866 results for Masters, 2010

  • Effects of ocean acidification on fertilisation and early development in polar and temperate marine invertebrates

    Ericson, Jessica (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    243 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliography. University of Otago department: Marine Science.

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  • Combined map personalisation algorithm for delivering preferred spatial features in a map to everyday mobile device users

    Bookwala, Avinash Turab (2010-06-18)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this thesis, we present an innovative and novel approach to personalise maps/geo-spatial services for mobile users. With the proposed map personalisation approach, only relevant data will be extracted from detailed maps/geo-spatial services on the fly, based on a user’s current location, preferences and requirements. This would result in dramatic improvements in the legibility of maps on mobile device screens, as well as significant reductions in the amount of data being transmitted; which, in turn, would reduce the download time and cost of transferring the required geo-spatial data across mobile networks. Furthermore, the proposed map personalisation approach has been implemented into a working system, based on a four-tier client server architecture, wherein fully detailed maps/services are stored on the server, and upon a user’s request personalised maps/services, extracted from the fully detailed maps/services based on the user’s current location, preferences, are sent to the user’s mobile device through mobile networks. By using open and standard system development tools, our system is open to everyday mobile devices rather than smart phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) only, as is prevalent in most current map personalisation systems. The proposed map personalisation approach combines content-based information filtering and collaborative information filtering techniques into an algorithmic solution, wherein content-based information filtering is used for regular users having a user profile stored on the system, and collaborative information filtering is used for new/occasional users having no user profile stored on the system. Maps/geo-spatial services are personalised for regular users by analysing the user’s spatial feature preferences automatically collected and stored in their user profile from previous usages, whereas, map personalisation for new/occasional users is achieved through analysing the spatial feature preferences of like-minded users in the system in order to make an inference for the target user. Furthermore, with the use of association rule mining, an advanced inference technique, the spatial features retrieved for new/occasional users through collaborative filtering can be attained. The selection of spatial features through association rule mining is achieved by finding interesting and similar patterns in the spatial features most commonly retrieved by different user groups, based on their past transactions or usage sessions with the system.

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  • Toxicity of 7-ketocholesterol as a mechanism of oxidised low density lipoprotein-induced cellular death

    Rutherford, Lucy Dianne (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease involving the deposition of cholesterolloaded macrophage cells within the artery wall. Progression of the initial fatty streak to an advanced atherosclerotic plaque is characterised by the development of a necrotic core region containing cholesterol and dead cells. It is well established that the formation of oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and the resulting toxicity to macrophage cells is a key driver in the development of the necrotic core. OxLDL contains the oxysterol, 7-ketocholesterol, which is the predominant oxysterol found within advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the toxicity of 7- ketocholesterol to various cell types, but the route of 7-ketocholesterol delivery is important to its cytotoxicity. 7-Ketocholesterol is almost entirely lipoprotein-associated in vivo. The aim of this study was to use a more physiologically relevant model to assess the toxicity of 7-ketocholesterol to U937 human monocyte cells. U937 cells were found to be very sensitive to both oxLDL and 7-ketocholesterol. Yet incorporation of 7-ketocholesterol into high-uptake acetylated LDL greatly reduced the oxysterol cytotoxicity, when compared to an equivalent amount of 7-ketocholesterol added directly to U937 cell culture medium. While low intracellular concentrations of 7-ketocholesterol correlated with very high oxLDL toxicity, comparatively large intracellular 7-ketocholesterol content from the uptake of 7KC-acLDL caused only a small viability loss. Enrichment of oxLDL with 7- ketocholesterol did not significantly enhance lipoprotein toxicity. Collectively, these findings indicate that 7-ketocholesterol is not the toxic agent within oxLDL and have implications for the mechanism of oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity involved in atherosclerotic plaque necrotic core development.

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  • An exploratory study of facilitators and barriers to the primary care management of those with high cardiovascular risk

    Doolan-Noble, Fiona (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background In 2003 the New Zealand Guidelines on the screening and management of patients for cardiovascular risk were published, with a revised handbook for primary healthcare staff updated in 2009. Several studies however have identified a significant gap between the guideline recommendations and current practice. This study was initiated to investigate the possible reasons for the evidence-practice gap. Aim and objectives The aim of this research study was to explore how primary health care teams manage those at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and what changes could be made that would enhance management. The study objectives were: • To explore how those found to be at high risk of a cardiovascular event are managed in primary care; • To determine what facilitates and hinders CVD risk management at practice level in the current primary health care environment in New Zealand; • To establish what strategies and support providers would like to enhance the current management of those at high risk. Methods A qualitative approach was utilised for this study using focus groups for the collection of relevant information and opinions. Following the review of the literature an interview schedule was developed to guide the focus group discourse. The selection of the focus groups was guided by a sampling frame which ensured that they were drawn from a variety of settings. Focus groups were digitally recorded and the recordings transcribed. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) was used as a framework to guide consideration of the literature review findings as well as the process of analysing the text data. The text data was analysed using a general inductive approach which resulted in the emergence of key themes. Findings There was a high level of conformity between the findings from the focus group and the literature review but some additional issues did emerge. The self management domain and the delivery system domain of the CCM dominated both the findings from the literature and the themes from the focus groups. The decision support domain appears to have a moderate impact on optimal management of cardiovascular risk, both in the literature and from the focus group findings. Participants in the focus groups identified more barriers to optimal management of those at high cardiovascular risk related to the health system organisation domain, than emerged from the literature. Surprisingly they identified no barriers or facilitators to the use of community resources to assist them in supporting individuals with lifestyle behaviour changes. Conclusion This study, elicited new perspectives from New Zealand primary healthcare staff, relevant to issues surrounding the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. The research has elucidated drivers of sub-optimal management and highlighted solutions available to address the issues within the current New Zealand primary health care environment.

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  • Regulation of Cytochrome bd Expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Weimar, Marion Ricarda (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The metabolism and generation of energy by the majority of pathogenic bacteria in the host remains enigmatic and emerging evidence suggests that the identification of essential bacterial metabolic pathways that have no human counterparts may represent a virtually untapped source of novel drug targets for antibiotic development. The aim of this study was to determine how mycobacteria metabolize and generate energy microaerobically. To identify potential regulatory circuits that control the response to low oxygen tension, we targeted the enzyme cytochrome bd oxidase, purportedly involved in the generation of energy under these conditions, and isolated mutants that fail to activate expression of this enzyme. Instead of finding regulators of cytochrome bd oxidase, our screen revealed enzymes and regulators involved in redox homeostasis and defence against electrophiles (oxidative stress). We discovered ProR, a novel regulator of proline dehydrogenase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, two enzymes involved in proline degradation. Evidence is presented that ProR is essential for growth on proline as a sole carbon source and that a proR mutant experiences DNA damage due to methylglyoxal, an endogenously produced toxic intermediate of glycolysis and glycerol metabolism. It is shown that proline confers resistance to methylglyoxal. Furthermore, we characterized the sodium/proline symporter PutP as a high-affinity transporter for proline and show that it is the major uptake system for proline in Mycobacterium smegmatis. A new model for methylglyoxal detoxification in Mycobacteria is presented.

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  • Domain Name Disputes: Is Private Dispute Resolution Working?

    Liddicoat, Joy Jennifer (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    InternetNZ has responsibility for management of the .nz domain name space. This dissertation examines InternetNZ's development and implementation of the Dispute Resolution Service Policy (the DRS). The DRS, which is being reviewed in 2010, provides a substantive legal test for unfair registration of a domain name and a dispute resolution process. This dissertation asks whether the DRS is working effectively and, if so, what this reveals about the operation of the Internet in New Zealand. The dissertation shows that the DRS is a low cost, high quality alternative to litigation and is being run in a pragmatic but principled way by InternetNZ. Implications are discussed and recommendations are made for minor improvements. The dissertation concludes with a call for more participation in, and critique of, Internet policy developments given the important human rights issues that can arise and the significance of the Internet in New Zealand today.

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  • The Prevalance of Depression amongst People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Long Term Oxygen Therapy

    Mold, Emma (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of depression amongst people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and examine the differences and relationships between depressed and not depressed patients to inform clinical practice. Methods: In September 2009 a cross-sectional point prevalence study of the total District Health Board (DHB) population of COPD patients on LTOT oxygen in a large urban area in New Zealand (NZ) was conducted. Depression was assessed using the self-completed Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional clinical and demographic characteristics were obtained from hospital records and a self-completed questionnaire. Results: Sixty three patients (36 females, mean age 72) from the total population of 73 with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 37% predicted) completed the survey. PHQ-9 results indicate the total prevalence of depression was 54%; 95% CI 41.71-65.87. Twenty five percent of patients had mild depression and 29% had moderate to severe depression. One in six patients of those who screened positively was being treated for depression. No significant correlations or differences were found between the depressions scores and the demographic (age, gender, lives alone) or clinical (portable oxygen, time on oxygen, hospital admissions, pulmonary rehabilitation and FEV1) characteristics. Conclusion: This study provides new evidence regarding the prevalence of depression in NZ COPD LTOT populations. Depression symptoms and depression are highly prevalent in this patient population and there is evidence depression is undertreated. The PHQ-9 is a simple and effective tool community nurses can use for the initial screening of depression, which could improve the recognition and possible uptake of effective interventions to lessen the impact of depression in this population. The PHQ-9 is validated screening tool that should be used in further depression prevalence research with NZ COPD and other long-term condition populations to determine homogeneity across studies.

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  • China and New Regionalism in Africa - Conflict or Coherence?

    Griffiths, Adam (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    What is Africa's best hope for advancing its development initiatives? Should each state seek to compete independently on the world stage? Should they seek to forge relationships with external partners and the power players in the world economy on a one-to-one basis? Or should they work together in conjunction with the economic giants of the globalised economy? Of these three possible approaches this article seeks to investigate the third. Can the African states use a regional approach to economic development whilst still engaging and benefitting from external benefactors? Or will the traditional and developing powerhouses in the world economy simply use Africa's efforts at regional integration as a way to garner favour and preferential access to African markets and resources? In the post colonial and post independence period, many African states sought to work with the former colonialists overlords in an attempt to develop their economies through a regional approach. Many of these attempts created little real benefit to the African peoples themselves. In the wake of these failed attempts at development via the perceived benefits of regional integration, new movements developed. A new approach to regionalism has appeared in the last three decades, whose hallmarks are quite different to the old approaches to regionalism. It is the intent of this article to make an empirical investigation into the progress of these new approaches to regional integration or 'the new regionalism' as it is often dubbed. I also wish to add a further element to this investigation. The 'old regionalism' traditionally featured African states seeking trade policy rationalisation/integration/development under the tutelage and patronage of the western states. However, one of key characteristics of the 'new regionalism' is that new partnerships between developing economies and the African states are emerging. These partnerships have the ability to either greatly help the African states in the path to development through regional integration, or they may hinder and derail these attempts. To this end I wish to investigate the greatest 'developing' economy in the world and its impact on Africa's regionalisation projects. I am referring here to China. China has shown interest in Africa as a continent that has huge potential and as one that can provide great benefit to China's rapid economic growth and expansion. To this end it seems particularly relevant to investigate how China seeks to expand its ties and increase its presence in the area. As both Africa and China can be seen as 'developing', albeit both at very different levels, it should be particularly interesting to see how these two geographical and demographic juggernauts work together in the pursuit of their own developments ...

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  • Imperfect Repair Strategies for Two-Dimensional Warranty

    Varnosafaderani, Sima Rouhollahi (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    When a repairable product under warranty fails, the manufacturer (warrantor) has the choice to either repair or replace the failed product. When repairing a failed product, the degree of repair which affects the working condition of the product can vary, and this is assumed to have an impact on the cost of the repair. The main motivation of this study is to develop a warranty repair strategy that minimizes the costs associated with servicing the warranty. In this research, the product coverage is represented by a two-dimensional rectangular region with a free-replacement warranty. We propose an imperfect repair strategy that suggests employing imperfect repairs of a predefined degree, in prespecified subregions of the warranty region. The aim is to then minimize the expected warranty servicing cost to the manufacturer by determining the optimal partitioning of the warranty region for the chosen degrees of repair. Two imperfect repair models are considered, and for both, the expressions for the distribution of the times to imperfect repair and the expected warranty servicing cost per product sold are derived. We numerically illustrate our findings and compare the expected costs of the proposed imperfect repair strategy with those of previously developed repair-replacement warranty strategies.

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  • 'To the Curious Enquirer': Depictions of Pacific Peoples in Popular Illustrated Books from Paris and London c.1775-1810

    Morrell, Vivienne Ruth (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study considers a range of illustrated encyclopaedias published in London and Paris in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries depicting peoples of the Pacific or Oceania. Using a framework of curiosity, exoticism, and costume iconography, as well as considering relevant contemporary developments, I argue that, despite the widespread appeal to 'curiosity', the books reveal a fairly superficial interest, at a popular level, in other peoples: one that is mainly interested in contrasting 'civilised' Europe with less civilised or 'savage' others. The genres to which these books belonged developed in the sixteenth century, and the books considered in this study followed their genre traditions, fitting the 'new discoveries' of Oceania into these existing traditions. The frontispieces set the tone of the books, and embodied moral value judgements revealing European views of political, social and economic relations between Europe and other peoples and countries at that time. They were also following an iconographic tradition set down much earlier and generally failed to acknowledge recent events that challenged these prevailing views. I consider how the images of Oceanic peoples in the French costume books were developed (or as I argue 'invented') from the source material, which was mainly images in the published accounts of Captain Cook's three voyages. In inventing images designed to please the eye, the sources chosen reveal the prejudices and expectations of European readers. But how were the 'new' Oceanic peoples incorporated into these books? By seeing Oceanic peoples as part of America it was easy to fit them into existing prejudices about 'savages' and into existing pictorial conventions for depicting 'savages'. For an audience expecting to see 'savages' wearing grass skirts and feather headdresses these images would have appeared 'authentic'. My study will highlight more popular views rather than the views of philosophers, or the voyagers' accounts, which understandably have been given more academic attention. These books are overlooked today because they are derivative and their images are not necessarily ethnographically accurate; yet they were popular in their time. They represent a conservative Eurocentric viewpoint and their inclusion of new material from Oceanic voyages did not challenge these views. Images and texts such as these likely reinforced European views of their own superiority and made it easy to justify missionary activity and colonisation in various parts of the world, particularly Oceania.

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  • Selves and Spaces in Science Fiction

    Davidson, Brett Innes (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis proposes a critical framework by which science fiction can be read as an indicator of significant trends and debates in science and culture. It takes as its starting point Brian Aldiss's statement that science fiction's purpose is to articulate in fictional form a definition of humanity and its status in the universe that will stand in the light of science. Science fiction exists as a means by which scientific concepts are constructed as cultural interpretations, and as both have changed significantly over the period from the emergence of the genre in the mid nineteenth century through the twentieth century, analysis of science-fictional forms and practices can reveal the processes of their evolution. A critical framework is constructed based on Aldiss' definition, identifying first, a construction of selfhood and spatiality - physical and metaphysical - as being fundamental, and secondly, identifying the emergence and evolution of major 'Orders' that take different approaches to key issues and which engage with each other both antagonistically and creatively. The thesis begins with an investigation of the cultural construction of space and then covers the emergence of science fiction as it relates to the project to define humanity and its standing in the universe in a manner consistent with science. Three Orders and their emergence are then described according to their architectonic schemae and their epistemological and creative processes. The first is the Modernist Order, based on Cartesian spatiality and mind-body dualism and empirical scientific practice. The second, which emerged as an attempt to synthesise modern science with traditional culture, is the Neohumanist Order. The third, still very much in flux, is the Posthumanist Order, which is very much inspired both by postmodernism and cybernetics. The three following chapters deal with the Orders in turn, selecting exemplary texts from their emergent and developed (or developing) stages, suggesting also the points in the development of each where another Order has disengaged and emerged in its own right. Because science and culture evolve over time, examination of the Orders is intrinsically linked to a concept of science fiction as being an ongoing discourse, each selected text is interpreted as being a response to a particular issue at a particular cultural moment, but nonetheless connected to predecessor and successor texts that represent a line of argument pursued over time within and between Orders. The Orders are not hermetic by any means, and their most enlightening aspects can be their varying treatment of a common concept. The cyborg furnishes an excellent example, being treated differently by each of the Orders as it is an image of the integration of humanity and technology. Issues such as self, body, boundary, location, the other and communication are all represented in the cyborg and the next two chapters discuss the cyborg as treated by different Orders, in the first case, as a body and in the second case, as an inhabitant and creation of architectonics and culture. The conclusion then discusses the current state of affairs regarding the system of Orders as a critical method. It is shown that 'impure' texts that contain aspects of each of the Orders do not negate their usefulness, but rather demonstrate it as texts (and postmodern texts in particular) provide stages on which the Orders can be displayed engaging with each other.

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  • The Canterbury and West Coast District Health Boards' Professional Development and Recognition Programme for Nurses: A Comparative Study of Participants and Non Participants

    Bloomer, Helen Margaret Parnell (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: In response to recruitment and retention issues, professional development recognition programmes for nurses have become widespread internationally. In addition, in New Zealand the introduction of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act (2003) with subsequent competency based practising certificates for nurses, and the signing of the Multi Employer Collective Agreement (NZNO, 2004) resulted in the mandatory introduction of professional development recognition programmes within District Health Boards. However, little research exists to demonstrate who is participating in these programmes and what the motivating factors and barriers to participation are. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to identify the demographic characteristics of both participants and non-participants in the Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) and West Coast District Health Board (WCDHB) Professional Development and Recognition Programme (PDRP) and to explore the motivating factors and barriers to participation in this programme through the use of the Perceived Value of Certification Tool© (PVCT). Method: Female registered nurses permanently employed by the CDHB, who were eligible to voluntarily participate in the PDRP were randomly selected to anonymously complete two written questionnaires. The first questionnaire sought demographic information while the second was the Perceived Value of Certification Tool (PVCT©). Over a one month period 399 questionnaires were sent out with 245 usable returns received. Results: No significant demographic differences between programme participants and non participants were found. However, participants in the PDRP had higher levels of agreement with the value statements which comprised the PVCT than did non-participants. Value statements related to intrinsic motivation rated more highly than those related to extrinsic motivation for both PDRP participants and non participants, suggesting that the desire to participate in the programme is largely internally motivated. Exceptions were the motivation of increased pay, and exemption from Nursing Council of New Zealand audit. Barriers to participation are primarily related to the process itself, with unwieldiness and the time required to complete a submission often cited as reasons for non participation. Conclusion: Registered Nurse participants in the programme represent a cross section of the CDHB nursing workforce. Participation in the programme appears to be internally motivated and non participation appears to be largely related to the perception that the submission process is onerous, therefore, future education and development aimed at increasing uptake of the programme needs to address these issues. It would seem that simplifying the submission process, and the evidence required would be the single most effective method of increasing participation in the programme.

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  • Tourism Recovery after the 2009 Tsunami in Samoa

    Tagomoa-Isara, Tupe (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    On September 29th 2009, the 8.3 magnitude earthquake off of the southern coast of Samoa in the Pacific Ocean generated massive tsunami waves resulting in severe devastation for many villages and contamination of their coastal areas. The disaster greatly impacted the tourism infrastructure, economy, environment, water quality and psychological aspect of the residents in the affected areas. The aim of this thesis was to examine the recovery of tourism after the September 2009 tsunami. The objectives were to: 1) explore the immediate impacts tourism businesses suffered from the tsunami; 2) identify the emergency responses that occurred in the aftermath; 3) explain the issues and challenges arising from the recovery process and; 4) examine the strategies and opportunities that tourism operators and relevant organisations are using to recover tourism in the district. This involves examining the preparedness programs for future disasters. A qualitative approach was used to accomplish the objectives of the study. Four tourism businesses that were affected in the Safata district were selected for this research. Experiences and views of the affected tourism businesses were presented and analysed through media reports and document review, semi-structured interviews and site observations. Interviews were also carried out with key informants from relevant tourism organisations that were involved in the tsunami response and recovery efforts. This author believes that this is the first tourism study carried out on tourism recovery after the 2009 tsunami and specifically a study which presents a tourism case study from the Safata district. It intends to provide insight on the issues facing the tourism businesses hoping to recover, as well as finding out their preparedness programs and disaster plans for future disasters. Results show that there was no disaster plan for the tourism industry before the tsunami. The tsunami has caused severe damage to tourism businesses such as premises being demolished, equipment destruction, psychological effects and environmental damage. Results also show the rapid response of the local communities, government and overseas agencies. It was also clear that although the affected tourism businesses did not have any disaster plans before the tsunami, they showed willingness to develop and become proactive in implementing a disaster plan as a means of preparing for future disasters. This research will help tourism businesses and relevant organisations set strategic actions or procedures towards developing a disaster plan to prepare for and mitigate future disasters.

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  • Benedict, Balance and the Deans: The Benedictine concept of balance offers a way for a dean to survive and thrive in an Anglican cathedral today.

    Nelson, Frank (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Introduction : More than twenty years ago I was introduced to the Rule of Benedict by Esther de Waal. It was a revelation to me that centuries ago (Benedict’s dates are 480 – 547 AD) a man had the vision to set out a way of living a balanced life for God in the midst of apparent chaos. While the Rule remains the basic underlying rule for western monasticism I realized too that the Anglican Church owes an immense amount to Benedict. My experience as a priest suggests that Anglicans have drifted towards a management, and increasingly congregational, style of being church, with emphasis on numbers and personality of clergy. The Rule suggests we may have lost something worthwhile. There is something unexpectedly contemporary about the challenge of the three vows – obedience, stability and continual conversion – to today’s church, and especially today’s cathedrals. One English cathedral that I am aware of has specifically tied itself to Benedictine principles. While only one model of cathedral, this indicates that Benedict’s vision continues to be relevant today. As I thought about a topic to fulfill the requirements for the M Min research essay I found myself increasingly drawn to asking whether the Rule of Benedict might have some suggestions for a busy dean trying to cope with the many demands on his/her time. This thinking was further encouraged in the words of a university lecturer who, on introducing me to his class of business administration students, reminded them that business models are relatively recent, often built either on that of the church or the military. Drawing on my own experience in a number of cathedrals, and the reading and talking I have done (including meeting regularly with my New Zealand dean colleagues and a small group of international deans over the past few years), a thesis topic developed. The Benedictine concept of balance offers a way for a dean to survive and thrive in an Anglican cathedral today. This topic would give me the chance to • reflect on my own ministry as a priest over a period of more than thirty years (much of it in cathedrals) • delve deeply into the Rule of Benedict and some of today’s commentators on, and practitioners of, the Rule • look critically at the way in which the Rule has influenced some of the decisions and practices I have made as Dean of Wellington • through a process of interviews with deans and former deans in New Zealand, seek to discover whether my thesis has any validity and usefulness, both to deans and the wider church.

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  • Ika

    Vogel, Yolanda Jacqueline (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines methodological issues in the analysis of fishbone assemblages from the Pacific. A review of the literature on Pacific fishing raises questions about methodology in Pacific fishbone analysis. Recent work in Pacific fishbone analysis at the Otago Archaeology Laboratory and other international laboratories has shown that different identification and quantification methods have significant influence on measures of relative abundance. This can affect the type of interpretations that result from midden analysis. A common method employed in New Zealand and the Pacific involves the identification of five paired mouth bones plus various special bones, and the use of MNI for quantification. A large fishbone assemblage from Rapa in French Polynesia is used as a case study to evaluate alternative analytical approaches. Tropical Pacific fish bone assemblages tend to have a relatively high species diversity compared to temperate New Zealand assemblages. Many reef fish also have small mouths in comparison to temperate fish species. It is concluded that in tropical Pacific assemblages the number of elements identified to taxa can have a significant effect on possible interpretations of past behaviours. This thesis also presents the first archaeological interpretation of the prehistoric fishing on Rapa. Due to its subtropical location Rapa presents an opportunity to study human adaptation to resource poor environments. While it is found that the fishing industry shows some general similarities to those of other islands in East Polynesia, the environmental constraints have resulted in some interesting variations in terms of target taxa. The analysis of the Rapan assemblages confirms that, at least in some cases, the use of a wider suite of elements for identification will have a significant impact on the number of taxa identified in an assemblage, and resulting interpretations of fishing behaviours.

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  • Shared parenting: mothers' experiences : "Experiences of mothering: how mothers view their roles in shared care arrangements for children following relationship separation"

    Riwhi, Jan (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: [7], 77, [11] leaves : ill., forms ; 30 cm. Notes: "October 2010". University of Otago department: Sociology, Gender and Social Work. Thesis (M.S.W. (Endorsed))--University of Otago, 2011. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Teenage reading: personal reading beyond school; habits, attitudes and beliefs

    Taylor, John Forsyth (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: vi, 102, [13] leaves : forms ; 30 cm. Notes: "June 2010". University of Otago department: Education. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Otago, 2010. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Welcoming the 1.5 Generation who speak Mandarin and English

    Bell, Andrew (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The 2010 "State of the Auckland Region" report published by the Auckland Regional Council refers to Auckland as the fastest growing region in Australasia. Between 2001 and 2006 Auckland absorbed half of New Zealand's total population increase of 144,000 people. This means that by 2006, one-third of Auckland's population were born overseas. The reason for this dramatic increase can be directly attributed to changes to the New Zealand immigration policy that were made in 1996. The old system of applicants from preferred countries such as England and Canada being given priority was changed to points being awarded for preferred skills. Subsequent to, and as a direct outcome of these revisions, there have been dramatic changes to the composition of the Auckland population. According to a recent article in The Aucklander, the 2006 census recorded the Chinese population of Auckland as 97,425 residents which is double the number recorded in the 2001 census. According to a 2010 analysis of the census statistics conducted by Spasifik Mag, a new significant contributor to Auckland's population growth is "'natural increase', defined as births minus deaths". Many of the adult immigrants who arrived in the preceding decades were accompanied by their children. It is these immigrant children who are usually referred to as the "1.5 generation" and who are the central focus of this research. Their arrival not only dramatically dropped the average age of Auckland residents but many are now entering their child bearing years and contributing significantly to the population growth by natural increase. The census does not detail the number of residents who would belong to a category like the 1.5 generation and given that they are a highly mobile segment of the population, data will never be exact. However if one takes as a guide the number of people living in New Zealand between 10 and 29 years of age, this portion of the population has increased by more than a third, from 605,061 in the 1996 census to 879,543 in 2006 census. It is clear that Auckland has experienced dramatic changes to its demographic age range and cultural composition. Such information is vital if the Church is to take seriously the Biblical challenge to welcome strangers. How to welcome the sub-group identified as members of the 1.5 generation who speak Mandarin and English is the special focus of this research.

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  • Investigating Factors and Characteristics of the Use of e-Collaboration Tools in Research Collaboration

    Alsalem, Khalaf (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Research collaboration, which is the working together of researchers to achieve a common goal of producing new knowledge, is worthy of investigation. Mattessich et al. (2001) identified twenty factors that influence the success of research collaboration. This exploratory investigation used Mattessich et al’s (2001) model to measure the perception and degree of collaboration amongst researchers from the Otago region of New Zealand. A mixed-method research design, using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, was employed to assess a number of collaborations in the Otago region. This study employed an online survey instrument based on the Wilder Inventory (Mattessich et al., 2001). Forty-nine researchers from different disciplines in the Otago region completed a 42-item survey about their experience with research collaboration. Survey results were used to identify strengths and weaknesses in the Otago researchers’ collaboration and to establish baseline data for future comparisons. Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with researchers who had been involved in collaborative research. Researchers from different sectors were interviewed individually. During these interviews, the preliminary outcomes from the online survey data were used to encourage the researchers to recall particular events about their collaboration, how they felt at the time and to reflect on these experiences. Qualitative data were analysed for emergent categories and themes, and were used to explore the status of collaboration amongst Otago researchers. The twenty factors mentioned in Mattessich et al. (2001) can be useful in evaluating the success of research collaboration. According to the Wilder Inventory guidelines (Mattessich et al., 2001), nine factors scored high (4 – 4.3) indicating strengths in the Otago researchers’ collaboration, eleven factors fell within the borderline area (3 – 3.9) and no factors scored lower than 2.9 indicating no weaknesses in their collaboration. However, interview findings showed that new technologies are still not utilised as they could be in the area of research collaboration. The findings of this study may help Otago researchers to enhance the strengths and work on weaknesses in their collaboration.

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  • Localisation of the COMMD 1 and 3 Proteins

    Swart, Marianne (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which is a key regulator of sodium (Na+) homeostasis, is expressed as a protein complex on the apical cell surface of many epithelial cells. ENaC is composed of three similar subunits named α-, β- and γENaC. Together these three subunits provide a regulated pathway for Na+ ions to enter epithelial cells from the lumen thus its activity at the cell surface requires tight regulation. In the distal nephron segments of the kidney this mode of regulation is especially important for maintaining total body Na+ and therefore extracellular fluid balance and arterial blood pressure. A number of factors have been identified as regulators of ENaC including COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1). This protein factor, which belongs to a family of ten ubiquitously expressed proteins, is involved in a number of distinct cellular processes including inhibition of nuclear factor (NF-) κB. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that both COMMD1 and COMMD3 bind to all three ENaC subunits and subsequently mediate an inhibitory effect on the amiloride sensitive Na+ current generated by αβγENaC. Based on this knowledge it was hypothesised that in order for the COMMD proteins to have an effect on ENaC, colocalisation and co-expression of these two proteins to the same intracellular compartments and cell types are required in vivo. This was investigated using different mammalian cell lines that are derived from tissues in which COMMD proteins and/or mRNA have previously been identified, as well as in rat kidney. The specific objectives were addressed using Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Here double label indirect IHC studies have shown for the first time that endogenously expressed COMMD1 and COMMD3 proteins colocalise with αENaC in the principal cells of the cortical and inner and outer medullary collecting ducts. This colocalisation was also shown to hold significance at the intracellular level. ENaC has previously been shown to localise to intracellular vesicular compartments that form part of the endosomal and recycling pathways. Here indirect ICC studies have provided evidence to show that endogenously expressed COMMD1 and COMMD3 proteins localise to the early endosomes. The absence of both COMMD1 and COMMD3 in the Golgi apparatus, which forms part of the secretory pathway, suggests that the COMMD proteins mediate their effects on ENaC in a post-Golgi compartment, possibly by initiating or promoting endocytosis of ENaC from the apical cell surface. In summary, these results provide strong evidence to suggest that the interaction between the COMMD proteins and ENaC is not only biochemically significant but also physiologically relevant thus implicating a possible regulatory role for the COMMD proteins on ENaC activity and therefore indirectly the regulation of Na+ homeostasis.

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