621 results for Masters, 2008

  • The Effects of Auditory Distraction on Discourse Retell Tasks in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Cook, Katherine Jane (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of auditory distraction on the discourse production abilities of adults with traumatic brain injury. Narrative and persuasive discourse-retelling abilities were compared in ten adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ten healthy, aged-matched control participants. Narrative and persuasive retellings were analysed according to language measures (e.g. number of words, number of T-units, mean length of T-units and sentential complexity); information measures (e.g. number of propositions, number of episodic structure elements, and number of global structure components) and ability to generate a moral or aim. A modified version of Damico’s Clinical Discourse Analysis (1992) was included as a further measurement of pragmatic ability for the persuasive genre. The effect of auditory distraction upon passage recall and discourse production abilities was investigated by employing two experimental conditions: (1) no distraction and (2) multitalker babble at 80db. The adults with TBI differed significantly from the non-TBI comparison group for the language domain (sentential complexity), information domain (episodic structure) and generation of a moral or aim. Significant genre differences were documented, for the language domain (number of words and number of T-units), all measures in the information domain, and generation of a moral or aim. No condition effect was found, across group or genre. The results are examined alongside a number of theories including working memory, genre demands and perception of distraction. Clinical implications for assessment and intervention within the TBI population are discussed.

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  • Yummy Mummy?: (Re) Appearance of the Maternal Body in Popular Women's Magazines in New Zealand

    Taylor, Deborah (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Images and detailed descriptions of the postnatal maternal body have become more common in popular women's magazines than they have in the past. Although researchers generally accept that popular media's representations of the female body contribute to body image concerns among some women, there has been little research that has focused on the recent media constructions of the maternal body or the effects of this increased visibility. This is an important area of research as there are indications that media representations of the postnatal body, in particular body size, are beginning to have negative affects on women's wellbeing in pregnancy and after childbirth. This thesis examines how women's bodies are being represented in popular culture when they become mothers, and what discourses these representations make available to new mothers. The research involved analysing references to the maternal body found in a convenience sample of popular NZ women's magazines. The research, framed within feminist poststructuralist theories, used thematic analysis and discursive analytic tools to explore textual and visual representations of the maternal body found in the magazines. Three major constructions of mothers emerged from the analysis; these were 'sexy', 'healthy' and 'labouring' mothers. Women who, through 'body work' such as diet and exercise, had lost weight and dressed glamorously were depicted as sexy, healthy and praised for their efforts. Mothers who regained a slender, glamorous appearance were often referred to as 'yummy mummies'. Women who lost 'too much weight' were considered to be ill and were individually pathologised as having psychological problems. Mothers were encouraged to diet and exercise as soon as possible after childbirth, with scant reference to possible health concerns for mother or baby, and were targeted by the diet industry. Postfeminist and neoliberal discourses of empowerment, choice and self-care were used to promote and justify these images of mothers. Findings suggest appearance of new mothers was emphasised wherein the 'undisciplined' normal maternal body was denigrated as dull, unattractive and unworthy. Analysis indicated that a new cultural imperative for women to return to slenderness as soon as possible is being evoked. Given the new media pressures being imposed there is a clear need for research with new mothers themselves. Such research will illuminate a period in womens lives that had previously slipped below the radar of culturally prescribed strict beauty standards, but is now under the glare of the media spotlight.

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  • Das Unmittelbare Ansetzen Zur Tatbestandsverwirklichung Beim Versuch Gemäß §22 STGB

    Mandery, Maya (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Human Culture and Cognition

    Gers, M (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Human behaviour is largely influenced by culture. Culture evolves cumulatively over time. The origins of culture in our lineage necessitated the evolution of psychological biases so humans could tractably navigate the emerging information environment. I examine the nature of these biases and conclude that they are unlikely to be genetically coded to any significant degree. This is because of the flexibility such biases needed to possess in the face of fluid cultural environments and because of the developmental mechanisms of the brain. I further outline three possible views on what the nature of the information these biases act upon might be. First there is the view that cultural information is constructed and held in individual minds but does not flow in any meaningful replicative fashion between minds. Second is the view that culture is information distributed in a population and cultural evolution is the temporal change of this populationlevel information as a result of low fidelity individual copying events. Finally, I argue that meme theory, which asserts that culture is usefully seen as bits of information that replicate in transmission, is a fruitful model of cultural evolution. Keywords Cognition, cultural evolution, culture, evolutionary psychology, memes, neuroconstructivism, psychological biases.

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  • An investigation into the motivating factors behind the use or non use of institutional repositories by selected university academics

    Reid, Stephanie (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • New Zealand Building Code Clause G7 Compliance Assessment Tool: Development and Implementation

    Stewart, Krystle (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Zealand Building Code Clause G7 (NZBC G7) minimum requirement for natural light is not being met in around half of New Zealand apartments post-construction. The main reasons for this are an acceptable solution that is not effective for apartment buildings and a lack of tools for Territorial Authorities to assess accurately whether an apartment will meet the minimum requirement. This report outlines the process involved in developing a simplified tool to assess quickly natural light compliance in apartments and preparing it for implementation. The tool was developed through simulation of factors that affect daylight performance at the point in the room specified in the Code: the back of habitable rooms. From these simulations statistical analysis was used to develop mathematical relationships between building features and light levels. These relationships were used to create a tool that specifies whether an apartment would require simulation to prove compliance with NZBC G7. Calibration measurements were performed, comparing simulated and real measurements in 97 apartments with the predictions of the tool. These demonstrated that the tool provides reliable results, hence determining the accuracy of the predictions provided by the tool. The final step in the research was for potential end-user groups to evaluate the usability and functionality of the tool. The conclusion of this process is that a tool has been developed that is simple and easy to use, is sufficiently accurate for application by Territorial Authorities as a decision tool and can be easily implemented.

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  • What's Left? - an Exploration of Social Movements, the Left and Activism in New Zealand Today

    Taylor, Dylan (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Surveys of the situation and prospects of the contemporary Left over the past three decades have frequently underscored themes of fragmentation, decline, even terminal demise. This thesis explores the question of the contemporary Left through interviews conducted with participants in New Zealand social movements. The general theoretical literature around the Left and social movements has consistently highlighted a number of social changes and challenges facing the Left today: the split between old and new Lefts following the rise of the new social movements; economic transformation (for instance, post-Fordism), and changes in class composition; the rise of neo-liberalism, and the dislocating effects of globalization; intellectual challenges, such as the demise of Marxism and the rise of post-modern philosophy; challenges to the state, and the arrival of a "post-political" condition. Analysis of the New Zealand literature around the Left and social movements shows congruent arguments and themes, as well as suggesting Antipodean specificities. To examine these contentions, a series of interviews were conducted with participants in "Left" social movements. These interviews suggest both congruence with some of the arguments in the literature and complexities that do not confirm these generalizations. In particular, the suggestion that a third phase of the Left is emerging, characterized by the joining of culturalist and materialist emphases, appears somewhat confirmed. In addition, a number of the challenges signalled in the literature were singled out by interviewees as pressing - for instance, neo-liberalism and the mediatisation of politics. With respect to the modes of action of social movements connected to the Left, there was here too some confirmation of themes from the literature - for instance, the importance of networking. On the other hand, the widespread theme of the wholesale decline of collective actions was put into question by those interviewed. While no definitive conclusions can be drawn from such a study, the interviews suggest the Left may be entering a period of renewal.

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  • One More Rainy Day

    Goulter, Tom (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    FADE IN: LED-screen filtered stock footage: TIDAL WAVES decimate cities. MEDIEVAL WOODCUTS of the Deluge, Noah's boat on huge waves. INT. BOOKSHOP - DAY.The MONTAGE CONTINUES on a shiny LED SCREEN: LIGHTNING STORMS crackle above a RAGING VOLCANO. TRIBAL PAINTINGS of winged serpents sparking from flame. The screen sits at the centre of a TABLE FULL OF BOOKS. A SIGN beside the table: " MARTIN WEAREY - SIGNING INSTORE TODAY". A patient LINE of customers queue for the author. Onscreen, SNOWSTORMS obscure the FAINT SUN. CUSTOMERS glance occasionally at the onscreen display: NORSE ART depicts THE WORLD TREE withering in ice. At the queue's HEAD, a trestle-table at which sits MARTIN himself, beside a large DUSTJACKET PHOTO of same. He's a pudgy fellow in his LATE 60s, greying hair roughly combed. Martin SMILES as a fan presents him with a STACK OF BOOKS ...

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  • A Place for Shadows: A Prolegomena to the Authorship Practices and Films of Joanna Margaret Paul

    Whyte, Dick (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This is an "authorship" study of New Zealand artist Joanna Margaret Paul, with specific reference to her "experimental film" works. Though I will draw on a wide range of theorists, my overall approach is what Laura Marks calls "intercultural cinema." For Marks the term "intercultural cinema" refers to a specific "genre" or "movement" of experimental films created by authors caught "between two or more cultural regimes of knowledge." Intercultural film-makers include feminist, queer, indigenous and immigrant authors (any "minority" which possesses its own "regime of knowledge" and makes experimental film) living in "Western metropolitan areas," whose dominant culture is capitalist, masculine, "hegemonic, white and Euro-American" (a second regime of knowledge). What draws intercultural cinema together (and indeed, one could argue, experimental film in general) is an oppositional stance toward capitalist ideology, the commodification of the art object and the uniformity of classical narrative forms. As David Bordwell and Kristen Thompson write, experimental films are "often deliberate attempts to undercut the conventions of commercial narrative filmmaking" and, as Marks writes, intercultural cinema "flows against waves of economic neocolonialism," and is "suspicious of mass circulation... [as] making commercial cinema still involves significant compromises."

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  • The Thinking Body: a Study of the Architectural Ramifications of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Rendering of the Human Body's Capacities

    August, Karan (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Phenomenology offers a conceptual framework that connects and strengthens the architect' s intuitive understanding of the human experience of space with the theorist's more critical approach. Phenomenology is an ideal vehicle for architectural theorists to avoid the friction between first-hand or subjective experience and generalised or abstracted accounts of experience. In this thesis I extract an account of the human experience of space that is implicit in the Philosopher Maurice Merleau-Pontys work. I consider how this understanding has been employed in architectural scholarship and practice. In particular, I argue that the human body renders the richness of space through deliberate engagement with the indeterminate and independent possibilities of the world. In other words, as the body intentionally engages with the world, it synthesises objects that create determinate spatial situations. I account for Merleau-Ponty's depiction of the body' s non-rule governed, non-reflective, normative directiveness towards spaces and elements, and label it the thinking body. Furthermore I examine how the philosophical theory of Merleau-Ponty is represented in the explicitly theoretical works of Juhani Pallasmaa. In turn I then consider how the thinking body is physically and conceptually realised in the buildings of Carlo Scarpa. Finally I find that Juhani Pallasmaa's description of the phenomenological experience of space is incompatible with Merleau-Ponty's. The strategic importance of these different accounts emerges when projecting their implications for designed space. Pallasmaa' s account points towards an architecture that prioritises sensory experiences synthesised by the mind. The design focus of Merleau-Ponty's philosophy leads to spatial practices in line with Carlo Scarpa, that are sympathetic to the causal qualities of an intentional bodily engagement with spatial situations. In accord with Merleau-Ponty I argue that human body is our medium for the world and as such creates the spatial situation we engage with from a formless manifold of possibilities.

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  • Exploratory Study of the Development of REDD Incentives in Bolivia

    Jannes, Stoppel (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    International climate change mitigation efforts have been establishing strategies and programs to achieve Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in developing countries like Bolivia. This research aims to assess these developments and examine the major challenges in the conceptualisation, planning and implementation of these strategies in Bolivia. A review of international negotiations and of current literature on various surrounding issues supplied this research with the needed secondary data. Primary data on Bolivian perspectives and visions on the arising challenges of REDD developments were gathered in January and February 2008. The semi-structured interviews aimed to cover a cross societal range of participants from govt to local forest-inhabitant level. Partially, due to climatic instability, the field-research was hampered by a national flood disaster that challenged the gathering of local forest-inhabitant's visions and perspectives. Through this methodology this research defined key issues in the development of international REDD funding governance and in the challenges of national and local policy and project implementation measures. These are evaluated in consideration of global and local equity and climate-justice issues, offer earthcentric considerations in the evolution of REDD and therefore attempt to contribute to the underlying discourse on ecological ethics in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

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  • Seeing Themselves: Cultural Identity and New Zealand Produced Children's Television

    Shepherd, Ngaire (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Zealand television environment is a complex one, and its ability to instil a sense of 'cultural identity' for New Zealand viewers has been regularly debated. Local children's programming is an area that can sometimes be overlooked in these important discussions. Children's programming in New Zealand is almost entirely publicly funded and is therefore legislatively tied to 'reflecting' cultural identity for a New Zealand child audience. This raises questions about how cultural identity is defined and understood within this industry, especially considering the inherent differences between a child audience and adult programme makers. These questions are engaged with through an examination of how cultural identity is discussed by funders, producers and audiences of four locally produced television brands: What Now?, Sticky TV, Studio 2 and Pukana. This thesis considers cultural identity to be a social construction that is both fluid and, in a New Zealand context, tied to certain expectations of 'New Zealandness'. This fluidity is examined through a discourse analysis of how funders, producers and audiences talk about each programme as well as cultural identity, in order to examine similarities and differences in how each group conceptualises this important funding concept. The argument is formed that cultural identity is understood in different terms: for children cultural identity is foremost about belonging to and 'seeing themselves' in a larger community of New Zealand children, while programme makers are concerned with the problematic notion of 'reflecting' "kids' worlds".

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  • Belly dancing in New Zealand: identity, hybridity, transculture.

    Kelly, Brigid Maria (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores ways in which some New Zealanders draw on and negotiate both belly dancing and local cultural norms to construct multiple local and global identities. Drawing upon discourse analysis, post-structuralist and post-colonial theory, it argues that belly dancing outside its cultures of origin has become globalised, with its own synthetic culture arising from complex networks of activities, objects and texts focused around the act of belly dancing. This is demonstrated through analysis of New Zealand newspaper accounts, interviews, focus group discussion, the Oasis Dance Camp belly dance event in Tongariro and the work of fusion belly dance troupe Kiwi Iwi in Christchurch. Bringing New Zealand into the field of belly dance study can offer deeper insights into the processes of globalisation and hybridity, and offers possibilities for examination of the variety of ways in which belly dance is practiced around the world. The thesis fills a gap in the literature about ‘Western’ understandings and uses of the dance, which has thus far heavily emphasised the United States and notions of performing as an ‘exotic Other’. It also shifts away from a sole focus on representation to analyse participants’ experiences of belly dance as dance, rather than only as performative play. The talk of the belly dancers involved in this research demonstrates the complex and contradictory ways in which they articulate ideas about New Zealand identities and cultural conventions. Some of their reflections on belly dancing appear to reflect consciousness of and dis-ease around issues of indigeneity and multiculturalism in wider New Zealand society. Participants in this study also talk about how they explore and perform ideas about femininity, which includes both acceptance and rejection of belly dancing as innately feminine. Looking at New Zealand identities through belly dance, and vice-versa, highlights developing, nuanced and multiple articulations of self and other in a globalised world.

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  • The Hydrological Viability of Te Harakiki Wetland, Waikanae

    Law, Rebecca Anne (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Wetlands are unique natural resources that play an important role in the hydrological cycle. There is a dynamic link between wetland hydrology and inputs from both surface and groundwater resources. Shallow groundwater abstraction near the Te Harakiki wetland at Waikanae has the potential to impact on the wetland' hydrosystem. To assess the likelihood of this occurring, a detailed analysis of recent changes, the hydrological regime, and the water balance of the Te Harakiki Wetland system was undertaken. The hydrological regime of the wetland system was assessed by various monitoring sites established around Te Harakiki to measure rainfall, soil moisture, surface and groundwater levels. Analysis of (decadal) historical aerial photographs allowed changes in spatial extent of the open water habitat (lagoon) and the urban area of Waikanae Beach. Comparisons were made between wetland extent, population increase and urban area expansion. These data, together with a simple water balance, and historical climatic records, were used to explain the drastic decrease in wetland extent. Climatic factors and goundwater are the major driving forces behind the wetland's hydrologic regime. The surface water outflow from the system is greater than the surface water inflow, but this may be affected by the tides. The surface and groundwater systems in the area are closely linked. They have similar responses to rainfall events. Groundwater abstraction in the area appears to have minimal impact on the water level within the wetland. The exact nature and extent of abstraction around the wetland is unknown. The reduction in flood pulsing as a result of channel modification, and the fragmentation of the area for the construction of the oxidation ponds are the likely explanation. The current restoration efforts in regard to controlling pest species and excluding stock from the wetland have halted the decline in wetland area. The future of the Te Harakiki wetland system is now more positive.

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  • Selective Data Replication for Distributed Geographical Data Sets

    Gu, Xuan (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The main purpose of this research is to incorporate additional higher-level semantics into the existing data replication strategies in such a way that their flexibility and performance can be improved in favour of both data providers and consumers. The resulting approach from this research is referred to as the selective data replication system. With this system, the data that has been updated by a data provider is captured and batched into messages known as update notifications. Once update notifications are received by data consumers, they are used to evaluate so-called update policies, which are specified by data consumers containing details on when data replications need to occur and what data needs to be updated during the replications.

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  • Evaluating a Group-Based Sustainability Intervention Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Davie, Morgan Geddes (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Meeting the challenge of anthropogenic climate change will require widespread adoption of more sustainable behaviours. However, although attitudes towards sustainable behaviours are positive, actual change is lagging behind. Three studies explored the success of a classroom intervention programme that was intended to support individual change towards more sustainable behaviour in the domains of energy conservation and consumer responsibility. It was expected that identification with the small action groups used in the programme would have a positive effect. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1977) and the social identity perspective (Turner, 1999) were used as a framework for analysis. Studies one and two examined the success of the intervention programme across two iterations. Behaviour measures used in study one were inadequate but effective measures were developed for the second study. The intervention programme was very successful in achieving behaviour change and improving attitudes towards and intentions to perform sustainable behaviour. The TPB was supported by both studies, although there were unexpected inconsistencies in the variables predicting intent. Contrary to expectations, there was no effect found for group identification. Differences were also found between those participants who chose to focus on energy conservation and those with a focus on consumer responsibility, suggesting that the consumption group approached environmental behaviour in a more holistic way. Study three was a qualitative analysis of diary entries by participants in study one. A participant narrative of sustainable behaviour was constructed and related to attribution theory, particularly the Martinko and Thomson (1998) synthesis model. The narrative substantially matched the TPB but some problematic aspects of the intent construct in the TPB were identified. There was also evidence of a positive effect of group membership that had not been captured by the group identification variable. Potential interpretations and consequences of these findings were discussed.

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  • The Impact of Anthropogenic Land-Use Change on Soil Organic Carbon, Oporae Valley, Lake Tutira, New Zealand

    Boys, Roderick Charles James (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    During the anthropocene land use change has exacerbated erosion of the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) rich topsoil in the Oporae Valley. As well as reducing the SOC content of the contemporary topsoil, the large scale redistribution of sediment has created a quantifiable long-term SOC sink in paleosols. Using contemporary native forest soils as a proxy, pasture covered topsoils contain ~40% less SOC (a loss of 5,338 T/[square kilometer] SOC). The pre-human paleosol at ~200 cm, an average 32 cm thickness, contains 9180 T/[square kilometer]. Significantly more SOC buried at depth than what currently exists in the contemporary topsoil indicates the relative importance of paleosols as C stores and the role of land use change on SOC. The preservation characteristics of a paleosol in the Oporae Valley are determined by slope angle and the relative position they hold in relation to the inter-fingering of the alluvial toeslope with the colluvial footslope. Groupings of [radioisotope carbon-14] ages in and above the pre-human paleosol allow for calculation of terrestrial sedimentation rates. At ~0.9 mm yr^-1 the terrestrial pre-human sedimentation rate averaged over the valley floor is approximately half (0.53) of the corresponding pre-human lake rate of ~1.7 mm yr^-1. As a proportion of the lake's anthropogenic sedimentation rate at ~4.8 mm yr^-1, the terrestrial anthropogenic sedimentation rate has slightly increased to ~2.8 mm yr^-1 (0.58 of the lake sedimentation rate). These initial findings demonstrate the potential for further research in this area, so that ongoing land-use change can be accurately incorporated into terrestrial carbon accounting.

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  • Desensitisation of the pituitary vasopressin receptor : development of a model system to assess involvement of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5.

    Gatehouse, Michelle (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The hypothalamic peptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) is an important regulator of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary. AVP stimulates ACTH secretion from corticotroph cells by activating the pituitary vasopressin receptor (V1b-R), a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. In vitro, repeated stimulus of anterior pituitary cells with AVP results in rapid desensitisation. The aim of this research was to develop methods needed to use RNA interference (RNAi) to investigate the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) in this desensitisation process. This required the development of a model system using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells transfected with the pituitary vasopressin receptor, V1b-R. AVP binding to the V1bR activates the phosphoinositide signalling pathway, leading to production of inositol phosphates (IPs), which can be measured following radiolabelling of cells with myo-[³H]inositol. Stimulation of V1b-R-transfected cells for 15 min with AVP (100nM) increased IP production to 235.5 ± 23.4 % (n=3, p<0.05) than for cells cultured for 3 days (grown to a confluence of approximately 65%). These data indicate that GRK5 expression is affected by HEK293 culture conditions. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that a significant difference in GRK5 expression could be measured in HEK293 cells using qRT-PCR. Therefore the results reported in this thesis provide the basis for future studies utilising RNAi to investigate mechanisms underlying V1b-R desensitisation.

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  • Students first: A trans-disciplinary team approach to the education of a student with Battens disease.

    Williams, Lynda Ann (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This New Zealand case study explored how ten members in one trans-disciplinary team perceive and meet the educational needs of a student with Batten’s disease in an inclusive school setting and uses qualitative methodology. This report details the results of ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted with the trans-disciplinary team members. There were three themes that emerged from this research. Firstly, all the team members were in agreement that the student’s happiness was of paramount importance and they wanted her to be included with her peers. Secondly, the family’s goals and aspirations for the student’s education had become a driving force and academic goals were conspicuous by their absence. Thirdly, the team had a holistic trans-disciplinary approach to the student’s education and valued the opportunity to share information and discuss issues. Also the IEP process was adapted to support the trans-disciplinary team members as well as the planning process for a student with deteriorating physical and cognitive skills.

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  • Examining the environmental justice of sea level rise and storm tides in New Zealand

    Moth, Paul Daniel (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research has established that aspects of the environment are unevenly distributed among social and socioeconomic groups. While an abundance of literature documents environmental inequalities such as toxic sites, air pollution, and access to greenspace in North America and Europe, few researchers investigate coastal flooding as a result of sea level rise and storm tides. Flooding, coastal and fluvial, are the most common natural disasters in the world; and considering sea level rise and coastal squeeze, will likely become more devastating. The impacts of coastal flooding will vary between populations and often those who are vulnerable will bear the brunt of the adverse effects. This research assesses the socio-spatial distribution of sea level rise in combination with storm tides in New Zealand, taking into account factors such as gender, age, income, ethnicity, and deprivation. Results display that the distribution of risk to coastal flooding is disproportionately higher in environmentally vulnerable places, such as coastal urban low-lying areas, and among socially vulnerable populations, such as Pacific peoples, people aged 65 and over, and people of low-income and high deprivation. Research also exhibits variations for each region in New Zealand. Discussion of the results are placed into context with the existing social, income, and health inequalities in New Zealand and the areas where inequality to coastal flooding in the highest. Furthermore, the results are discussed in relation to the policy framework in New Zealand including the New Zealand Health Strategy 2000 and the Resource Management Act 1991. The argument demonstrates that the regulatory framework in New Zealand fails to recognise environmental justice or environmental inequalities. Lastly, the limitations of research are discussed as well as recommendations for further environmental justice research in New Zealand.

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