12,847 results for Doctoral

  • Agricultural vulnerability to tephra fall impacts.

    Craig, Heather M. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Understanding agricultural impact from tephra hazards and their causal mechanisms is vital when developing mitigation and recovery strategies. It is well documented that tephra can impact agricultural systems. However, forecasting likely impacts has been challenging and focused on creating generalised models where impacts typically increase with tephra thickness or loading. Lack of quantitative data and insufficient sample sizes of impact assessment studies restrict potential analysis. However, previous studies have identified that impacts will be governed by the complex interaction of tephra characteristics (thickness/loading, grain size, leachates), exposed farm characteristics (farm size/type, pre-existing conditions), climate, time of year and existing risk management. Post-eruption impact assessments (Post-EIA) have been used to retrospectively investigate tephra impacts to agriculture, including exploring how tephra and vulnerability characteristics of exposed farms interact. In this study, Post-EIA are used to investigate impacts to agricultural land from three silicic eruptions (2011 Cordón Caulle, 2008 Chaitén, and 1991 Hudson) in Patagonia. Analysis of 49 impacted farms suggests that the characteristics of tephra fall are important, but that the vulnerability characteristics of the farms have a stronger influence on impact. Findings show appropriate recovery strategies employed by farmers are crucial for reducing losses. This analysis is used to: 1) develop an improved understanding of the factors that influence agricultural impacts from tephra fall; 2) design standardised impact assessment guidelines and databases; and 3) develop improved tephra fall risk assessment methodologies fragility functions that include different agricultural vulnerabilities due to farm type, intensity, seasonality, and leachable fluoride. These initiatives aim to build predicative capacity and ultimately aid disaster risk reduction strategies.

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  • Surface meteorology and tropospheric cloud near Ross Island in Antarctica.

    Jolly, Ben (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis presents a series of studies into cloud and surface weather conditions present near Ross Island in Antarctica to investigate local-scale meteorology in the area and explore connections with larger scale atmospheric processes. Technical work on the development of specialist, low-cost, portable weather stations (SNOWWEB) is described with results and corresponding analyses from two successful field seasons presented. Covering the Austral summers of 2013/14 and 2014/15, both deployments utilized 15 to 20 weather stations over areas in the order of hundreds of square kilometers. A third-party classification product derived from surface-level winds in ERAInterim is used to provide synoptic context for these deployments and link results to an analysis of the combined radar (CloudSat) and lidar (CALIPSO) cloud product over the Ross Ice Shelf and southern Ross Sea. Located at the north-western corner of the Ross Ice Shelf - due south of New Zealand - the topography around Ross Island is complex and substantial. This creates associated complex interactions with air flow in the region, particularly near the surface, as winds flowing north over the large and featureless ice shelf encounter the terrain. A large-scale network of automated weather stations (AWS) exists over the greater Ross Ice Shelf area with good coverage for mesoscale studies, however logistical constraints limit the number that can be deployed and maintained with a paucity of observations at the local scale. SNOWWEB is a system of low-cost weather stations easy to transport and very quick to deploy designed to augment existing AWS observations. Substantial technical development of SNOWWEB occurred during the course of this thesis, with improvements to physical design and wireless networking capabilities presented. SNOWWEB observations were found to match well with those from nearby existing AWS during two summer season deployments near Ross Island, with results from the network as a whole showing coherent spatial structure in wind, temperature, and pressure fields. One SNOWWEB deployment covered the northern and western edges of White Island immediately south-east of Ross Island. Observations showed the interaction of a Ross Ice Shelf airstream (RAS) southerly storm event with the complex terrain of the deployment area, including a resulting small but intense gap wind. There was also a substantial dampening effect on the diurnal temperature cycle over the SNOWWEB network during the RAS that was not observed on the ice shelf. These observations were used for a case study validation of the Antarctic Mesoscale PredicOne SNOWWEB deployment covered the northern and western edges of White Island immediately south-east of Ross Island. Observations showed the interaction of a Ross Ice Shelf airstream (RAS) southerly storm event with the complex terrain of the deployment area, including a resulting small but intense gap wind. There was also a substantial dampening effect on the diurnal temperature cycle over the SNOWWEB network during the RAS that was not observed on the ice shelf. These observations were used for a case study validation of the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS). While AMPS forecast the larger scale winds and temperature well, it did not predict the gap wind or the suppression of the diurnal cycle. A subsequent SNOWWEB deployment to the east of Ross and White islands over the Ross Ice Shelf for a longer duration allowed a more in-depth validation of AMPS conducted using selforganizing maps (SOMs). A combined SNOWWEB/AMPS dataset was created to train a single SOM which then classified each dataset independently, allowing a direct comparison between the classification time-series. AMPS was found to perform well during high wind periods, however problems arose during low wind periods when synoptic forcing was weak. AMPS was able to forecast the periods themselves well, but the actual wind speeds correlated very poorly at the local scale near complex terrain. Model grid length and initialization data were likely contributors given the scale and complexity of the area, though model grid length probably played a role as well. Known problems with cloud modeling and associated effects on the radiation budget would also have had an increased effect. The spatial density of SNOWWEB stations was extremely helpful when validating high resolution output from AMPS. Finally, observations from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites were used to quantify cloud incidence over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea using a series of existing synoptic weather regimes (Coggins regimes) also used during earlier SNOWWEB analyses. Cloud appeared to be sensitive to moisture transport, with higher incidence during summer and autumn when sea ice extent is lower and open ocean closer to the study area. The western Ross Ice Shelf had the lowest cloud incidence, though a persistent cloud signature was found along the Transantarctic Mountains. Weather regimes associated with high surface wind speeds and intense synoptic forcing produced more cloud over the ice shelf with a link to the RAS, however periods of minimal forcing still resulted in substantial amounts of cloud at low altitudes. A link was also found between the RAS and low-level cloud over the Ross Sea during winter, likely a result of interactions with the Ross Ice Shelf Polynya.

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  • Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history reconstructed from palynology of marine cores off southwestern New Zealand

    Ryan, Matthew Thomas (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Little is known about how mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere terrestrial vegetation responded during glacial terminations and the warmer phases of the Late Quaternary, especially beyond the last glacial cycle where records are commonly fragmentary and poorly-dated. The timing, magnitude and sequence of environmental changes are investigated here for terminations (T) I, II and V and their subsequent warm interglacials of MIS 1, 5e and 11 by direct correlation of terrestrial palynomorphs (pollen and spores) and marine climate indicators in marine piston cores MD06-2990/2991 recovered from the East Tasman Sea, west of South Island, New Zealand. The climate there is strongly influenced by the prevailing mid-latitude westerly wind belt that generates significant amounts of orographic rainfall and the proximity of the ocean which moderates temperature variability. Chronological constraint for the cores is provided by δ¹⁸O stratigraphy, radiocarbon chronology and the identification of two widespread silicic tephra horizons (25.6 ka Kawakawa/Oruanui Tephra (KOT); ~345 ka Rangitawa Tephra (RtT)) sourced from the central North Island. Similar vegetation changes over the last two glacial cycles at MD06-2991 and in the adjacent nearby on land record of vegetation-climate change from Okarito Bog permit transfer of the well resolved Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) chronology to Okarito for the pre radiocarbon dated interval (~139-28 ka). Placing both sequences on a common age scale nonetheless assumes there is minimal lag between pollen production and final deposition on the seafloor. However, the timing of Late Pleistocene palynomorph events and KOT between independently dated marine and terrestrial sedimentary sequences are found in this study to be indistinguishable, which supports the direct transfer of terrestrially derived ages to the marine realm and vice versa. Vegetation change in southwestern New Zealand is of similar structure during T-I and T-II, despite different amplitudes of forcing (i.e., insolation rise, CO₂ concentrations). In a climate amelioration scenario, shrubland-grassland gave rise to dominantly podocarp-broadleaf forest taxa, with accompanying rises in mean annual air temperature (MAAT) estimated from Okarito pollen typically synchronous with nearby ocean temperatures. The T-II amelioration commenced after ~139 ka in response to increasing boreal summer insolation intensity, with prominent ocean-atmosphere warming over the period from ~133-130 ka. In contrast, northern mid-high latitude paleoclimate records display cooling over Heinrich Stadial 11 (~135-130 ka), and are prominently warm from ~130-128 ka, while southwestern New Zealand and the adjacent ocean displays cooling. Such millennial-scale climate asynchrony between the hemispheres is most likely a result of a systematic, but non-linear re-organisation of the ocean-atmosphere circulation system in response to orbital forcing. The subsequent MIS 5e climatic optimum in Westland was between ~128-123 ka, with maximum temperatures reconstructed in the ocean and atmosphere of 2.5°C and 1.5°C higher than present. Similarities revealed between land and sea pollen records in southwestern New Zealand over the last ~160 ka offer confidence for assessing vegetation and climate for older intervals, including T-V/MIS 11, for which no adjacent terrestrial equivalents currently exist. Vegetation change over T-V is similar to T-II and T-I, with southern warming antiphased with northern mid-high latitude cooling. Tall trees and the thermophilous shrub Ascarina lucida define interglacial conditions in the study region between ~428-396 ka. East Tasman Sea surface temperatures rose in two phases; 435-426 ka (MIS 12a-MIS 11e) and 417-407 ka (MIS 11c climatic optimum), reaching at least ~1.5-2°C warmer than present over the latter. Similarly, Ascarina lucida dominance over MIS 11c is akin to that displayed during the early Holocene climatic optimum (11.5-9 ka) in west-central North Island, where MAAT average ~3°C higher today. This contrasts markedly with the dominance of the tall tree conifer Dacrydium cupressinum for the Holocene (MIS 1) and last interglacial (MIS 5e) in southwestern New Zealand. Biogeographic barriers are proposed to have inhibited the migration of species from more northerly latitudes better adapted to warmer climatic conditions over MIS 5e and MIS 11.

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  • An investigation into customer accounting in customer-focused organisations

    Bates, Ken (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Management accounting information should aid management in the design and implementation of strategy. Firms adopting a customer-focused strategy need customer accounting (CA) metrics. Yet accounting literature provides limited insights into what CA metrics are used, how they are used, or what factors influence CA measure choice or hinder more widespread adoption of CA practices. This thesis enhances knowledge of actual CA practices as they operate in firms with a customer-focused strategy and uses contingency theory to explain the choice of CA practices and their use in three exploratory case studies consisting of two national banks and a global courier company. The two strategic business units in Alphabank employ locally-developed, activity-based costing systems to produce CA information. Personal Banking incorporates a ‘customer needs met’ variable into a customer lifetime value measure used to segment customers based on potential profitability. Business Banking is smaller and currently uses historical customer profitability analysis at the individual customer level. Despite Alphabank’s overall customer-focused strategy, only product profitability is reported at executive level, and tensions between finance and operations potentially hinder more widespread CA usage. Betabank offers excellent customer service, but despite being very customer-focused they do not measure customer profitability. Executives use predominantly aggregate financial figures with a focus on net interest margin. Service excellence is paramount and Betabank do not consider financial CA useful as they do not segment customers. However, they extensively use non-financial customer related measures to monitor excellent customer service provision in order to enhance future profitability. The courier company uses activity-based costing to produce historical customer profitability analysis which reports direct margin, gross margin and earnings before interest and tax. The analysis discloses significant profitability differences between customer segments, and even between individual customers within segments where customer relationship management is employed. They do not measure full customer lifetime value but the next year’s customer profitability can be modelled using historical cost drivers. Financial CA measures drive initiatives to enhance customer profitability and/or trigger price negotiations. Non-financial CA measures are used to drive the customer-focused strategy and enhance profitability. The three cases demonstrate a considerable diversity in their usage of financial CA practices, with Betabank choosing to use no financial CA at all. Competitive intensity and the use of customer relationship management are found to be key drivers of CA usage at the individual customer level. Segmental customer profitability analysis is used when a large number of customers receive standard services at standard prices. No individual customer profitability analysis is needed for such homogenous customers as they can be efficiently managed using revenue. Non-financial CA measures were found to be widely used and hence a key contribution of this study is that in practice customer-related, non-financial performance measures are a key component of CA practices and may be extensively used to drive a customer-focused strategy. From case analysis a contingency-based framework has been develop which identifies combinations of factors with strong interrelationships and common influences on the choice and usage of CA measures. This framework provides three main groupings of contingent factors (type of competitive advantage, level of customer heterogeneity, and stage of organisational development) which together potentially have strong predictive power in relation to the nature of CA measures which benefit firms with a customer-focused strategy.

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  • Escaping the Exploitation Trap of Power-Disadvantaged Firms in Asymmetric Networks: A Study of Vietnamese Contract Manufacturing Exporters in Buyer-Driven Global Value Chains

    Nguyen, Thao Kim (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study investigates how power-disadvantaged firms in power asymmetric networks can improve their performance. Drawing on theoretical insights from the Resource-Based Theory and the Resource Dependence Theory, the proposed model suggests that when participating in power asymmetric networks, the exploitation strategy of power-disadvantaged firms affects their exploration strategy. While these two strategies are related, their influences on performance through firm competitive capability are different. Exploitation strategy negatively impacts firm competitive capability whereas exploration strategy positively impacts firm competitive capability. The model further posits that the impact of exploitation and exploration strategies on competitive capability depends on absorptive capacity of the firm. The model is tested on Vietnamese contract manufacturing exporters who participate in buyer-driven global value chains, where the exporting firms are dominated by powerful international buyers. The study employs a mixed-methods approach to test the proposed conceptual model. Survey data was collected from a sample of 154 Vietnamese contract manufacturing exporters following the drop-and-collect method. At the same time, ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants from top management teams of Vietnamese contract manufacturing exporters to seek contextual details for the enhancement and triangulation of the survey findings. The survey data were analysed using the partial least square structural equation modelling technique, whereas the interview data were examined using theoretical thematic analysis. The results broadly support the proposed model for Vietnamese contract manufacturing exporters. The findings of this study indicate that power-disadvantaged firms in power asymmetric inter-organisational networks benefit from the dual practice of exploitation and exploration strategies. The study shows that exploitation strategy motivates exploration strategy in this type of interfirm linkage. This motivation is primarily shaped by the power imbalance structure. This finding confirms the explanation for the behaviour of power-disadvantaged firms in asymmetric relationships advanced by the Resource Dependence Theory. Moreover, the study also contributes to the Resource-Based Theory by emphasising the critical role of competitive capability in explaining firm performance. Competitive capability is found to mediate the relationships between exploitation strategy, exploration strategy and firm performance. Furthermore, the links between exploration strategy and competitive capability act as serial multiple mediators transmitting the influence of exploitation strategy on performance. In addition, the influences of exploitation strategy and exploration strategy on firm competitive capability are found to be intensified by firm absorptive capacity. Thus, an alignment of exploitation strategy, exploration strategy, competitive capability, and absorptive capacity enhances the performance of contract manufacturing exporters in buyer-driven global value chains.

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  • Orisa-Shakespeare: A study of Shakespeare Adaptations Inspired by the Yoruba Tradition

    Balogun, Olalekan Is’haq (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis combines creative practice with critical analysis to intervene in the field of post-colonial Shakespeare where, for over a generation, the process of adaptation has been presented as one of the main strategies by which Shakespeare’s ambiguous legacy in successor cultures can be both confronted and manipulated. Scholars often use the term “writing back” to designate a set of adaptations which challenge the cultural capital that Shakespeare privileges. By linking Yoruba spirituality in its political and cultural terms to the wider field of the relation between Africa, African writers and theatre makers and Shakespeare, the thesis proposes a new sub-field or genre of adaptations, “Orisa-Shakespeare,” rooted in Yoruba traditions. The thesis argues that, written in Nigeria and the Yoruba global diaspora, this set of adaptations are not necessarily challenging the Shakespeare canon but addressing their own societies, thus “writing forward.” The thesis examines the cultural and political significance of this bourgeoning body of adaptations of Shakespeare through the lens of Yoruba epistemology and its aesthetic principles. The thesis is broadly divided into two parts: an exegesis of selected adaptations of Shakespeare as case studies of post-colonial works that reflect and integrate Yoruba creative and performative idioms and translate them into dramaturgy; and an original play, Emi Caesar! in which core elements of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar are transplanted into the complex, violent world of Yoruba politics of the mid-19th century, as a parable for contemporary Nigeria politics where factionalism (specifically tribal/ethnic bigotry) works against the integrity and security of the society. In the context that the thesis proposes, the present has constant recourse to the past, especially the ancestors, and engages in rituals which create ongoing, living links between human beings and the realm of the Yoruba Gods (Orisa).The outcomes are the documentation of a uniquely Yoruba theory of literary creativity, a new play based on Julius Caesar, and an original contribution to the broad field of postcolonial (Shakespeare) adaptations scholarship.

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  • Learning to Program: The Development of Knowledge in Novice Programmers

    Kasto, Nadia

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis presents a longitudinal study of novice programmers during their first year learning to program at university. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which novice programmers learn to program with an emphasis on their cognitive development processes. The intended outcome was a better understanding of the learning processes of novice programmers, which should enhance the ability of educators to teach, design courses, and assess programming. A key aspect of this research focused on cognitive development theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, Sfard and Cognitive Load and to what degree these theories could explain observations of novice programmers learning to write code. In order to observe and investigate how novice programmers integrate new programming structure, concepts or elements into their current understanding of code it is necessary to be able to measure how difficult writing tasks are. Thus, the first aim of this research was to develop a task difficulty framework, which consisted of a new empirically verified software metric (code structure and readability) and a SOLO classification (task complexity) for code writing tasks. This framework was then used to design nineteen code writing tasks which were of increasing difficulty and complexity so as to trigger situations that required some form of knowledge adaptation or acquisition. Over one academic year, students were observed attempting to solve these programming tasks using a think aloud protocol and were interviewed retrospectively using a stimulated recall method. These observations were then linked to the cognitive theories in a way that provides an explanation of how programming was learned by these students. The results of this research indicate that both cognitive and sociocultural approaches are important in the development of knowledge of novice programmers. Of the theories examined two were found to be the most useful. The first is Vygotsky’s notions of the Zone of Proximal Development, the role of more knowledgeable others, and recent ideas about scaffolding. The second is Sfard’s theory of concept development that contributes to a deeper understanding of the way novice programmers’ develop patterns and reuse them in solving another programming task. The evidence about learning obtained during this study provides strong support for a change in the size and organization of the classes in which novice programmers are typically taught and in the teaching methods used.

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  • Cross-Boundary Information Sharing By Knowledge Brokers During A Disaster

    Md Ali, A Fahimi (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis explores and investigates the process of cross-boundary information sharing by knowledge brokers (KB) during a disaster using lenses of knowledge management and naturalistic decision making. The study integrated interpretivist and positivist stances, conducted using qualitative methods. It used a multiple case embedded research design and in-depth face-to-face interviews as the method of inquiry and an inductive process of theory generation. The cases were in the context of disasters that occurred in New Zealand. The unit of analysis was the scenarios that KB experienced during disasters. Based on a four stage analysis of the data, there were two phases that KB went through in assessing the veracity of the information they received and deciding to whom the information is relevant. In each phase, KB were relying on different cognitive resources to filter and to match the information. It was also found that there were different types of boundary, information and disasters. Interestingly, it was found that KB used different tactics to make the decision on the information’s veracity and to whom it is relevant. The primary contribution of this thesis is the generation and explanation of the theoretical model of cross-boundary information sharing by KB during a disaster. This theory can also be used by practitioners as a guide to improve disaster management training and for the community to prepare stronger resilience plans.

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  • Funding Populations and Paying Providers: The Role of Financial Risk in the New Zealand Primary Health Care Strategy

    Howell, Bronwyn Elizabeth (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines how funding changes in the New Zealand Primary Health Care Strategy (NZPHCS), introduced in 2002, altered the magnitude, locus and management of financial risk in the New Zealand primary health care sector, and the consequences for cost, equity and care delivery objectives. A simplified model of a primary health care system is developed to explore how the funding changes influenced, and were influenced by, existing institutions and arrangements in the New Zealand sector. Drawing on industrial organisation, transaction cost economics, health economics and health care policy literatures and analysis, financial risk sharing between the government and private entities before and after the NZPHCS implementation is assessed. The effects of the policy on a range of indicators assessing the relative, theoretically-expected changes in costs and equitable allocation of financial and health care resources are identified. The NZPHCS was intended to reduce service user fees, foster an integrated multidisciplinary approach to primary care delivery, reduce health inequalities and encourage the promotion and maintenance of healthy populations. Progress towards thesem objectives was disappointing. The government abrogated responsibility for managing financial risks associated with uncertainty about funded individuals’ future care needs when replacing fee-for-service funding with capitation funding of individuals within a population. Very small, risk-averse care providers became the primary risk pool managers. Via legacy balance-billing arrangements, much higher risk management costs have likely been passed on to service users in either or both of higher-than-expected fees and more variable care quality. Those with the greatest needs for primary care, and those whose fees the government intended to reduce most, have most probably borne a disproportionately higher share of the additional financial risk management costs. If the New Zealand primary health care system is to evolve towards the one envisaged by the NZPHCS, the government should assume a share of responsibility for managing financial risks associated with utilisation uncertainty. A mixed funding model, proposed and evaluated against the NZPHCS and three other policy options, provides risk management arrangements most likely to be conducive to delivering the desired cost and equity objectives. At the same time it provides a more stable path towards a fully government-funded New Zealand primary health care sector than the current arrangements. The findings specifically address the New Zealand context. However, the model and analytical framework developed are applicable to a wide range of primary health care policies, notably where partial private funding is either utilised or contemplated, and changes from service-based to population-based funding are being considered.

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  • Samoan People’s Knowledge and Understanding of Cardiovascular Disease

    Taueetia Su’a, Tuaupua (Tua) (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis explores Samoan people’s knowledge and understanding of Cardiovascular Disease and its risks; Cardiovascular Risk Assessments; and their reasons for undertaking or not undertaking lifestyle changes, if they are found to be at risk of cardiovascular disease. An interpretive phenomenological design, facilitated by the Talanoa narrative approach, incorporating the ‘Leai se tu fa’amauga’ Pacific framework was employed to conduct this research. Participants were recruited from Primary Health Services in Wellington and Porirua. Sixteen Samoan participants aged 45 to 65, and seven practice nurses were interviewed, supported by a literature review of cardiovascular disease as one of the leading causes of premature deaths and health inequalities in New Zealand, affecting mainly Pacific peoples. Samoan people’s voices utilising fa’a-Samoa worldviews and models of care in particular the NZ health policies to improve health literacy for this population have grounded the research and its findings. My interest in this exploration was a result of my own experience working as a practice nurse in health centres with high numbers of Pacific peoples. I often questioned whether they understood the information they were provided with, when they had their cardiovascular risk assessment. Although cardiovascular risk assessment is one of the government’s primary health targets with an emphasis on increasing the number of assessments for Pacific peoples to improve their health outcomes, Pacific peoples’ health remains poor. A number of health policies and strategies have been in place for almost two decades such as; Making a Pacific Difference and Strategic Initiatives for Pacific Peoples (MoH, 1998), the Pacific Health Disabily Action Plan (MoH, 2002), Improving Quality Care for Pacific Peoples (MoH, 2008c), and Ala Mo’ui: Pathways to Pacific Health and Wellbeing 2010-2014 (Minister of Health & Minister of Pacific Island Affairs, 2010). However there is still little or no progress in Pacific peoples’ health outcomes. The results showed that the lack of health literacy and poor command of the English language limited Samoan people’s knowledge and understanding. A number of additional factors such as demographic characteristics, educational levels, the Samoan worldview and the fa’a-Samoa, patient follow up care, length of appointment times, the ambiguity of information and lack of the continuity of community programmes, all affected the uptake of lifestyle changes. The majority of participants felt there was no true value gained from completing cardiovascular risk assessment. A key question thus raised is, ‘Does completing a cardiovascular risk assessment have any health benefits for Pacific peoples?’ The implications of the key themes that emerged from the data form the basis for recommendations on the role of the practice nurse, current and future health policies as well as future research.

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  • Early to middle Eocene calcareous nannofossils of the SW Pacific: Paleobiogeography and paleoclimate

    Shepherd, Claire Louise (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Earth’s climate underwent a long-term warming trend from the late Paleocene to early Eocene (~58–51 Ma), with global temperature reaching a sustained maximum during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO; 53–50 Ma). Geochemical proxies indicate tropical or warm subtropical sea-surface temperature (SST) conditions in middle and high latitudes in the early Eocene, implying a very low latitudinal temperature gradient. This study investigates whether calcareous nannofossil assemblages in the southwest (SW) Pacific provide evidence of these conditions at middle latitudes in the early to middle Eocene, particularly during the EECO. Specifically, this study documents the biogeographic changes of warm- and cold-water nannofossil species along a paleolatitudinal transect through the EECO to track changes in water masses/ocean circulation at that time. Early to middle Eocene calcareous nannofossil assemblages were examined from four sites along a latitudinal transect in the SW Pacific, extending from Lord Howe Rise in the north to Campbell Plateau in the south and spanning a paleolatitude of ~46–54°S. All of the sections studied in this project span nannofossil zones NP10–16 (Martini, 1971). The data indicate up to three regional unconformities through the sections: at mid-Waipara, Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 207 and 277, part or all of Zone NP10 (lower Waipawan) is missing; at Sites 207 and 277 a possible hiatus occurs within NP12 (upper Waipawan–lower Mangaorapan); and at all sites part or all of Zone NP15 (lower Bortonian) is missing. Results of this study indicate that nannofossil assemblages in the SW Pacific are more similar to floras at temperate to polar sites rather than those at tropical/subtropical sites. However, variations in the relative abundance of key species in the SW Pacific are broadly consistent with the trends seen in the geochemical proxy records: an increase in warm-water taxa coincided with the EECO, corroborating geochemical evidence for a temperature maximum in the SW Pacific during this interval. The increase in the abundance and diversity of warm-water taxa and decrease in the abundance of cool-water taxa through the EECO supports previous suggestions that a warm-water mass (northward of the proto-Tasman Front) extended to ~55°S paleolatitude during this interval in response to enhanced poleward heat transport and intensification of the proto-East Australian Current. At the southernmost site, DSDP Site 277, a relatively short-lived influx of warm-water taxa at ~51 Ma suggests that warm waters expanded south at this time. However, greater diversity and abundance of warm-water taxa throughout the EECO at DSDP Site 207, suggests that the proto-East Australian Current exerted greater influence at this latitude for a longer duration than at Site 277. An increase in the abundance of cool-water taxa and decrease in diversity and abundance of warm-water taxa at all sites is recorded following the termination of the EECO. This corresponds with the contraction of the proto-Tasman Front due to weakened proto-East Australian Current flow and associated amplification of the proto-Ross Gyre. Previous estimates of SSTs from geochemical proxies in the SW Pacific during the EECO indicate that there was virtually no latitudinal temperature gradient and temperatures were tropical to subtropical (>20°C). However, nannofossil data from this study indicate warm temperate conditions (~15–20°C) during the EECO, suggesting that a reduced latitudinal gradient was maintained through this interval, which is in agreement with climate models.

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  • Teacher inquiry in New Zealand : a montage.

    Lim, Joanna Mei Lin (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The study took place in New Zealand where teachers inquire into their practice to learn professionally. Teacher inquiry is a unique policy because it combines personal and professional motivations to learn. This policy places expectations on teachers to inquire into the impact of their teaching actions in terms of student learning. I used a narrative inquiry approach to gain insight into teachers inquiry experiences. I conducted single, unstructured interviews with eleven, primary school teachers to listen to their stories. This narrative approach brought to the fore subjective conceptualisations of teacher inquiry and allowed me to use teacher stories as a construct to understand teacher inquiry further. I structured this thesis as a series of stories about context, methodology, inquiry experiences, deconstructive explorations, and impressions of the teacher inquiry puzzle. A central research question, How can teacher inquiry be conceptualised from teachers experiences? guided the research process. This question grew into two sub-questions that featured different aspects of teacher inquiry. The first sub-question, What are teachers experiences with teacher inquiry? enabled me to expose the experiential effects of teacher inquiry. These idiosyncratic perceptions challenged me to think differently about teacher inquiry and prompted me to ask another sub-question, What insights into teacher inquiry can be gained from applying a deconstructive lens on teachers inquiry experiences? To answer this question, I examined particular elements within teachers experiences and used these elements to create deeper discussions about teacher inquiry. Since these deconstructive explorations tended to diverge from teacher stories, they allowed me to illuminate further complexities within teacher inquiry. I used these stories and deconstructive explorations to create a montage of teacher inquiry in New Zealand. This study highlights how teacher inquiry can affect teachers professional learning experiences, their teaching practices and professional identities. It brings to light the diverse ways that teachers make sense of internal and external expectations to learn professionally. I used this nuanced understanding of teacher inquiry to provide suggestions on how teachers can be better supported in the inquiry process. It is important to continue to strengthen the teacher inquiry process because it can ultimately contribute to student learning. These teacher inquiry insights can add to continuing discourse on teacher learning, because they explore the complex challenge of using teacher learning as a means to improve student learning.

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  • A Multi-level Theory of Post-Adoptive Adaptation and Organisational Change in Enterprise System Implementation: The Case of CRM

    Techakriengkrai, Wallayaporn

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The implementation of a new enterprise system is a major change event for end-users. Users must adapt themselves to learn and understand the new enterprise system as well as engage with the system in their work practices. In addition, organisations need to modify organisational processes and structures to support the new enterprise system. Past research has largely focused on initial organisational adoption decisions concerning an enterprise system. However, there has been little research concerning the use of the enterprise system and the associated change process in the post-adoption stage. This study addresses this gap by developing a multi-level theory of post-adoptive adaptation and organisational change associated with enterprise system implementation in organisations. This study focuses on enterprise system implementation in the context of the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system. The research questions are: (1) How do organisational changes unfold in enterprise system implementation in the context of CRM systems? (2) How do individuals adapt to an enterprise system in the context of CRM systems at the post-adoptive stage? The study adopted a qualitative interpretive case study method to develop a multi-level theory. Multiple sources of data including interviews and supporting documents were collected and analysed in order to understand individuals’ adaptation behaviours and organisational changes in the post-adoption stage of enterprise system implementation. This study employed an embedded multiple-case design and multi-level analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 43 participants in three different types of business organisations: innovative office automation solutions, an insurance business, and a hospital. The participants were management, users, and IT support staff. Three concurrent data analysis processes (data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing and verification) were conducted to analyse data and to build a multi-level theory. In addition, the data analysis processes were carried out to identify critical events and gaps which occurred during the change process. During the data analysis stage, low-level codes, interpretive codes, and pattern codes were developed to answer the research questions and build theory. Within-case and cross-case analysis was conducted to explore individuals’ adaptation behaviours and organisational change in each organisation and compared with the other organisations to identify similarities and differences. The study develops new knowledge based on how an integrated theoretical perspective using coping theory and a socio-technical perspective can inform ICT-enabled changes in organisations. The findings revealed five core pattern codes. The pattern codes of changing structure of work, consequences of CRM implementation, and transparency tool and control mechanism revealed organisations change. The pattern codes of adaptation behaviours and factors influencing adaptation behaviours reflected individual adaptation. These two levels of analysis were interrelated. This research contributes to the literature of user adaptation, organisational change, and enterprise systems by presenting a multi-level theory of post-adoptive adaptation and organisational change following enterprise system implementation. The results showed that organisations changed their structure of work after enterprise system implementation, which led to the generation of gaps in socio-technical components and consequences. The generation of gaps had a significant impact on individual adaptation behaviours. The findings will assist organisations in providing appropriate resources and support for successful enterprise system implementations at the post-adoption stage.

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  • Implications of Software as a Service Adoption for IT Workers’ Roles and Skill Sets from a Sociomateriality Perspective

    Mbuba, Freddie Haita

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study broadly seeks to explain the implications of software as a service (SaaS) for information technology (IT) workers from a sociomateriality perspective. SaaS is a cloud-computing model based on IT capabilities of a utility model that enhances the scalability of computing resources at a lower cost than on-premise IT systems. Unlike the on-premise IT system, through the SaaS model, customers no longer need to purchase software licences. Instead, they can subscribe to and access software via an Internet connection. Based on these potential benefits, customers, particularly large organisations such as tertiary institutions for whom IT may not be their core functional systems, are migrating their on-premise IT systems to the SaaS model. However, this may have effects on the roles and skill sets of IT workers, as support and future developments of SaaS shifts to the SaaS service provider. Researchers have raised concerns about these implications and predicted that cloud adoption would change IT workers’ roles and diminish their jobs, leading to job losses worldwide, as IT departments within organisations lose control of IT resources. Similarly, studies report that IT workers believe by turning IT resources and support to a cloud service provider pose significant risks to their roles and skill sets. However, these anecdotal claims are not supported by substantial empirical and theoretical evidence. Researchers have called for more studies on these implications and the associated human management issues. Previous information system studies on the changing IT workers’ skill sets related to cloud computing adoption are rather generic in that there is a scarcity of in-depth conceptual and empirical analyses to ascertain how these implications are related to SaaS adoption in particular. Therefore, the migration process of IT from on-premise to the SaaS model presents an ideal environment in which to not only understand the implications for IT workers but to contrast the features of the insights offered into how human and technology or human and material agencies interact in work practices. Sociomateriality literature claims that human and material become constitutively entangled in work practices. However, less is known about how human and material interact, and at what level these interactions happen. Therefore, this research draws empirical data from IT implementation projects related to moving on-premise IT systems to a SaaS system, to explain the implications of a SaaS system for IT workers, and employs the concepts of sociomateriality to help explain how human and technology interact in work practices. To narrow the scope, diversity, and context of the research focus, the current study draws empirical data from four case studies of tertiary institutions in New Zealand that migrated their on-premise email systems to a SaaS system such as Google Apps for Education (GAE) or hosted Office 365 (O365). This approach addresses the main research questions posed in this thesis: why the migration of an on-premise IT system to SaaS changes the roles and skill sets requirements for IT workers; what implications there are for functions of the IT department; and how IT workers interact with these technologies from a sociomateriality perspective. In answering these questions and build an in-depth understanding, this study employs a punctuated sociotechnical information system change (PSIC) model as a tool for analysing and displaying the empirical data. In addition, the research applies the concepts of sociomateriality to provide in-depth explanations of the interactions between human and technology. An interpretive approach is adopted, with 17 participants interviewed from four case studies. The participants included IT workers and IT managers who participated in the SaaS migration process. The findings suggest that SaaS has some effects on IT workers’ roles and skill sets, and drawing on the sociomateriality theory, the thesis elaborates and conceptualises levels of the human and technology interaction in the context of SaaS. In addition, the study provides contextual, methodological and theoretical contributions to the body of knowledge.

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  • Thresholds, Text Coverage, Vocabulary Size, and Reading Comprehension in Applied Linguistics

    Larson, Myq (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The inextricable link between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension is incontrovertible. However, questions remain regarding the nature of the interaction. One question which remains unresolved is whether there is an optimum text coverage, or ratio of known to unknown words in a text, such that any deleterious effects of the unknown words on reading comprehension are minimised. A related question is what vocabulary size would a reader need to have in order to achieve the optimum text coverage for a given text or class of texts. This thesis addresses these questions in three ways. First, a replication and expansion of a key study (Hu & Nation, 2000)1 was performed. In that study, 98% text coverage was found to be optimal for adequate reading comprehension of short fiction texts when reading for pleasure. To replicate that study, equivalent measures of reading comprehension were collected from a more homogeneous group of participants at a university in northern Thailand (n = 138), under stricter conditions and random assignment to one of three text coverage conditions, to verify the generalisability of the results. The original study was also expanded by measuring reader characteristics thought to contribute to reading comprehension, such as vocabulary size, l1 and l2 literacy, and reading attitudes, in an effort to improve the explainable reading comprehension variance. In order to more accurately calculate the text coverage a reader experiences for a particular text, both the vocabulary profile of the text and the vocabulary size of the reader must be known as precisely as possible. Therefore, to contribute to the question of vocabulary size, changes such as measuring item completion time and varying the order of item presentation were made to the VST (P. Nation & Beglar, 2007) to improve its sensitivity and accuracy. This may ultimately lead to increased precision when using text coverage to predict reading comprehension. Finally, l2 English vocabulary size norms were established to supplement the diagnostic usefulness of the VST. Data were collected through an online version of the VST created for this thesis from primarily self-selected participants (n 1:31 105) located in countries (n 100) around the world representing several l1 and age groups. Analysis of the data collected for this thesis suggest that text coverage explains much less reading comprehension variance than previously reported while vocabulary size may be a more powerful predictor. An internal replication of Hu and Nation (2000) found errors in the calculation of optimum text coverage and in the reported size of the effect on reading comprehension. A critical review of the theoretical foundations of the text coverage model of reading comprehension found serious flaws in construct operationalisation and research design. Due to these flaws, most research which has purported to measure the effect of text coverage on reading comprehension actually measured the effect of an intervening variable: readers’ vocabulary size. Vocabulary size norms derived from data collected through an online version of the VST appear to be reliable and representative. Varying item presentation order appears to increase test sensitivity. Despite a moderate effect for l1 English users, item completion time does not seem to account for any variance in vocabulary size scores for l2 English learners. Based on the finding that vocabulary size may explain both reading comprehension and text coverage, the putative power of text coverage to predict reading comprehension is challenged. However, an alternative measure which may offer greater power to predict reading comprehension, the VST, has been modified and made available online. This version of the VST may provide greater sensitivity and ease of use than the offline, paper-based version.

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  • Cultures of light: Electric light in the United States, 1890s-1950s

    Petty, Margaret Maile (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Cultures of Light is set within a period that stretches from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century in the United States, an era in which nearly every aspect of American life was impacted to a lesser or greater degree by the introduction, distribution and integration of electric power and light. By no means attempting to comprehensively examine the impact and effects of this expansive transformation, this thesis has a narrow but meaningful target, defined by key intersections of electric lighting and American culture. Primarily concerned with the investigation of culturally bound ideas and practices as mediated through electric light and its applications, my thesis is focused on particular instances of this interplay. These include its role in supporting nationalizing narratives and agendas through large-scale demonstrations at world’s fairs and exhibitions, in the search for and expression of modernism and its variations in the United States. Similarly electricity and electric light throughout the better part of the twentieth century was scaled to the level of the individual through a number of mechanisms and narratives. Most prominently the electric light industry employed gendered discourses, practices and beliefs in their efforts to grow the market, calling upon the assistance of a host of cultural influencers, from movie stars to architects to interior designers, instigating a renegotiation of established approaches to the design of architecture and the visual environment. Connecting common themes and persistent concerns across these seemingly disparate subject areas through the examination of cultural beliefs, practices, rituals and traditions, Cultures of Light seeks to illustrate the deep and lasting significance of electric light within American society in the twentieth century.

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  • A Quarter Acre Pavlova Paradise Lost? The Role of Preferences and Planning in Achieving Urban Sustainability in Wellington, New Zealand

    Dodge, Nadine (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the scope for compact development to accommodate population growth in Wellington, New Zealand. The topic is particularly significant for New Zealand as the great majority of the population lives in urban areas, historical development has been dominated by low density urban form, and transport and urban form are two of the main domains in which the country can reduce its carbon emissions. The influence of urban planning and residents’ preferences on achieving sustainable outcomes is investigated. Historical and current planning rules and transport policies in the City are analysed to determine their influence on the provision of compact development. Wellington’s transport policy shows a pattern of path dependency: historical decisions to favour car oriented investment have driven subsequent transport investments and influenced the ease of using different transport modes. Planning policies show a similar pattern of path dependency: planning rules enacted in the 1960s endure in present planning despite being packaged with different justifications and regulatory regime. Current planning rules severely restrict infill development in most existing neighbourhoods, which reduces the availability of housing in accessible medium density neighbourhoods and likely increases the cost of this type of housing. A stated choice survey was conducted of 454 residents of Wellington City to investigate the extent to which there is an unmet demand for compact development and alternatives to car travel. The survey held presentation mode constant across two completion modes (internet and door to door with tablet completion), allowing the impacts of recruitment and completion mode to be examined. Survey recruitment mode appeared to influence both response rates and the representativeness of the survey, while completion mode appeared to have little or no impact on survey responses. Using the stated choice survey results, a latent class model was developed to examine the preferences of residents and the trade-offs they are willing to make when choosing where to live. This type of model allows for the identification of preference groups as a means of understanding the diversity of preferences across the population. The study found that there is an unmet demand for medium density, accessible housing, but that affordability is a barrier for households to choose this type of housing. There was also an unmet demand for walking and cycling, with more residents currently driving than would prefer to use this mode, and more residents preferring to walk and cycle to work than currently use these modes. The ability to use a desired travel mode appears to be related to the neighbourhood in which a person lives, with residents of medium and high density neighbourhoods being more likely to use their preferred travel mode. This study also modelled future development trajectories for Wellington based on demand for housing, neighbourhood and transport attributes. This preference based growth model was contrasted with the City’s plan for development over the next 30 years. Comparing the two scenarios, the planning based trajectory performed better than the demand based scenario in terms of both carbon emissions and achieving compact development.

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  • The Environmental Regulation of Marine Carbon Capture and Storage in New Zealand: Principles, Barriers and Gaps

    Severinsen, Gregory (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis concerns the regulation of a technology called carbon capture and storage (CCS). The technology is one way to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at point sources (such as power or industrial plants) and injecting them into deep underground geological formations. Specifically, the thesis looks at the framework of public environmental law that is needed for CCS in New Zealand where injection occurs offshore in its coastal marine area and exclusive economic zone. The thesis concludes that, when tested against existing principles in New Zealand's environmental law and the requirements of international law, current provisions in domestic law contain both significant barriers and gaps. These barriers must be removed and gaps must be filled. The thesis identifies three broad features of New Zealand's law that give rise to a range of barriers and that need to be addressed. First, there is substantial uncertainty as to how existing provisions would apply to CCS. Greater certainty is needed. Secondly, the classification of CCS as a form of marine dumping presents a significant barrier. The technology needs to be classified differently, and more positively. Thirdly, the law contains a general prohibition on considering the effects of activities on climate change. This may prevent CCS being deployed in practice, and needs to be reconsidered. New Zealand's existing law also contains three potential gaps, which must be filled. First, there is a dearth of CCS-specific regulatory and policy provisions within existing regimes such as the Resource Management Act 1991. This means operators and regulators would be operating in a regulatory and policy vacuum. Decisions may be inconsistent, fail to impose appropriate environmental standards, or fail to give appropriate weight to relevant considerations. Secondly, there are limitations in the ability of existing regimes to regulate the positive effects of activities – such as climate change mitigation - to ensure that they are actually achieved. Thirdly, existing law does not facilitate the kind of targeted and comparative decision-making process needed for CCS. This means that it does not provide an effective process for resolving tensions between competing resource interests in the sub-seabed.

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  • Negotiating multiple identities in educational contexts: Stories of Tamil Heritage Language Users as Multilingual Malaysians

    Sithraputhran, Thilegawathy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Malaysia is a multilingual and multicultural society comprising of ethnic Malays (dominant group) followed by ethnic Chinese, Indians and other indigenous groups. The national language is Malay and English is the second language. Heritage languages such as Mandarin and Tamil are used as the language of instruction in some primary schools. This study explores how a group of Tamil Heritage Language Users from Tamil primary schools (THLU-Ts) at a private university recounted maneuvering through their multilingual world during their early lives at Tamil primary school, at state secondary school (Malay) and then at a private university (English). Nine first year undergraduate participants were selected from a private university in Malaysia where English is the medium of instruction. They were selected as THLU-Ts based on two criteria. Firstly, they were ethnic Tamils and secondly, they had completed six years of primary education at Tamil primary school. I used photovoice interviews to construct their narratives. The participants, prompted by photographs they brought as artefacts, described their language experiences in a multilingual setting. The participants’ voices were storied into narratives based on three narrative inquiry strategies of broadening, burrowing and restorying. Two in-depth interviews were conducted over a six month period and these were video-taped and transcribed. The interview transcript from each first interview contributed to a narrative summary or story. This was a general description of the participant and events (broadening stage). The second interview was held towards the end of the semester. During the second interview, participants were asked to reflect on their narrative summaries (which had been distributed earlier) and comment on them. I sought data to reexamine the existing data (burrowing stage) before rewriting a complete and coherent story (restorying) for each participant. This story was also individually reviewed by each participant. Data analysis was an iterative process that included storying and coding. I identified three broad themes and then examined them in the light of relevant literature. This analysis allowed me to understand how the THLU-Ts shaped their identities during social interactions with different linguistic communities in Malaysia, including THLU-Ms (ethnic Tamils from national primary schools) and non-Tamils (Malays and Chinese). Initially, THLU-Ts faced challenges as they transitioned to secondary school coming from a Tamil- medium primary school. At secondary school, they had to adjust to a Malay linguistic environment for the first time. As their proficiency in Malay grew, they felt they were accepted as authentic members of the academic community. When they entered the English-medium university, there was pressure to develop proficiency in English. They repositioned themselves once again and made deliberate language choices during social interaction with other linguistic communities. When the findings were viewed through Blommaert’s sociolinguistic scales, it was apparent that participants scaled languages depending on the value assigned to each one (Malay, English and Tamil). This reflected the way language was used in society. As powerful multilinguals who invested in a multilingual repertoire, participants displayed linguistic accommodation. These findings suggest a need for educators and policy makers to reassess the role and importance of HL education. Currently, the Malaysian education policy is silent on its commitment to HL education in Malaysia. Yet, this research supports the One Malaysia concept which stresses unity in diversity and encourages educational policies to take a pro-multilingual stance.

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  • You are not worth the risk: The ethics of statistical discrimination in organisational selection of applicants

    Scholes, Vanessa (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Your job application is rejected unseen because you ticked a box admitting you smoke. The employer screened out applicants who ticked the 'smoker' box, because she had read empirical studies that suggest smokers, as a group, are a higher productivity risk than non-smokers. What distinctive ethical concerns inhere in the organisational practice of discriminating against applicants on the basis of group risk statistics? I argue that risk-focussed statistical discrimination is morally undesirable due to the lack of respect for applicants as unique autonomous agents. However, I argue further that the decision-making context affects the morality of this discrimination. Other things being equal, the morality of statistical discrimination varies depending on the purpose of the organisation, the level of detail in the discrimination, and whether the discrimination is transparent to applicants and includes some benefit for applicants. Because organisations may have good reason to use risk-focussed statistical discrimination when assessing applicants, I present some recommendations for decision-makers to mitigate the lack of respect for applicants as individual agents. Organisational decision-makers can focus on the extent to which the statistical data they use comprise i) factors that feature efforts and achievements of the applicant; ii) dynamic rather than static factors; and iii) data drawn from the applicant’s own history and actions over time.

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