867 results for Masters, 2010

  • Toxicity of 7-ketocholesterol as a mechanism of oxidised low density lipoprotein-induced cellular death

    Rutherford, Lucy Dianne (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease involving the deposition of cholesterolloaded macrophage cells within the artery wall. Progression of the initial fatty streak to an advanced atherosclerotic plaque is characterised by the development of a necrotic core region containing cholesterol and dead cells. It is well established that the formation of oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and the resulting toxicity to macrophage cells is a key driver in the development of the necrotic core. OxLDL contains the oxysterol, 7-ketocholesterol, which is the predominant oxysterol found within advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the toxicity of 7- ketocholesterol to various cell types, but the route of 7-ketocholesterol delivery is important to its cytotoxicity. 7-Ketocholesterol is almost entirely lipoprotein-associated in vivo. The aim of this study was to use a more physiologically relevant model to assess the toxicity of 7-ketocholesterol to U937 human monocyte cells. U937 cells were found to be very sensitive to both oxLDL and 7-ketocholesterol. Yet incorporation of 7-ketocholesterol into high-uptake acetylated LDL greatly reduced the oxysterol cytotoxicity, when compared to an equivalent amount of 7-ketocholesterol added directly to U937 cell culture medium. While low intracellular concentrations of 7-ketocholesterol correlated with very high oxLDL toxicity, comparatively large intracellular 7-ketocholesterol content from the uptake of 7KC-acLDL caused only a small viability loss. Enrichment of oxLDL with 7- ketocholesterol did not significantly enhance lipoprotein toxicity. Collectively, these findings indicate that 7-ketocholesterol is not the toxic agent within oxLDL and have implications for the mechanism of oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity involved in atherosclerotic plaque necrotic core development.

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  • Domain Name Disputes: Is Private Dispute Resolution Working?

    Liddicoat, Joy Jennifer (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    InternetNZ has responsibility for management of the .nz domain name space. This dissertation examines InternetNZ's development and implementation of the Dispute Resolution Service Policy (the DRS). The DRS, which is being reviewed in 2010, provides a substantive legal test for unfair registration of a domain name and a dispute resolution process. This dissertation asks whether the DRS is working effectively and, if so, what this reveals about the operation of the Internet in New Zealand. The dissertation shows that the DRS is a low cost, high quality alternative to litigation and is being run in a pragmatic but principled way by InternetNZ. Implications are discussed and recommendations are made for minor improvements. The dissertation concludes with a call for more participation in, and critique of, Internet policy developments given the important human rights issues that can arise and the significance of the Internet in New Zealand today.

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  • The Prevalance of Depression amongst People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Long Term Oxygen Therapy

    Mold, Emma (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of depression amongst people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and examine the differences and relationships between depressed and not depressed patients to inform clinical practice. Methods: In September 2009 a cross-sectional point prevalence study of the total District Health Board (DHB) population of COPD patients on LTOT oxygen in a large urban area in New Zealand (NZ) was conducted. Depression was assessed using the self-completed Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional clinical and demographic characteristics were obtained from hospital records and a self-completed questionnaire. Results: Sixty three patients (36 females, mean age 72) from the total population of 73 with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 37% predicted) completed the survey. PHQ-9 results indicate the total prevalence of depression was 54%; 95% CI 41.71-65.87. Twenty five percent of patients had mild depression and 29% had moderate to severe depression. One in six patients of those who screened positively was being treated for depression. No significant correlations or differences were found between the depressions scores and the demographic (age, gender, lives alone) or clinical (portable oxygen, time on oxygen, hospital admissions, pulmonary rehabilitation and FEV1) characteristics. Conclusion: This study provides new evidence regarding the prevalence of depression in NZ COPD LTOT populations. Depression symptoms and depression are highly prevalent in this patient population and there is evidence depression is undertreated. The PHQ-9 is a simple and effective tool community nurses can use for the initial screening of depression, which could improve the recognition and possible uptake of effective interventions to lessen the impact of depression in this population. The PHQ-9 is validated screening tool that should be used in further depression prevalence research with NZ COPD and other long-term condition populations to determine homogeneity across studies.

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  • China and New Regionalism in Africa - Conflict or Coherence?

    Griffiths, Adam (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    What is Africa's best hope for advancing its development initiatives? Should each state seek to compete independently on the world stage? Should they seek to forge relationships with external partners and the power players in the world economy on a one-to-one basis? Or should they work together in conjunction with the economic giants of the globalised economy? Of these three possible approaches this article seeks to investigate the third. Can the African states use a regional approach to economic development whilst still engaging and benefitting from external benefactors? Or will the traditional and developing powerhouses in the world economy simply use Africa's efforts at regional integration as a way to garner favour and preferential access to African markets and resources? In the post colonial and post independence period, many African states sought to work with the former colonialists overlords in an attempt to develop their economies through a regional approach. Many of these attempts created little real benefit to the African peoples themselves. In the wake of these failed attempts at development via the perceived benefits of regional integration, new movements developed. A new approach to regionalism has appeared in the last three decades, whose hallmarks are quite different to the old approaches to regionalism. It is the intent of this article to make an empirical investigation into the progress of these new approaches to regional integration or 'the new regionalism' as it is often dubbed. I also wish to add a further element to this investigation. The 'old regionalism' traditionally featured African states seeking trade policy rationalisation/integration/development under the tutelage and patronage of the western states. However, one of key characteristics of the 'new regionalism' is that new partnerships between developing economies and the African states are emerging. These partnerships have the ability to either greatly help the African states in the path to development through regional integration, or they may hinder and derail these attempts. To this end I wish to investigate the greatest 'developing' economy in the world and its impact on Africa's regionalisation projects. I am referring here to China. China has shown interest in Africa as a continent that has huge potential and as one that can provide great benefit to China's rapid economic growth and expansion. To this end it seems particularly relevant to investigate how China seeks to expand its ties and increase its presence in the area. As both Africa and China can be seen as 'developing', albeit both at very different levels, it should be particularly interesting to see how these two geographical and demographic juggernauts work together in the pursuit of their own developments ...

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  • Imperfect Repair Strategies for Two-Dimensional Warranty

    Varnosafaderani, Sima Rouhollahi (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    When a repairable product under warranty fails, the manufacturer (warrantor) has the choice to either repair or replace the failed product. When repairing a failed product, the degree of repair which affects the working condition of the product can vary, and this is assumed to have an impact on the cost of the repair. The main motivation of this study is to develop a warranty repair strategy that minimizes the costs associated with servicing the warranty. In this research, the product coverage is represented by a two-dimensional rectangular region with a free-replacement warranty. We propose an imperfect repair strategy that suggests employing imperfect repairs of a predefined degree, in prespecified subregions of the warranty region. The aim is to then minimize the expected warranty servicing cost to the manufacturer by determining the optimal partitioning of the warranty region for the chosen degrees of repair. Two imperfect repair models are considered, and for both, the expressions for the distribution of the times to imperfect repair and the expected warranty servicing cost per product sold are derived. We numerically illustrate our findings and compare the expected costs of the proposed imperfect repair strategy with those of previously developed repair-replacement warranty strategies.

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  • 'To the Curious Enquirer': Depictions of Pacific Peoples in Popular Illustrated Books from Paris and London c.1775-1810

    Morrell, Vivienne Ruth (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study considers a range of illustrated encyclopaedias published in London and Paris in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries depicting peoples of the Pacific or Oceania. Using a framework of curiosity, exoticism, and costume iconography, as well as considering relevant contemporary developments, I argue that, despite the widespread appeal to 'curiosity', the books reveal a fairly superficial interest, at a popular level, in other peoples: one that is mainly interested in contrasting 'civilised' Europe with less civilised or 'savage' others. The genres to which these books belonged developed in the sixteenth century, and the books considered in this study followed their genre traditions, fitting the 'new discoveries' of Oceania into these existing traditions. The frontispieces set the tone of the books, and embodied moral value judgements revealing European views of political, social and economic relations between Europe and other peoples and countries at that time. They were also following an iconographic tradition set down much earlier and generally failed to acknowledge recent events that challenged these prevailing views. I consider how the images of Oceanic peoples in the French costume books were developed (or as I argue 'invented') from the source material, which was mainly images in the published accounts of Captain Cook's three voyages. In inventing images designed to please the eye, the sources chosen reveal the prejudices and expectations of European readers. But how were the 'new' Oceanic peoples incorporated into these books? By seeing Oceanic peoples as part of America it was easy to fit them into existing prejudices about 'savages' and into existing pictorial conventions for depicting 'savages'. For an audience expecting to see 'savages' wearing grass skirts and feather headdresses these images would have appeared 'authentic'. My study will highlight more popular views rather than the views of philosophers, or the voyagers' accounts, which understandably have been given more academic attention. These books are overlooked today because they are derivative and their images are not necessarily ethnographically accurate; yet they were popular in their time. They represent a conservative Eurocentric viewpoint and their inclusion of new material from Oceanic voyages did not challenge these views. Images and texts such as these likely reinforced European views of their own superiority and made it easy to justify missionary activity and colonisation in various parts of the world, particularly Oceania.

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  • Selves and Spaces in Science Fiction

    Davidson, Brett Innes (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis proposes a critical framework by which science fiction can be read as an indicator of significant trends and debates in science and culture. It takes as its starting point Brian Aldiss's statement that science fiction's purpose is to articulate in fictional form a definition of humanity and its status in the universe that will stand in the light of science. Science fiction exists as a means by which scientific concepts are constructed as cultural interpretations, and as both have changed significantly over the period from the emergence of the genre in the mid nineteenth century through the twentieth century, analysis of science-fictional forms and practices can reveal the processes of their evolution. A critical framework is constructed based on Aldiss' definition, identifying first, a construction of selfhood and spatiality - physical and metaphysical - as being fundamental, and secondly, identifying the emergence and evolution of major 'Orders' that take different approaches to key issues and which engage with each other both antagonistically and creatively. The thesis begins with an investigation of the cultural construction of space and then covers the emergence of science fiction as it relates to the project to define humanity and its standing in the universe in a manner consistent with science. Three Orders and their emergence are then described according to their architectonic schemae and their epistemological and creative processes. The first is the Modernist Order, based on Cartesian spatiality and mind-body dualism and empirical scientific practice. The second, which emerged as an attempt to synthesise modern science with traditional culture, is the Neohumanist Order. The third, still very much in flux, is the Posthumanist Order, which is very much inspired both by postmodernism and cybernetics. The three following chapters deal with the Orders in turn, selecting exemplary texts from their emergent and developed (or developing) stages, suggesting also the points in the development of each where another Order has disengaged and emerged in its own right. Because science and culture evolve over time, examination of the Orders is intrinsically linked to a concept of science fiction as being an ongoing discourse, each selected text is interpreted as being a response to a particular issue at a particular cultural moment, but nonetheless connected to predecessor and successor texts that represent a line of argument pursued over time within and between Orders. The Orders are not hermetic by any means, and their most enlightening aspects can be their varying treatment of a common concept. The cyborg furnishes an excellent example, being treated differently by each of the Orders as it is an image of the integration of humanity and technology. Issues such as self, body, boundary, location, the other and communication are all represented in the cyborg and the next two chapters discuss the cyborg as treated by different Orders, in the first case, as a body and in the second case, as an inhabitant and creation of architectonics and culture. The conclusion then discusses the current state of affairs regarding the system of Orders as a critical method. It is shown that 'impure' texts that contain aspects of each of the Orders do not negate their usefulness, but rather demonstrate it as texts (and postmodern texts in particular) provide stages on which the Orders can be displayed engaging with each other.

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  • Domain Name Disputes: Is Private Dispute Resolution Working?

    Liddicoat, Joy Jennifer (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    InternetNZ has responsibility for management of the .nz domain name space. This dissertation examines InternetNZ's development and implementation of the Dispute Resolution Service Policy (the DRS). The DRS, which is being reviewed in 2010, provides a substantive legal test for unfair registration of a domain name and a dispute resolution process. This dissertation asks whether the DRS is working effectively and, if so, what this reveals about the operation of the Internet in New Zealand. The dissertation shows that the DRS is a low cost, high quality alternative to litigation and is being run in a pragmatic but principled way by InternetNZ. Implications are discussed and recommendations are made for minor improvements. The dissertation concludes with a call for more participation in, and critique of, Internet policy developments given the important human rights issues that can arise and the significance of the Internet in New Zealand today.

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  • The Not-For-Profit Chief Executive: An Insider View

    Szabo, Claire (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Running a not-for-profit (NFP) organisation is not a straight-forward task. The Chief Executive (CE) must deliver on promises to the Board and members, meet the needs of funders, coordinate with partner organisations, lead staff, and ensure that services to clients are effective. The NFP CE leads her organisation through a maze of separate, overlapping and occasionally colliding stakeholder interests. In this study, I investigate in theory and practice, the ways NFP CEs work within their distinct environment of specific accountabilities to negotiate a viable strategic direction for their organisations. I argue that navigating the accountability landscape is a key feature of NFP leadership. This thesis looks at the question: how do NFP CEs lead effectively? Sub-questions include: what is effective not-for-profit leadership, what are some of the frameworks employed by CEs to navigate their accountabilities, and how do CEs judge the success of their leadership? I present an insider view, based on my own experience as a CE of an NFP organisation, English Language Partners New Zealand (ELPNZ). The thesis traces my research journey as I moved through cycles of theorising, data collection, and reflection. Starting with data from a pilot study, I present results of interviews with five local-level managers regarding their perceptions of accountability. There is notable variety in how the informants in the pilot study describe and rank their accountabilities. Rather than seeing this result as anomalous, I capitalise on differences and uncover multiple accountability conceptualisations. Utilising theoretical categorisations, I note where 'upward' accountabilities to funders compete with 'downward' accountabilities to clients or 'lateral' accountabilities to other sector organisations. With the accountability landscape in mind, I review literature on NFP leadership. Scholarship on leadership has moved away from a focus on great leaders' traits and towards transactional, situational and contextualised models. Borrowing from this evolution in the leadership literature, I posit that the various accountability 'orientations' uncovered in my pilot study could be considered as behaviours in context rather than personal traits; behaviours that may be adaptive within an environment of multiple accountabilities. I employ both autoethnographic techniques and interviews with other CEs to unpack different 'mindscapes' behind NFP leadership in New Zealand. A series of research journals over a two-month period notes the leadership acts I had undertaken with others, my effectiveness, reflections, and learning. Further data were gathered through interviews with four CEs of national, government-funded, membership organisations. The study contributes to both academic and practitioner enquiry. Findings included linkages between organisational accountabilities, and the mechanisms and processes CEs employ to lead their organisations. NFP CEs develop unique descriptions of the groups to whom they account and have individualised conceptualisations of a ranking or pattern. Mission leadership processes and organisational management (with associated hierarchies) simultaneously shape the CE's role. CEs can be effective when they implement a conscious programme of leadership and practice deliberately situational approaches to accountability.

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  • Towards Spectacular Nationality: Media Production of Korean Nationality through the 2002 World Cup

    Hong, Sun-ha (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper explores the role of the media in the production of Korean nationality during the 2002 World Cup. It suggests that the media coverage helped organise a spectacle of consumption, which became the primary means by which Korean nationality was articulated and understood. This study brings together research in media and Korean studies and aims to contribute to a timely understanding of nationality that recognises both its intimate connection with media and consumer culture and its normative and taxonomic function. The study elaborates a hybrid theoretical framework of a ‘system of signs’, which draws from Michel Foucault’s analysis of power and normalisation and the ideas of spectacle and simulacrum by Guy Debord and Jean Baudrillard. The study examines two key cases of nationality production. Firstly, the ‘Red Devils’ and millions of street supporters that celebrated Korean victories were appropriated by the media to produce internally oriented affirmations of Korean identity and values that doubled as an entertainment spectacle. Secondly, the cult of admiration around the foreign manager Hiddink demonstrated how discourses of globalisation contribute to a social imaginary of global nationalities that compelled Koreans to judge their own nationality against the standards of the sŏnjin’guk (‘advanced nations’).

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  • The Voices of Tokelau Youth in New Zealand: Na mafialeo ona Tupulaga Tokelau i Nui Hila

    Kele-Faiva, Paula (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Tokelau is a minority group within New Zealand's larger Pacific community. New Zealand has a special relationship with the three small and very isolated atolls groups which make up Tokelau. The Tokelauan population in New Zealand is nearly five times that of the homelands. As a contribution to the global 'Youth Choices Youth Voices' study of youth acculturation, this research also contributes to the experiences of Pacific youth in New Zealand. The focus of this study is on Tokelauan youth and explores the perceptions of a group of Wellington based Tokelauan youth on their identity, sense of belonging, connectedness and hopes for the future. Also, the views of a group of Tokelauan elders are presented to set the background for the youth voices to be understood. The aim of this qualitative study was to capture the unheard voice of the Tokelauan youth, to explore their stories and experiences so that the information provided will inform policy and programme planning for Tokelauan youth, as well as Pacific and other minority groups in New Zealand. Using talanoa methodology, a combination of group maopoopoga and individual in depth interviews, valuable knowledge was shared giving insights into the experiences, needs and future aspirations of Tokelauan youth in New Zealand. Feelings of how Tokelauan youth construct their identity and sense of belonging in this new homeland were also explored. The findings were that while youth each have their own experiences, shaped by their own environment in New Zealand, all strongly identified themselves as Tokelauan revealing a strong physical, emotional and spiritual connection to the homeland. The shared stories of their families journeying to New Zealand in search of better life for their children and for Tokelau, strongly influence their sense of identity and belonging. Regarded by the elders as 'the lucky generation' and 'future of Tokelau' they felt a sense of responsibility to pass on the fakaTokelau to the next generation. The main agencies these youth connected with were the family (the core group), the Kaiga Tokelau Porirua (community group) and the Mafutaga Tupulaga (youth) sports groups, church and schooling. They expressed a real passion for cultural engagement, but raised questions about the lack of youth participation in decision making, and how this might influence future cultural security. Education was important to these youth and for the future of Tokelau. Their lack of connection to schooling and education was of most concern to them and they strongly emphasised their desire and need for more family and community support in their education. Finally, all involved in the talanoa saw the need to engage in further studies.

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  • The Prevalance of Depression amongst People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Long Term Oxygen Therapy

    Mold, Emma (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of depression amongst people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and examine the differences and relationships between depressed and not depressed patients to inform clinical practice. Methods: In September 2009 a cross-sectional point prevalence study of the total District Health Board (DHB) population of COPD patients on LTOT oxygen in a large urban area in New Zealand (NZ) was conducted. Depression was assessed using the self-completed Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional clinical and demographic characteristics were obtained from hospital records and a self-completed questionnaire. Results: Sixty three patients (36 females, mean age 72) from the total population of 73 with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 37% predicted) completed the survey. PHQ-9 results indicate the total prevalence of depression was 54%; 95% CI 41.71-65.87. Twenty five percent of patients had mild depression and 29% had moderate to severe depression. One in six patients of those who screened positively was being treated for depression. No significant correlations or differences were found between the depressions scores and the demographic (age, gender, lives alone) or clinical (portable oxygen, time on oxygen, hospital admissions, pulmonary rehabilitation and FEV1) characteristics. Conclusion: This study provides new evidence regarding the prevalence of depression in NZ COPD LTOT populations. Depression symptoms and depression are highly prevalent in this patient population and there is evidence depression is undertreated. The PHQ-9 is a simple and effective tool community nurses can use for the initial screening of depression, which could improve the recognition and possible uptake of effective interventions to lessen the impact of depression in this population. The PHQ-9 is validated screening tool that should be used in further depression prevalence research with NZ COPD and other long-term condition populations to determine homogeneity across studies.

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  • Ethnocultural Neutrality and Nation-Building: A Critical Evaluation of Will Kymlicka's Fairness Based Argument for Minority Cultural Rights

    Riley, Steven Guy (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis looks at an argument by Will Kymlicka in which he claims that the idea of an ethnoculturally neutral state is "manifestly false" and should be replaced by liberal political theorists with a model of the state as engaging in "nation-building" (Kymlicka 2001 pp23 - 27). Once we do this, Kymlicka argues, we see that the burden of proof regarding minority cultural rights has shifted away from the defender of such rights and falls equally on those who seek to deny those rights. We see this, Kymlicka claims, because the nation-building model of the state highlights a number of burdens that are placed on cultural minorities, burdens which are otherwise disguised by a norm of ethnocultural neutrality. Kymlicka argues that this means that the debate over minority cultural rights has moved on from substantive debates about the worth of cultural units (including his well known argument that we have a fundamental interest in the success of our own culture). In this thesis I argue for two main claims. The first is that the idea of ethnocultural neutrality is not manifestly false so long as it is understood as part of a requirement that state institutions and policies should be capable of an appropriate justification. Moreover I shall suggest that acceptance of such a norm can in fact be used by Kymlicka in order to ground the specific fairness based claims that he wants to make about majority nation-building in liberal democratic states. Secondly I shall argue that Kymlicka's claims about the fairness of majority nation-building rely upon the kind of substantive account supplied by his earlier argument that we have a fundamental, autonomy based, interest in the survival of our own societal-culture. In this respect, then, Kymlicka is wrong to suggest that the debate has moved on. My defence of ethnocultural neutrality helps us to see where there is underlying agreement amongst liberals on a number of multicultural policies and also highlights the areas of substantive disagreement which, I shall suggest, do not revolve around acceptance, or not, of a norm of ethnocultural neutrality but instead are deep rooted disagreements about the worth of our cultural and national attachments and how they are to be weighed against each other and against other interests that we have. On this score I suggest that Kymlicka's own autonomy argument is unconvincing.

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  • A Framework of Voluntary Migration: Understanding Modern British Migration to New Zealand

    Tabor, Aidan (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although migration has been studied extensively by a variety of social science disciplines, rarely has research been conducted into the experiences of self-selected, voluntary migrants before they depart their country of origin. Two studies were conducted to address this gap in the literature. Study 1 examined qualitative expressions of primarily British migrants who participated in three online forums for migrants to New Zealand over a one-month timeframe. The primary function of the migration forums was to provide informational support, and this was considered very valuable to predeparture migrants. Study 2 was a quantitative anonymous survey of British pre-departure migrants (N=95) that examined psychological variables such as stress and wellbeing with a focus on the role of social support. Migrants passed through a process characterized by stages, with most contemplating migration for more than two years before committing to it. Reasons given for migration included macro and micro factors, such as crowding, quality of life/lifestyle, children, government control of citizen's lives, and environment. Family members accompanying the migrant were rated most highly for emotional and instrumental support, and increased family support predicted better wellbeing and lower stress. Drivers of the migration decision, who were more enthusiastic about the move than their partner, felt more stress and trailing spouses had lower wellbeing. Support from extended family members dropped significantly after migrants informed them of their decision to leave. Migrants who were parents perceived less support from extended family members than did those without children. Implications for further research include the need to address the predeparture period as important in the acculturation process.

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  • Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential and Linkages with General Flooding and Erosion Issues, Gisborne/East-Cape Region, North Island, New Zealand

    O'Leary, Bridget Ellen (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The global carbon cycle has been significantly modified by increased human demand and consumption of natural resources. Billions of tonnes of carbon moves between the Earth’s natural spheres in any given year, with anthropogenic activities adding approximately 7.1 gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon (C) to this flux. On a global basis, the sum of C in living terrestrial biomass and soils is approximately three times greater than the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere; with the current soil organic carbon (OC) pool estimated at about 1500 Gt (Falkowski et al. 2000). With total global emissions of CO2 from soils being acknowledged as one of the largest fluxes in the carbon cycle, ideas and research into mitigating this flux are now being recognised as extremely important in terms of climate change and the reduction of green house gases (GHG) in the future. Additional co-benefits of increasing carbon storage within the soil are improvements in a soil’s structural and hydrological capacity. For example, increasing organic carbon generally increases infiltration and storage capacity of soil, with potential to reduce flooding and erosion. There are several management options that can be applied in order to increase the amount of carbon in the soil. Adjustments to land management techniques (e.g. ploughing) and also changes to cropping and vegetation type can increase organic carbon content within the subsurface (Schlesinger & Andrews, 2000). If we are able to identify specific areas of the landscape that are prone to carbon losses or have potential to be modified to store additional carbon, we can take targeted action to mitigate and apply better management strategies to these areas. This research aims to investigate issues surrounding soil carbon and the more general sustainability issues of the Gisborne/East-Cape region, North Island, New Zealand. Maori-owned land has a large presence in the region. Much of this land is described as being “marginal” in many aspects. The region also has major issues in terms of flooding and erosion. Explored within this research are issues surrounding sustainability, (including flooding, erosion, and Maori land) with particular emphasis on carbon sequestration potential and the multiple co-benefits associated with increasing the amount of carbon in the soil. This research consists of a desktop study and field investigations focusing on differences in soil type and vegetation cover/land use and what effects these differences have on soil OC content within the subsurface. Soil chemical and physical analysis was undertaken with 220 soil samples collected from two case-study properties. Particle size analysis was carried out using a laser particle sizer (LPS) to determine textural characteristics and hydraulic capacity. Soil organic carbon (OC) content was determined following the colorimetric method, wet oxidation (Blakemore et al. 1987), with results identifying large difference in soil OC quantification between sampled sites. National scale data is explored and then compared with the results from this field investigation. The direct and indirect benefits resulting from more carbon being locked up in soil may assist in determining incentives for better land-use and land management practices in the Gisborne/East-Cape region. Potentially leading to benefits for the land-user, the environment and overall general sustainability.

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  • Imperfect Repair Strategies for Two-Dimensional Warranty

    Varnosafaderani, Sima Rouhollahi (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    When a repairable product under warranty fails, the manufacturer (warrantor) has the choice to either repair or replace the failed product. When repairing a failed product, the degree of repair which affects the working condition of the product can vary, and this is assumed to have an impact on the cost of the repair. The main motivation of this study is to develop a warranty repair strategy that minimizes the costs associated with servicing the warranty. In this research, the product coverage is represented by a two-dimensional rectangular region with a free-replacement warranty. We propose an imperfect repair strategy that suggests employing imperfect repairs of a predefined degree, in prespecified subregions of the warranty region. The aim is to then minimize the expected warranty servicing cost to the manufacturer by determining the optimal partitioning of the warranty region for the chosen degrees of repair. Two imperfect repair models are considered, and for both, the expressions for the distribution of the times to imperfect repair and the expected warranty servicing cost per product sold are derived. We numerically illustrate our findings and compare the expected costs of the proposed imperfect repair strategy with those of previously developed repair-replacement warranty strategies.

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  • Memory, Performance, Identity: Making Personal History, Making Meaning: A Critical Analysis of an Independent Heritage Initiative at Duart House, Havelock North

    Mastemaker, Lorie A. (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    On a small ridge overlooking Havelock North and parts of the Heretaunga Plains to the west, a Victorian homestead known as Duart House was rescued from neglect by a local community group in 1985. The group became known as the Duart House Society (DHS) who formed to care for its maintenance and promote it to the public for social and cultural activity; however, in managing local heritage, the DHS have done so according to their own priorities and needs. This dissertation examines a case study of an independent heritage initiative and considers the question of how we might understand the ways in which people engage and respond to heritage, and why these activities should be of interest to professionals in favour of democratising museums and heritage. There is currently no research on independent heritage activity in New Zealand and international studies have also been largely neglected. A range of historical, empirical and theoretical approaches are incorporated in this research, including interviews, observation, questionnaires, primary and secondary resources, to generate a diverse range of data reflecting the wide range of factors that influence the central question of this research. By utilising Duart House of Havelock North as a case study, in conjunction with theories of intangible heritage, history and memory, the research moves beyond the 'official' museum and heritage sector to draw attention to the exclusive nature of people's sense of the past in New Zealand. This dissertation also addresses an issue that has been under-theorised in the existing literature of museum and heritage studies, namely that of individual memory, and the importance of objects and places to keep memory alive in the face of change. The research not only provides an in-depth study of one example of local heritage, but suggests an awareness of heritage as personal opposed to collective, and something which is 'performed' in multiple layers rather than just a physical place or 'thing'. It concludes that heritage is a far more complex process between people, place and memory than the literature on the subject claims, which poses a problem for museums who want to be 'all things to all people' and one that is not easily resolved. The research proposes a new direction for museums that is less concerned with 'truth' and more comfortable with 'open-ended exploration', 'wonder' and 'imagination'. This dissertation therefore serves as a critical resource to prompt further debate about the challenge of establishing closer relationships between museums, heritage and communities.

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  • Exposition, Societal Responsitivity and the Aesthetics of Impermanence: Temporal Findings from the 1970 World Exhibition

    Moleta, Tane Jachob (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The architecture of the world expositions maintains an historically unique position within the built environment. Raised specifically for the hosting of these temporary events, the architecture and design of the exposition grounds have been viewed in this thesis as a means to present the aspirations of a country. Expositions were also physical manifestations of the development of new tools, materials, techniques, or aesthetics, ushering in notions of change and progress. However, exhibition architecture can similarly be interpreted as a vehicle responding to the changing pressures within a society. Both historical and contemporary reports locate the world expositions as highly anticipated for education, communication, enjoyment and even competition. Parallel to this, the international expositions have existed as an area of well resourced critical research. With over 150 years of exposition, the historical, political, social, urban and architectural aspects of these events have been increasingly explored as locations to identify and define avantgarde and progressive explorations in the moderation of space. In contrast to this, the world exposition of 1970 exists as a comparatively unexplored area of`study in the West. Expo’70, located in Osaka, Japan, was poorly received and heavily criticised in Western media sources. Academics, architects and critics slated the event as bizarre, ridiculous, and excessive, and one source even noted that Expo’70 had “brought about the end of the world fairs”. While perhaps some of these comments can be attributed to remoteness, and vastly unknown sensory experiences that many non-Japanese visitors would be exposed too, a difficulty in accessing first hand accounts from the Japanese themselves may also account for a lack of understanding within Western architectural discourse. However, Expo’70 was, and still is, an important phenomenon in its native land. A search using Japanese language through any Japanese university library will return a vast collection of titles covering areas such as social science, politics, technology, and architecture. In response to these findings, this thesis locates the importance of the event to the Japanese as a whole. I propose that Expo’70 manifested a number of qualities or conditions that the Japanese society could locate within their existing aesthetic vocabularies, which are discussed and displayed in this thesis through both drawing and text. Within this context the drawn material operates an important strategy as both a mechanism of display and a means to explore the shifting and transitory spatial qualities that are discussed within the text. Rather than a turning point, the thesis argues that, Expo’70 existed as a form of vantage for Japanese society to observe the unfolding changes within their society, both material and immaterial.

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  • Neither Here nor There: The Writing of Wystan Curnow 1961-1984

    Sleigh, Thomasin (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis addresses the writing of Wystan Curnow from 1961 to 1984. Curnow has written a great deal throughout his life, and the challenge of this thesis has been to select an appropriate time frame and important texts to place within it. The period of 1961 to 1984 has been chosen because it encompasses the 1970s, an interesting decade of experimentation for Curnow and also because the early 1980s signal a shift in Curnow's work. I argue that Curnow's encounter with post-object art and the immediate, phenomenological writing he produced in response to this work gives way in the early 1980s to a style of writing directly informed by post-structural and postmodern theory. Further, this study looks not only at Curnow's criticism but also his poetry to reveal how, in their form and content, these two strands of writing together construct one of the first arguments for an 'avant-garde' in New Zealand art and literature. The thesis is divided into four chronological chapters. These follow the course of Curnow's life from his birth in 1939 up until the publication of his seminal essay on Colin McCahon 'I Will Need Words' in 1984. The first chapter begins with the biographical background of Curnow's youth and education and considers the significance of the eminence of Curnow's father, Allen Curnow, in the decisions that Wystan Curnow has made throughout his career. This chapter then goes on to look at Curnow's experience in the United States, studying for his Ph.D. and engaging with contemporary American culture. Chapter two begins with Curnow's return to Auckland in 1970 and goes on to look at his important pieces of writing from the 1970s up until his return to New York on sabbatical in 1976. Chapter three focuses on this trip and the key texts which followed it. And finally, chapter four examines the early 1980s, the increasing influence of continental theory in New Zealand and the shift this precipitated in Curnow's writing.

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  • Towards the Synthesis of Hybrid Peloruside A and Laulimalide Analogues

    Tho, Febly (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    (+)-Peloruside A is a novel cytotoxic marine natural product isolated from the New Zealand sponge Mycale hentscheli(42). Peloruside A is a potential anticancer agent that has a similar mode of action to that of the successful drug paclitaxel. Biological analysis indicated that (+)-peloruside A promotes tubulin hyperassembly and cellular microtubule stabilisation which lead to mitosis blockage in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and consequent cell apoptosis(43),(47). (-)-Laulimalide is also a cytotoxic natural product with microtubule stabilising bioactivity, and is a potential anticancer agent(47). Biological analysis showed that (+)-peloruside A and (-)-laulimalide are competitive, suggesting that they bind to the same active site(47). (+)-Peloruside A and (-)-laulimalide also display synergy with taxoids(47). Due to the structural complexity of peloruside A, our research has focused on developing an analogue 151 for ease of synthesis. Thus, the simplified C5-C9 dihydropyran moiety of (-)-laulimalide, with fewer stereocentres than that of (+)-peloruside A, has been incorporated into analogue 151 whilst retaining the 16- membered ring backbone of (+)-peloruside A. The proposed synthesis of 151 involves a Yamaguchi macrolactonization, a 1,5-anti-aldol coupling, and a ring closing metathesis as key reactions. This thesis reports on the synthesis of key fragments of analogue 151 and the crucial 1,5-anti-aldol coupling reaction for the assembly of the carbon backbone.

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