490 results for Masters, 2007

  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • Myth busting and tenet building: Primary and early childhood teachers' understanding of the nature of science.

    Heap, R (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A fundamental objective of science education is to provide students with the level of scientific literacy necessary to participate in a society increasingly dependent on science and technology. Central to definitions of this scientific literacy is an appreciation of the nature of science (NOS). The purpose of the research project was to identify the understandings of NOS of a cohort of practising primary and early childhood teachers, enrolled in a semester long science course as part of a Bachelor of Education degree. The research sought to examine their initial NOS understandings and mapped these understandings over the duration of the course in order to identify shifts in understanding and aspects of NOS resistant to change. The research was embedded in critical social science methodology. An explicit reflective approach was used throughout the course instruction to teach NOS tenets. Two frameworks were developed to analyse the data gathered, a myths framework and a NOS framework. Analysis of the pre-instruction views showed that the teachers initial understandings of NOS were fragmented, lacking in depth, inconsistent, fluid and revealed many myths of NOS. Over the duration of the course the teachers journals showed shifts in understanding: NOS tenets were more frequently expressed; there was an increase in the complexity of expression; and an increase in the integration or interrelatedness of NOS tenets. Factors which contributed to these shifts in understanding included the use of an explicit approach, consistency between explicit and implicit instruction, reflection, a conceptual change approach and the use of generic science-content-free NOS activities throughout the course. These findings suggest a need for NOS to be addressed in both pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher professional development programmes. The research has indicated that an explicit, reflective teaching approach is pedagogically effective for this need.

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  • Utilising Practice Development and the PARIHS Framework to Implement the Liverpool Care Pathway

    MacKenzie, Theresa Mary (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The LCP is an evidence-based integrated care pathway that provides guidance to generic health care professionals to deliver best practice end-of-life care. My role as the LCP Project Coordinator in a District Health Board in New Zealand is central to the exploration of this process of implementing practice change. Working with clinicians to advance effective care and management of patients during the process of dying in an acute hospital setting requires not only knowledge and understanding of the clinical pathway and evidence supporting best practice, but also careful working with cultural and contextual change. This paper descriptively addresses the bases of both components, and provides a case example of the development. Working with health care professionals to bring about practice change is complex and challenging. Successful implementation of evidence in practice is dependant not only on the strength and nature of the evidence, but also the context and models of facilitation. Practice development (PD) methodology informs the realities and complexities of practice change and of achieving sustainable development. The 'Promoting Action in Research Implementation in Health Services' (PARIHS) framework identifies the interplay and interdependence of factors that resonate with the reality of the complexity of practice change in relation to the evidence and best practice for particular clinical contexts. Highlighting PD processes and the relevance of the PARIHS framework alongside real-time practice change will continue to stimulate recognition of change and development complexities and bring consideration of these as robust methods for working between the theory and implementation of evidence in practice.

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  • Representations of Chinese Women Warriors in the Cinemas of Hong Kong, Mainland China and Taiwan since 1980.

    Chen, Yunxiang (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The subject of this thesis is the depiction of Chinese women warriors in the cinemas of Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China since 1980. Women warriors have been a popular feature of Western media since the 1970s influenced by the second wave women's movement, and have become a significant topic of academic study. However, Chinese women warriors are combined with and referred to as 'Asian' women without consideration of their cultural differences. Furthermore, although representations of women warriors in the cinemas of Hong Kong, Mainland China and Taiwan may share some similarities, they also exhibit different regional features. This thesis attempts to reveal regional differences in the representations of women warriors in Chinese language films and their sociocultural contexts since 1980. An important goal of such research is to contribute to the study of the 'woman warrior' phenomenon in Chinese cinemas, in the hope that it will arouse interest in the field. This thesis also aims to focus attention on the changing status of Chinese women in different communities. Since gender is a global issue, it is hoped that the feminist perspective adopted here will stimulate interest among film specialists, not only in Chinese women in films, but also in the broader field of gender studies.

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  • Stress experienced by parents from the neonatal intensive care unit

    Steedman, Wendy Kate (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The psychometric properties of this Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU) were assessed, before using the scale to describe stress experienced by parents in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The extent to which parental stress from the parent-infant relationship in the unit was linked to parenting they received as a child, and adjustment to their couple relationship, was also examined. The sample consisted of 182 mothers and 183 fathers, who were in a cohabitating relationship, of infants from the NICU at Christchurch Women's Hospital. The self-report questionnaires included the PSS:NICU, Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and were administered to parents within 2-3 weeks of their infant's birth. This study extends the finding of satisfactory psychometric properties of the PSS:NICU (Franck, Cox, Allen & Winter, 2005; Miles, Funk & Carlson, 1993; Reid & Bramwell, 2003) to this New Zealand sample. Mothers experienced significantly higher stress from the unit compared to fathers (p < .01). A previous finding, for mothers, of the parent-infant relationship being the most stressful aspect of the unit (Franck et al., 2005; Reid & Bramwell, 2003; Shields-Poe & Pinelli, 1997) extends to the New Zealand sample. The most stressful aspect of the unit for fathers was sights and sounds. Lack of evidence was found for associations between parental stress from the parent-infant relationship in the unit and parenting received as a child, or adjustment to their couple relationship. A weak but significant negative correlation was, however, found between stress from the mother-infant relationship and maternal care received in childhood. It is unnecessary to provide all parents with intervention further to what is already being practiced in the unit, as overall low levels of stress were reported. Some parents, however, did find the unit more stressful, and they may benefit from increased intervention.

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  • Catholic and Protestant faith communities in Thuringia after the Second World War, 1945-1948

    Fenwick, Luke Peter (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 1945, many parts of Germany lay in rubble and there was a Zeitgeist of exhaustion, apathy, frustration and, in places, shame. German society was disorientated and the Catholic and Protestant churches were the only surviving mass institutions that remained relatively independent from the former Nazi State. Allowed a general religious freedom by the occupying forces, the churches provided the German population with important spiritual and material support that established their vital post-war role in society. The churches enjoyed widespread popular support and, in October 1946, over 90 percent of the population in the Soviet zone (SBZ) claimed membership in either confession. This thesis is a social history that examines the position of the churches in Thuringia, as a case study, between 1945 and 1948 and aims to evaluate their social and moral influence on the population. It seeks to readdress the considerable dearth of historiographical attention given to the role of the churches in people's everyday lives. In summary, despite a general religious revival in 1945, the popularity of the churches was both short-lived and superficial. Although the churches were industrious in attempting to provide for everybody, the acute destitution encountered by the Thuringian population in 1945 was a chronic problem that undermined the authority of the churches. This was revealed in the inability of the churches to influence faith communities to regularly attend church, to welcome refugees and to feel some responsibility for the Nazi past. Meanwhile, by 1948, the dominant political party, the Socialist Unity Party (SED), had tightened its control over social life in the SBZ. Instead of heeding the voice and dictates of the churches, the population fell into an ideological apathy that favoured the SED, despite the party's own widespread unpopularity. The result was the almost unchallenged, increasing power of socialism in the SBZ that ultimately led to the establishment of the German Democratic Republic under the aegis of the SED with the churches' acquiescence.

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  • Ten years on, where to next? : Rotorua principals' perceptions of the Christchurch College of Education Rotorua regional initiative : a case study : research project report.

    Hunt, Anne-Marie (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this case study was to document four Rotorua principals' perceptions of the Christchurch College of Education (CCE) Rotorua regional primary pre-service teacher education programme ten years on from its establishment in late 1996. According to Cameron & Baker (2004) few papers have been prepared describing such new flexible delivery mode approaches. The Rotorua Principals' Association was the key motivator for this innovative regional based approach. The importance I place on principals' perceptions along with national concerns and subsequent government reviews and reports on initial teacher education and the pending merger of CCE with the University of Canterbury (UC) on 1 January, 2007 created the need for this project within the context I have worked for the past decade. The findings ofthis case study confirmed the perception of several aspects of 'quality' associated with this CCE regional programme over the past decade. Principal 'involvement' with this programme was highly valued with the desire for this to continue into the future clearly expressed. CCE 'responsiveness' to identified regional needs over the past decade was appreciated with some concerns formally documented that could inform future responses to pending curriculum changes. Principals' perceptions ofresearch; the benefits and concerns and future considerations for the newly formed University of Canterbury College of Education (CoEd) became evident within the interviews and discussions with principals. It is hoped that the findings of this project could contribute to and inform future UC and CoEd practices and policy decisions for initial teacher education.

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  • Paradigms on Indigenous Language Revitalisation: the Case of Te Reo Maori in Aotearoa New Zealand and Mapudungun in Chile

    Gallegos, Carina (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The existence of systems of indigenous knowledge depend greatly on the existence of indigenous languages. Processes of language revitalisation seek to uphold indigenous knowledge by restoring endangered indigenous languages. Historical processes of colonisation and globalisation in Chile and Aotearoa New Zealand have impacted and threatened each country's indigenous language. This dissertation describes language revitalisation processes of te reo Maori in Aotearoa New Zealand and Mapudungun in Chile in order to further understand the implications of language on effectively revitalising indigenous culture and knowledge. The research and analysis presented implements comparative methodology through the use of case studies, direct observations, primary and secondary data sources. In an effort to evaluate and compare outcomes of indigenous language revitalisation schemes of te reo Maori in Aotearoa New Zealand and Mapudungun in Chile, this thesis focuses on case studies in the context of how education programmes in each country approach indigenous language revitalisation.

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  • A Direction and Principles for the Reshaping the Government's Climate Change Communications and Engagement Strategy

    Hannant, Alex (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Climate change is a global challenge that requires immediate individual and collective action. The self-evident fact that information alone is unable to motivate action suggests that effective communications and engagement will be critical in stimulating the required response. This research project explores how strategic thinking can be employed to support the New Zealand Government's climate change communication and engagement objectives. Strategic thinking is the active and deliberate pursuit of synthesising evidence with a creative anticipation of what might be possible. Rather than work within parameters set by precedent and convention, it represents the deliberate intent to question, disrupt and design new courses of action. This research explores the inertia in mainstream attitudes and behaviours towards climate change; relevant communications and social science best practice and theory; recent trends in New Zealand; and views and opinions from a diverse range of experts. The research outcome is a set of interconnected and interdependent principles that serve to inform and lead the development of a national climate change communications and engagement strategy.

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  • Walking in Two Worlds: A Kaupapa Maori Research Project Examining the Experiences of Maori Nurses Working in District Health Boards, Maori Mental Health Services

    Saba, Wakaiti (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Maori mental health nurses undertake alternative ways to practice which are informed by Maori philosophies and principles. This includes a view of health that is holistic and incorporates ideas of the entire rather than the part. This research project investigates the experiences of Maori nurses working in District Health Board (DHB) Maori Mental Health (MMH) services in order to illuminate the practices, skills and knowledge bases that Maori nurses utilise to work with Maori people. This study was undertaken using a Kaupapa Maori research framework. This particular approach permits the validation of nursing practice and knowledge that MMH nurses acquire, develop and use to "walk in two worlds", te ao Maori (the Maori world) and te ao Pakeha (the Western world). The underlying philosophy and principles of a Kaupapa Maori approach provided the cultural framework that was familiar to the participants as Maori nurses. The five participants were MMH nurses who had previously worked or were currently working in services for a period of at least six months. Two semi-structured focus group interviews were used to gather the nurse's discussions of their experiences. Their stories were analysed using an integrated Kaupapa Maori (Maori philosophy) and interpretive-narrative approach. Dissemination of the findings resulted in the development of four dimensions of Maori nursing practice. These were Whanaungatanga (Affiliation); Manamotuhake (Affirmation); Nga whawhai kia haere nga tahi ana (Alignment); and Te kai o te Rangatira, ko te whaikorero (Articulation). These dimensions are broad concepts that capture the unique practice and knowledge necessary to work effectively as a MMH nurse. Understanding these dimensions will assist other nurses in preparing to work within MMH services. They will also help services to identify and implement strategies to support nurses to work more effectively and safely, ultimately enhancing the provision of care and treatment for Maori people.

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  • Enhancing 3D Models with Urban Information: A Case Study Involving Local Authorities and Property Professionals in New Zealand: Quantifying the Benefit of 3D over Alternative 2D systems

    Ryan, Rachel Anne (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis aimed to reach two principal outcomes: To develop a robust testing methodology that allowed a detailed and fair comparative analysis of the benefit, or otherwise, of 3D methods of information interrogation over alternative 2D methods; and to test the ability for a single model to have multiple user-group functionality. The research used the examples of two user-groups within the urban planning industry and their typical decision making processes. A robust testing methodology was developed to investigate the usefulness of 3D in a detailed and focused manner involving individual end-users as participants in a case study. The development of this efficient process assisted the study in moving past the initial visual impact of the models. The method employed a combination of three research instruments: A focus group formed the base from which an urban planning task, questionnaire and guided discussion investigated evidence for the benefit or otherwise of 3D using both quantitative and subjective measures. Two widely disparate user-groups were selected to further test the functionality of a resource to meet the needs of multiple users: city council urban designers and property developers. The research revealed that 3D methods of information visualisation allow users to develop a greater spatial awareness, increasing their understanding of information, when compared to alternative 2D methods. While evidence for this benefit was established using both quantitative and subjective methods, the research proved that this increased understanding does not necessarily lead to quicker decisions as the 2D group completed the task faster and more accurately than the 3D group. The ability for a single model to have multiple user-group functionality was confirmed as each of two disparate user-groups noted that the availability of the other user-group's information was of positive benefit to their understanding of the proposed development within the urban planning task.

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  • Distributed Small-Scale Wind in New Zealand: Advantages, Barriers and Policy Support Instruments

    Barry, Martin (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Despite having one of the best wind resources in the world, New Zealand’s wind energy industry is growing at a slower rate than the OECD average. This is arguably due to a lack of appropriate government support, with industry development largely being left to the market. These conditions have created a wind industry with the following four characteristics: a trend toward large-scale wind farms (leading to increased local opposition), a small number of investors, a high geographic concentration of wind capacity and a limited local turbine manufacturing industry. These characteristics are arguably limiting the potential growth of New Zealand’s wind industry. This thesis investigates whether small-scale wind (SSW) farms can alleviate these limiting characteristics and thus provide for a higher rate of industry growth. The approach is to investigate the advantages of, barriers to, and most effective policy instruments for SSW internationally, and apply these to the New Zealand context. Local research was conducted through interviews with 19 energy industry stakeholders and a rural mail survey questionnaire, to which 338 people responded. Research found that SSW offers a number of advantages: significantly higher local public acceptance; facilitation of community ownership; the potential for distributed generation benefits and support for the local turbine manufacturing industry. Given these findings, it is argued that SSW can provide for a higher rate of industry growth in New Zealand. The key barriers constraining SSW in New Zealand are its high cost, obtaining resource consent, a high degree of perceived investment risk, the electricity pricing system and the electricity market structure. The feed-in tariff appears to be the best policy instrument to overcome these barriers, along with the provision of investment subsidies and the classification of SSW as a controlled activity under the Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA).

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  • An Exploration of the Transition of Patients From Intensive Care to the Ward Environment: a Ward Nursing Perspective

    Bunn, Sandra (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Background: The transition of patients from intensive care to the ward environment is a regular occurrence in intensive care. Today patients are often transferred earlier and sicker due to the demands for intensive care beds. This results in patients with higher acuity being cared for in the wards. Here ward nurses have to meet the ongoing complex demands of caring for higher acuity patients, alongside managing high patient-to-nurse ratios, staffing concerns, and varying levels of experienced nurses. Objective: This research explored the experiences of ward nurses receiving patients transferred from intensive care. The aims were to identify any areas of concern, highlight specific problems that occur on transition and to address what information is pertinent to ward nurses when receiving patients from intensive care. Methodology: A qualitative descriptive methodology using focus groups was utilised to gather information about these experiences. Three focus groups were held with ward nurses from various wards within the study setting hospital. All participants had considerable contact with intensive care and were familiar with the processes of transferring patients. Findings: Five themes emerged from the focus groups – Patients as intensive care staff say they are; Time to prepare the biggest thing; Documentation as a continuation of patient care; They forget what its like; and Families, a need to know about them. The theme Patients as intensive care staff say they are relates to reliable information sharing focused on the patient, their needs and condition. Participants expressed their concern that patients were not always in the condition that the intensive care staff stated they were on the referral. Having adequate time to prepare was considered important for the majority of ward nurses receiving patients from intensive care. Documentation was highlighted in the theme Documentation as a continuation of patient care particularly in relation to fluid balances and vital sign history. The theme They forget what its like suggests there is a perception that intensive care nurses have a lack of understanding of what the ward staff can actually manage. Decreased staffing levels during certain shift patterns and a lack of appropriately experienced staff on the wards is a common concern for ward nurses. Ward nurses also recognised that caring for families was part of their role. Patients and families may respond differently to the transfer process and their inclusion in transfer planning was seen as essential. Communication was a reoccurring element throughout all themes. Conclusion: Communication is the paramount factor that impacts on a ‘smooth transition’ for ward nurses. A ‘smooth transition’ refers to the transfer of patients from intensive care to the next level of care. Subsequently, nurses’ perceptions need to change, whereby transfer planning from ICU should be the focus rather than discharge planning. Transfer planning and education for all nursing staff is vital if the transfer process is to be improved. Consequently, transitional care within the context of ICU aims to ensure minimal disruption and optimal continuity of care for the patient. The knowledge gained from this research may provide better understanding of the multifaceted issues linked with transitional care that may be adapted for a wider range of patients in various clinical environments.

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  • A Voyage of Grief and Beauty: a Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Supporting a Family Member with an Intellectual Disability Who is Dying in a Community Setting

    Marlow, Susan Anne (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis reports on a research project which explored the phenomenon of supporting a family member with an intellectual disability who is dying in a community setting. The research purpose was to enhance professional understanding of what it is like to encounter this lived experience. Literature back-grounding the phenomenon and philosophical and theoretical constructs embraced by the researcher are outlined. An explanation is given of the hermeneutic phenomenological methodology which was utilised. The main method of collecting research data was through conducting five open-ended interviews with participants who had supported a dying child or sibling. The participants’ family members were aged between 3 and 52 years old at the time of their deaths. Their specific intellectual disabilities included Down syndrome, a metabolically induced disorder and a non-identified syndrome. The family members had died from a variety of terminal illnesses and in a range of community settings. Interpretive analysis was achieved through reflexive journaling and hermeneutic intuiting of interview transcripts and field notes. The research findings have been subjected to rhetorical consideration in the light of further literature and poetic texts. Research findings are expressed metaphorically as groups of boulders representing themes and sub-themes. Three major themes were revealed as having impacted on the river voyage shared by participants and their dying family members. These were Interlocked Companionship, Search for New Balance and Permeable Interaction. An assessment is offered of the strengths and weaknesses of the research project. The thesis concludes with recommendations for reflective practice, evidence based practice, service development and areas of future research.

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  • Shared Status and Advocating Practices: Nurses Who Work with Clients Who Have a Co-existing Intellectual Disability and Mental Health Problem

    Dorofaeff, Michael John (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research is informed by the interpretive phenomenology of van Manen, and explores the lived experience of nursing fiom the perspective of nurses who provide care for people with a co-existing intellectual disability and mental health problem. Although nursing research is commonly informed by phenomenology, there is a dearth of literature of any description written fiom the perspective of nurses who provide care for people with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems. As a result of the closure of many large institutions in New Zealand there are not many nurses who work with people who have intellectual disabilities and co-existing mental health problems. The study participants were four nurses purposefully selected because they provided care for people with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and the researcher identified and wrote about the recurring themes in the transcribed interview data, which best captured the lived experience of the participants. The themes were: criticism of services, holistic caring, working with the client, issues of status, need for specialist knowledge, enduring relationships, diagnostic issues, advocating, modelling good practice; and working alongside. After further analysis the themes were encompassed within the larger interrelated themes of "Status and positioning" and "Advocating practices", and fmally within a single theme of: "The status and positioning of the nurse and the client leads to advocating practices." These themes were found to be consistent with the nursing literature and with the researchers own lived experience as a nurse who works in a specialist mental health intellectual disability service. The fmdings of this research have implications for a number of groups in New Zealand. Input is required fiom the Nursing Council ofNew Zealand, the nursing profession, nurse educators and the New Zealand Government to raise the status of clients with co-existing intellectual disabilities and mental health problems and the nurses who work with this client group. The roles for nurses who work with this client group are emerging and are likely to be diverse and there is a need for further research to capture the different experiences of these nurses.

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  • The High Temperature Synthesis of Transition Metal Oxo-Carboxylate Polynuclear Complexes

    Taylor, Jonathan (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Oxo-carboxylate polynuclear complexes contain more than one metal ion bridged by oxo and carboxylate bridges. One method of synthesis for these complexes is the so called high temperature synthesis where a solid precursor is heated at a temperature between 200 - 500 ºC. This research has shown that thermal analytical techniques, EGA-MS and TGA, are an effective way of determining the processes that are occurring at different temperatures during the heating. Thermal analysis may also be used to determine the optimal temperature at which to perform the high temperatures synthesis. From the thermal analysis of different compounds used in the high temperature synthesis, it is observed that the product is influenced by the carboxylate ligand and the metal ions present in the precursor. Factors such as the anion, solvent of crystallisation or nuclearity of the complex are seen to have no influence on product formation at higher temperatures. It is proposed that a precursor whose corresponding acid of bridging carboxylate has a low boiling point will require a lower synthesis temperature to form complexes of the same nuclearity and structure than precursors with carboxylate ligands whose acid has a higher boiling point.

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  • Symbolic Ethnicity and the Dilemmas of Difference: Talking Indianness with New Zealand-Born Gujaratis

    Gilbertson, Amanda (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Marcus Banks (1996: 8) argues that the life of ethnicity has been lived out through the writings of academics rather than in the lives of the people they have studied and, indeed, local discourses of ethnicity are remarkably understudied. This thesis takes a step towards addressing the lack of attention given to local discourses of ethnicity by exploring the ways in which sixteen New Zealand-born Gujaratis talked about their Indianness in interviews conducted specifically for this project. Herbert Gans’ (1979) notion of symbolic ethnicity is initially employed as a framework for understanding participants’ narratives. Although this analysis gives an indication of the salience of ethnicity in the lives of my participants, it fails to account for the complex dilemmas of difference they expressed – the definition of ‘Indian culture’ in terms of difference from other ‘cultures’ and the suggestion that they were different from other New Zealanders by virtue of their Indianness. These issues are explained through an exploration of the assumptions about the cultural and the person that were inherent in notions expressed by participants of living in ‘two worlds’ and having to find a balance between them. This analysis suggests that participants constructed both ‘culture’ and ‘the individual’ as highly individuated categories. It is argued that these conceptualizations of ‘culture’ and ‘the individual’ can be usefully understood in terms of reflexive, or liquid, modernity and reflexive individualism. Under the conditions of late modernity, reflexive – that is, selfdirected and self-oriented – thought and activity become idealised and individuals are ideologically cast as the producers of their own biographies. My participants’ discussions of their Indianness can, therefore, be understood to represent a kind of ‘self-reflexive ethnicity’ that is centred on the person rather than on social networks or cultural practices. This mode of ethnicity does not necessarily require the decline of such networks and practices; they are simply reconfigured in terms of personal choice.

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  • A Heuristic Journey of Discovery: Exploring the Positive Influence of the Natural Environment on the Human Spirit

    Bridgen, Annette Frances (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The intention of this heuristic study was to explore and discover the essence of the positive influence of the natural environment on the human spirit. The study quest was identified as a central concern that evolved from my personal experience of spiritual awakening in the natural environment and an interest in the concept of connectedness in nursing care and practice. The study also focused on the self of the nurse and the qualities of holistic nursing care. Guided by heuristic methodology developed by Moustakas (1990) the thesis traces a journey of discovery. Using conversational interviews, six nurses were asked to describe their experiences of their spirit being positively influenced in the natural environment. These nurses were also asked if these beneficial experiences had any flow-on effect to their nursing practice. From these interviews various commonalities of experience were identified as well as some experiences unique to the individual participants. The participant knowing was articulated using Reed’s (1992) dimensions of relatedness in spirituality as a framework. Reed describes these dimensions as being able to be experienced intrapersonally, interpersonally and transpersonally. A substantive body of nursing and non-nursing literature was explored to support the participant knowing and provide strength to the discussion. The study discovered that the human spirit is positively influenced in the natural environment. The three actions of personal healing and wellbeing in the natural environment, knowing self – knowing others and sustaining self in nursing practice were valued by the participants as contributing to the quality of their nursing care. In bringing together spirituality, the natural environment and nursing, holism was discovered to be the significant and connecting constituent. The study has some implications for the discipline of nursing that are also discussed.

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  • Preceptorship in Nursing: Preceptors' and Preceptees' Experiences of Working in Partnership

    Turner, Ross Stephen (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research is about preceptorship in nursing. There is considerable emphasis placed on health care organisations to support newly appointed graduate nurses, and preceptorship is a recommended model. Despite this emphasis, little is known about how preceptorship partnerships work in practice. The primary focus of this exploratory descriptive qualitative study was to explore the perspectives that preceptors and preceptees, who had worked in partnership, had about how they established and sustained their respective roles. Three sets of registered nurses who had recently completed a preceptorship experience were interviewed about their partnership. Content and thematic analysis of this descriptive data revealed four main themes. The preceptorship relationship grows out of respect for each another and develops as a result of honest and open communication. Preceptees who have an initial positive experience into their new work area settle quickly and efficiently into their new role. Preceptees appreciate preceptors who are welcoming, supportive and willing to undertake the role, while preceptors are happy to undertake the role if the graduate displays an interest in learning and are willing to be guided. The preceptee learns what it means to be a registered nurse in the particular working context, while the preceptor learns how to support learning processes and evidence-based practices. Further exploration and investigation of these themes and of the relationships that evolve during preceptorship partnerships is needed. By understanding these findings, organisations can prepare both the preceptor and preceptee as they begin to undertake their role to ensure future partnerships will be successful.

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  • Foundation and Sub-Floor Bracing Analysis: the Cost Benefit of Upgrading

    Irvine, James (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The poor performance of residential foundations in past earthquakes, prompted a practical investigation to quantify the adequacy of Wellington timber dwellings’ foundations, including the sub-floor bracing, sub-floor fixings and general condition of the foundation. The adequacy of a sample of 80 dwellings’ foundations was assessed against the current “Light Timber Framed Construction Standard” NZS3604:1999. The NZS3604 standard was introduced in 1978 and has been subsequently tested by many New Zealand earthquakes, most significantly being the Edgecumbe earthquake in 1987. The observed damage to dwellings built to the then current NZS3604:1984, showed only negligible damage due to foundation inadequacies and as a result, the standard required only minor amendments. The most current 1999 edition of NZS3604 is therefore considered to have seismically appropriate detailing and provisions to withstand design earthquakes; so for the purposes of this study, NZS3604:1999 is assumed to be the residential benchmark for seismic adequacy. The results from the study suggest that 39% of the sample had inadequate sub-floor bracing. Overall, 16% of the sample relied solely on the strength of ordinary piles, while 11% relied entirely on large concrete anchors. 76% of dwellings had some form of fixing deficiency, ranging from degradation to incorrect or non-existent fixings. The overall condition of the sample dwellings was compared with the House Condition Survey 2005. The results of this study showed that inadequacies identified in the House Condition Survey 2005, were also prevalent in the majority of sampled dwellings in the study, including non compliance with minimum height and sub-floor ventilation requirements. However, the House Condition Survey produced by BRANZ does not assess any rented accommodations and so the condition results may be underestimated. The study sample, however includes a proportion of rented dwellings, but may still be unrepresentative of the actual average dwelling, in terms of condition and range. After identifying the common deficiencies both in the sample and also from similar studies, remedial measures were costed and applied to different foundation types based on the required strength and suitability to the existing foundation system. The remedies, to upgrade bracing, fixings and the general condition, including labour, ranged between $15 per m² and $60 per m². These costs were then projected to all Wellington City foundations, which totalled over $250 Million. It was assumed that each dwelling should be remedied to comply with the standards in NZS3604:1999 and the remedies were applied based on the average condition of the sample. To understand the anticipated losses and therefore benefits of upgrading, the estimated damage cost to residential dwellings was calculated using an Earthquake Loss Modeller, which was supplied by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences. The cost was calculated by assuming an earthquake of Magnitude 7.5, at a depth of 7.5km centred on the Wellington fault line, around Kaiwharawhara. In order to formulate a cost saving, or economic benefit from upgrading foundations, the cost of specific damage and collapse to residential dwellings was calculated to be $2.1 Billion, assuming no remedial measures had been applied. The Mean Damage Ratio for each foundation type was then modified, based on similar earthquake damage projections based on the same Wellington earthquake scenario. Dwellings that had either significant configuration issues or were located in an area likely to experience higher earthquake shaking, were still anticipated to collapse despite applying sub-floor remedies. The cost of damage to dwellings following remedial measures was calculated at just over $1.1 Billion. Therefore, the total savings were anticipated to be around $950 Million. These results were considered as a ratio of cost over benefit which is used to understand whether the associated economic benefit is greater than the anticipated cost of remedy. The cost / benefit ratio for dwellings likely to collapse is less than 10% , while extensively damaged dwellings have a higher cost / benefit ratio of around 25%. The highest benefit was seen in Piled dwellings, where savings upwards of $500 Million were projected. The economic saving due to the application of remedial measures has the potential to reduce pressure on the public sector including emergency management systems, hospitals and organisations involved with evacuations and erection of temporary shelters. In addition, there will also be a saving for both the public and private insurers, which will facilitate the quicker reconstruction of the postearthquake society to pre-earthquake levels. For the results of this study to be beneficial to New Zealanders, the information must be disseminated and implemented using proactive initiatives. These must be targeted at the homeowner in an easily understandable format, which is focussed on better performance and savings, rather than on the worst case scenario which has been shown to increase ambivalence and fatalistic mindsets within society.

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