12,112 results for Doctoral

  • Environmental controls on the physiology of the marine coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain NIWA 1108

    Feng, Yuanyuan (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Anthropogenic activities have affected the global climate rapidly; different environmental factors important for oceanic productivity have been altered. The concurrent changes in multiple environmental drivers affect the physiology of marine phytoplankton, both individually and interactively, in a complex way. Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant and widely-distributed coccolithophore in the ocean, is a model organism for understanding the marine carbon cycle. As a calcifying species, E. huxleyi is considered particularly susceptible to the increasing surface seawater CO2 concentration and decreasing pH, termed ocean acidification. The thesis presents a series of step-wise studies on the controls of five environmental drivers (nitrate concentration, phosphate concentration, irradiance, temperature and CO2) on the physiology of a southern hemisphere E. huxleyi strain isolated from the Chatham Rise, New Zealand. The goal of this thesis is to examine the importance of ocean acidification relative to four other environmental drivers both individually and interactively on the physiology of the ecologically important coccolithophore species. First, E. huxleyi strain NIWA 1108 was subjected to a series of semi-continuous incubation experiments by changing the conditions of one environmental driver at a time. The importance of each environmental driver on each measured physiological metric of E. huxleyi was ranked using a semi-quantitative approach by comparing the percentage change caused by each environmental driver on the measured physiological metrics at the projected conditions for the year 2100 relative to the present day conditions in the Chatham Rise, New Zealand. The results reveal that a 33% decrease in nitrate concentration played the most important role in controlling the growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates of E. huxleyi; rising pCO2 decreased the calcification:photosynthesis and cellular particulate inorganic carbon:particulate organic carbon ratios the most; warming was the major driver controlling both cellular particulate organic carbon and particulate inorganic carbon contents; and nutrient concentrations were the most important drivers regulating the cellular particulate nitrogen and cellular particulate phosphorus contents of E. huxleyi. Then a two-way (ocean acidification plus changes in either nitrate concentration, phosphate concentration, irradiance or temperature) and multiple factorial (manipulation of all the five environmental drivers) manipulation experiment was conducted. The results exhibited an interesting connection with the single environmental driver effects: interaction of ocean acidification and a 33% decrease in nitrate concentration had the largest synergistic negative effects on most of the E. huxleyi physiological metrics among all the two-way factorial manipulations. The simultaneous manipulation of all the five environmental drivers to the projected future (2100) conditions had the most prominent negative effects on the growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates of E. huxleyi. Finally, the gene expression study suggests that changing pCO2 probably affects E. huxleyi photosynthesis and calcification through regulating the carbon concentrating mechanism and pH homeostasis at the molecular level. Furthermore, the substantial down-regulation of most of the investigated genes associated with inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification by multi-factorial manipulation of all the five environmental drivers indicates a link between significant suppression of functional genes and the substantially decreased physiological rate processes (growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates) in E. huxleyi. Overall, the thesis reveals that other environmental drivers may play more important roles than ocean acidification in regulating the physiological responses of E. huxleyi, and suggests that the interplay between ocean acidification and other drivers is likely to have antagonistic, additive or synergistic effects on different physiological metrics of E. huxleyi. The thesis contributes to our understanding of how the physiology of E. huxleyi will respond to the concurrent changes of multiple environmental drivers.

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  • CD169 mediates the capture of exosomes in the spleen and lymph node

    Saunderson, Sarah Charlotte (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Exosomes are lipid bound nanovesicles that are formed via the inward budding of the endosomal membrane, then released upon fusion of the endosomal limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. The majority of exosome studies involve the use of exosomes from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells or immortalised cell lines. This research project has focused on exosomes derived from primary B cells in response to T cell signalling, in particular via the CD40 and the interleukin-4 receptors. The fate of exosomes following their release is largely unknown. However as we have previously identified that B cell-derived exosomes are enriched in the antigen presenting molecules major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), MHC-II and immunoglobulin, this may implicate B cell-derived exosomes in the transfer of antigen. We have sought to address the physiological role of primary B cell-derived exosomes and their interactions with other cells within secondary lymphoid tissue in vivo. We identified sialoadhesin (CD169; Siglec-1) as a novel mechanism for the specific capture of B cell-derived exosomes via surface expressed α2,3-linked sialic acids. In particular, exosomes were captured by marginal metallophilic and subcapsular sinus macrophages within the spleen and lymph node respectively. In vitro binding assays performed on naïve spleen and lymph node tissue sections confirmed that exosome binding to CD169 was not solely due to preferential fluid flow to these areas. Despite the presence of this specific capture mechanism, the circulation half-life of exosomes in the blood of wild-type and CD169-deficient mice was similar, with a short half-life of approximately two minutes. This likely indicated the presence of CD169-independent capture and uptake mechanisms. However immunofluorescent microscopy revealed intravenously or subcutaneously administered exosomes displayed altered distribution within CD169-deficient compared to wild-type mice. In vivo, exosomes freely accessed the outer marginal zone rim of SIGN-R1+ marginal zone macrophages and to a lesser degree also the F4/80+ macrophages in the spleen. In the lymph node, exosomes appeared less well contained to the subcapsular sinus and had migrated into the medullary sinus. In vivo exosomes were efficiently captured in a CD169-independent manner by Kupffer cells within the liver of both wild-type and CD169-deficient mice, but this capture was not observed in vitro indicating this capture to be purely a physiological response. Interestingly, although the human splenic marginal zone contains relatively few CD169+ macrophages, a pilot experiment involving one human spleen sample revealed that B cell-derived exosomes were also specifically captured in a marginal zone binding pattern using an in vitro binding assay. While this capture within the human spleen sample was likely CD169-independent, the striking similarity between exosome binding within murine and human splenic tissue, implicates the splenic marginal zone as a conserved mediator of exosome capture across species. We next established a role for B cell-derived exosomes in the promotion of in vivo T cell proliferative and cytotoxic responses. In vivo endogenous cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to exosomal antigen showed an absolute dependence on the presence of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, where the loss of any one of these subsets led to the complete loss of CTL response. Furthermore, NK cell involvement appears independent of interferon-gamma. Interestingly, in the absence of CD169, exosomal antigen induced an enhanced CTL response. This implicates CD169+ macrophages in suppression of the immune response to exosomal antigen, possibly via limiting exosome access to potent antigen presenting cells. While the precise pathway for exosome induced in vivo CTL responses still remains to be determined, we have identified that CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells each play a critical role in the response to exosomal antigen.

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  • Performative Methodologies: Geographies of Emotion and Affect in Digital Storytelling Workshops

    Bliss, Elaine (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis advocates digital storytelling as a geographical methodology to understand how emotion and affect are produced. Digital storytelling is a flexible and workshopped methodology that captures experimental, creative and imaginative performances of emotion and affect. Through digital storytelling geographers may build understandings of how emotion and affect are experienced individually and collectively. I use 11 digital storytelling workshops, with more than 100 participants, as the primary sites for my research. The workshops were conducted in the United States and New Zealand and were modelled on the practice established by the Center for Digital Storytelling in Berkeley, California, United States. It is argued that digital storytelling workshops co-create emotion, affect, people and place. Individual and group interviews, reflexive autobiographical journal writing, and digital storytelling workshop training, participation, and observing are used to access emotion and affect in digital storytelling workshops. A combination of qualitative research methods and critical social theories are used to highlight embodied, emotional and affectual geographies. Three findings frame my discussion. First, digital storytelling workshops are performative spaces for the staging and circulation of emotion and affect. The concepts of infrastructure, improvisation, and intimacy are critical for understanding the dynamic nature of emotion and affect in digital storytelling workshops. Second, a focus on relationality allows for an examination of psychotherapeutic practice and the transformative capacity of digital storytelling workshops. Workshop spaces are understood as ‘connective mediums’ in which a third position – the gap between the flow of emotions and the representation of that experience - is possible. Third, voice in digital storytelling is a political process of speaking and listening. A focus on voice permits an exploration of the acoustic politics of emotion and affect at individual and collective spatial scales. Digital storytelling workshops facilitate processes of seeing, hearing and experiencing emotion and affect as a way of interpreting the geographical worlds of research participants. The Center for Digital Storytelling’s model incorporates a commitment to social justice that honours and values emotional knowledge. As a practice-based research methodology digital storytelling requires researchers to be reflexive and negotiate their multiply layered ethical positionings. As geographers continue to experiment with innovative ways of conducting research, the messiness of digital storytelling can contribute to methodological debates about the ‘doing’ of emotion and affect in geographical research.

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  • A study of some New Zealand natural products.

    Jogia, Madhu Kant (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 348 leaves :col. ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Chemistry

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  • Stuck in the middle or clued up on both? Language and identity among Korean, Dutch and Samoan immigrants in Dunedin

    Johri, Roopali (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 332 p. :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "24 February 1998."

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  • Population biology, pre-settlement processes and recruitment in the New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus Valenciennes (Echinoidea: Echinometridae)

    Lamare, Miles David (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxi, 257 leaves :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "May 1997." University of Otago department: Marine Science.

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  • Rocky shore snails and their trematodes: new systems, new parasites, new insights

    O'Dwyer, Katie (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The number of parasite species being described is still rising sharply, with little sign of slowing down. This illustrates a limitation in our current understanding of host-parasite interactions. The need for improved knowledge of the biodiversity of parasites and of their effects is especially important due to the realised and potential impacts of parasites across a wide variety of domains, including in clinical, environmental and agricultural practices. Concurrently, as data mounts on specific biological systems, from a more macroecological viewpoint there is an intensifying search for common patterns across systems, with the aim of providing clearer insights into the general properties of host-parasite interactions. This thesis encompasses several of these challenges, namely, parasite species descriptions, parasite impacts and the search for general properties affecting host-parasite interactions. The novel study systems investigated were Australasian rocky shore periwinkle or littorinid snails, and their trematode parasites. Previously, parasites of periwinkle snails were well studied in the Northern Hemisphere, though nothing is known about Southern Hemisphere periwinkles. In New Zealand, two snail species were studied and a total of five parasite species found (Chapter Two). In Australia, a single snail species was found to host five parasites also (Chapter Three). An important knowledge gap was filled with the finding of one of these parasites in Australia providing the first record of a snail host for the trematode family Gorgocephalidae. All parasite species were described using an integrative taxonomical approach, which incorporated line drawings, scanning electron microscopy and molecular analyses. Low prevalence was recorded for most parasites in New Zealand, therefore further experimental work focused on the most abundant parasite, Parorchis sp. NZ (family Philophthalmidae). This parasite displayed an unusual biology whereby it can abbreviate its development, possibly as an adaptation to stressful conditions. To investigate this, the incidence of the abbreviated life cycle (precocious encystment) was studied in response to host stress due to desiccation. Although the results confirmed desiccation as a host stress, it appeared to have little effect on the development pattern of the parasite (Chapter Four). The focus then turned to the effect of the parasite on its host and specifically to the impact of infection on microhabitat choice of snails (Chapter Five). The choice of microhabitat on a rocky shore may influence a snail’s success in withstanding dislodgement, due to wave exposure or predation. Interestingly, the results showed that infected snails spend more time on the rock surface than in crevices, possibly leading to enhanced parasite transmission, and inevitably to a higher risk of mortality for infected snails. Finally, to gain a broader understanding of the ecological drivers underpinning interspecific variation in parasite species richness among periwinkles, a comparative analysis was carried out using data compiled from the literature (Chapter Six). I quantified the contribution of both evolutionary history and ecology to observed patterns of parasite species richness, and found that both latitude and host phylogeny accounted for much of the variation in how many trematode species exploit particular periwinkle species.

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  • Cogere Intrare: The Fourth-Century Abandonment of Christian Pacifism and the Rise of the Militant Church

    Manby, Aaron Christopher (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The fourth and fifth centuries of the Common Era saw the Christian Church, such as it can be uniformly described during a time of great internal turmoil, transform from an influential minority long despised by pagan leadership to the most powerful religious institution in the Roman world. One noteworthy result of this transitional phase was the abnegation by Church leaders of the corporate ethic of non-violence, traditionally rooted in Christ’s response to persecution, in favor of coerced fidelity to the ecclesiastical institution. Because of his indisputable influence over the systematic justification of religious coercion, historians and theologians have traditionally traced the Christian approbation of holy violence to Augustine of Hippo. Those who do not typically offer an alternative scenario in which the Church was never really pacifist to begin with, but rather had always embraced the legitimacy of violence to the extent that their status as a persecuted minority allowed. My argument responds to both perspectives. I first illustrate that the persecuted Church did indeed espouse a unified and principled pacifism. I then argue that the ecclesiastical transition from pacifism to coercion was more or less complete by the year 408 when Augustine composed his defense of cogere intrare. Finally, I offer an account of how this transition came about, ultimately focusing upon how ecclesiastical leaders such as Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea began to redefine the tertium genus identity as well as the eschatological tenets of patience, martyrdom, and divine wrath in response to the unanticipated conversion of Constantine. In Part One I demonstrate that during the era of persecution these elements had been used to empower non-violence in the face of Roman brutality. In Part Two I then examine how the fourth-century reformulation of these elements, in combination with Constantine’s transition from pax deorum to pax dei, facilitated the rapid transition from pacifism to coercion. I conclude that, as a result of this new confluence, by the mid-fourth century the justification of violence in the name of Christ had been established, and the groundwork laid out for later systematic apologies for holy Christian violence.

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  • Roles and expression of Fgf/RTK signaling modulators, Sproutys and Sulfs, in Xenopus limb development and regeneration

    Wang, Yi-Hsuan (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The amphibian model, Xenopus laevis, is capable of perfect epimorphic limb regeneration prior to metamorphosis. It had been indicated that the amphibians’ abilities to regenerate lost structures may be attributed to certain intrinsic factors, such as unique patterns of gene expression following trauma. Transcriptome studies and more recent molecular analyses have shown that members of the fibroblast growth factor (fgf) families are re-expressed in regenerating Xenopus limb. The expression of certain fgf members, such as fgf-8 and -10, plays positive roles in successful limb regeneration in Xenopus. Therefore, the functions of this group of morphogens during regeneration are of particular interest to understanding the secrets to regenerative success in regenerative taxa, such as the clawed frogs. Members of the Fgf are morphogens that direct cell differentiation and functions during developments. Their biological activities are regulated by a variety regulators, such as the intracellular inhibitor, Sproutys (Spry), and the extracellular heparan sulfates (Sulf). These modulators act on the Fgf-triggered mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade at various points, influencing the eventual biological response. We hypothesised that, similar to the reports in other vertebrate models, Xenopus spry and sulf also play important roles in regulating Fgf activities in limb development, and possibly regeneration. This was indicated by in situ hybridisation data described in Chapter 3 and 4, showing that the expression profiles of three of the Xenopus spry and two sulf genes either complemented or overlapped with known region of the fgfs expression during development and regeneration. The developmental expression patterns of the Xenopus spry and sulf genes were distinct from their avian and murine homologues. They also demonstrated varying levels of expression in either the proliferating blastema or the apical epidermal cap in regenerating limb. These data indicate unique functions of the two sets of genes compared to their avian and mammalian homologues. Based on these observations, we speculate that fine manipulation of the Fgf- activated MAPK pathways may be achieved by controlling the expression of spry and/or sulf. To test the last hypothesis, we attempted functional studies by generating a heat shock inducible spry-1a over-expressing X. laevis line. Transgenic frogs carrying a novel heat shock inducible DNA-directed RNAi transgene system were also created, in hope to allow for sequence-specific gene knock-down/-out experiments in Xenopus. Regrettably, these experiments did not result in any usable data. In conclusion, this study provides the first detailed expression profiles of the Xenopus spry and sulf during limb development and regeneration. The dynamic and distinct expressions of these genes in Xenopus compared to the other model systems suggest unique functions of these genes in the amphibian model that may also be related their more superior regenerative ability. Therefore, further functional study targeting the effects of these Fgf regulators in limb regeneration is warranted. Finally, although the functional experiments using transgenics described in Chapter 3 and 5 did not yield any usable data, we believe that the detailed procedures discussed here will be useful to future studies.


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  • Sports Fans' Psychological Ownership in the Japanese Professional Football League

    Sumida, Ken (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Sport marketing studies are examined from two perspectives that fans are both customers of and members of teams. Both of these perspectives are based on the idea that fans belong to teams. This thesis challengers that idea and suggests that teams belong to fans, even though they do not own it in the legal sense. Understanding fans from this fresh perspective allows scholars to add value to the sport marketing discipline and marketers to make their marketing approach effective. The purpose of this study is to investigate sports fans’ psychological ownership of teams. This thesis uses a mixed methods research design. In this design, initially, fans’ psychological ownership was qualitatively explored. Then the findings were quantified by applying psychometric methods (quantitative generalization). Both types of data were collected from two teams in the Japanese professional football league (J-League). The analysis of both of the qualitative and quantitative data provided important results. Fans’ psychological ownership was shaped and nourished within and through the complexity of fan culture. Specifically, symbolical meanings and individual experiences relevant to spectator sports consumption were interpreted by individual fans. In order for the individual fans to connect these meanings, they undertook sets of particular consumption practices or rituals. This study highlights that the rituals fans repeatedly undertake played a crucial role in shaping and fostering fans’ psychological ownership of the focal team and their fan-identity. The quantitative analysis showed that fans’ psychological ownership was psychometrically quantifiable and had positive relationships with fans’ involvement in value co-creation behaviours. Psychological ownership was shown as being a different psychological concept to team identification and organizational commitment. It can be expected that psychological ownership may be able to narrow gaps in the existing literature which the application of the concepts of team identification and organizational commitment has been unable to achieve. The contribution of this thesis was to show qualitative and quantitative evidence of the existence of psychological ownership in fans’ minds. The existence of psychological ownership is important for scholars or marketers in defining who sports fans are. There is a spectrum polarizing lowly-identified fans and highly-identified fans. In this spectrum, those who are in the middle of the spectrum are seen as ordinary fans. The study undertaken in this thesis showed that there are fans who hold a high degree of psychological ownership, but who place less emphasis on team identification.

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  • Meaningful Witnessing in the United States, India & New Zealand: The Possibility Space for Digital Video Within Human Rights, Protest Movements and Activist Practices

    Lenzner, Benjamin (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This dissertation examines the emergence of digital video practices rooted in human rights, social justice issues and protest movements through a number of select case studies in the United States, India and New Zealand. This project analyzes and critiques the formation of digital video practices through the lens of Manuel DeLanda’s interpretation of assemblage theory. Examining interactions between crucial elements present in a possibility space that aid in the cultivation and assembling of budding forms of digital video, this study considers the implications in the relationships between both material and expressive qualities of these assemblings. The central argument of this thesis asserts that digital video practices centered on human rights, social justice and protest movements require adaptable linkages between supportive structures, creative capacities and digital video technologies in order to produce sustainable and creative digital video practices buttressed by documentary agendas that fuel their dynamic evolution. My research seeks to engage with the complexities of agency and technology and examines their significance in different contexts by providing a constructive outlet for practitioners to share the process behind their methods in order to offer insight into their creative workflow. Digital video technologies are proliferating at a rapid pace, yet very few video practices have formed that suggest linkages to documentary traditions. One can bear witness, yet to traverse video documentation in order to create a rhetorical argument of meaningful witnessing is a complex process that requires more than easy access to mobile video tools connected to the Internet. The case studies analyzed in these three democratic nations support the argument threaded throughout the project; digital video practices have the potential to thrive, albeit in pockets where formal or informal support systems are present and through assemblages where digital video technologies are constantly being adapted and an investment in human capital is paramount to the privileging of digital video tools or online platforms. Case studies that focus on individual practices in New York City and New Zealand reinforce the difficulties practitioners face when attempting to cultivate video practices without supportive structures. Comparatively with other case studies in India and New York, individual practices with long-term organizational support navigate challenges and re-assemble their practices in order to remain sustainable and influential. This study also engages with assemblage theory in the context of documentary history and contemporary digital video practices and reassesses the historic relationship between emerging photographic, film and video tools and the lens based practitioners that harness these apparatuses for documentary purposes. Like assemblings themselves, these creative associations are never smooth at their inception, but require adaptable solutions and adjustable reassemblings in order to maintain the potential for sustainable practices to develop and flourish. This dissertation argues that as digital video practices continue to evolve, they have the potential to redefine creative approaches to documentary media and the opportunity to confront historic traditions of the documentary form.

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  • Contextual factors affecting the development of digital library education in Vietnam

    Do, Van Hung (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In Vietnam the need for digital library education (DLE) has increased significantly in the last two decades. Educating staff to establish and manage digital libraries has become a critical issue. However, there are no DLE programmes offered by library and information management (LIM) education providers in Vietnam and we do not know why this is the case. The aim of this study is to investigate and understand the factors affecting the development of DLE for LIM practitioners in Vietnam. The interpretive study employed a qualitative approach and its findings are based on the analysis of data gathered in 17 individual interviews and 11 focus groups with key stakeholders, as well as from documentary evidence. The stakeholders involved in this study include LIM practitioners, LIM managers, LIM lecturers, library school deans, government policy makers, academic library directors, professional association chairpersons and LIM students. To guide the data gathering and analysis, an initial conceptual model of factors affecting DLE was developed from three sources: Fullan’s Educational Change theory, Nowlen’s Performance Model in continuing education for practitioners, and Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovations theory. The study found seven major factors were affecting the development of DLE in Vietnam: the government, the information technology infrastructure, the prevailing social and cultural values, the efforts of change agents, the attitudes of key stakeholders, the characteristics of DLE design, and the nexus of the educational needs of library staff and the libraries in which they were working. Of these the government factor was the most influential. These factors were inter-related and affected DLE development at different levels. The initial conceptual model was revised based on the study's findings. The revised model provides a contribution to educational change theories relevant to the identification and understanding of factors affecting professional educational programmes in universities in developing countries. The study’s findings are also of value to governments, libraries, library schools and library associations for developing relevant policies and new curricula for DLE, and for establishing new professional development programmes in DLE for library staff.

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  • Supporting the use of algorithmic design in architecture: An empirical study of reuse of design knowledge

    Globa, Anastasia (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis tests the reuse of design knowledge as a method to support learning and use of algorithmic design in architecture. The use of algorithmic design systems and programming environments offer architects immense opportunities, providing a powerful means to create geometries and allowing dynamic design exploration, but it can also impose substantial challenges. Architects often struggle with adopting algorithmic design methods (translating a design idea into an algorithm of actions), as well as with the implementation of programming languages, the latter often proving frustrating and creating barriers for both novice and advanced software users. The proposition explored in this thesis is that the reuse of design knowledge can improve architects’ ability to use algorithmic design systems, and reduce the barriers for using programming. This study explores and compares two approaches as a means of accessing and reusing existing design solutions. The first approach is the reuse of abstract algorithmic ‘Design Patterns’. The second is the reuse of algorithmic solutions from specific design cases (Case-Based Design). The research was set up as an experimental comparative study between three test groups: one group using Design Patterns, a second group using Case-Based Design, and the control group. A total of 126 designers participated in the study providing sufficient numbers within each group to permit rigorous studies of the statistical significance of the observed differences. Results of this study illustrate that the systematic inclusion of the Design Patterns approach to the learning strategy of programming in architecture and design, proves to be highly beneficial. The use of abstract solutions improves designers’ ability to overcome programming barriers, and helps architects to adopt algorithmic design methods. The use of Design Patterns also encourages design exploration and experimentation. The use of the Case-Based Design approach seems to be more effective after designers and architects, who are novices in programming, gain more experience with the tool. It encourages more focused reasoning, oriented to the realisation of a particular (originally intended) design outcome. The contribution of this research is to provide empirical evidence that the reuse of abstract and case-based algorithmic solutions can be very beneficial. Results of this study illustrate that both reuse methods can be strategically integrated into design education and architectural practice, supporting learning and use of algorithmic design systems in architecture. The study also identifies potential weaknesses of each approach, proposing areas which could be addressed by future studies.

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  • Public Streets for Multicultural Use: Exploring the Relationship between Cultural Background, Built Environment, and Social Behaviour

    Lesan, Maryam (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Public space is the domain of interest for urban planners and designers and the most important type of public space is streets. Public spaces, and particularly busy streets in urban centres, provide opportunities for people to meet, often by chance. As cities become increasingly multi-cultural in population the use and nature of public space reflects this. The best public spaces cater to the needs of all who use them and in multicultural societies this also means they must meet the expectations of people from different cultures. Many scholars have challenged the tendency for streets to be conceived of as movement channels, often at the expense of their use as social space. Streets have traditionally catered to a broad array of activities including walking, cycling and standing. Streets that facilitate such activities are preferred by the public. Streets in multicultural societies are also where people from different ethnic backgrounds find opportunities to interact. When public spaces are successful, they will increase opportunities to participate in communal activities. Spatial design is a critical success factor for streets; a goal for urban designers must be to create spaces where people from different social and cultural backgrounds value the public spaces they have access to. As cities become more multicultural the challenge is to design and manage spaces that appeal to the breadth of cultures that are represented in the population. Such public spaces are described in the literature as being more public. However, there is presently little information to help planners and designers to realise streets that appeal to people having different socio-cultural backgrounds. The research aims to identify those characteristics that will promote and maintain cultural diversity in the context of neighbourhood commercial streets in New Zealand’s multi-cultural society. The research is undertaken in two stages. “Stage One” makes use of ethnographic fieldwork as a basic method, complimented by structured field observations using a behavioural mapping procedure, and surveys of users of the streets. This stage provides data on specific streets and their usage through three case studies. Stage Two” utilises online surveys that generated data in relation to street visualizations. This stage seeks to understand what design characteristics and furniture arrangements are associated with stationary, social and gathering activities of people and to define design characteristics of footpath spaces preferred by each cultural group and all groups collectively. The main conclusion from this research is that retail activities remain the main concern of people in multi-cultural streets. Management and higher level planning of retail activities on the streets could encourage and motivate possible tenants in order to enrich the retail assortment of the street and provide a means for social and cultural diversity. In addition to business activities, spatial design characteristics are found to have an influence on people’s behaviour and activity. The findings of this research suggest that retail and business activities, together with the design and skilful management of the public areas, could support a broader range of static and social activities among people of various cultural backgrounds. The thesis makes recommendations for urban planners and designers based on the findings of the research.

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  • HIV risk and preventive behaviours among the intimate partners of men who inject drugs in Malaysia

    Abdul Manaf, Rosliza (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) comprise the highest percentage of diagnosed HIV cases in Malaysia. The female intimate partners of such men risk being infected with HIV through sexual contact. There has been no study in Malaysia, and few internationally that have examined the experiences of these women and how they protect themselves against HIV. Methods: A concurrent mixed-methods study comprising of a survey and interviews was conducted among the intimate female partners of men who inject drugs in the urban and rural areas around Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. Through respondent driven sampling and other sampling strategies, 221 women were recruited in the survey. A subsample of 22 women representing a range of ethnicities, marital status and localities were interviewed individually. The survey was analysed to examine factors associated with HIV preventive behaviour. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis to identify recurring themes. Initial data analyses of the survey and interviews were done separately, after which they were combined and triangulated to address the research questions. Findings: The results found that these female intimate partners of PWID are vulnerable to HIV, reflected by the HIV prevalence (6.3%) reported among them being much higher than that in the general Malaysian population. While 7.7% of women reported having HIV positive partners, nearly half (45.7%) were not aware of their partner’s HIV status. Unprotected sex was common, with only 19.5% using condoms regularly with their partners. The high prevalence of HIV among their partners and the low use of condoms in their relationship shows the heightened risk faced by the women. There was a positive response to the possibility of using female-controlled HIV protective methods, with 69.0% agreeing they might use them if available. Nearly two thirds felt they need to ask their partner’s permission before doing so, with married women and Muslims more likely to report it important to ask their husband’s permission. From the interviews it was clear that HIV prevention practices were not easy for many of these women. While inability to negotiate condom use was the main issue, factors such as poor risk perception, relationship power imbalances, socio-cultural norms, inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention and socio-economic hardship synergistically increased their vulnerability to HIV. The challenges of consistent condom use within a long-term relationship call for other preventive strategies for HIV prevention among this population. These need to include strengthening the HIV screening of PWID and encouraging disclosure of HIV status to their partners, while at the same time empowering women by providing alternative prevention methods that women themselves could control. Conclusion: This thesis has unfolded the realities faced by female intimate partners of PWID in Malaysia, not just in the issue of HIV prevention but also the challenges in their daily lives. The alarming risk faced by the women and the complex nature of this issue demands a well-planned and comprehensive intervention that could improve the resilience of the women towards HIV. It is hoped that the findings from this thesis are able to reflect the women’s voices and provide the opportunity for their problems to surface for appropriate attention by the relevant bodies.

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  • Radical Development: the developmental consequences of oxidative stress in zebrafish

    Newman, Trent (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Oxidative stress, an imbalance in the cellular redox systems, could be a major influence on organism development. To investigate this possibility I carried out basic research into the antioxidant systems in the zebrafish developmental model. Of interest were ways of measuring stress, ways of inducing stress, the molecular pathways involved, and the developmental consequences for the zebrafish. Peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3), the protein responsible for peroxide reduction in the mitochondia, was investigated as an indicator of oxidative stress in zebrafish. The custom antibody used in this study was capable of detecting recombinant zebrafish Prdx3 in both reduced and oxidized states. In zebrafish protein extracts the oxidized dimer ran at 37 kDa while the reduced monomer ran at 23 kDa. In addition, there was also a 15 kDa small band detected in zebrafish extracts that might represent a Prdx3 cleavage product. Immunodetection of Prdx3 redox state in zebrafish protein extracts has potential as a way of measuring the level of mitochondrial oxidative stress in vivo. Several approaches were taken to characterise the functional role of Prdx3 in the developing zebrafish embryo. Insight was gained from in situ hybridisation which showed the prdx3 transcript to be expressed in the developing haematopoietic system. Knockdown of Prdx3 in zebrafish could have allowed the function of Prdx3 to be tested in zebrafish. Unfortunately, no knockdown of Prdx3 was observed in zebrafish embryos following morpholino injection. To this end custom TALENs were constructed capable of targeting the prdx3 locus but a mutant line has not yet been established. The level of oxidative stress during embryogenesis is a largely unexplored influence on adult phenotype and subsequent generations. To induce oxidative stress in the embryo, the chemical auranofin (AFN) was used to inhibit antioxidant defences. Static embryonic exposure to AFN resulted in developmental defects, including cerebral haemorrhaging at high doses and jaw malformation at lower doses. Oxidative stress was increased in embryos exposed to AFN, as evident by the DNA damage resulting from the 5 μM dose and the increased redox state observed with the 1 μM dose. Embryos generated a transcriptional response as early as 1 dpf after AFN exposure beginning at 6 hpf. The most responsive transcripts were prdx1 and gstp1 which in response to 5 μM AFN were increased over 3 and 7 fold by 1 dpf, respectively. To investigate the long-term consequences of oxidative stress, embryos exposed to the low 0.5 μM AFN dose between 6 and 24 hpf were raised to adulthood. Both cohorts 1 and 2 showed lower odds of breeding success following the AFN treatment. Within this AFN treatment group the breeding success was lower in outcrosses of treated females. Fertilization rate was also decreased in incrosses of treated fish suggesting an effect on both males and females. Males from the treatment arms had a trend towards less motile sperm, potentially contributing to the reduced fertilization rate. There was no difference in the incidence of developmental defects in the offspring from the cohort treatment arms. Research into the mechanisms of environmentally-induced phenotypic change, and its transmission between generations, requires models in which to do so. This study contributes a basis for undertaking longitudinal cohort studies in the zebrafish. In addition, the findings support the idea that the environmental conditions during development can have long-term effects on adult health. This thesis will serve as a useful reference for hypothesis generation and the design of future studies aiming to investigate environmental effects on development and inheritance in the zebrafish model.

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  • A hierarchy of symbols : Samoan religious symbolism in New Zealand

    Duncan, Betty Kathleen (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    viii, 263 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. map ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Religious Studies

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  • La Représentation du local, de l’universel et de la réalité dans Rue la Poudrière, Le Voile de Draupadi et Le Sari vert d’Ananda Devi

    Dausoa, Mukta (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This doctoral thesis, written in French and entitled « La Représentation du local, de l’universel et de la réalité dans Rue la Poudrière, Le Voile de Draupadi et Le Sari vert d’Ananda Devi », is an in-depth historico-sociological analysis of Mauritian writer Ananda Devi’s three novels published in 1988, 1993 and 2009 respectively. Having Mauritius as their background, these three novels introduce themes such as slavery, the trans-oceanic experience of Indian indentured labourers, prostitution, rape, domestic violence and homicide, through female protagonists in Rue la Poudrière and Le Voile de Draupadi, and a male protagonist in Le Sari vert. Existing research on Devi’s work concentrates mostly on the plight of women, who are victims of a Mauritian patriarchal society. Moving away from this approach, my research focuses on the spatial, historical and sociological dimensions in order to closely analyse the surroundings of the characters. The first focus of this research is to see whether these three novels exclusively allude to Mauritian society or also deal with universal concepts. The second focus is to determine the degree of realism of these three fictional works. Thus, the overall focus of this research is to scrutinise the degree of particularism, universalisation and realism in the geographical, historical and social dimensions of the novels. I begin with a brief presentation of Ananda Devi and her place in Mauritian literature. Then, I explain the objectives of the thesis and introduce my methodologies, which include the theories of Tzvetan Todorov and Jean-Marc Moura used to analyse the local and universal aspects, and the theories of Guy de Maupassant, Roland Barthes, Maureen Ramsden, Vincent Jouve, Michael Riffaterre, Mark Sainsbury, Névine El Nossery used to frame the examination of realism. Sociological theories of Emile Durkheim and Robert Merton are also elaborated, to support the analysis of the social dimension. In order to better scrutinise the historical dimension of the novels, I have used the work of Mauritian and international historians as well as Mauritian and international governmental reports. Khal Torabully’s notion of coolitude is also discussed to evaluate how different ethnic groups are represented in the novels. I have in addition coined the term “le rêve mauricien”, in relation to the social dimension of the novels. Finally, I conclude with issues of realism, the local, the universal and fiction.

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  • Veitalatala: Mātanga ‘o e Talanoa

    Toluta'u, Talita Kiume

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study is concerned with representation. It considers the nature of a culturally located, discursive form called veitalatala and its creative translation into designed artifacts that consider the lyrical and graceful nature of Tongan women’s talanoa. The designed outcomes of the project consider the memories of three hou’eiki fafine (Tongan women) who left their homeland to settle abroad. Veitalatala: Mātanga ‘o e Talanoa is a creative synthesis of their talanoa, into new forms of artistic narrative, designed to capture the cultural and emotional resonance of their identities. The lyrical works orchestrate photography, animation, musical composition, sound design, filmed interviews, graphic design, sublimation printing on ngatu, and extensive postproduction experimentation, into unique texts that move the parameters of traditional documentation beyond conventional audio/visual interview. In so doing, the ngatu portraits and filmic veitalatala conceptually, contribute to the Tongan concept of luva (giving). Although Churchward (1959) defines veitalatala as a distinctly poetic form of talanoa, recent interviews with Havea (2014), Puloka (2014), Taliai (2014), Manu’atu, (2014), Taufa (2014), and Taumoepeau (2014) suggest that veitalatala is a complex and nuanced form of communication with diverse origins. Significantly, Tongia (2014) associates the term veitalatala with hou’eiki fafine. He suggests that it is a harmonious form of communication historically and socially related to the female gender. This thesis proposes through practice, that the tenets of veitalatala may be extended into artistic artifacts to create a contemporary, lyrical, yet culturally consistent means of representing histories and memories of Tongan hou’eiki fafine.

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  • Haematology and inflammation in infections of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    Cross, John Philip (1991)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiii, 180, i, 39 leaves, [1] folded leaf :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department : Microbiology

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