (telephone) (58%) mode of delivery at six months. The physical and metabolic data revealed that at the end of the 6-month GRx intervention, for 88 participants, body weight was reduced by 1.6 kg (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.8) and waist circumference by 3.6 cm (95% CI, 2.4 to 4.9). At six months, of the 63 who had HbA1c measured there was a reduction of 1.3% (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.4). No differences by GRx mode of delivery, ethnicity or gender were observed in these analyses. At the 12-month follow-up, for the 59 participants measured (20 Māori and 39 New Zealand European), the body weight and waist circumference measures were reduced from baseline by 2.3 kg (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.0) and 5.5 cm (95% CI, 3.4 to 7.6), respectively. In 36 participants (12 Māori and 24 New Zealand European) the HbA1c was reduced by 0.6% (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.3). No differences for GRx mode of delivery, ethnicity or gender were observed. In general, improvements in physical characteristics were associated with improvements in HbA1c concentrations. The greatest improvement was in those who had higher HbA1c (worse glycaemic control) at baseline. Data from the questionnaires showed that most participants were inactive at baseline (≤ 30 min/day) and 25% reportedly increased their participation in walking activities at six and 12 months with no differences noted between mode of delivery, ethnic groups or gender. Overall, no changes in intensity and time spent in physical activity were found between six and 12 months. Optimism and positive self-belief in ability to manage their diabetes did not change. However, a small association was found between the changes in the perceived need for special training and changes in body weight, waist circumference and the diabetes empowerment score. Five key themes from the interviews, in relation to improved self-management of T2DM, were found. The themes involved: whānaungātanga: strengthening relationships; pātaka mātauranga: sharing knowledge; whakamana: empowerment; manaakitanga: giving and receiving support and assistance from others and pikitia ngā maunga: overcoming barriers. A shared responsibility of the participants, the researcher and Māori GRx kaiwhakahaere, including the general practitioner and/or practice nurse to communicate better and overcome barriers, was identified. Kanohi-ki-te-kanohi (face-to-face) was the preferred approach to GRx even though there were no differences in metabolic/physical outcomes with mode of delivery. Overall, participants endorsed that the initial kanohi-ki-te-kanohi (face-to-face) contact was instrumental to their understanding and participation. To conclude, the GRx health service delivered by Sport Waikato Regional Sports Trust was associated with comparable improvements in HbA1c and weight among Māori and New Zealand European with no difference between the two modes of delivery. Kanohi-ki-te-kanohi (face-to-face) contact was the preferred approach to GRx. Participation by Māori once referred was relatively high and probably higher than New Zealand European, but with high drop-out. Understanding of GRx was poor prior to entering the service. The major hurdle to GRx uptake among Māori appears to be in primary care. Primary care needs to improve their explanation of GRx and their linkage with the GRx programme. New strategies are required to maintain participation.

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  • Capturing recurring concepts in high speed data streams

    Sakthithasan, Sripirakas

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research addresses two key issues in high speed data stream mining that are related to each other. One fundamental issue is the detection of concept change that is an inherent feature of data streams in general in order to make timely and accurate structural changes to classification or prediction models. The shortcomings in the past research were addressed in two versions of a change detector that were produced during this research. The second major issue is the detection of recurring patterns in a supervised learning context to gain significant efficiency and accuracy advantages over systems that have severe time constraints on response time to change due to safety and time critical requirements. Capturing recurrent patterns requires the detection of concept change with minimal false positives. This research addresses this latter problem as a pre-requisite to formulating a novel mechanism for recognizing recurrences in a dynamic data stream environment. The first approach to change detection, termed SeqDrift1 that relies on a detection threshold derived using the Bernstein bound and sequential hypothesis strategy ensured much lower false positive rates and processing time than the most widely used change detector, ADWIN. The second version of the change detector, SeqDrift2, achieved significant improvement on detection sensitivity over SeqDrift1. This was achieved through two separate strategies. The first was the use of reservoir sampling to retain a larger proportion of older instances thus providing for better contrast with newer arriving instances belonging to a changed concept. The second strategy was to trade off false positive rate for detection delay in an optimization procedure. The net result was that SeqDrift2 achieved much lower detection delay than SeqDrift1 but sacrificed some of its false positive rate when compared to SeqDrift1, while still retaining its superiority with respect to this measure vis-à-vis ADWIN and other change detectors. Having proposed a robust and efficient mechanism for change detection two different meta-learning schemes for recurrent concept capture were proposed. A novel framework using the two schemes consists of concept change detectors to locate concept boundaries, a Hoeffding tree compressor to exploit the application of Discrete Fourier Transform on Decision Trees to produce compact Fourier Spectra, a forest of Hoeffding Trees to actively learn and a pool of Fourier spectra to be reused on similar recurring concepts. In the first scheme, termed Fourier Concept Trees (FCT), each Fourier spectrum is separately stored and reused on similar concepts. Accuracy and memory advantages have been empirically shown over an existing method called, MetaCT. In the second scheme, instead of storing each spectrum on its own, an ensemble approach, Ensemble Pool (EP), was adopted whereby several spectra were aggregated into single composite spectrum. The major advantage of this strategy over the first was the reduction in storage overhead as redundancies in separate spectra are eliminated by merging into one single entity. In addition, Fourier spectrum generation is optimized with theoretical guarantees to suit high speed environments. Extensive experimentation that demonstrated the benefits including accuracy stabilization, memory gain, reusability of existing models etc., has been done with a number of synthetic and real world datasets. This includes a case study on a Flight simulator system which is one of the target applications of this research.

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  • Economic Valuation of Water Quality Improvements in New Zealand

    Mkwara, Lena Asimenye (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Efficient decision making in environmental management requires good data on the costs and benefits of changes in environmental quality. However, full assessment of the benefits of better water quality has been a challenge because some of the component values cannot be directly measured. The advent of non-market valuation techniques has made it possible to estimate these values. In this thesis, the travel cost random utility model and fishing choice data from the National Angling Survey are used to assess the benefits of better water quality for trout anglers in the Rotorua Lakes and a choice experiment is used to assess the benefits of cleaner streams for Karapiro catchment residents. We also explore three methodological aspects which may affect non market value estimates, namely within season variability, scale heterogeneity across individuals and respondent perceptions of the status quo. Accounting for within-season variability in site attributes that are variable across the season may reduce multicollinearity. We find that differences in welfare estimates between models accounting for within-season variability and those that do not may result from differences in attribute and collinearity levels or the combined effect of both. We assess whether benefit estimates remain stable over time using models that account for scale heterogeneity across individuals and demonstrate that ignoring scale heterogeneity across the sampled population may result in researchers erroneously concluding that estimates of marginal willingness to pay are stable over time. A choice experiment on preferences for stream water quality is used to assess the effects of respondent’s perception of status quo conditions on welfare estimates. The results build on earlier findings which suggest that failure to take account of respondents’ beliefs leads to biased welfare estimates. Overall we find that lakes with better water clarity, that are larger in size, with bigger fish, more facilities and more forest cover are preferred. Similarly, streams with water quality that is suitable for swimming and where trout are found, are preferred. We estimate the aggregate annual benefit for anglers of a one metre increase in water clarity in all the Rotorua Lakes which currently have poor or average water water quality to be NZ$2.3 million. The travel cost RUM is also used to assess the overall benefit that trout anglers obtain from each lake. The annual level of these benefits totals NZ$21.7 million.

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  • The Potential for Augmented Reality to Bring Balance betweenthe Ease of Pedestrian Navigation and the Acquisition of Spatial Knowledge

    Wen, James (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Being completely lost in an unfamiliar environment can be inconvenient, stressful and, at times, even dangerous. Maps are the traditional tools used for guidance but many people find maps difficult to use. In recent years, new tools like outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) have become available which allow virtual navigation cues to be directly overlaid on the real world, potentially overcoming the limitations of maps. However, it has been hypothesized that lower effort invested in processing navigation guidance may lead to diminished spatial knowledge (SK) thereby making users of such navigation tools far more vulnerable to getting lost should the tools fail for any reason. This thesis explores the research question of how AR and maps compare as tools for pedestrian navigation guidance as well as for SK acquisition and if there is a potential for AR tools be developed that would balance the two. We present a series of studies to better understand the consequences of using AR in a pedestrian navigation tool. The first two studies compared time-on-task performance and user preferences for AR and Map navigation interfaces on an outdoor navigation task. The results were not aligned with expectations, which led us to build a controlled testing environment for comparing AR and map navigation. Using this simulated setting, our third study verified the assumption that AR can indeed result in more efficient navigation performance and it supported the hypothesis that this would come at the cost of weaker SK. In our fourth study, we used a dual task design to compare the relative cognitive resources required by map and AR interfaces. The quantitative data collected indicated that users could potentially accept additional workload designed to improve SK without incurring significantly more effort. Our fifth and final study explored an interface with additional AR cues that could potentially balance navigation guidance with SK acquisition. The contributions of this thesis include insights into performance issues relating to AR, a classification of user types based on navigation tool usage behavior, a testbed for simulating perfect AR tracking in a virtual setting, objective measures for determining route knowledge, the capacity that pedestrian navigation tool users may have for performing additional tasks, and guidelines that would be helpful in the design of pedestrian navigation tools.

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  • The Effect of Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning on the Immune Response

    Williams-Spence, Jennifer Mae (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) describes the phenomenon where brief intermittent periods of limb ischaemia are used to protect the heart and other organs from subsequent prolonged ischaemic insults. RIPC has been identified as a promising intervention for use during cardiac surgery and has consistently shown a beneficial effect in animal models; however, the results of early clinical trials have not been as successful. The exact mechanisms involved in mediating RIPC have not yet been characterised and a better understanding of the pathways through which RIPC exerts its protective effects will be essential in order to progress the translation of this intervention into the clinical setting. There is increasing evidence that RIPC modifies the inflammatory response, therefore the central aim of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate how RIPC affects the human immune system. We performed a double-blind randomised controlled trial of RIPC in 96 high-risk cardiac surgery patients and found no evidence that the intervention reduced myocardial injury or altered peri-operative expression levels of the key inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10, during simple or more complex procedures. There was a trend towards higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the preconditioned patients; however, confounding variables in the trial design and the heterogeneous patient population limited our ability to interpret the results. We next conducted a paired-analysis trial with 10 healthy male volunteers to assess the direct effect of preconditioning on the early immune response, away from any form of ischaemic injury or comorbidities. We found that RIPC directly and significantly decreased serum levels of the chemokines MIP-1α and MIP-1β, but did not increase the serum concentrations of a range of key cytokines or alter the cytokine producing potential of peripheral blood leukocytes. These findings strongly suggest that a cytokine is not likely to be the humoral mediator associated with transmitting the RIPC protective signal. RIPC did not alter the immunophenotype or extravasation of peripheral leukocyte populations, or the proliferative and cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to pharmacological, physiological, and antigen-specific stimuli. However, preconditioning did appear to reduce the ability of monocytes and neutrophils to respond to activation signals, as indicated by lower levels of CD11b expression in stimulated cultures, and a significant increase in the basal production of IL-22 was also detected in PBMC cultured for 6 days following preconditioning. These alterations may reduce neutrophil and monocyte tissue infiltration and limit the inflammatory response during the early window of RIPC-induced protection and enhance tissue and wound repair several days later. A multivariate analysis confirmed that there was a significant difference in the response between the control and RIPC treatments and the main contributing factors were identified as changes in neutrophil and T cell activation, serum levels of MIP-1α and β, and production of IL-10 and IL-22 from PBMC cultured for 6 days. Overall, our results suggest that RIPC has a subtle but direct effect on the systemic innate immune response during the early window of protection in healthy volunteers, whereas the effects on the adaptive immune system seem to be considerably delayed. The changes detected following RIPC are likely to contribute to protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury but not solely account for the extent of the beneficial effects of RIPC detected in animals. Our findings reinforce the safety profile of this intervention and have defined a number of immune parameters that are altered by preconditioning for focusing future research.

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  • Dynamic process of user adaptation to complex mandatory information systems

    Wanchai, Paweena

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The introduction of a complex system, such as an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, requires users to adapt to the simultaneous requirements of the new system and the associated organisational and business process changes. Unsuccessful adaptation to complex mandatory systems generates significant financial and opportunity costs to organisations and makes some employees feel dissatisfied with their jobs. Previous information systems (IS) research provides important insight into IS use. However, there is a lack of an in-depth study of the process of user adaptation that explains how user adaptation behaviours change over time and what triggers users to modify their system use behaviours. This study unveils the dynamic adaptation process and offers an explanation of how adaptation behaviours unfold over time. The fieldwork was conducted in four organisations in Thailand: one private, one state-owned, one non-profit and one multinational. An embedded multiple-case study design was applied in this research. Using the critical incident technique, 46 in-depth interviews were conducted with ERP users, managers and IT specialists. Grounded theory informed both the method of data analysis and the technique for theory building. As a result of an inductive theorising process, three intertwined core themes emerged. The first theme, user adaptation behaviours, reflects the different ways in which users respond to the evolving work practices that an ERP system imposes. The second theme, situational conditions, reveals the underlying conditions that influence the user adaptation process including social-task-user conditions and system-business process comprehension. The third theme, triggers, refers to events that change user perceptions towards the system or changes in the work environment. This study produces an emergent, substantive theory that explains how individuals dynamically adapt to complex mandatory IS. These adaptation behaviours, which are shaped by situational conditions, manifest in the form of reluctant, compliance, faithful and enthusiastic adaptation behaviours. Through their interaction with the system, individuals are constantly assessing the system in relation to the existing situational conditions. The adaptation behaviours espoused at any given time can be subsequently modified through task-related, organisational-related and system-related triggers.

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  • Comparative analysis of construction procurement systems based on transaction costs

    Rajeh, Mohammed

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Within construction procurement, Transaction cost economics (TCE), offers a mechanism to understand ‘unseen’ costs associated with the pre and post-contract work. Pre-contract, these include costs related to information gathering and procurement. Post-contract they include activities of contract administration and enforcement. This research investigates the relationship between procurement system and transaction costs (TCs) in the New Zealand construction industry, developing a theoretical model of relationship between procurement systems and TC. The model was operationalized and developed into a questionnaire. A cross-sectional sample approach was deployed, involving questionnaire survey, interviews, and research verification through ‘real world’ cases. Data was sought from professionals in management, design and operations (i.e. project managers, architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, and procurement officers). These professionals represented several construction organizations and NZ Councils (Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin). TCs were measured using time-spent conducting procurement related activities as a surrogate for cost. Professionals evaluated their time spent on procurement activities using a 5-point Likert scale, comparing the Traditional and Design-Build delivery systems. 96 responses (74 usable) were received from a sampled population of 360 (27% response). This data was triangulated with interviews to test and explain the model. The tests included Validity and Reliability Tests, Path Analysis, Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The primary analytical technique used was Structural Equation Modelling to yield information on Goodness-of-Fit, model development and comparison, and confirmatory strategies. SPSS Amos 21 statistical software was used for data analysis and model development. The data demonstrated univariate and multivariate normality assumptions underlying SEM testing of research hypotheses. Of 43 hypotheses tested, six null hypotheses were rejected, demonstrating a positive relationship between the costs of information, procurement, administration, and enforcement with TCs. Additionally environmental uncertainties have indirect significant impact on TCs. The results suggest procurement systems have indirect impact on TCs, which is fully mediated by costs of information, procurement, administration, and enforcement. Finally, for research results verification, the models were applied to real-life cases (four Traditional, two Design-Build). TCs were calculated using regression equations based on factor loadings in the Traditional and Design-Build models. It was found that TCs in the Traditional system amounts to 18.5% of the annual salary cost of a project manager (as an indicator quantum), while in the Design-Build system, it amounts to 14.5% of the annual salary cost of a project manager. This study applies a new theoretical model for procurement selection based on TCs, investigating and empirically demonstrating the influence of procurement system on TCs in construction. It also offers a new plausible explanation for the factors influencing TCs in procurement. The findings have practical implications on construction business practice due to their robust empirical nature and theoretical framework, which might enhance the performance of the construction industry. The study contributes to the procurement selection in construction, by introducing a new conceptual model for the link between procurement systems and TCs. It has extended the current practices for procurement selection by estimating TCs for different procurement systems, specifically for the Traditional and Design-Build systems for comparison. This study emphasizes ‘in-house’ TCs from the perspective of the client, consequently the study recommends that the work be expanded to determine the ‘out-of-house’ TCs from the contractor perspective. Furthermore that to expand the relevance of the findings further work using the same methodology should be used to measure TCs for other procurement systems for comparison purposes. Finally, this study calculates TCs within projects, so it was recommended to further explore intra-organizational TCs in construction.

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  • Imagining the revealed God : Hans Urs von Balthasar, Eberhard Jungel, and the triduum mortis

    Sharman, Elizabeth Pauline (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    'Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your minds.' [Rom 12:2] Hans Urs von Balthasar and Eberhard Jungel are profound and imaginative thinkers who unreservedly ground their theologies in revelation as God's self-disclosure. This thesis asks what resources such revelation-centred authors, from different traditions, may contribute to a theological understanding of the human imagination. Although theology has often been more interested in the constructive capacities of the imagination, it is the responsive quality of the imagination that is of particular interest to this thesis. Can the imagination contribute to a theological understanding which comprehends the action and speech of God as antecedent to human response? This thesis examines the epistemological issues that are related both to the imagination and to revelation as the self-communication and self-interpretation of God. The imagination is conceived of as essential to perception and understanding; it allows for both recognition and re-cognition. Through the imagination we can rethink the patterns or paradigms that shape our lives. The renewing of the mind can be said to involve the imagination. However, spiritual transformation requires more than a notion of the imagination as a spontaneous mental act which determines its own content. Balthasar and Jungel, while thinking in lively and narrative ways, are constrained by divine self-disclosure. God's self-revelation provides the content of the paradigm or pattern by which the Christian believer is to live. The imagination can be said to act as the context or locus of revelation. This thesis demonstrates that the three days of Easter are central to Balthasar's and Jungel's respective understandings of God. For Balthasar and Jungel, the triduum mortis is where the self-revelation of God is most apparent; it is here that God is understood to be self-giving love as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. While quite distinct in their approaches, both authors work within trinitarian, and therefore relational, frameworks. This thesis traces the motifs that not only express their understandings of the paschal mystery in relational terms but also ground their respective understandings of renewed existence; for Balthasar, the motifs of mission and kenosis, and for Jungel, those of identification and justification. For both Balthasar and Jungel, the events of the triduum mortis can be said to provide the content of, and act as a boundary to, our conception of God. Nonetheless, it is proposed that, within their respective understandings of divine prevenience, Balthasar and Jungel leave room for the exercise of the imagination. God is mystery; God is not a fixed or completed concept.

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  • Creative mourning: the AIDS Quilt Aotearoa New Zealand

    Brooke-Carr, Elizabeth (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xvii, 445 leaves :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. "November 2000".

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  • 'Blood, sweat and queers' : (re)imagining global queer citizenship at the Sydney 2002 Gay Games

    Burns, Kellie Jean (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxii, 260 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "September 17, 2007". University of Otago department: School of Physical Education.

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  • No substantial miscarriage of justice : the history and application of the proviso to Section 385(1) of the Crimes Act 1961

    Downs, Mathew David (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    viii, 390 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "September 2010. University of Otago department: Law

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  • Structure and function of food webs in acid mine drainage streams

    Hogsden, Kristy Lynn (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a significant environmental issue worldwide, which often causes severe contamination and marked species losses in receiving streams. However, little is known about how this stress alters food webs and ecosystem function. I conducted a literature review, which revealed that AMD-impacted streams generally had depauperate benthic communities dominated by a few tolerant species and impaired ecosystem processes. Next, using survey and experimental-based approaches, I investigated food web structure and energy flow in these highly stressed streams, which typically have low pH (< 3), high concentrations of dissolved metals (Al, Fe), and substrata coated with metal hydroxide precipitates, on the South Island, New Zealand. Inputs of AMD caused substantial loss of consumers and reduced the overall number of links between species generating small and simplified food webs, with few invertebrates and no fish. Comparative analysis of food webs from a survey of 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals, indicated that anthropogenic sources had a stronger negative effect on food web properties (size, food chain length, number of links); an effect driven primarily by differences in consumer diversity and diet. However, the presence of fewer trophic levels and reduced trophic diversity (detected using isotopic metrics), were common structural attributes in AMD-impacted webs along a pH gradient, regardless of impact level. Furthermore, complementary dietary analyses of consumer gut contents and stable isotope signatures (δ13C and 15N) confirmed that primary consumers fed generally on basal resources and that there were few predatory interactions, which reflected low densities of small-bodied chironomids. This suggests that food quantity was unlikely to limit primary consumers but that reduced prey availability may be an additional stressor for predators. In these radically re-structured food webs, trophic bottlenecks were generated at the primary consumer level and energy flow to higher consumers was disrupted. However, streams still retained some limited function, including slow leaf litter breakdown, which provided detrital resources and supported the small food webs. Overall, my findings have furthered our understanding of these highly stressed stream ecosystems by providing new insights into interactions among species and trophic levels that structure food webs and enable function.

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  • Restricted Verb Phrase Collocations in Standard and Learner Malaysian English

    Abd Halim, Hasliza (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The English used in Malaysia is one of the varieties of New Englishes and this variety has emerged due to the spread of English around the world (Platt, et al., 1983; Pillai, 2006). In the case of Malaysia, Malay is the national language and standard English exists to be the language of an elite (Bao, 2006), also as a language of interaction. Over years of playing its various roles as a language of interaction, there has emerged a variety of English that is distinctively Malaysian (Asmah, 1992). Baskaran (2002) points out that English is now adopted and adapted in the linguistic ecology of Malaysia, and all Malaysians should be proud of it with all its local ‘nuances and innuendos’. Malaysian English today is ‘a rich tapestry of a typical transplanted variety of English’. Malaysian English (ME) is one of the new varieties of English, with some distinct features include the localized vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar as well as pragmatic features (Pillai, 2006; Pillai and Fauziah, 2006, p.39). The present study has embarked on a specialised study of vocabulary. In particular, it examined the English collocations produced by non-native speaker English users in Malaysia. The study provided insight into the nature of the internal norms of English used in Malaysia to see how these English restricted collocations being used by this group of learners. The investigation focused on the learners’ productive knowledge of Verb-Noun collocations of their written English with the impact of exposure and frequency. Nesselhauf (2003) has the opinion that verb-noun combinations are the most frequently mistaken so they should perceive particular attention of learners. Investigating collocation in English language learning is paramount as such study may inform us on the use of restricted collocations in English language teaching and learning in Malaysian context. The findings in Chapter 4 and 5 suggest that the frequency of the cloze verb does have an effect as predicted by Kuiper, Columbus and Schmitt (2009). This is so because frequency is a measure of likely exposure. The more frequent an item is in corpora, the more likely a learner is to be exposed to it. What is needed is a much more nuanced notion of exposure. The findings in Chapter 6 proves that the malformed collocations make sense could be a way of making the World English perspective relevant after all. A new testing approach is proposed; semantic plausibility metric, which is used as a tool for this study, can be useful used as a measure of vocabulary acquisition as well as looking at learners’ test taking strategies. The findings of the present research on Malaysian English collocations contribute new knowledge to the existing understanding and literature on the acquisition of collocations.

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  • Influences of fisher attitudes and behaviour on regulation non-compliance: A case study from the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand recreational blue cod fishery

    Thomas, Alyssa S. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although it has been noted that fisheries is 90% managing people, most management regimes focus solely on the other 10%; the biological aspect. Furthermore, despite the growing popularity of recreational fishing and increased awareness of its biological effects, there exists even less literature on the human dimensions in this domain than in commercial fisheries. In New Zealand, the Marlborough Sounds recreational blue cod fishery is strictly regulated, due to its popularity and a top-down management regime, with limited fisher involvement. Despite substantial biological information on the fishery, there is only one piece of human dimensions research, carried out before the current management regime came into force. This thesis responds to calls for greater integration of human behaviour into fisheries analyses and management. Specifically, the aim is to explore fisher attitudes towards and compliance with the fishery regulations. The research presented here is a combination of intercept and online surveys of over 500 fishers and is interdisciplinary in nature. Four related studies, aimed towards publication, provide important insights for a more inclusive management style in the future. The first chapter examines fisher attitudes and the factors shaping them, a poorly understood area. Responses reveal that although overall, fishers were dissatisfied with the current regulations, inexperienced and non-locally-resident fishers display more positive attitudes towards the regulations. The second core chapter examines regulation non-compliance, a worldwide fisheries problem that can undermine the effectiveness of a management regime. As rule-breaking behaviour is often a sensitive behaviour, two indirect methods (Randomized Response and Item Count) are tested against direct questioning in estimating violations of three recreational blue cod fishing regulations. Results show mixed effectiveness for the indirect methods, with a significantly higher estimate of non-compliance estimate obtained for only one of the three regulations. The third core chapter uses structural equation modeling to examine the drivers of non-compliance with the size and daily limits for blue cod. Knowledge of these drivers is essential to increasing voluntary compliance with the regulations and these results demonstrate that social norms are the largest influence for both the regulations. Finally, the fourth core chapter examines the potential effects of the maximum size limit on the number of blue cod discarded as well as fisher satisfaction and compliance. A scenario approach reveals that either increasing or eliminating the maximum size limit could offer significant gains compared with the control scenario. The four chapters contribute to the global literature on subjects including fisher attitudes, estimating sensitive behaviours, drivers of non-compliance, discards in recreational fisheries and natural resource management. Taken together, the results reaffirm the benefits of including the human dimensions in fisheries management regimes. For the Marlborough Sounds recreational blue cod fishery, a shift away from the current, top-down and biologically focused management regime is suggested. I also argue that a more inclusive management strategy may be the best chance for success and allow the fishery to be saved for future generations; a goal shared by both fishers and management.

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  • "Church state relations in New Zealand 1940-1990, with particular reference to the Presbyterian and Methodist churches"

    Evans, John Adsett (1992)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 179, [10] leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Theology

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  • Spirituality in New Zealand hospice care

    Egan, Richard Michael Martin (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 362 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "July 2009". University of Otago department: General Practice

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  • An axial system of tonality applied to progressive tonality in the works of Gustav Mahler and nineteenth-century antecedents

    Downes, Graeme (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 308 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Music.

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