12,113 results for Doctoral

  • Communication accommodation theory: understanding language use in social interaction

    Green, James Allan (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 217, lxxxvi leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Psychology. "July 21, 2003".

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  • The free child health care scheme : implications for New Zealand general practice

    Dovey, Susan May (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 260 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Referral source selection in word of mouth communication : findings from export education movements of China and Malaysia

    Gray, Vaughan Ronald (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    264 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Marketing.

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  • Comparative feeding ecology of New Zealand marine shags (Phalacrocoracidae)

    Lalas, Chris (1983)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxii, 228 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm Includes bibliographical references. Appendix consisting of revised ch. 3 (leaves 292-308) in pocket. University of Otago department: Zoology

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  • Beyond consensus : social learning in urban planning

    Hayward, Bronwyn Mary (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 294 leaves :col. ill., maps (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geography

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  • Factors influencing the airport customer experience: a case study of Auckland International Airport's customers

    Losekoot, Erwin

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the airport customer experience. Much current research and management effort on airports focuses on efficiency, effectiveness, speed of processing and rankings on international league tables. These measures seem to reward those airports which can best move the largest number of passengers and their luggage. The writer of this study believed that the ‘experience’ of the ‘airport customer’ (passengers and those meeting or farewelling them) is not being given sufficient prominence at a time when it is recognised that the ‘experience economy’ can add value and create customer loyalty. New Zealand’s largest airport was the case study location for this research, and 120 interviews were undertaken in the airport environment with people who were experiencing the airport, either as arriving or departing passengers, or those greeting or farewelling them. In addition, 10 interviews were undertaken with airport management to explore their perceptions of the airport customer experience. All interviews with airport customers were undertaken in the land-side food court area of the international terminal. A plan of the airport is provided in Appendix 2 to assist the reader in understanding the layout of the airport. The guided conversations were focused on encouraging participants to share their perspective of the airport customer experience in order to build on what is already known from the quantitative surveys of passengers which are the more common form of research into airports. Together with the above data, the writer also kept a detailed research diary with observations made over the course of the data gathering phase. Hermeneutics guided the interpretive process which resulted in a number of overarching themes or notions which form the basis of this study’s findings. These include processes, people, physical environment and ‘placeness’. However, the research also uncovered what the writer has termed a ‘personal travel philosophy’. There was a significant number of people who, despite delays and other obstacles to their travel plans, appeared to be remarkably content with their lot at the airport, and this term is used to describe that group. The research concludes with a proposed model of the airport customer experience addressing five aspects – physical environment, processing, people, placeness and personal travel philosophy – and provides recommendations for airport management and opportunities for further academic research both in airports and in congruous areas such as hospitals. Airport management must spend time making people feel welcome if these spaces are to be perceived as hospitable places. The contribution that this thesis makes to the body of knowledge is a deeper understanding of the factors influencing the airport customer experience in the customers’ own words. It allows the voices of airport customers to be heard in a way that has not previously happened, in part because the dominant paradigm is a positivist one of facts, figures, benchmarks and league tables. By taking the time to listen carefully in an open-ended discussion, this research has identified much of what the airport customer really feels about the space they are obliged to spend an increasing amount of time in.

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  • Age-Related Changes In Memory Abilities In Older Adults

    McDonald, Matthew Stuart Maurice (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between ageing and two important everyday memory abilities, prospective remembering and autobiographical recall. In Study 1, 30 young adults (19 - 29 years), 30 middle-aged adults (30 - 59 years), and 29 older adults (60 - 86 years), completed a naturalistic prospective memory task called the Virtual Street; and an autobiographical memory interview for the recall of recent and remote life episodes. Task performance was referenced against a more traditional laboratory-based memory test, one which allows the computation of parameters of memory performance in a process dissociation procedure (PDP) paradigm. The findings suggested that prospective memory abilities were poorer for middle aged and older participants; however, all participants performed well on the errand completion aspect of the task. On the autobiographical remembering task, older adults reported more extraneous detail in both recent and remote episodic recall compared to young adults, yet tended to have a coherent storytelling approach to explaining their memories. There were no discernible age differences in recognition on the laboratory measure; however older adults did show a negative bias in their responses. In Study 2 the autobiographical memory recall abilities of older adults were further investigated. A sample of 80 adults aged between 55 and 90 years completed several neuropsychological tests. Participants’ recall of semantic self knowledge, and remote and recent vivid episodic memories was assessed in a modified verbal autobiographical fluencies (VAF) task. Participants also completed a picture source memory task, similar to the task in study 1, and measures of executive functioning, including the Controlled Oral Word Association Test-FAS version, Digit Span, and the Trail Making Test (TMT). It was hypothesised that there would be age differences in performance on these measures, especially in recollection and vivid episodic recall. Furthermore, it was hypothesised that performance on the picture memory task should be a significant predictor of the detail of vivid episodic recall regardless of memory age, and secondly that executive functions should be more related to the recall of semantic information. In theory, this would suggest hippocampal involvement for vivid episodic recollection and provide a novel test of the multiple trace theory (MTT) of memory consolidation. The findings showed that the oldest group of participants produced fewer responses in both remote and recent fluency tasks. Only remote vivid details were significantly predicted by the picture memory task; however, semantic information was predicted by executive functions. Based on the results of these two comprehensive studies it is apparent that age-related changes in everyday memory do not indicate a clear cut decline in specific functions but rather result from a complex interplay of factors.

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  • The privilege against self-incrimination in civil proceedings between private parties in Australia and New Zealand : is derivative use immunity the answer?

    Cotton, John (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 367 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30cm Includes bibliographical references. "25 October 2006". University of Otago department: Law.

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  • Values in Antarctica: Discourse Analyses of Two Topical Issues in Antarctic Policy

    Engelbertz, Sira (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In light of growing international awareness and interests in the ‘frozen continent’ of Antarctica, the topic of Values in Antarctica has recently gained more research interest. Due to the complexity of the concept of value, values in Antarctica have been approached from many different perspectives, including Antarctic wilderness and aesthetic values, values manifested in Antarctic law or value based behavioural changes through the Antarctic experience. The present thesis addresses values as human connections to Antarctica with a focus on Antarctic policy-making. The investigation contained three analytical stages that built on each other. The first stage has been an interdisciplinary literature review examining what values are and how values can be studied, but also considered values in the context of environment, human behaviour and policy. Value and value-related concepts were selected in view of a potential application to the Antarctic. The second analytical stage involved a general framework analysis of the Antarctic Treaty System to identify key elements and structures in the system suitable for a study of Antarctic values, and to develop the research questions. The third stage of analysis included empirical investigations of two Antarctic case studies. Key elements that influence the Antarctic Treaty System in a way that is relevant for a study of Antarctic values include external factors and events, action situations and actors participating in these action situations. Antarctic Treaty Meeting of Experts appeared as an action situation particularly suitable for a study of Antarctic values. The last two Antarctic Treaty Meeting of Experts on ship-borne tourism and climate change have been chosen as case studies, presenting two topical issues in Antarctic policy. Using discourse analysis based on documents submitted to the meetings and the meetings’ reports, values that are driving the discourses were to be identified through structures and patterns in the discourses. Further, based on the discourse analysis following three research questions were to be answered: What role is ascribed to Antarctica concerning contemporary issues? Where and why do conflicts arise in the ATS policy-making process that are based on conflicting values? What changes in the underlying belief-systems are driving policy-making processes and what has caused the change? Based on the literature, values are defined as internalised codes that affect behaviour and include judgements on what is good and desirable. Through the framework analysis it was identified that Antarctic policy involves a multi-layered system of different value systems, which was considered in the two case studies. For both case studies, values in the discourses were mostly identified based on Schwartz’s basic human value theory. The most prominent human value that drives both the ship-born tourism and the climate change discourse is security. Both discourses are further motivated by the conservation of the Antarctic environment and its associated ecosystems. Other values, such as power and conformity with rules were also clearly expressed in the discourses. With regard to the research questions, both case studies discussed Antarctica from two different perspectives, as a hazardous place for human activities and as a place vulnerable to any kind of changes. Conflicts in the ship-borne tourism discourse were more obvious, while the climate change discourse within the expert meeting proceeded in consensus. Value-based changes that are evident in changes in belief-systems underlying Antarctic policy-making could not be identified. This thesis argues, based on careful consideration of documents, that values play a crucial role in Antarctic policy-making at a number of different scales: individuals, political actors, and governmental levels. Values were found to be at the core of most, if not all, conflicts within the Antarctic system. Finally, this thesis provides the first understanding of the values held by the various stakeholders involved in governing and use of the Antarctic, which is crucial for further decision-making and research.

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  • Enhancing the Reading Engagement of University English Language Learners: An Action Research Project

    Lee, Jocelyn Yee Vun (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Despite burgeoning research that has been conducted on the broad term “engagement” in the past decades, research into engagement in English as a Second Language (ESL) or English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts remains scarce. Furthermore, in the English Language Learners (ELLs) context in Malaysia, where reading avoidance seems to be an issue, no research has specifically addressed reading engagement. This qualitative case study aims to increase student reading engagement through a strategy-based intervention, Comprehensive Approach to Reading Engagement (CARE), designed to engage ELLs with whom it was conducted under an action research paradigm. Another purpose of the study is to investigate the extent to which reflective practice and development as an action researcher would empower the practitioner in her professional development. Data were collected from 41 students enrolled in an intact university class for 36 hours; a duration of a semester. Six participants, each representing different engagement levels, were selected for close study. Data collected from the six participants in this study were obtained from multiple sources, including transcriptions of participants’ reflective reading logs; transcriptions of audio-recordings of group discussions and a group interview; transcriptions of audio-recordings of the researcher’s private speech during lessons; and the researcher’s reflective journal. Most of the data were qualitative, but some - such as the word count in logs, speech size, number of turns in discussion, and reading engagement scores - were quantitative. In the first phase of the action research cycle, students received explicit instruction and teacher modelling, and in the second phase, they worked more independently. The data were subject to a procedure of grounded analysis, and triangulated to achieve a thick description. The results showed that interactional opportunities such as retelling and group discussion supported four dimensions of ELLs’ reading engagement: behavioural, cognitive, emotional and agentic. From a sociocultural perspective, ELLs need one another to achieve engagement. Peer scaffolding, or collective scaffolding, in ways analogous to teacher scaffolding exemplified students’ agency. The findings of the present investigation showed that sustained silent reading, when effectively scaffolded, tended to have positive effects on ELLs. Evidence in the present study showed that growing engagement appeared to be attributed to Comprehensive Approach to Reading Engagement (CARE), which allowed ELLs to move along the reading pathways from initial engagement, to emergent engagement, and finally, deeper engagement with texts. As a means of examining the practitioner’s position and practice, action research revealed the teaching style and tacit knowledge of the practitioner’s everyday practice. As a reflective teacher, I moved along a continuum comprised of identifying a problem (students were disaffected with reading), developing a research design, collecting data, refining the procedures, analysing the data, and presenting aspects of the study in the public domain. The present case study can be related, rather than generalised, to similar contexts. The study can make an original contribution to an academic understanding of reading engagement and the teacher’s reflective practice in relatable contexts. These findings have important implications for practitioners and researchers; they suggest that neglecting the role of reading engagement could be the cause of missed opportunities to support ELL literacy development and students’ critical thinking stance. The present study also shows that developing reflective opportunities has evident consequences for teachers who are engaging in action research.

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  • Evolution Of The Unnecessary : Investigating How fMet Became Central In Bacterial Translation Initiation

    Catchpole, Ryan Joseph (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    All bacteria initiate translation using formylated methionine, yet directly after translation, the formyl-group is removed. This sequence of addition and removal appears futile, yet every sequenced bacterial genome encodes the enzymes for formylation and deformylation, suggesting this process is essential. Puzzlingly, the process is absent from both Archaea and Eukaryotes, and moreover, bacterial mutants lacking both the formylase and deformylase activities are viable, albeit with a diminished growth rate. We created an Escherichia coli strain devoid of formylase and deformylase activity. This strain was then allowed to evolve over 1500 generations whereupon it reached wild-type growth rate, demonstrating that formylation can be completely dispensed with. This raises an additional question: if the formylation cycle is unnecessary, how did it emerge and why has it persisted? Our results show that the formylation-deformylation cycle could have evolved as a toxin-antitoxin pair (TA) with post-segregational killing (PSK) activity. TAs ‘addict’ cells to the plasmids that carry them by inducing PSK. We measured the stability of formylase-deformylase encoding plasmids and their ability to elicit PSK in our evolved E. coli strain. We report several lines of evidence consistent with the formylation-cycle having evolved from a plasmid-borne PSK element: 1) in the absence of deformylation, formyl-methionine on proteins is cytotoxic in bacteria 2) deformylation relieves the cytotoxicity of formyl-methionine, 3) the loss of a plasmid containing formylase and deformylase genes from evolved cells results in cessation of growth – a standard PSK phenotype. In addition, we introduced the E. coli formylase and deformylase genes into yeast and demonstrate that Met-tRNA formylation is not lethal, even in the absence of deformylation. This suggests PSK would be ineffectual in yeast, accounting for the absence of formylation from eukaryotic cytoplasmic translation. We also report the presence of formylase and deformylase genes in the two representative members of the archaeal Methanocopusculum genus. Moreover, we demonstrate that these genes have been acquired by a recent horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Our results indicate that formylmethionine use in bacteria evolved, not through a direct functional benefit to cells, but through competition between infectious genetic elements.

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  • Embodied Cognition and Representation in Domesticated Dogs

    Osto, Kate (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Embodied cognition is a relatively recent approach in the philosophy of mind. Similarly, the volume of research into dog cognition has increased in the last decade and is set to keep on growing as we learn more about the animals with which we have associated for so long. This thesis argues that the principles of embodied cognition can be productively applied to the study of dogs. Adoption of these principles can improve experimental design and inform the conclusions that we draw from empirical data regarding dogs’ cognitive capacities and behaviour. This dissertation advocates for ethologically appropriate studies, designed for dogs rather than humans, a greater emphasis on the dynamic interplay between the dog, environment and humans, and fresh interpretations of the behaviour and cognitive skills that dogs demonstrate. Moreover, the models of embodied representation expounded in this thesis aid our understanding of dog behaviour and cognition and can enhance our approach to dog training. The thesis closes with a case for embodied representations as facilitators of rational actions in the domesticated dog.

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  • Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils and functional properties of their seed cakes

    Teh, Sue-Siang (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    New Zealand cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions, tocopherols, β-carotene, chlorophyll, total phenolics, flavonoids, color, quality, melting and crystallization characteristics. The dominant fatty acid of canola, hemp and flax seed oils was oleic (57.0 ± 0.0%), linoleic (55.7 ± 0.3%) and linolenic acids (58.7 ± 1.2%), respectively (P < 0.05). Hemp seed oil contained the highest tocopherol, flavonoid and phenolic acid contents. There was a significant difference in color of the oils (P < 0.05) due to the chlorophyll content. Melting and crystallization transitions and enthalpy heat change (∆H) values varied for the three oils in the order canola > flax > hemp. All oils had low moisture and volatiles, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids content. Peroxide value, p-anisidine, conjugated dienoic acid, acid value, specific extinction of cold-pressed oils at 232 and 270 nm were under the value of limit allowed in general regulations. Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content of 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids of 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE.100 g-1 fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH˙ of 33.03 ± 0.38%; total antioxidant capacity (TAC, FRAP assay) of 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II).g-1 fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05) concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems. The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70ºC) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the polyphenol extraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70ºC of ultrasonic temperature. The use of microwave and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing to optimize polyphenol extraction from defatted hemp seed cake in mixed solvent of methanol, acetone and water (MAW, 7:7:6 v/v/v) was investigated using the Box-Behnken response surface method. A variables combination for microwave processing of time, microwave power and liquid to solid (L:S) ratio and for PEF (ethanol concentration, time, frequency and voltage) were used in the investigation. Following microwave or PEF treatments, the polyphenols were extracted from the samples under ultrasound with fixed variables (200 W of ultrasonic power, water bath of 70°C and 20 min of extraction time). The measured responses were total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), DPPH˙ scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). The optimum variables combination for microwave processing (5 min treatment time, L:S ratio of 6, 700 W power and volume 30 mL) resulted in maximum yields in all measured responses for defatted hemp seed cake. Under the optimum condition of microwave processing except the microwave power, the microwave power 644 W and 633.3 W resulted in maximum yields in all measured responses for defatted flax and canola seed cakes respectively. The PEF-assisted extraction (voltage (30 V), frequency (30 Hz), ethanol concentration (10%) and time (10 s) resulted in maximum yields in all measured responses for all defatted seed cakes. The bioactive compounds from the cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils, as well as their oilseed cakes were further investigated. For their effect-directed analysis, planar chromatography was combined with several assays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) scavenging, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, planar yeast estrogen screen (pYES), antimicrobial Bacillus subtilis and Aliivibrio fischeri assays. The streamlined high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-bioassay method allowed the discovery of unknown bioactive compounds present in these oilseed cake extracts. A first characterization of the unknown bioactive compounds was performed by HPTLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) using the elution-head based TLC-MS-Interface. The results showed that the hemp, flax and canola seed oils, as well as their oilseed cakes possessed various bioactive compounds that can be further characterized by mass spectrometry. In contrast to target analysis, the comprehensive information with regard to effects allowed a first bioactivity evaluation on the feed intake side, which can be used to isolate and yield active compounds for functional food or justify functional feed supplements. The effect of the defatting process, acid and alkali extractions on the physicochemical and functional properties of hemp, flax and canola protein isolates was studied. The defatting process enriched the protein content from around 35% to 52 – 55% in the defatted oilseed cakes. Further treatment with acid and alkali led to the highest enrichment (P < 0.05) in the protein content (> 90%). The defatting process produced the lightest (P < 0.05) colour compared to the parent oilseed cakes and the protein isolates. Alkali extraction produced protein isolates with the highest (P < 0.05) water holding capacity (WHC) while the original oilseed cakes had the highest oil holding capacity (OHC). Acid and alkali extractions produced protein isolates with the highest emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES). The alkaline soluble flax protein isolate and acid hemp protein isolate had the highest (P < 0.05) creaming stability (CS) and largest droplet size (DS) respectively. Amino acid profiles of protein isolates after acid and alkali extraction were improved, leading to a protein suitable for fortification in food products that meet human nutrition requirements. AL-HPI & AC-HPI were hydrolysed by proteases namely AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain. The proteases were evaluated for their caseinolytic activities. The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant HPHs were accessed through ORAC, DPPH˙ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. Among all proteases, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPH˙ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations. This was due to the highest caseinolytic and proteolytic activities exhibited by HT. The acidic subunit of edestin in AL-HPI was completely hydrolyzed by HT in 1 h, and the complete digestion of the basic edestin subunit was achieved at 2 h. The particle size of the resultant hydrolysates was gradually decreased upon hydrolysis, depending on the types of proteases and substrates. Al-HPI was the best substrate that led to the higher bioactivities compared to AC-HPI. The HT hydrolysate generated from AL-HPI at 2 h hydrolysis time was selected for further fractionated using OFFGEL and RP-HPLC. The result showed that F10, F12 and F14 from the OFFGEL fractionation exhibited higher ORAC and ACE-inhibitory activities among all the OFFGEL fractions. Hence, F10, F12 and F14 were selected for further purification into several peptides fractions by RP-HPLC prior to ORAC and ACE-inhibitory assays. For the RP-HPLC fractionated peptide fractions from OFFGEL F10, the RP-HPLC F10 exhibited the highest ORAC activity (750.35 µM Trolox.g-1 sample) and ACE-inhibitory activities (80.56%). For the RP-HPLC fractionated peptide fractions from OFFGEL F12, the RP-HPLC F17 had the highest ORAC value (756.34 µM Trolox.g-1 sample) and ACE-inhibitory activities (76.57%). For the RP-HPLC fractionated peptide fractions from OFFGEL F14, the RP-HPLC F17, F18, & F19 exhibited the highest ORAC activity (764.57, 758.65, & 752.47 µM Trolox.g-1 sample respectively) among all the RP-HPLC fractions, and the RP-HPLC F19 possessed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (75.68%). In summary, cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils are healthy oils for human consumption with desirable PUFA content and bioactive compounds. The by-products, oilseed cakes have great potential as new product development in food and pharmaceutical industries such as polyphenols, protein isolates and bioactive peptides.

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  • Luck egalitarianism and educational equality.

    Calvert, John Sinclair (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates whether luck egalitarianism can provide a cogent and coherent interpretation of educational equality. Historically, the belief that each child should receive an equally good education has exerted a strong influence on policy makers and thus on educational practice, and this despite the vagueness of the egalitarian formula. More recently however, the ideal has been undermined in practice by the rise of neoliberalism and in theory by a number of thinkers advocating other principles of educational justice. But it is vital to be clear about what each child is owed because of the profound effects of education on a person’s life prospects. The motivation for this work is therefore to determine whether educational equality can be rescued as a desirable and animating ideal of educational justice. In order to achieve this, I examine luck egalitarianism, a theory of distributive justice that has its origins in the work of John Rawls, but is now the major rival to his account of egalitarian justice. I probe at the fundamental moral intuitions underpinning luck egalitarianism and how it brings together the morally potent ideas of equality, luck and choice. I argue that these are of relevance for the education each child is owed and I propose a luck egalitarian conception of educational equality, argue that it is a cogent interpretation of egalitarian justice, and conclude that a luck egalitarian conception shows educational equality to be an ideal that is relevant, coherent and what morally matters most for justice in education. I describe luck egalitarianism as resting on three basic moral beliefs: that distributive equality is a fundamental demand of justice; that luck undermines fair equality; and that a person’s genuine choices can sometimes, under certain background conditions, render some otherwise objectionable inequalities not unjust. I then examine whether these three beliefs are compatible with each other and what, if anything, links them. Next, I consider luck egalitarianism’s status as a theory of distributive justice and argue that far from this being a weakness, as Elizabeth Anderson (1999) has notably argued, it is a strength of the position. But to appreciate this it needs to be seen that luck egalitarianism makes no claim to being all of justice and that the equalisandum of equality is complex and egalitarianism is intrinsically pluralist in nature (with a particular understanding of what is meant by pluralist). I consider too whether it is a mistake to say that inequalities that are largely due to luck can really be thought of as unjust. Thomas Nagel (1997) has argued that it is merely misfortune, unless the result of deliberate actions or social structures for which someone is responsible. I reject that position and argue that no one has to be responsible for an inequality for it to be unjust. Having interrogated luck egalitarianism and found it to be a sound account of egalitarian distributive justice, I turn to looking at whether it can illuminate our understanding of educational equality. Educational equality is often interpreted in terms of equality of educational opportunity. I look particularly at a conception of equality of educational opportunity, strongly influenced by Rawls, that has been thoughtfully and carefully articulated by Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift (2008). I find their conception powerful, but flawed, and argue that a luck egalitarian conception can account for the appeal of their conception, but is an advance on it. I end by looking at a specific question of educational justice to test the luck egalitarian conception – is there anything inegalitarian about ability grouping? I conclude that, while still needing to have its implications worked out in full, particularly as regards choice, a luck egalitarian conception provides a compelling account of educational equality and reasserts that equality matters for justice in education.

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  • The quantification and visualisation of human flourishing.

    Henley, Lisa (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Economic indicators such as GDP have been a main indicator of human progress since the first half of last century. There is concern that continuing to measure our progress and / or wellbeing using measures that encourage consumption on a planet with limited resources, may not be ideal. Alternative measures of human progress, have a top down approach where the creators decide what the measure will contain. This work defines a 'bottom up' methodology an example of measuring human progress that doesn't require manual data reduction. The technique allows visual overlay of other 'factors' that users may feel are particularly important. I designed and wrote a genetic algorithm, which, in conjunction with regression analysis, was used to select the 'most important' variables from a large range of variables loosely associated with the topic. This approach could be applied in many areas where there are a lot of data from which an analyst must choose. Next I designed and wrote a genetic algorithm to explore the evolution of a spectral clustering solution over time. Additionally, I designed and wrote a genetic algorithm with a multi-faceted fitness function which I used to select the most appropriate clustering procedure from a range of hierarchical agglomerative methods. Evolving the algorithm over time was not successful in this instance, but the approach holds a lot of promise as an alternative to 'scoring' new data based on an original solution, and as a method for using alternate procedural options to those an analyst might normally select. The final solution allowed an evolution of the number of clusters with a fixed clustering method and variable selection over time. Profiling with various external data sources gave consistent and interesting interpretations to the clusters.

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  • The influence of Confucian values: students’ understandings of classroom behaviours and learning practices in a university in Central China

    Song, Jinhua

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The research aims to investigate the influences of Confucian values on university students’ classroom behaviours and learning practices in Central China. Using a Foucauldian 'genealogical approach' the thesis investigated the extent to which contemporary students in a Western/central university still employ Confucius's ideas in their thinking about education, and in their own learning practices, in the classroom and outside it. The interviews showed how deeply embedded Confucian ideas were: to the extent that they were part of the students' conception of their own identities, despite the inroads of competing ideologies. The results highlighted individual students’ ability to reflect on Confucian values, and demonstrated the significant role played by students’ notice of their own identities in dealing with the influence of Confucian values. The study identified some similarities to and differences from existing literature. It made a new contribution to knowledge by exploring the overlooked element of Confucius' emphasis on joy in learning. It broke new grounds by exploring the tensions in student’s minds as they reconciled Confucian traditions, Maoist ideas and western ideas. The students’ views gave fresh insights into students’ agential powers and structural or cultural influences in the area of learning. This research provided an opportunity for students to reflect on their individual practices in their environment, to voice their concerns, and to uncover their own deep assumptions and tradition by unearthing the influence of Confucian values on their learning ideas, behaviours and practices. All teachers of Chinese students can benefit by being aware of these influences on their students. The research results could be used to develop university policies. Also learning skills support and teaching pace might be made culturally relevant, especially when students come from a Chinese cultural background.

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  • Spatial and temporal genetic structure of the New Zealand scallop Pecten novaezelandiae: A multidisciplinary perspective

    Nunes Soares Silva, Catarina (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Knowledge about the population genetic structure of species and the factors shaping such patterns is crucial for effective management and conservation. The complexity of New Zealand’s marine environment presents a challenge for management and the classification of its marine biogeographic areas. As such, it is an interesting system to investigate marine connectivity dynamics and the evolutionary processes shaping the population structure of marine species. An accurate description of spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal and population structure requires the use of tools capable of incorporating the variability of the mechanisms involved. However, these techniques are yet to be broadly applied to New Zealand marine organisms. This study used genetic markers to assess the genetic variation of the endemic New Zealand scallop, Pecten novaezelandiae, at different spatial and temporal scales. A multidisciplinary approach was used integrating genetic with environmental data (seascape genetics) and hydrodynamic modelling tools. P. novaezelandiae supports important commercial, recreational and customary fisheries but there is no previous information about its genetic structure. Therefore, twelve microsatellite markers were developed for this study (Chapter 2). Samples (n=952) were collected from 15 locations to determine the genetic structure across the distribution range of P. novaezelandiae. The low genetic structure detected in this study is expected given the recent evolutionary history, the large reproductive potential and the pelagic larval duration of the species (approximately 3 weeks). A significant isolation by distance signal and a degree of differentiation from north to south was apparent, but this structure conflicted with some evidence of panmixia. A latitudinal genetic diversity gradient was observed that might reflect the colonisation and extinction events and insufficient time to reach migration-drift equilibrium during a recent range expansion (Chapter 3). A seascape genetic approach was used to test for associations between patterns of genetic variation in P. novaezelandiae and environmental variables (three geospatial and six environmental variables). Although the geographic distance between populations was an important variable explaining the genetic variation among populations, it appears that levels of genetic differentiation are not a simple function of distance. Evidence suggests that some environmental factors such as freshwater discharge and suspended particulate matter can be contributing to the patterns of genetic differentiation of P. novaezelandiae in New Zealand (Chapter 4). Dispersal of P. novaezelandiae was investigated at a small spatial and temporal scale in the Coromandel fishery using genetic markers integrated with hydrodynamic modelling. For the spatial analysis, samples (n=402) were collected in 2012 from 5 locations and for the temporal analysis samples (n=383) were collected in 2012 and 2014 from 3 locations. Results showed small but significant spatial and temporal genetic differentiation, suggesting that the Coromandel fishery does not form a single panmictic unit with free gene flow and supporting a model of source-sink population dynamics (Chapter 5). The importance of using multidisciplinary approaches at different spatial and temporal scales is widely recognized as a means to better understand the complex processes affecting marine connectivity. The outcomes of this study highlight the importance of incorporating these different approaches, provide vital information to assist in effective management and conservation of P. novaezelandiae and contribute to our understanding of evolutionary processes shaping population structure of marine species.

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  • Molecular and serological studies of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in Otago

    Hall, Dugald Cameron Alexander (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxxv, 494 p. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "September 2002". University of Otago department: Microbiology.

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  • Kia Whakamaramatia Mahi Titi : Predictive measures for understanding harvest impacts on Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    Clucas, Rosemary (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    1 v. (various pagings) :ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "July 26, 2009". University of Otago department: Mathematics and Statistics

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  • Characterization of ORFV119

    Harfoot, Rhodri Thomas (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A large number of viruses are known to produce proteins that interact with pRB. For the most part these are small DNA viruses, such as Adenovirus and Human papilloma virus, which require that the cell be in a replicative state itself before they can replicate themselves. For this purpose, these viruses produce proteins (E1A and E7 respectively) that bind to pRB and disrupt its interaction with E2F family members, thereby pushing the cells into the synthesis phase of the cell cycle, and enabling the virus to utilize the resources that the cell generates for replication. At this point, the invading virus co-opts the host-cell replication machinery to replicate the viral genome and produce the protein coat. Poxviruses complete their replication cycle in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus, and encode much of their own replication machinery, and as such were, until recently not thought to co-opt host cellular replicative mechanisms. Moreover, until recently, poxviruses were also not thought to alter the cell cycle extensively. Based on these concepts, it seemed unlikely that poxviruses would encode a putative pRB binding protein. This thesis aimed to identify and characterize a novel pRB binding protein from orf virus (ORFV), known as ORFV119. Bioinformatics analyses predicted that, the ORFV119 protein contained two putative functional motifs, a pRB binding motif (LXCXE) in the C terminus and a mitochondrial targeting motif in the N terminus. These motifs both matched closely those found in other proteins known to contain the respective motifs. It was found that ORFV119 was completely conserved within isolates orf virus, and homologues were present in other species within the Parapoxvirus genus, but largely absent outside this clade, apart from in Molluscipoxvirus. ORFV119 was determined to be an early gene by detection of the protein 8 hours post infection using an antiserum against ORFV119 developed during this thesis. The protein was detected as a punctate staining in the cytoplasm, that co-localized with mitochondria. In the absence of the putative mitochondrial targeting motif, the staining was dispersed throughout the cell with occasionally enhanced signal in the nucleus. A construct expressing only the predicted pRB binding motif fused to GFP showed a similar pattern to that seen for constructs where the mitochondrial targeting motif had been removed. A construct which had had the LXCXE domain removed showed staining similar to full-length protein. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that full-length ORFV119 was capable of binding to, and co-precipitating pRB, and that this was dependent on the presence of the LXCXE motif, indicating that ORFV119 does bind to pRB through a canonical mechanism. Luciferase assays for E2F responsive promoter activity found that ORFV is capable of a mild activation of E2F responsive promoters. Full length ORFV119 was also able to stimulate E2F responsive promoter activity. The same assays performed using ORFV119 truncations showed that upon removal of the LXCXE motif, ORFV119 was still capable of activating E2F responsive promoters, but removal of the mitochondrial targeting motif removed this ability. It is postulated that this is due to the structure of ORFV119 and its respective truncation mutants, where ORFV119 and the delta-LXCXE mutants both had structures similar to pRB, whereas the delta-Mito did not, thus it could be that ORFV119 is mimicking pRB and competing with pRB for E2F. A Molluscum contagiosum virus (MOCV) protein with a similar range of properties has been identified (Mohr et al., 2008). Phylogenetic comparison of the ORFV and MOCV proteins indicates low sequence similarity and identity, despite overall similarities in protein size and positions of the motifs. This indicates that it is unlikely that the two proteins are related, but rather a common solution to a common problem. In summary, this is the first report of a novel pRB binding and mitochondrial targeting protein from orf virus, which may enable the virus to create a cellular environment conducive for viral replication.

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