619 results for Masters, 2008

  • Hybrid Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Benge, Kathryn Ruth (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis investigates the chemistry of ammonia borane (NH₃BH₃) relevant to the development of hydrogen storage systems for vehicular applications. Because of its high hydrogen content and low molecular weight ammonia borane has the potential to meet stringent gravimetric hydrogen storage targets of >9 wt%. Two of the three moles of H₂ in ammonia borane can be released under relatively mild conditions, with the highest gravimetric yield obtained in the solid-state. However, ammonia borane does not deliver sufficient H₂ at practical temperatures and the products formed upon H₂ loss are not amenable to regeneration back to the parent compound. The literature synthesis of ammonia borane was modified to facilitate large scale synthesis, and the deuterated analogues ND₃BH₃ and NH₃BD₃ were prepared for the purpose of mechanistic studies. The effect of lithium amide on the kinetics of dehydrogenation of ammonia borane was assessed by means of solid-state reaction in a series of specific molar ratios. Upon mixing lithium amide and ammonia borane, an exothermic reaction ensued resulting in the formation of a weakly bound adduct with an H₂N...BH₃-NH₃ environment. Thermal decomposition at or above temperatures of 50◦C of this phase was shown to liberate >9 wt% H₂. The mechanism of hydrogen evolution was investigated by means of reacting lithium amide and deuterated ammonia borane isotopologues, followed by analysis of the isotopic composition of evolved gaseous products by mass spectrometry. From these results, an intermolecular multi-step reaction mechanism was proposed, with the rates of the first stage strongly dependent on the concentration of lithium amide present. Compounds exhibiting a BN₃ environment (identi-fied by means of solid-state ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy) were formed during the first stage, and subsequently cross link to form a non-volatile solid. Further heating of this non-volatile solid phase ultimately resulted in the formation of crystalline Li₃BN₂ - identified by means of powder X-ray diffractometry. This compound has been identified as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its lightweight and theoretically high hydrogen content. It may also be amenable to hydrogen re-absorption. The LiNH₂/CH₃NH₂BH₃ system was also investigated. Thermal decomposition occurred through the same mechanism described for the LiNH₂/NH₃BH₃ system to theoretically evolve >8 wt% hydrogen. The gases evolved on thermal decomposition were predominantly H₂ with traces of methane detected by mass spectrometry.

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  • Visitor perspectives of ecotourism in the Maldives

    Ismail, Ikleela (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: x, 159 leaves : ill. (some col.), forms, maps ; 30 cm. Notes: "March 2008". University of Otago department: Tourism. Thesis (M. Tour.)--University of Otago, 2009. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Technological change at Hayes Engineering Works, Oturehua, New Zealand

    Edwards, William G (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: vii, 109 leaves: ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm. Notes: "1 September 2008". University of Otago department: Anthropology. Thesis ( M. A.)--University of Otago. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • "Every man bears the whole stamp of the human condition" : how does health information privacy law respond to the shared nature of genetic information?

    Anderson, Sharon Claire (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    "22 December 2008". University of Otago department: Law

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  • The impact of patents on New Zealand's biotechnology and genetics services sectors

    Green, Aphra (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 155 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 151-155. University of Otago department: Law

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  • Listening through deaf ears : parental experiences of the wired world

    Sawicki, Nina (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Sensorineural hearing loss affects 1 to 3 of every 1000 children born. In most cases the child is non-syndromic (meaning that it is not associated with any congenital features) and the child is well. Sensorineural loss in childhood limits the development of spoken language but with amplification (hearing aids) or cochlear implantation and intensive habilitation these children may develop spoken language. This Master's thesis details a qualitative research study which aimed to examine the experiences of parents throughout New Zealand prior to, and in the years following their child's cochlear implant. The Research Question What are the experiences of parents whose child(ren) undergo cochlear implantation in New Zealand? Method The decision to use qualitative research methods was deemed to be the most appropriate given that the aims of the study were based on exploring the experiences of the parents. A constructivist methodology was used to explore the meaning of these parents' experiences. The study was carried out throughout New Zealand in 2007, and fourteen parents (seven parent pairs) participated in the study. Data for the study were sought through open-ended in-depth interviews. The analysis was iterative, therefore subsequent interviews incorporated issues raised by previous participants. The data from the interviews were analysed using a general inductive approach. Results Several prominent themes were found. Parents reported experiences of profound shock after their child's initial diagnosis, a sense of isolation, and ongoing emotional distress which they did not perceive as being appreciated by the many health and service providers involved in the ongoing management of their child(ren). Many parents found the referral process erratic and the hearing aid trial a source of stress and frustration, with little benefit. Despite the stress of the surgery and the considerable habilitation work involved in the post-implantation period, the parents were overwhelmingly positive about the benefits noted after surgery. All parents described their implanted child as a "normal" child. There was low use of sign language and there was limited contact with the Deaf community. Many parents spoke of the need for sign language but reported a range of difficulties accessing tuition. These issues were more apparent for families in remote communities. Conclusions The implications arising from this study suggest that the management of implanted children by health and education providers needs to emanate from a definitive family oriented paradigm. The needs of siblings and other extended family members also need consideration. Cochlear implantation provides a management tool, not a cure, for childhood deafness and implanted children will continue to face significant challenges in the world of hearing persons. The low use of sign language suggests that these children may not be receiving a holistic and pluralistic approach to their language development. As a consequence of limited contact with the Deaf community, minimal use of sign language, low modelling of its value by parents and increasing demands placed on implanted children to function as "hearing", these children may face additional challenges as they mature.

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  • Men and Masqueraders : cross-gendered identity and behaviour in New Zealand, 1906-1950

    Pearman, Louise (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis contributes to the study of New Zealand historiography and gender historiography by examining female-to-male cross-gender identity and behaviour between 1906 and 1950. The primary source material is New Zealand media, specifically the New Zealand Truth newspaper. Sexological theories of the early twentieth century create a framework for reflection on language and ideas present in the New Zealand media. I will show, using both Foucauldian and feminist discourse analysis, the complex and discontinuous history of cross-gender identity and behaviour in New Zealand.

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  • The Effects of Auditory Distraction on Discourse Retell Tasks in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Cook, Katherine Jane (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of auditory distraction on the discourse production abilities of adults with traumatic brain injury. Narrative and persuasive discourse-retelling abilities were compared in ten adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ten healthy, aged-matched control participants. Narrative and persuasive retellings were analysed according to language measures (e.g. number of words, number of T-units, mean length of T-units and sentential complexity); information measures (e.g. number of propositions, number of episodic structure elements, and number of global structure components) and ability to generate a moral or aim. A modified version of Damico’s Clinical Discourse Analysis (1992) was included as a further measurement of pragmatic ability for the persuasive genre. The effect of auditory distraction upon passage recall and discourse production abilities was investigated by employing two experimental conditions: (1) no distraction and (2) multitalker babble at 80db. The adults with TBI differed significantly from the non-TBI comparison group for the language domain (sentential complexity), information domain (episodic structure) and generation of a moral or aim. Significant genre differences were documented, for the language domain (number of words and number of T-units), all measures in the information domain, and generation of a moral or aim. No condition effect was found, across group or genre. The results are examined alongside a number of theories including working memory, genre demands and perception of distraction. Clinical implications for assessment and intervention within the TBI population are discussed.

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  • Yummy Mummy?: (Re) Appearance of the Maternal Body in Popular Women's Magazines in New Zealand

    Taylor, Deborah (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Images and detailed descriptions of the postnatal maternal body have become more common in popular women's magazines than they have in the past. Although researchers generally accept that popular media's representations of the female body contribute to body image concerns among some women, there has been little research that has focused on the recent media constructions of the maternal body or the effects of this increased visibility. This is an important area of research as there are indications that media representations of the postnatal body, in particular body size, are beginning to have negative affects on women's wellbeing in pregnancy and after childbirth. This thesis examines how women's bodies are being represented in popular culture when they become mothers, and what discourses these representations make available to new mothers. The research involved analysing references to the maternal body found in a convenience sample of popular NZ women's magazines. The research, framed within feminist poststructuralist theories, used thematic analysis and discursive analytic tools to explore textual and visual representations of the maternal body found in the magazines. Three major constructions of mothers emerged from the analysis; these were 'sexy', 'healthy' and 'labouring' mothers. Women who, through 'body work' such as diet and exercise, had lost weight and dressed glamorously were depicted as sexy, healthy and praised for their efforts. Mothers who regained a slender, glamorous appearance were often referred to as 'yummy mummies'. Women who lost 'too much weight' were considered to be ill and were individually pathologised as having psychological problems. Mothers were encouraged to diet and exercise as soon as possible after childbirth, with scant reference to possible health concerns for mother or baby, and were targeted by the diet industry. Postfeminist and neoliberal discourses of empowerment, choice and self-care were used to promote and justify these images of mothers. Findings suggest appearance of new mothers was emphasised wherein the 'undisciplined' normal maternal body was denigrated as dull, unattractive and unworthy. Analysis indicated that a new cultural imperative for women to return to slenderness as soon as possible is being evoked. Given the new media pressures being imposed there is a clear need for research with new mothers themselves. Such research will illuminate a period in womens lives that had previously slipped below the radar of culturally prescribed strict beauty standards, but is now under the glare of the media spotlight.

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  • Historic and contemporary population genetics and their management implications for an endangered New Zealand passerine, the mohua (Mohoua ochrocephala)

    Tracy, Lisa Naomi (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: xii, 115 leaves: illustrations (some coloured), maps; 30 cm.

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  • La guerre dans l'espace littéraire français de 1935 à 1945

    Haderbache, Anne (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    108 leaves ; 30 cm.

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  • Forming Faith: A comparative study of two methods of confirmation preparation and the ways they facilitate faith formation in candidates

    Chamberlain, Stephen Mark (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This research project compares two different methods of confirmation preparation and the way they facilitated faith formation in candidates. The two methods investigated were the 'traditional' and the 'catechumenal like' approaches. Thirty eight young people were interviewed to identify the impact their confirmation experience had on them. The interviews followed a narrative enquiry methodology and their parents were also invited to complete a questionnaire. The two methods of confirmation preparation were then compared on the basis of the degree of faith formation achieved. The context of this study is the ongoing debate in the Anglican Church of Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia about the place of confirmation in the contemporary Church given the theological confusion that surrounds it and the decline in numbers of young people presenting themselves for confirmation. Other factors include the recent interest in reviving the ancient Catechumenate for the purposes of spiritual formation. The overriding issue however is the clear need for the Church to offer better processes for forming young people in Christ, first for the children of Christian parents but also for those with little church background who present themselves for membership. It was found that the majority of candidates had a strongly positive experience of confirmation reporting life change and successful faith formation. A small number of candidates were also found to have experienced confirmation as a profound 'rite of passage' and reported that a deep personal change had taken place. In the light of these findings a new model for successful faith formation through confirmation is proposed. This model conforms substantially to a 'catechumenal like' process but incudes new features to enhance the possibility of deep faith formation in candidates.

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  • Alfred Henry O'Keeffe in retrospect: paint and personality

    Body, Ralph M (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation offers a detailed study of the life and art of the Dunedin artist and teacher Alfred Henry O'Keeffe (1858-1941). It is concerned with establishing an art historical context for his work and exploring its relationship to that of other artists, art institutions and art criticism during his six-decade-long career. It also includes an overview of O'Keeffe's biography and considers his contribution to art education in New Zealand, through his teaching both at the Dunedin School of Art and Design and privately in his studio. Particular attention is given to four areas of subject matter: portraiture and genre subjects, especially those representing the elderly; seascapes; and still lifes, particularly flower paintings. Despite the length of O'Keeffe's career, much of the existing scholarship has tended to emphasise his Victorian paintings at the expense of his later works. Greatest attention is usually given to his association with immigrant artists during the 1890s, such as Petrus van der Velden and Girolamo Nerli, together with his period of study at the Académie Julian in Paris during that same decade. The present dissertation considers the evidence relating to this period and assesses the validity of claims previously made. In doing so, it challenges the widespread assumption that O'Keeffe's work failed to develop in any substantial way beyond the 1890s. Instead, it considers the full breadth of O'Keeffe's lengthy career and reassesses the importance of his late works. It argues that in terms of both quality and quantity O'Keeffe's paintings from the 1920s and 1930s represent his greatest achievement. His relationship to more avant-garde developments in New Zealand art during these decades are also examined, showing that while he was not hostile towards modernism there were certain stylistic features he was reluctant to adopt himself. His own style is best understood as part of a broad trend where the innovations of Impressionism were combined with qualities drawn from the European old masters. However, despite the strong parallels that exist with the works of other artists, O'Keeffe's paintings nonetheless retain distinctive qualities, both in mood and technique. They represent a largely overlooked but by no means insignificant facet of New Zealand art.

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  • Tōku Haerenga

    Ngarimu-Cameron, Rokahurihia (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    In her master’s project entitled TŌKU HAERENGA, Rokahurihia Ngarimu-Cameron reveals through her writing the intrinsic weaving inheritance she has acquired, as her project engages with the translation of traditional Māori off-loom handwoven garments into a contemporary arts practice in Western loom weaving to bring the two cultures of Aotearoa together. This dissertation commences with an introduction in which the key components of the dissertation are briefly discussed and in which a selection of practices are included with which Ngarimu-Cameron’s work is aligned in various ways. The introduction is followed by a section entitled “Excursus”. This section includes Ngarimu-Cameron’s own personal background and her connections with whānau and others as well as the genesis of her practice in her own personal context – a context in which issues of resilience and cultural survival played important roles. Subsequent chapters explores Ngarimu-Cameron’s actual artistic output in five parts: 1) Korowai: Te Haraawaka and Puketeraki; 2) Rāpaki: Southern Man and Puna Taonga; 3) Kahu Kererū: Aotearoa and Otu Kapuarangi/Te Tarata; 4) Kaitaka: Whero and Manono; and 5) Plaid: Lochiel and Bonnie Prince Charlie. The body of work created by Ngarimu-Cameron as discussed in these chapters demonstrate her alignment with the current weaving renaissance in Te Ika a Māui and Te Waipounamu.

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  • Kaupapa Māori [visual communication] design Investigating ‘visual communication design by Māori, for Māori’, through practice, process and theory

    Gardner, Tracey (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This work examines the field of Māori graphic design, and more specifically, kaupapa Māori visual communication design and process. Initially this research was conceptualised through a health communication project, and was extended to include experiences from practising Māori designers and an examination of print material in order to highlight apparent differences in process and practice when design is undertaken from a kaupapa Māori perspective. The research topic was chosen as a response to kaupapa Māori initiatives and Māori renaissance strategies of the twenty first century. The research is presented from a kaupapa Māori perspective and uses a post-structuralist method of enquiry. A ‘by Māori, for Māori’ or kaupapa Māori cultural framework is considered as differing from the current design academy in New Zealand. In order to examine and identify Māori cultural frameworks within a design process, four practicing designers were interviewed. When analysed these interviews offered valuable insight into personal experiences, values, beliefs, practices and processes, which is not necessarily identified in the current literature reviewed. Throughout the thesis, a recurring underlying theme presented itself concerned with the interaction of two world-views, that is, design and Māori epistemologies. It is the synthesis of both world-views and the space where these two intersect and meet that the thesis is specifically interested in. The investigation of kaupapa Māori design is limited to visual communication design; however, the process and specifications documented in this thesis are presented as dynamic and complimentary to other areas of Māori design and creative fields. The thesis also engages with wider discourses and practices through the analysis of practising designers’ narratives, design examples and literature reviewed. Kaupapa Māori design processes link intrinsically and directly with existing cultural protocols held within te ao Māori. These methods and procedures have been re-articulated within design discourse due to a need for cultural understanding when handling and using Māori cultural referents and knowledge. The increased demand for Māori iconography within industries both locally and globally has also initiated recognition of the need for clearer guidelines necessary to maintain the integrity and intent of the visual forms. The powerful and symbolic nature of Māori objects and artwork has instigated an articulation of tino rangatiratanga in order to construct and specify culturally appropriate methods and uses of Indigenous taonga in design industry.

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  • The Changing Language Learning Motivations of Learners from Mainland China Studying English in New Zealand

    Bowen, Sarah (2008-04-10)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This study investigates the motivations to learn English of Chinese second language students studying in New Zealand. It also examines their views of the New Zealand language learning (LL) environment and explores the influence of Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) and educational background on these views. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and essays from two male and two female students at three points during their first six months of study in New Zealand. The main findings about motivation are: they had both instrumental and integrative motivations for learning English; the instrumental and integrative paradigms were inadequate for describing the motives that they exhibited; these motives changed over time; culture played an important role in shaping motivation; environmental prejudice had a negative impact on motivation. It is concluded that previous process models of motivation are inadequate to account for the variety of motivations and motivational influences described by participants. The main findings about the New Zealand LL environment are: they had both positive and negative views of the New Zealand LL environment; their views tended to become more positive as they saw the utility of this environment in supporting their learning goals. Qualitative data of this kind could be complemented by classroom observations. Implications for teachers, theorists, and New Zealand schools are discussed in the conclusion.

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  • Global relative paleointensity and regional paleosecular variation: High resolution signals in New Zealand marine sediments

    Robbins, Jessie Louise (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Advancement in understanding paleosecular variation and its driving mechanisms is hindered by the current paucity of paleomagnetic records from the Southern Hemisphere. To date, the record from New Zealand is limited, and dominated by data from volcanic rocks, with a distinct lack of continuous paleointensity data. Seven cores from the Waipaoa Basin, Bay of Plenty and northern Chatham Rise have been subjected to Alternating Field demagnetisation to derive records of paleosecular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) of Earth's magnetic field over historic and millennial timescales. Artificial remanence parameters saturation ARM and saturation IRM are used to assess the level of compliance with magnetic uniformity criteria of King et al. (1983), which is prerequisite for deriving relative paleointensity from sediments. Tephrochronology and 210Pb isotope analyses have provided independent sedimentation rates for some cores. The Laschamp (41 ka) and Mono Lake (34.6 ka) geomagnetic excursion events are identified in piston core JPC95, from the Bay of Plenty. The Laschamp excursion is manifest as the lowest (7% of maximum) intensity between ~ 47 ka and the present day, accompanied by an abrupt (~ 1ky) shallowing of inclination by 45°. The path of the dipole field during the Laschamp excursion is constrained longitudinally between 87.44° E and 99. 77° E; and the magnitude of the latitudinal deviation from geographic north estimated to be 80°-110°. Both excursions and other millennial-scale features of the JPC95 RPI record are manifest in the GLOPIS-75 paleointensity stack of Laj et al. (2004); and in the numerous records compiled to produce the stack. Such correspondence lends testimony to the fidelity of the RPI records, and to the global and thus dipolar nature of the millennial scale RPI signal; whilst validating the use of sARM as a normalising parameter, and demonstrating the potential of New Zealand marine sediments to provide reliable records of RPI back to ~ 47 ka. Identification and correlation of features with time constants similar to the shortest associated with the dipole field (600-700 years; Hulot & Le Mouel, 1994) suggests that the JPC95 record approaches the maximum resolution of the dipole RPI signal. Cores from the Waipaoa Basin provide higher resolution, recording continuous PSV and RPI variability on a decadal scale back to 300 yrs B.P. More records of comparable resolution, with independent age control, will constrain the spatial extent of this signal and assess its potential application as a high-resolution correlation tool. Available records of paleosecular vanat10n are not globally correlative over the period investigated (0-47 ka). Features of the JPC95 PSV record are identified in records from the South Atlantic, but not in Northern Hemisphere records of comparable temporal resolution. This implies manifestation of a regional, non-dipole signal that is hemispheric in extent, and persistent hemispheric asymmetry in conditions at the core-mantle boundary over the time frame explored here. An inclination anomaly of -8.1° from core JPC95 is greater than previously estimated for New Zealand, but is consistent with the proposition of Elmelah et al. (2001), of a negative inclination anomaly characterising the southwest Pacific. Alternatively, the negative inclination anomaly, together with the far-sided virtual geomagnetic poles from core JPC95 constitute evidence for a northward displacement in the axial dipole, as modelled by Wilson (1971).

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  • Development of a customised, self powered data logger for monitoring farm fence energizers

    Finn, Elliot Gabriel Jethro (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    For gathering information on the performance of energizer products in the field, Gallagher Group Limited had a well out-dated data-logger which periodically monitored the voltage of the fence and transmitted the data back to base over a GSM network. However the existing data-logger had very limited capability and a new one was needed that could monitor the environment inside and around the energizer, and hopefully provide some information on why an energiser might be failing. The ideal data-logger was self powered, could last years in the field without needing to be serviced, and could collect data on the energizer without affecting it in any way. It would also collect data on as many environmental parameters as possible, such as temperature, humidity, ambient light level, lightening strikes and pressure. Ideally it would also be able to monitor the energizer voltage using a contactless measuring system. The data-logger was designed for Gallagher Animal Management Systems, the part of Gallagher Group Limited that specialises in farming equipment. The design project arose from the need for a data-logger that could monitor both the fence voltage and the environment around the fence, so that a critical explanation of why an energizer failed in the field could be found, leading to better product design in the future. It was jointly funded by Gallagher Group Limited and the Foundation of Research Science and Technology (FoRST).

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  • Das Unmittelbare Ansetzen Zur Tatbestandsverwirklichung Beim Versuch Gemäß §22 STGB

    Mandery, Maya (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Human Culture and Cognition

    Gers, M (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Human behaviour is largely influenced by culture. Culture evolves cumulatively over time. The origins of culture in our lineage necessitated the evolution of psychological biases so humans could tractably navigate the emerging information environment. I examine the nature of these biases and conclude that they are unlikely to be genetically coded to any significant degree. This is because of the flexibility such biases needed to possess in the face of fluid cultural environments and because of the developmental mechanisms of the brain. I further outline three possible views on what the nature of the information these biases act upon might be. First there is the view that cultural information is constructed and held in individual minds but does not flow in any meaningful replicative fashion between minds. Second is the view that culture is information distributed in a population and cultural evolution is the temporal change of this populationlevel information as a result of low fidelity individual copying events. Finally, I argue that meme theory, which asserts that culture is usefully seen as bits of information that replicate in transmission, is a fruitful model of cultural evolution. Keywords Cognition, cultural evolution, culture, evolutionary psychology, memes, neuroconstructivism, psychological biases.

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