12,112 results for Doctoral

  • The epidemiology and control of cervical cancer

    Cox, Brian (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 405 leaves :ill. ; 31 cm. Bibliography: leaves 348-376.

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  • Foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) during lactation: new insights from dietary biomarkers

    Lenky, Crystal (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Despite extensive studies on Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in McMurdo Sound since the 1960s, uncertainty still remains regarding female foraging habits during the lactation period. Based on their large body mass at the start of lactation and large relative mass loss at the end, the current hypothesis is that Weddell seals fast or feed to a neglible extent during lactation. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested to date, as evidence for foraging is indirect and is based primarily on dive behaviour. The work presented in this thesis describes the development of a new dietary method, the biomarker method, and its application for studying the foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals during lactation. Biomarkers were used to (1) monitor the onset of feeding in individual animals, and (2) determine what prey females were feeding on using characteristic/taxon-specific biomarker patterns. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays were developed to detect and quantify dietary biomarkers in biological samples, mainly tissues, serum and plasma. Trimethylamine N-oxide, arsenobetaine, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, homarine and glycine betaine were first measured in thirty-three prey and potential prey species of Weddell seals collected from the Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound regions of Antarctica. These same compounds were then measured in the plasma of twelve female Weddell seals over the lactation period at the Hutton Cliffs seal colony, McMurdo Sound in 2006. Time-depth recorders monitored seal dive activity over the same period. The data obtained from both NMR and LC-MS/MS assays showed that biomarkers in Antarctic species varied both in content and concentration. The compound homarine, which occurs primarily in cephalopods, is suitable for distinguishing between major food groups of known prey of Weddell seals (i.e., fishes versus cephalopods). DMSP, a compound that occurs primarily in fish common in McMurdo Sound (e.g., Trematomus bernacchii and Pagothenia borchgrevinki) but not in significant amounts in Dissostichus mawsoni or Pleuragramma antarcticum, two main prey items for Weddell seals, may also be a suitable biomarker for distinguishing between major and minor prey types. The detection of plasma TMAO, AsB and homarine indicated that 75% of Weddell seals studied fed during lactation. The presence of these three compounds indicates the seals were preying upon a combination of fish and cephalopods. Two lactating females started foraging as early as 9 to 12 days postpartum and elevated biomarker levels were concurrent with increased dive activity. The onset of foraging and dive behaviour amongst individuals was highly variable; however, the results suggests that the number of females who feed during lactation may be more prevalent and initiated at an earlier stage than previously thought. This may have implications for future reproductive success given effects of climate change on sea ice abundance and resource availability. Overall, the work presented in this thesis provides new insights into the foraging behaviour of female Weddell seals during lactation and has added to the current knowledge of the biomarker distribution within the Antarctic ecosystem.

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  • Democratic Vanguardism: Modernity, Intervention and the making of the Bush Doctrine

    Harland, Michael Ian (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the way in which Americans and their leaders viewed the world. The tragic events of that day helped give rise to a foreign policy strategy commonly referred to as the “Bush Doctrine.” At the heart of this doctrine lay a series of propositions about the need to foster liberal democracy as the antidote to terrorism. President George W. Bush proclaimed in a variety of addresses that democracy now represented the “single surviving model” of political life to which all people aspired. In the course of making this argument, President Bush seemed to relate his policies to an overarching “teleology” of progress. This discourse implied that the United States might use force to hasten the emergence of liberal norms and institutions in selected states. With a sense of irony, some commentators soon referred to the Bush administration’s position as “Leninist” because of its determination to bring about the so-called “end of history” today. Yet, surprisingly, these critics had little more to add. This thesis is an attempt to assess in greater depth the Bush administration’s claim to comprehend historical eschatology. Developing a concept termed “democratic vanguardism,” this study investigates the idea of liberal modernity, the role of the United States as a force for democracy, and the implications of using military intervention in the service of idealistic ends. It examines disputes among political theorists, public intellectuals and elected statesmen which help to enrich our understanding of the United States’ efforts under President Bush at bending history to its will.

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  • Farm women : diverse encounters with discourse and agency

    Peoples, Susan J (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis contributes to the established literature on farm women within the context of family farming. It recognises that not enough is yet known about the discourses and agency which influence their lives. Consequently, this study has sought to establish what dominant discourses shape the lives of farm women, their responses to these discourses and how their discursive positioning influences their agency. This study employed a qualitative case study approach involving interviews with a diverse mixture of independent farm women, along with women farming in marital relationships. This thesis engages these narratives to showcase the colourful, complex life-experiences of farm women. In addition, and where present, women's partners were interviewed to provide male farmers' perspectives about women in family farming. This research has found that women's lives are shaped by positioning and contextualising discourses, with which they comply to ensure that the family farm survives. Their subservient discursive positioning limits the agency they can express, although they are able to mobilise indirect agency through supporting their partner; an implicit form of agency which has previously been unrecognised or understated. Cumulatively, this thesis highlights the need to recognise the diversity of farm women, and how they are able to exercise agency from their constrained subject positions within the family farming context. Furthermore it emphasises that agency is a dynamic, and far more varied concept than previously understood.

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  • Genetic patterning at Austronesian contact zones

    Cox, Murray Paul (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, [2], 277 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department : Biochemistry. "26 June 2003"

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  • Non-probative Photos Promote the Truth of Positive Claims

    Cardwell, Brittany A. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    People’s judgments are prone to the influence of feelings, even cognitive feelings such as the ease with which related information comes to mind (Alter & Oppenheimer, 2009; Schwarz & Clore, 2007). In 14 experiments, we¹ found evidence that non-probative photos — ones that relate to what people are evaluating, but that provide no relevant information for their task — produce cognitive feelings that lead people to evaluate claims more positively. In Part 1, we examined the extent to which photos promote the truth of positive and negative claims. People saw the names of several fictitious wines. Some wine names appeared with a photo that depicted the noun in the name; other wine names appeared without a photo. For each wine people decided whether a positive or a negative claim about it was true. Photos selectively promoted the truth of positive claims, did so most when they could help people comprehend wine names, and swayed people’s judgments about the taste of wines. In Part 2, we showed that those findings translated to when people judged claims about their own (and other people’s) experiences. People “interacted” with several unfamiliar animals (on a computer). Later, people saw the animal names again, sometimes with a photo of the animal and sometimes alone, and decided whether it was true that they (or other people) had positive or negative experiences with the animals. Photos selectively led people to think positive claims were true, and exerted their strongest effects when they could most help people bring related thoughts and images to mind². ¹ Although the research in this thesis is my own, I conducted it in a lab and supervised a team comprised of research assistants and honors students. I also received advice and direction from my supervisors. Therefore, I often use the word “we” in this thesis to reflect that fact. As you will also see, I use the word “we” in a different context to refer to what is known (or not known) in the wider scientific community. ² Portions of this thesis were adapted from: Cardwell, Newman, Garry, Mantonakis, & Beckett (manuscript under review). Photos that increase feelings of learning promote positive evaluations. Cardwell, Henkel, & Garry (manuscript in preparation). Non-probative photos lead people to believe positive claims about their recent pasts. But I have expanded on the introduction, results and discussion.

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  • Pay-for-performance in primary health care: A comparative study of health policymaking in England and New Zealand

    Smith, Verna May (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    England and New Zealand introduced pay-for-performance schemes in their primary health care systems, with incentives for general practitioners to achieve improved population-based health outcomes, between 2001 and 2007. These schemes were part of health reforms to change the relationship between the state and the medical profession, giving the state increased influence over the quality and allocation of publicly funded health care. Two schemes of differing size, scope and impact were implemented. This research takes a comparative approach to exploring each policymaking process, utilising quasi-natural experimental conditions in these two Westminster governing systems to test the relevance of Kingdon’s multi-theoretic Multiple Streams Framework and other theoretical approaches to explain policy variation and change. The research documented and analysed the agenda-setting, alternative selection and implementation phases in the two policymaking processes and identified the key drivers of policymaking in each case study. A qualitative methodology, based upon documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with 26 decision-makers, leaders and participants, was used to develop the two case studies, providing rich descriptive details and rare insights into closed policymaking approaches as seen by the participants. From this case study evidence, themes were drawn out and reviewed for consistency with Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework as it has been interpreted and adapted by Zahariadis. The case study evidence and themes were considered in a framework of comparative analysis where patterns of similarity and difference were established. The utility of Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework in interpreting the case study evidence was assessed. This analysis demonstrated that Kingdon’s Framework, as interpreted by Zahariadis, had high descriptive power for both case studies but failed to predict the patterns of non-incremental change observed or the importance of institutional factors such as ownership and governance arrangements for public services, interest group structure and historical antecedents seen in the two policymaking processes. The research finds that the use of bargaining in England and not in New Zealand is the reason for major differences in speed, scope and outcomes of the two pay-for-performance schemes. Institutional structures in the general practice sub-system are therefore the primary driver of policy change and variation. These acted as enablers of non-incremental change in the English case study, providing incentives for actors individually and collectively to design and rapidly to implement a large-scale pay-for-performance scheme. The institutional features of the general practice sub-system in New Zealand acted as a constraint to the development of a large-scale scheme although non-incremental change was achieved. Phased approaches to implementation in New Zealand were necessary and slowed the delivery of outcomes from the scheme. With respect to other drivers of policy change and variation, the role of individual actors as policy and institutional entrepreneurs was important in facilitating policy design in each country, with different types of entrepreneurs with different skills being observed at different stages of the process. These entrepreneurs were appointed and working within the bureaucracy to the direction of decision-makers in both countries. England and New Zealand shared ideas about the benefits of New Public Management approaches to public policymaking, including support for pay-for-performance approaches, and there was a shared positive socio-economic climate for increased investment in health services. The research provides evidence that Westminster governing systems are capable of purposeful and orderly non-incremental health policy change and that Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework, which theorises policy formation in conditions of ambiguity, needs to be enhanced to improve its relevance for such jurisdictions. Recommendations for its enhancement are made.

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  • Relations between Modern Mathematics and Poetry: Czesław Miłosz; Zbigniew Herbert; Ion Barbu/Dan Barbilian

    Kempthorne, Loveday Jane Anastasia (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This doctoral thesis is an examination of the relationship between poetry and mathematics, centred on three twentieth-century case studies: the Polish poets Czesław Miłosz (1911-2004) and Zbigniew Herbert (1924-1998), and the Romanian mathematician and poet Dan Barbilian/Ion Barbu (1895-1961). Part One of the thesis is a review of current scholarly literature, divided into two chapters. The first chapter looks at the nature of mathematics, outlining its historical developments and describing some major mathematical concepts as they pertain to the later case studies. This entails a focus on non-Euclidean geometries, modern algebra, and the foundations of mathematics in Europe; the nature of mathematical truth and language; and the modern historical evolution of mathematical schools in Poland and Romania. The second chapter examines some existing attempts to bring together mathematics and poetry, drawing on literature and science as an academic field; the role of the imagination and invention in the languages of both poetics and mathematics; the interest in mathematics among certain Symbolist poets, notably Mallarmé; and the experimental work of the French groups of mathematicians and mathematician-poets, Bourbaki and Oulipo. The role of metaphor is examined in particular. Part Two of the thesis is the case studies. The first presents the ethical and moral stance of Czesław Miłosz, investigating his attitudes towards classical and later relativistic science, in the light of the Nazi occupation and the Marxist regimes in Poland, and how these are reflected in his poetry. The study of Zbigniew Herbert is structured around a wide selection of his poetic oeuvre, and identifying his treatment of evolving and increasingly more complex mathematical concepts. The third case study, on Dan Barbilian, who published his poetry under the name Ion Barbu, begins with an examination of the mathematical school at Göttingen in the 1920s, tracing the influence of Gauss, Riemann, Klein, Hilbert and Noether in Barbilian’s own mathematical work, particularly in the areas of metric spaces and axiomatic geometry. In the discussion, the critical analysis of the mathematician and linguist Solomon Marcus is examined. This study finishes with a close reading of seven of Barbu’s poems. The relationship of mathematics and poetry has rarely been studied as a coherent academic field, and the relevant scholarship is often disconnected. A feature of this thesis is that it brings together a wide range of scholarly literature and discussion. Although primarily in English, a considerable amount of the academic literature collated here is in French, Romanian, Polish and some German. The poems themselves are presented in the original Polish and Romanian with both published and working translations appended in the footnotes. In the case of the two Polish poets, one a Nobel laureate and the other a multiple prize-winning figure highly regarded in Poland, this thesis is unusual in its concentration on mathematics as a feature of the poetry which is otherwise much-admired for its politically-engaged and lyrical qualities. In the case of the Romanian, Dan Barbilian, he is widely known in Romania as a mathematician, and most particularly as the published poet Ion Barbu, yet his work is little studied outside that country, and indeed much of it is not yet translated into English. This thesis suggests at an array of both theoretical and specific starting points for examining the multi-stranded and intricate relationship between mathematics and poetry, pointing to a number of continuing avenues of further research.

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  • Realising Value: Study-Related Support-Seeking Experiences

    Supramaniam, Sivakumari (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The idea of ‘exchange’ in Service Dominant Logic’s (S-D logic) Foundational Premise (FP) 1 (service is ‘exchanged’ for service) has retained the residual transactional concept from Goods Dominant Logic (G-D logic) as the basis of understanding of service in S-D logic. This has limited the processual understanding in S-D logic; in particular, the need to understand value as a process rather than an output. This study meets that need in presenting a holistic understanding of the individual’s valuing process for S-D logic. An interdisciplinary search of literature beyond the discipline of marketing on the term ‘valuing’ was conducted in the fields of psychology, education, and systems thinking. This study investigates how students with disabilities realise value through study-related support-seeking experiences. Sixteen students with disabilities, who were enrolled in higher educational services in New Zealand, participated in this study. A phenomenographic approach was applied to understand the variations in ways that students with disabilities experienced and understood the support-seeking phenomenon. The variations and similarities in meanings were abstracted as categories of description. Four categories of description of Knowing, Understanding, Judging, and Acting represented participants’ conceptions of experiencing the support-seeking phenomenon. Each category of description outlined both the variations in meanings and the structural aspects of experiencing the phenomenon. The four categories of description were logically displayed in an outcome space - a hermeneutical spiral - to portray the different ways of experiencing the support-seeking phenomenon. The hermeneutic spiral provides a holistic understanding of the valuing process for S-D logic’s view of service as a process. Hence, value is not a perceptual state at an endpoint of time, rather it is a here-and-now snapshot ‘taking stock’ in a dynamic process. The second contribution this study makes to S-D logic relates to the processual understanding of value. In the process of valuing, the participants were experiencing and understanding the support-seeking phenomenon in relation to their mental acts, or structural awareness, at a moment of time. Thus, participants appreciate, and act upon their thoughts. This builds on the S-D logic’s Foundational Premise (FP) 10 that the beneficiary always uniquely and phenomenologically determines value. Specifically, the second contribution of this research relates directly to the insights revealed by the phenomenography method into variations in participants’ experiences of support-seeking. The research provides sound empirical support for valuing as a dynamic process, which extends the FP10 notion of value as a static valuation at a particular point in time. Along with the S-D logic contributions, this study contributes phenomenography as a research method that is little known in marketing. This method has the potential to understand the variations of individuals’ realities as experienced. The practical implication of this study adds to knowledge of support-seeking behaviour as an avenue for businesses to engage in people’s appreciation and be of service to them.

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  • Analysing and Enhancing the Coarse Registration Pipeline

    Larkins, Robert L. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The current and continual development of sensors and imaging systems capable of acquiring three-dimensional data provides a novel form in which the world can be expressed and examined. The acquisition process, however, is often limited by imaging systems only being able to view a portion of a scene or object from a single pose at a given time. A full representation can still be produced by shifting the system and registering subsequent acquisitions together. While many solutions to the registration problem have been proposed, there is no quintessential approach appropriate for all situations. This dissertation aims to coarsely register range images or point-clouds of a priori unknown pose by matching their overlapping regions. Using spherical harmonics to correlate normals in a coarse registration pipeline has been shown previously to be an effective means for registering partially overlapping point-clouds. The advantage of normals is their translation invariance, which permits the rotation and translation to be decoupled and determined separately. Examining each step of this pipeline in depth allows its registration capability to be quantified and identifies aspects which can be enhanced to further improve registration performance. The pipeline consists of three primary steps: identifying the rotation using spherical harmonics, identifying the translation in the Fourier domain, and automatically verifying if alignment is correct. Having achieved coarse registration, a fine registration algorithm can be used to refine and complete the alignment. Major contributions to knowledge are provided by this dissertation at each step of the pipeline. Point-clouds with known ground-truth are used to examine the pipeline's capability, allowing its limitations to be determined; an analysis which has not been performed previously. This examination allowed modifications to individual components to be introduced and measured, establishing their provided benefit. The rotation step received the greatest attention as it is the primary weakness of the pipeline, especially as the nature of the overlap between point-clouds is unknown. Examining three schemes for binning normals found that equiangular binning, when appropriately normalised, only had a marginal decrease in accuracy with respect to the icosahedron and the introduced Fibonacci schemes. Overall, equiangular binning was the most appropriate due to its natural affinity for fast spherical-harmonic conversion. Weighting normals was found to provide the greatest benefit to registration performance. The introduction of a straightforward method of combining two different weighting schemes using the orthogonality of complex values increased correct alignments by approximately 80% with respect to the next best scheme; additionally, point-cloud pairs with overlap as low as 5% were able to be brought into correct alignment. Transform transitivity, one of two introduced verification strategies, correctly classified almost 100% of point-cloud pair registrations when there are sufficient correct alignments. The enhancements made to the coarse registration pipeline throughout this dissertation provide significant improvements to its performance. The result is a pipeline with state-of-the-art capabilities that allow it to register point-cloud with minimal overlap and correct for alignments that are classified as misaligned. Even with its exceptional performance, it is unlikely that this pipeline has yet reached its pinnacle, as the introduced enhancements have the potential for further development.

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  • Understanding processes affecting the local- and global-scale distribution of semi-volatile organic contaminants

    Davie-Martin, Cleo Lisa (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Semi-volatile organic contaminants (SOCs), such as certain pesticides and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are distributed throughout the globe via local-scale and global-scale processes that are largely driven by temperature gradients. Given the potential for these contaminants to deposit into a variety of non-target, sensitive ecosystems where they can bioaccumulate and exert their toxic effects, it is essential that efforts are made to understand the processes and properties controlling their distribution so that more accurate predictions of their fate and behaviour can be made in the future. Pesticide volatilisation and vapour drift are local-scale distribution processes that can have adverse effects on non-target ecosystems and human health. Four approaches to screen for pesticide volatilisation based on Fick’s Law of Diffusion were investigated. In each approach, vapour pressures or environmentally relevant partition coefficients were used to describe pesticide distribution in a bare agricultural soil system and to predict 24-h cumulative percentage volatilisation (CPV24h) losses. The multiphase partitioning approach based on soil-air (Ksoil-air) and water-air (Kwater-air) partition coefficients was found to most accurately predict measured volatilisation losses of pesticides reported in the literature. Predicted CPV24h losses were displayed on chemical space diagrams for sets of hypothetical Ksoil-air and Kwater-air combinations under different temperatures, relative humidity levels, and soil organic carbon contents. Using this visual screening technique, the pesticides and conditions under which the greatest volatilisation losses exist were easily identified. Many environmental fate models use environmentally relevant partition coefficients to investigate the fate and distribution of SOCs in the environment. However, measured partition coefficient values are often unavailable in the literature and are instead estimated. In this study, a solid-phase fugacity meter was developed and validated to investigate the soil-air partitioning of pesticides. Ksoil-air values of selected current- and historic-use pesticides and degradation products were measured for two soils under different temperature and relative humidity combinations. Measurements were used to derive a predictive equation for pesticide Ksoil-air values based on temperature, relative humidity, the soil organic carbon content, and the pesticide-specific octanol-air partition coefficient. Global-scale distribution processes, such as long-range atmospheric transport, result in the migration of SOCs towards the poles and deposition in remote environments far from where they are used or produced. High-volume air and water samplers were used to measure concentrations of BFRs, including a set of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), in the air and lake water at Toolik Lake, Arctic Alaska during the Northern Hemisphere summer of 2013. The BDE congeners associated with the penta-BDE commercial mixture (BDE-47, -99, and -100) were most frequently detected in air and at concentrations consistent with the ranges reported for other Arctic sites. Correlations with temperature suggest that volatilisation from local sources or re-emission from secondary sources were important for the lower-brominated BFRs during warmer periods, whereas cooler temperatures caused a shift in gas-particle distributions that favoured association with atmospheric particles. In lake water, only the high-brominated BFRs were detected in association with suspended particles.

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  • Open population capture-recapture models and diabetes in Otago

    Cameron, Claire (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 207 leaves :ill., ; 30 cm Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Mathematics and Statistics

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  • Aspects of the population biology and ecology of the New Zealand cancer crab, Cancer novaezelandiae (Jacquinot, 1853) :

    Chatterton, Thomas David (1990)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    190 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Zoology

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  • The transformation of Alexander's court : the kingship, royal insignia and eastern court personnel of Alexander the Great

    Collins, Andrew William (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 272 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Classics.

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  • Microstructural evolution under non-steady state deformation in mid-crustal ductile shear zones

    Cross, Andrew James (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Ductile shear zones localise tectonic stresses and accommodate plate motions in the middle to lower crust and mantle, and control the strength of much of the Earth. Despite a common assumption that ductile shear zones deform under nominally steady-state conditions, changes in stress and strain rate are anticipated during shear zone formation and localisation, and in mid-crustal shear zones which are periodically loaded from above by earthquakes. Here, the microstructural response to changes in stress and strain rate is explored with particular emphasis on the evolution of grain size, crystallographic fabric and dominant deformation mechanism. A broad range of techniques have been applied, including electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry, numerical modelling of grain size evolution and Griggs apparatus experimentation. For context, quartzofeldspathic mylonites of the Alpine Fault zone (AFZ) of New Zealand have been studied and are used to relate numerical and laboratory studies to nature. During shear around rigid garnet porphyroclasts, quartz in the AFZ mylonites undergoes grain size reduction by dynamic recrystallisation in response to increasing stresses and strain rates adjacent to a porphyroclast. Meanwhile, quartz [c]-axes reveal increasing amounts of slip on rhomb and prism planes. These results are replicated in the laboratory by shear of quartz around alumina piston asperities, during which prismslip becomes dominant and resistant to subsequent replacement as stresses reduce. Recrystallised quartz grain sizes in the AFZ mylonites are consistent with differential stresses of ~50 MPa, which are well replicated by finite element models using quartz rheological data. Quartz deformation in the AFZ mylonites ceased at around 500_C, as recorded by the preservation of grain boundary migration microstructures and titanium-in-quartz concentrations, which appear well equilibrated due to rapid grain boundary migration during deformation. Rates of grain size increase downshear of garnet porphyroclasts far exceed laboratory-measured rates of static annealing. This discrepancy probably reflects the additional contribution of internal strain-energy driven grain boundary migration to surface-energy driven grain growth, enhancing grain growth rates in favourably oriented grains at the expense and ‘elimination’ of unfavourably oriented grains. In experiments simulating rapid strain rate changes analogous to mid-crustal seismic stress cycling, plagioclase aggregates undergo rapid dynamic recrystallisation during a strain rate increase, and are remain weakened long after strain rates and stresses return to ambient levels. The longevity and degree of mechanical weakening depend on the rate of grain growth to re-establish steady-state conditions, and the dominant deformation mechanism. If dislocation creep is dominant throughout a strain rate perturbation, no mechanical weakening is observed. However, if grain size sensitive processes of diffusion creep and grain boundary sliding dominate, mechanical weakening is achieved. Grain size reduction in response to a stress increase is inferred to cause weakening of a crystallographic fabric through enhanced grain boundary sliding, though fabric weakening appears slow. In numerical models of grain growth during a postseismic stress and strain rate drop, rapid rates of grain growth are required to re-establish microstructural steady-state conditions on timescales equivalent to typical earthquake recurrence intervals. Despite this, dynamic grain growth rates calculated for natural AFZ quartz are sufficiently rapid to allow at least a partial return to steady-state during a typical 300-year AFZ interseismic period.

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  • Let the "Dirty" Women Speak: The Agency and Divergent Aspirations of Devadasis and Development Interventions in Karnataka, India

    Aaron, Nicole (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In this dissertation, I examine the relationships between development organisations and religious beneficiaries through an ethnographic exploration of devadasi women in rural North Karnataka, India. Contemporary devadasis are both religious and poor. As Hindu, Dalit women, they are dedicated to the goddess Yellamma by their mothers, and practice sex work to support themselves economically. Their histories are bound up in colonial interventions and reform movements, but their pre-colonial histories are largely unknown. The early twentieth-century saw a rise in debates around the “woman question”, largely centred on “respectability” and “morality”, which had significant consequences for devadasis, who were slowly forced out of the temples, where they are said to have once acted as priestesses. The process of this transition out of the temples is unclear, but today’s devadasis are seen by NGOs and reformers to be nothing more than prostitutes—understood to be “dirty” women lacking respect. Since 1982, the devadasi practice has been criminalised in Karnataka, and the government has implemented reform and rehabilitation schemes purportedly to help the women out of sex work. Additionally, the rise in HIV/AIDS amongst the group has led to an increase in development interventions, seeking to mitigate both HIV/AIDS and poverty. Through the influence of these reform and development interventions, I argue that the devadasi practice is changing, and the women’s identities are changing. Utilising life stories of devadasis, interviews with staff of development organisations, focus groups between the two, and participant observation over the course of twelve months, this thesis seeks to reveal how devadasi women use their new identities to negotiate poverty with the organisations trying to help them. I argue that, while these new identities have previously been portrayed negatively, we may detect the agency of devadasis in the various narratives they use to get what they need from these organisations. Moreover, while these organisations advance their own religious beliefs onto the devadasis, the religious importance of the devadasi practice continues to be seen as irrelevant and/or superstitious. The findings from this research indicate that development organisations are patronising towards devadasis and uninterested in listening to them. Consequently, I demonstrate that divergent aspirations emerge between development interventions and what devadasis express as their needs, which prevents interventions from being effective in this context. Development organisations do not tend to consider devadasi paddhati (tradition) in development interventions. This research contributes to existing scholarship in religion and development, through an analysis of the divergent aspirations that exist between religious beneficiaries and development interventions. Using postfeminist theory, I explore alternative conceptions of agency, which recognise the difference that exists between devadasis and their desires. I also examine how postdevelopment theory provides a space for understanding the place of religion in development and focuses on agency and subjectivity as priorities when carrying out development interventions. In doing so, I employ a method of “speaking with” (Nagar and Geiger 2007) devadasis to argue that devadasis display agency through speech, where they are able to negotiate poverty. Depending on their particular needs and their assessment of their most beneficial course of action, they will choose either to express their exploitation or to boast of their empowerment.

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  • An investigation of droplet evaporation characteristics in an ultrasound environment

    Protheroe, Michael Desmond

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study investigates and quantifies the effect of an imposed ultrasound field on the evaporation of water droplets in, for example, humidifiers used in medical respiratory treatments. The purpose of the ultrasound field is to accelerate the droplet evaporation process. This would have benefits in terms of improved efficiencies, more compact equipment sizes and better process controllability. A preliminary investigation was carried out to identify the most promising mechanisms for the effect of the imposed ultrasound field on the evaporating droplets – this being the enhancement of the normal mass and heat transfer processes involved. From this, theoretical models of normal and ultrasound enhanced droplet evaporation were developed to predict the rates of water evaporation and also changes to the droplet size distribution during evaporation. An experimental investigation was carried out to measure water droplet evaporation rates and changes to the droplet size distribution under normal and ultrasound enhanced conditions. It was found that the ultrasound field improved droplet evaporation rates in all cases tested, even at very low power levels. Improvements varied from 1 – 30%. An increase in the strength of the ultrasound field increased the improvement in evaporation rate. However, air flow above a certain threshold diminished this improvement by disrupting the ultrasound field. Investigation of the changes to the droplet size distribution indicated that at high ultrasound power levels and low air flow rates a significant amount of droplet coalescence occurred which caused the droplet distribution for the remaining droplets to shift to much larger droplet sizes. Results from theoretical models compared well to the experimental results for most experimental conditions. Differences between model and experiment occurred for the very small droplet sizes and where the effect of the ultrasound field caused maximum droplet coalescence and heating of the air and these areas warrant further future investigation. It was concluded that the ultrasound enhancement of water droplet evaporation does occur by enhancing the heat and mass transfer processes involved, that improvements in evaporation rate up to 30% could be achieved and that this could be applied to medical respiratory equipment to improve its operation and efficiency.

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  • Participation, urbanism and power

    Bond, Sophie (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiii, 312 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "July 2007". University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • An examination of East Polynesian population history

    Chapman, Patrick Maurice (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 252 p. :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "March 1998." University of Otago department: Anthropology.

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  • Teachers and dance in the classroom : So, do I need my tutu?

    Buck, Ralph (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    [x], 350 leaves :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. "21 July 2003"

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