1,087 results for Masters, 2011

  • Mao's cult as an alternative modernity in China.

    Yu, Li (Lydia) (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As a consequence of the pervasiveness of traditional culture, Mao’s cult originated from the absolutely anti-religious environment during the early period of modern China. As a response to the modernization in today’s China, Mao’s cult has became a new tradition and evolved into a modern mode of Chinese popular religion, as well as non-religious patriotism, the legitimacy of the CCP, and Chinese national cohesion. That is to say, the tradition itself was created in the context of modernity, and both tradition and modernity possess only a kind of relative connotation. Therefore, the revival of Mao’s cult in today’s China, in the religious form or non-religious form, manifests the traditional Chinese culture persisting in the modern development of China, and thereby constructs a unique Chinese model of modern development --- an alternative modernity in other words. Therefore the western model might not the best choice for non-Western societies. It is impossible for non-western countries to either abandon their traditional culture to develop a whole new modernity, or to develop a homogenous modernity in accordance with western standards. Furthermore, there is no point arguing the superiority of the western model of development, by comparing western modernity with non-western modernity. Alternative modernities will become important phenomena in our developing world.

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  • Legendary Obscurity: the Working Life of Malcolm Ross

    Plummer, Matthew Robert (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Malcolm Ross (1948-2003) was a sculptor, painter, photographer, cartoonist and historian who operated at one remove from the art world for the entirety of his career. As a consequence, almost no analysis, criticism or writing on his work exists, and his place within this country's history of art has subsequently been overlooked. This thesis seeks to give art historical and analytical attention to Ross's oeuvre, arguing for his status as one of New Zealand's key conceptual practitioners. It traces the thematic threads which recur throughout his work and argues that the diverse range of artistic and historic investigations he undertook are ultimately unified within his archive at the E.H. McCormick Research Library, Auckland Art Gallery Toi O Tamaki.

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  • Cross-language phonetic priming in bilinguals.

    Sun, Keyi (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis looks at cross-language phonetic priming effects on late L1-dominant bilinguals, with different degrees of proficiency within the group. The participants in the study are 14 Chinese-English late bilinguals, whose production of vowels and consonants in different priming language contexts was analysed. The 14 speakers were divided into two groups based on their language proficiency. Information collected from questionnaires in two different languages was used to divide them into the two groups. They were required to participate in the experiment in two different sessions. On one occasion the interviewer spoke English to them and this was followed by their English reading and Chinese reading; whereas on the other occasion the interviewer spoke Chinese and the subjects did the opposite reading order from the first condition. Significant results of the analyses show that non-early, L1-dominant bilinguals do not differ in proficiency across priming conditions. Both groups show significant changes as the result of language priming for exactly the same vowels and the same consonants. Significant changes in the production of the sounds reveal interference between certain L2 sounds and their L1 counterparts. However, near significant results also show an unexpected direction of changes in production in L2, which may have been caused by experimenter identity. Furthermore, transfer effects of L1 on L2 found only among high proficiency speakers suggest that inhibitory control is dependent on L2 proficiency.

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  • Investigating stratigraphic evidence for Antarctic glaciation in the greenhouse world of the Paleocene, eastern North Island, New Zealand

    Tayler, Michael James Stewart (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Early Paleogene (Paleocene-Eocene) climate was significantly warmer than today, with the poles generally considered to have been free of ice. These greenhouse conditions ended in the earliest Oligocene when the formation of the circum-Antarctic seaway between Antarctica and Australia had widened sufficiently to allow thermal isolation of the Antarctic continent and expansion of ice sheets to sea level. The associated invigorated Southern Ocean circulation patterns have been deemed responsible for formation of the Marshall Unconformity (32-29 Ma), a prominent hiatus in many Early Oligocene sedimentary sections in the wider New Zealand region. However, some recent studies have suggested there may have been short periods of significant Antarctic glaciation prior to opening of the circum-Antarctic seaway, including in the Late Paleocene at c. 58-57 Ma, referred to in this study as the “Late Paleocene event” (LPE). This study investigates the origin(s) of sedimentary sequences from four eastern North Island early Paleogene sections with the aim of determining whether any links can be made between the nature of the sediment facies and their bounding contacts with ice sheet growth on Antarctica. A late Paleogene section that records a possible occurrence of the Early Oligocene Marshall Unconformity has also been studied with the aim of comparing lithologic features from the site with those in the early Paleogene study sections. Methods used include detailed logging and description of sedimentary strata, and petrographic, mineralogical, grain size, elemental, stable carbon and oxygen isotope, organic carbon content, micropaleontologic, and palynofacies analyses. In the study sections the LPE is represented by dark grey, brown-grey, or black, occasionally glauconitic, non-calcareous mudstone, often with relatively high organic matter contents. Geochemical proxies indicate that during deposition of these lithologies siliceous microbiota were the dominant primary producers in the overlying surface ocean waters, suggesting a period of cooling and enhanced upwelling occurred at the time. Additionally, relative sea-level curves formulated for the studied sections through the Paleocene show three falls in sea level, the last of which coincides with the LPE. The relative sea-level curves are considered to represent eustatic changes in sea level and thus the fall that coincides with the LPE may record development of continental ice on Antarctica. The two interpreted falls in sea level prior to the LPE are also commonly associated with dominantly siliceous productivity and may record precursor cooling events. The occurrence of possible “dropstones” in Early to Late Paleocene strata at one section may also record fluctuations between glacial and interglacial conditions prior to, and possibly within, the LPE. There is presently inconclusive evidence for the Akitio River section recording the Early Oligocene Marshall Unconformity, but the glaucony bearing unit that has been suggested to mark the event is similar to some LPE lithofacies and is associated with an episode of increased biosiliceous productivity, supportive of climate cooling. Collectively these features suggest that the LPE may be associated with marked cooling and continental ice development on Antarctica, well before the circum-Antarctic seaway had widened sufficiently to allow thermal isolation of the Antarctic continent. This suggests that Antarctic ice sheet growth is less reliant on ocean heat transport than currently believed, and other mechanisms, such as draw down of atmospheric CO2, may also be involved. Other results from this study of less relevance to early Paleogene marine climate but of interest to general eastern North Island geology include the possible identification of Awhea Formation and Waipawa Formation at the Pahaoa coastal section in Wairarapa; interpretations of the depositional environments for the lithofacies in the study sections, involving dominantly hemipelagic upper to lower slope mudstone with occasional mass emplaced sandstone and pelagic limestone deposits; a suggested mechanism that led to organic matter enrichment in the Waipawa Formation; a possible explanation for the lateral transition of thick deposits of organic rich mudstone to relatively thin deposits of greensand and glauconitic mudstone; possible explanations for lateral variations in redox conditions; the possible correlation of an Early Eocene olistrostromic unit at Pahaoa with an olistrostomic unit farther south, suggestive of a major tectonic episode; and confirmation of an anomalous trend, noted by previous studies on several Paleocene-Eocene sections, within the Wanstead Formation of increasing terrigenous sediment input during a transgressive period.

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  • An investigation into environmentally responsible beverage packaging

    Herdering, Katrin (2011-05-04)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this dissertation I construct and evaluate the business case for environmentally responsible beverage packaging as part of a sponsored project with both a theoretical and applied orientation. Theory on corporate sustainability and the win-win paradigm is investigated in the context of building a business case for environmental sustainability. My overall research question examines the likelihood that a win-win situation could be achieved in the most plausible business case for the introduction of an environmentally responsible beverage pack. Information for this project was derived through discussions with employees from six different departments at the sponsoring company and with 12 external current and potential value chain partners who may or may not be involved in any future introduction of a bioplastic beverage pack. Considerable background information was also researched as a basis for understanding the complexities of bioplastic beverage packaging and the assessment of a corporate environmental initiative. Regarding data analysis I took a reflective and pragmatic approach by assessing the above information against the background of my theoretical knowledge gained from relevant academic literature. I then decided on useful information to answer the research questions. I constructed the most plausible business case and assessed this case from an environmental and a financial perspective for further discussion with key stakeholders. Major findings include the multifaceted barriers opposing the introduction of an environmentally responsible beverage pack. These barriers threatening the realisation of a financial win encompass the high initial investment, compromised material properties, and the complexity of engaging value chain partners. The realisation of an environmental win is particularly threatened by the lack of management commitment to sustainability. I find that these factors make the establishment of a win-win situation particularly hard and are likely to result in trade-offs at the expense of sustainability. However, the difficulty in defining the impact of such a sustainability initiative on both environmental and financial performance hinders a precise assessment of whether a win-win situation could be established from the business case at present. I suggest that a major implication of my research for theory is the need for further development of metrics that support managers in holistically evaluating the financial impact of sustainability initiatives. Regarding recommendations to the sponsoring company, I acknowledge that at present, the business case for sustainability which I constructed in this project is unlikely to be strong enough to lead to the implementation of environmentally responsible beverage packaging. The practical value of my project is currently being assessed by the sponsoring company. At the very least, the research raised the sponsoring company´s executives’ awareness for necessary future steps if the company wanted to contribute to sustainable development.

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  • Exploring Operational Managers’ logic around trade-offs related to sustainability

    Daubenschuez, Tobias (2011-06-21)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation investigates how managers perceive trade-offs in relation to sustainability. The dissertation results from a research project with both a theoretical and applied orientation, following the argument that both in business and in theory, a “win-win paradigm” of sustainability prevails. According to the win-win paradigm, the extent of a company’s environmental and social commitment is principally restricted by its positive economic value. Drawing on a practical case, this dissertation contributes to this new and underexplored field of research around the win-win paradigm of sustainability. The dissertation 1) investigates the win-win paradigm with regard to the business case to be made for adoption of a particular initiative; and 2) explores operational managers’ logic around trade-offs related to sustainability. Academic and practitioner literature regarding sustainability, the win-win paradigm and sustainability-related trade-offs was reviewed, as was the context for business decisions. Data collection was based on in-depth interviews with operational managers from four different companies with an interest in a particular sustainability initiative. The data were analysed thematically and integrated with the afore-mentioned literature to inductively develop a series of hypotheses. The dissertation confirms that companies are trapped within the limits of the win-win paradigm of sustainability. Externally-oriented initiatives are regarded as more likely to overcome financial boundaries than are internally-oriented initiatives. It is found that the specifics of an industry determine the scope of the win-win zone for companies. The dissertation moreover argues that competitive forces reinforce the boundaries of the win-win paradigm and that the win-win zone is likely to expand in future in the particular initiative at the centre of this dissertation. Visible problems, which affect companies in exploiting their environmental and economic (win-win) opportunities, can be grounded in the hidden context of stakeholder-related trade-offs. These trade-offs stem from a lack of incentives for involved stakeholders. The recognition of these trade-offs is impeded by a lack of communication.

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  • Controls of the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea and development of a wireless sensor network.

    Ward, Robert (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Polar sea ice is an important climatic variable. In the Arctic, the steady decrease in sea ice since the 1970's is a direct result of global warming. Due to the different land and ocean distribution in the Southern Hemisphere as well as circulatory effects from the ozone hole, Antarctica is isolated from these changes. These along with other factors have meant that Antarctic sea ice has experienced a slight increase over the same time period. Sea ice extent (SIE) is controlled by physical processes such as wind and ocean currents and temperature gradients, and these contribute to the seasonal and long term patterns in the formation and melting of sea ice. To date, climate models have had only limited success in modelling SIE and its geographic variation. The most commonly used measure to compare observations and models is the total sea ice area. However, observations suggest that the spatial variability of sea ice in response to climate drivers is complicated and differs markedly around the Antarctic. Various studies have suggested schemes for analysing SIE in terms of regional effects, although these schemes are generally somewhat arbitrary and may not be optimal for analysis of certain atmospheric circulation patterns. This research examines a new method for Antarctic sea ice analysis. Using sets of satellite based observations of the SIE over the entire Antarctic continent, the edge of the sea ice can be described in terms of an ellipse. This provides an integrated measure of sea ice that also describes geographical variations while being mathematically simple to describe in terms of the five parameters that completely define an ellipse (centroid coordinates; major and minor axes lengths; rotation angle of major axis). This study demonstrates that the elliptical diagnostic analysis of sea ice captures seasonal and long term behaviour in sea ice well, and this behaviour was analysed in terms of atmospheric circulation patterns such as the El Ni~no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Analysis of the ENSO and SAM on the Antarctic SIE show evidence that both are potentially important in controlling sea ice. Patterns in the ellipse parameters display results consistent with previous studies of the effect of ENSO and SAM on sea ice, but the significance of these forcings on sea ice remains an open question. Part of this research involved development of a method to measure the atmospheric parameters that affect sea ice in situ in Antarctica, known as SNOW-WEB. The aim of the SNOW-WEB project is to design and implement a network of weather stations that can communicate wirelessly to each other, allowing near real-time measurement of weather variables over very high spatial and temporal resolutions, in the order of kilometres and minutes. Measuring the wind velocity, temperature and pressure over such high resolutions allow small scale atmospheric phenomena to be analysed in terms of their effects on sea ice. The first deployment of the SNOW-WEB system was in January 2011 spanning the area between Scott Base and Windless Bight on Ross Island in Antarctica. One of the most important components of SNOW-WEB was its power supply system. A system was designed that would allow the SNOW-WEB nodes to operate continuously for over a week by a combination of lead acid batteries and a solar trickle charger. In addition, a research grade weather station was deployed as a reference and calibration point for the sensors on board each SNOW-WEB node. Due to the difficulties involved with Antarctic field work, the expectations for the performance of the SNOW-WEB were conservative, but the SNOWWEB exceeded these comfortably.

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  • A case study exploring Bangladeshi teacher educators' perspectives of information and communication technology (ICT) in education.

    Chowdhury, Md. Ahasanul Arefin (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores teacher educators’ perceptions of information and communication technology (ICT) within teacher education programs in Bangladesh. The study is set within the context of a nationwide focus on ICT shaped by the Bangladesh Government’s National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy – 2009. The intention of this policy is to increase the use and understanding of ICT by introducing specific courses in primary, secondary and tertiary education, technical and vocational education, and teacher education programs. Aligned with this overarching ICT policy, the National Education Policy, 2010, places special emphasis on the integration of ICT in education by recommending that ICT is taught as a separate learning area, and that it is used as a tool across all curriculum areas. Consequently the National Education Policy recommends that all teachers receive training to make the best use of ICT for educational purposes. Given the critical role of teachers in implementing these policies, this study explores teacher educators’ perceptions of ICT within the teacher education programs in Bangladesh. Ten educators from four different teachers’ training colleges (TTC) were interviewed to explore their experiences and understandings of ICT. This study found that the teacher educators believe ICT is more than a simple teaching-learning tool because it has potential for constructing knowledge and enhancing the quality of education. They also recognized that ICT provides relative advantages over traditional teaching tools, and that it facilitates professional learning via access to current knowledge from national and international sources. However, the educators also understood that the mere provision of computers or ICT in institutions does not ensure quality education. Teachers need to develop technological knowledge about how ICTs work; an understanding of pedagogical strategies that utilize ICT; and the capability to design learning experiences that appropriately integrate technology in relation to learning content. In addition, teacher educators should also be prepared with both pedagogical and andragogical knowledge of teaching about and with ICT. The teacher education programs should integrate ICT in cross-curricular activities so that the trainee teachers can experience how to use ICT in different subject areas. Therefore, ICT courses in the B.Ed. curriculum in Bangladesh should be enriched not only with computer operational skills but also with features of social communication, knowledge construction and dissemination. It is also understood that the successful integration of ICT in Bangladeshi education requires a supportive professional culture and appropriate support from different educational administrative layers including the government sector.

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  • Material properties and microstructures of Electron Beam welding similar and dissimilar titanium alloys

    Mitchell, Ryan James (2011-11-23)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Titanium is considered one of the best engineering materials for industrial applications with the different alloys offering a range of properties, which include low density, high fatigue life, corrosion resistance and high strength. Electron beam welding (EBW) is a high energy density welding process that occurs in an inert high vacuum environment. Welding of dissimilar metals or alloys offers the opportunity to take advantage of different material properties in different areas of a single part. The research aim of this master’s project was to identify the properties and microstructure of electron beam welding similar and dissimilar titanium alloys. Similar and dissimilar titanium alloy butt joint welds were created using an electron beam process. The welds consisted of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti), α+β alloy Ti6Al4V (Ti64) and β alloy Ti5Al5V5Mo3Cr (Ti5553). Microstructure was studied through the use of metallography and optical microscopy. Electron microprobe microanalysis (EPMA) was performed to identify the chemical composition across the welded samples. Mechanical testing was performed on welded samples to study the joint integrity and fracture characteristics. A scanning electron microscope investigation was performed on the fracture surface to reveal their fracture modes. Visually acceptable crack free electron beam welds were achieved for all similar and dissimilar combinations of titanium alloys. EPMA (electron microprobe microanalysis) scans showed that the dissimilar welds were well mixed with consistent composition across their fusion zones. Microhardness profiles of similarly welded CP Ti and Ti64 showed no significant change of the hardness in HAZ or fusion zones. Similarly welded Ti5553 alloy microhardness profiles showed softening in the HAZ and fusion zones. Dissimilar welds with Ti5553 showed a significant increase in hardness in the fusion zone. Most weldments exhibited mechanical properties comparable to the base metal, with negligible loss in ductility exhibited during tensile testing. Ti5553 to Ti64 and Ti5553 to Ti5553 weldments both failed prematurely below the tensile strength of both materials and exhibited very little elongation. Porosity was observed in the Ti5553 to Ti64 fusion zone. Early investigation using the Aramis system showed some confidence of significant elongation occurring in the fusion zones of similar and dissimilarly electron beam welded Ti5553.

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  • Effects of combined bronchodilators and oscillations on the the airway smooth muscle response

    Mathur, Meha (2011-07-22)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The current study aims to investigate the combined effects of oscillations and bronchodilators on the dynamics of the isolated contracted airway smooth muscle. Current day asthma treatments commonly use bronchodilators such as Isoproterenol to reduce the symptoms of asthma. Previous studies have shown the ability of length oscillations (such as those occurring during tidal breathing and deep inspirations) to have a bronchodilatory effect on normal activated airway smooth muscle both in vitro and in vivo. However, this effect is absent or transient in asthmatic airway smooth muscle. Although, many studies have been conducted to possibly understand the role of oscillations on the airway smooth muscle (ASM) dynamics, the exact mechanism is still unclear. Many studies have been conducted to look at the effects of length oscillations or perturbations on the contracted ASM dynamics, along with separate set of studies investigating the behaviour of ASM in the presence of bronchodilators. This study is novel in the sense that it experimentally investigates the effects of bronchodilators combined with length oscillations of varying parameters on the isolated airway smooth muscle. The experimental data suggest that the combined effect of the bronchodilator Isoproterenol and length oscillations is higher than that of each when applied alone. This response has been tested by varying the amplitudes and frequencies of the oscillations. The relaxation of the ASM subsequent to the application of oscillations was found to be proportional to the amplitude, but independent of the frequency of oscillations. This study gives more insight into the role of bronchodilators and oscillations (such as while breathing) on the contracted airways in an optimal goal of developing a new treatment methodology for asthma.

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  • Development of a novel humidifier for air breathing devices

    Brizio, Pablo Joaquin (2011-07-21)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Continuous positive pressure of air on the airways (CPAP) is the most common treatment for the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Humidification of the air applied to the patient improves patient compliance by preventing congestion and nasal and throat dryness. Most humidifiers used in CPAP systems are traditional heating-type humidifiers which consume large amount of energy. In this thesis, a non-traditional humidification technique was developed to be used in various respiratory supportive device applications such as CPAP therapy. Atomization processes were reviewed and ultrasonic atomizers were found to be the most suitable in terms of power consumption, droplets size distribution of the spray generated and size of the device. Four setups were used for experiments with these atomizers using five frequencies (1.5, 1.7, 2.1, 2.6 and 3.0 MHz). The experiments demonstrated that excitation with sine pulses has better efficiency than square pulses. In order to avoid overheating of the ultrasonic atomizer, the pulses must be sent in bursts and the frequency at which this bursts are sent (duty cycle) was proportional to the heating of the transducer. The droplet size distribution was measured by three different methods (photographic, impact and optic) and it did not have a significant change with the power applied to the transducer. The power did have a direct relationship with the atomization rate. Ultrasonic transducers with resonant frequency of 1.5 MHz are recommended for this application since the generated droplets have a small diameter (which facilitates its evaporation). The complexity of a driving circuit also increases with the frequency. Ideally there should be no water droplets in the air supplied to the patient. The evaporation of the droplets was mathematically modelled and experimentally tested to determine if the air that will be supplied needs to be heated to reach the fully evaporation. With an airflow rate of 60 L/min, the full evaporation of the droplets was reached in a relatively short distance (0.05 m) compared with the normal separation between the equipment and the patient (1.50m). There is no need to use a heater achieve such evaporation of the droplets. In this device, the pathogen risk could be reduced with the use of hydrophobic filters. This work demonstrates that ultrasonic transducers are capable of atomizing sufficient quantities of water for this application with low power consumption.

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  • Feasibility of using miniaturised electromagnetic actuator in small air pumps

    Wang, Lei (2011-06-21)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The feasibility of using an electromagnetic actuator as an important part in a portable diaphragm air pump is investigated. The ideal electromagnetic actuator will have capabilities of producing large deflection and high tuneable frequency. These two characteristics make the actuator very attractive for the present application. Much effort has been put into the development of the proposed diaphragm air pump because it is easily integrated into the complex system. The characteristics of the magnetic field of the electromagnetic coils are thoroughly investigated in order to complete the design optimization for the proposed electromagnetic actuator. As the base of the design optimization for the proposed planar and cylindrical coils, the proposed model of magnetic field distribution for a circular current loop is developed. The design optimization for various parameters of planar coils was thoroughly investigated. Approximate approaches to determine the electromagnetic forces are discussed. Models for diaphragm deflection were determined. The fluid model for evaluation of flow rate form the output of diaphragm pump was developed. The feasibility of using nozzle/diffuser elements as components of air pumps is investigated. The geometry of nozzle/diffuser elements was designed and the chamber configuration for the proposed electromagnetic air pump was determined. The proposed air pumps, including the electromagnetic actuator, PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) diaphragm, and chamber and nozzle/diffuser elements were built. Several experiments were conducted to investigate the performances of the proposed electromagnetic actuator including the deflection of diaphragm and frequency characteristics. The flow rate of the proposed air pump was measured. In conclusion this study supplies solid evidence of achievements using electromagnetic actuators in air pumps.

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  • Evaluating the DBH Verification Method to Complex Buildings Designed According to New Zealand Compliance Documents C/AS1

    Han, Yuzhuo (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Performance-based fire engineering design is becoming a more common practice for fire safety design of large complex buildings and modifying existing buildings. However, different engineering assumptions and ambiguous acceptance criteria not only lead to inconsistent level of safety, but also cause inefficient Building Consent process and can result in expensive appeals. In August 2006 the New Zealand Department of Building and Housing (DBH) has been developing a Verification Method (C/VM2) for demonstrating compliance with the Fire Safety requirements of the New Zealand Building Code (C Clauses). This research evaluated the proposed C/VM2 on four complex buildings, including Multi-level Night Club, Hospital, Shopping Mall and Retail Warehouse. It has showed that the C/VM2 successfully implements a systematic and less ambiguous guidance for the future performance-based fire safety designs. However, continued analysis and development is necessary that a solely deterministic method may not be the best solution. A risk-based concept is suggested to be incorporated into the new generation of the C/VM2.

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  • Staging the Past: The Period Room in New Zealand

    Stephenson, Kimberley Jane (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Before 1940, few of the nation’s museums actively collected or displayed artefacts associated with the history of European settlement in New Zealand. Over the following three decades, an interest in ‘colonial history’ blossomed and collections grew rapidly. Faced with the challenge of displaying material associated with the homes of early settlers, museums adopted the period room as a strategy of display. The period room subsequently remained popular with museum professionals until the 1980s, when the type of history that it had traditionally been used to represent was increasingly brought into question. Filling a gap in the literature that surrounds museums and their practices in New Zealand, this thesis attempts to chart the meteoric rise and fall of the period room in New Zealand. Taking the two period rooms that were created for the New Zealand Centennial Exhibition in 1939 as its starting point, the thesis begins by considering the role that the centennials, jubilees and other milestones celebrated around New Zealand in the 1940s and 1950s played in the development of period rooms in this country, unpacking the factors that fuelled the popularity of this display mode among exhibition organisers and museum professionals. The thesis then charts the history of the period room in the context of three metropolitan museums – the Otago Early Settlers Museum, the Canterbury Museum, and the Dominion Museum – looking at the physical changes that were made to these displays over time, the attitudes that informed these changes, and the role that period rooms play in these institutions today.

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  • The economic impact of poor power quality to New Zealand

    Taylor, Ryan (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This project entitled 'The Economic Impact of Poor Power Quality to New Zealand' aims to identify the most problematic and costly power quality issues for industry and residential customers in New Zealand. The economic cost or poor power quality will be used by the EPECentre in their future power quality work. Some recommendations are included from the researcher where appropriate. Society is becoming more dependent on computers and digital circuitry. Industry, commercial and residential users are now dependent on a reliable, high-quality electrical power source to ensure these devices are operational. Electricity supply, however, is not perfect and when electronic equipment encounters electricity that is not of a regular sinusoidal waveform, loss of performance or failure may occur. These issues are termed power quality issues and include: • Voltage sags • Surges • Transients • Harmonics • Momentary power interruptions

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  • Saproxylic invertebrates in plantation forests

    Sky, Alwin (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The conversion of natural forests to production land uses has led to huge losses of biodiversity and continues to threaten remaining terrestrial flora and fauna throughout the world. The global demand for wood products and energy, which was partly responsible for the loss of primary native habitat, is now one of the leading drivers of afforestation with significant new areas of plantation replacing former agricultural lands. While plantations do not support the same biodiversity values as natural forests they do provide significant habitat for a range of species. Saproxylic invertebrates (species that are dependent on deadwood) are strongly affected by the temporal and spatial availability of different deadwood resources. Previous research on saproxylic invertebrates has largely been restricted to natural or managed natural forests predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere, where forest management practices have been modified to conserve these species This thesis fills a distinct research gap in New Zealand and is the first large scale study to quantify the effects of deadwood age, wood species, and landscape composition on saproxylic invertebrates in our plantation forests by direct rearing. In this thesis I show that thinning residues, which are currently retained in many plantation forests, provide significant habitat for a range of native invertebrate taxonomic groups, including diverse assemblages of Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Deadwood age is an important attribute determining taxonomic richness of saproxylic invertebrates. Richness of invertebrate orders/classes and Coleoptera species all increased in older deadwood material, and a stepwise multidimensional analysis procedure indicated that the age of deadwood was the most important factor structuring saproxylic invertebrate community composition in Pinus radiata thinning residues. Deadwood age was a stronger predictor of community composition in thinning residue than measures of landscape composition, such as the proportion of remnant native forest cover. The change in saproxylic invertebrate composition that occurs with deadwood age was related to changes in the feeding guilds, with a transition from primary wood feeding species to predators/parasitoids and fungal feeders with increasing dead wood age. Because thinning’s are carried out at prescribed times throughout the stand rotation, stand age could be adopted as a proxy for deadwood age in these systems allowing forest managers a simple method for monitoring saproxylic beetle habitat availability . My research provides strong empirical evidence that supports the existing conservation paradigm that forest managers should seek to create a mosaic of habitats at the landscape scale to enhance biodiversity opportunities in plantations. In addition to the habitat opportunities provided by P. radiata deadwood that is derived from silvicultural practices there are several sources of native wood in plantations. Native woody resources are found in either the embedded remnant areas of native forest or in the understory of stands as many native woody species colonise this habitat. As yet the importance of native understory deadwood resources for saproxylic species is unknown. In addition it is unclear how the importance of such understory resources is influenced by proximity to remnant native forest patches. I used experimental wood billets of four tree species (3 native and the exotic P. radiata) placed along replicated transects spanning native habitat and adjacent early stage regenerating plantation stands to assess the saproxylic invertebrate assemblages associated with different deadwood species as a function of proximity to native forest. I found that an interaction between wood host specificity (local scale) and proximity to interior native forest (landscape scale) was the most important factor regulating saproxylic invertebrate community structure. Deadwood of the native subcanopy trees Schefflera digitata, Melicytus ramiflorus, Aristotelia serrata and the exotic conifer P. radiata provided habitat for different subsets of the saproxylic fauna. The most pronounced differences in saproxylic community structure were between the native sub-canopy broadleaf species and the exotic P. radiata. Surprisingly the P. radiata supported a greater species richness and abundance of saproxylic Coleoptera in native remnants than the native wood species in the same habitat. In general, species richness was higher in native forest habitats and declined with increasing distance from native habitat. These results suggest that both the diversity of deadwood resources that are available and their proximity to native remnants are important for maintaining saproxylic communities in plantations. However, two of the native wood species (M. ramiflorus and A. serrata) exhibited steep declines in species richness at the plantation native forest boundary, suggesting that the contrasting stand types (native remnant and young regenerating plantation stands) with their different microclimate may have had a significant influence. Future research needs to compare the saproxylic fauna of dead wood in mature plantation stands with adjacent native remnants to ascertain if the effect of native habitat proximity is due to landscape composition or a reflection of microclimatic differences. The large diversity of saproxylic species observed during this study highlights the importance of plantations as habitat for saproxylic species, particularly in heavily fragmented landscapes that retain little original native forest. My research findings provide forest managers with options for improving forest management to enhance opportunities for the conservation of saproxylic invertebrates. In addition my thesis provides one of the most comprehensive multi-taxon data sets of saproxylic species associated with a variety of deadwood resources. This information will be invaluable to future researchers that continue to work on New Zealand’s saproxylic fauna.

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  • Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in Bangladesh: Effectiveness and Enhancements

    Rasheed, Mollah Mohammed Haroon Ar (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This investigation reports on a study that explores the views of students, teachers and parents about the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach in learning English as a second language in Bangladesh. This study focuses on the improvement of English language outcomes in Bangladesh. Though compulsory for fifteen years of schooling, public examination results indicate that students perform poorly in English. This research is conducted at the secondary schools in Bangladesh where English is compulsory because of its global nature as the second or foreign language. Mainstream students learning English using the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach are facing many challenges. The study employs a mixed methods approach which includes qualitative interviews, semi-structured focus group interviews and observations; and quantitative data involved achievement tests to find gaps between oral and written attainment, in order to determine the effectiveness of CLT developing language skills to communicate in and outside the classrooms. ESL learners in Bangladesh have been using CLT for nearly two decades, but the attainments are not satisfactory particularly in oral language (listening and speaking) compared to written language (reading and writing). Four schools (two high and two low achievement) were selected from two divisional cities according to the public examination results. Five students, all English subject teachers and five parents from each school were invited randomly to participate. Findings indicated a confirmation of the gap between oral and written language achievements and highlighted that CLT is not working effectively to develop communicative competence to the learners. The participants identified several factors causing this. Among these were large class sizes (number of students), an extensive curriculum, insufficient class time (duration), an inappropriate examination system, excessive teacher workload, lack of parent awareness of CLT, and negative relationships between home and school. All of these factors impact on the effectiveness of CLT in Bangladesh. All participants agreed that CLT as an approach is better than other approaches used in Bangladesh to develop English language learning, but the varied interpretation and implementation (practice) makes it less effective. Therefore, they suggested some issues for local and national level policy makers that could enhance the CLT practice in Bangladesh.

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  • The impact of an infant sleep education programme on breastfeeding rates

    Newlands, Alana Marie (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Concerns have been expressed that infant sleep education programmes which aim to promote good sleep habits in the first six months of life may have negative effects on breastfeeding because altering infant sleep may decrease breastfeeding opportunities. To date, the effect of an infant sleep education programme on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration, and maternal breastfeeding satisfaction has not been investigated. The objectives of the present study were to determine in a sample of Dunedin, New Zealand infants whether: an educational programme to prevent the development of infant sleep problems in the first six months postpartum was associated with differences in the duration of exclusive or “any” breastfeeding, or maternal breastfeeding satisfaction, when delivered without (objective 1) or with (objective 2) a lactation consultant. If there was an effect of the infant sleep education programme (without or with a lactation consultant) on breastfeeding outcomes, the secondary objective was to determine: the characteristics of the infant sleep education programme that may explain the potential differences in the duration of exclusive or “any” breastfeeding, or maternal breastfeeding satisfaction (objective 3). The present study was an observational longitudinal analysis following 150 infants from birth until six months of age, randomised to the Control (n=50), Sleep education (n=50) or Combination (sleep education and lactation consultant) (n=50) groups of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study. Sleep education was given antenatally, at three weeks postpartum, and was available upon request. Lactation consultant support was given antenatally, at one week and four months postpartum, and was available on request. Questionnaire data were collected monthly to determine the duration of exclusive or “any’ breastfeeding to the nearest week, breastfeeding patterns, and maternal breastfeeding satisfaction (measured by the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale). A 24 hour infant sleep diary was administered at three, 19 and 26 weeks postpartum to collect infant sleep and breastfeeding duration and frequency data. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as the infant having only received breast milk and prescribed medications from birth. “Any” breastfeeding was defined as the infant receiving at least some breast milk in the previous week. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine if the infant sleep education programme, delivered without (Sleep group) or with (Combination group) a lactation consultant, was associated with differences in the duration of exclusive or “any” breastfeeding up to six months postpartum. Multiple linear regression was conducted to determine if the infant sleep education programme, delivered without or with a lactation consultant, was associated with differences in maternal breastfeeding satisfaction. In this interim analysis of data from the POI study, p-values less than 0.014 were considered to indicate statistical significance. There was no evidence that the infant sleep education programme, delivered without (Sleep group) or with (Combination group) a lactation consultant, had a significant effect on the duration of exclusive (p=0.26) or “any” (p=0.87) breastfeeding, or on maternal breastfeeding satisfaction (p=0.20) compared to the Control group (objective 1 and 2). Because there was no evidence of an effect of the infant sleep education programme on breastfeeding duration, or maternal breastfeeding satisfaction, the characteristics of the sleep education programme explaining differences in these outcomes were not investigated (objective 3). This study did not find evidence that the infant sleep education programme was associated with differences in breastfeeding duration, or maternal breastfeeding satisfaction. However, due to the small sample size, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the results of this present analysis and clinical or practical differences in breastfeeding outcomes between the study groups cannot be ruled out. Further analysis with a larger study sample is required to determine whether infant sleep education programmes influence the duration of exclusive or “any” breastfeeding, or maternal breastfeeding satisfaction.

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  • Crystal Forensics of Historical Lava Flows from Mt Ngauruhoe

    Barton, Sophie Jan (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Mt Ngauruhoe is a 900 m high andesitic cone constructed over the last 2500 yr, and is the youngest cone of the Tongariro Massif. It was previously one of the most continuously active volcanoes in New Zealand, with ash eruptions having occurred every few years since written records for the volcano began in 1839. However, it has now been more than 30 yr since the last eruption. Eruptions in 1870, 1949, 1954 and 1974-1975 were accompanied by lava and block-and-ash flows. Detailed sampling of these historical lava and block-and-ash flows was conducted, including sampling from seven different lava flows erupted over the period June-September 1954 to investigate changes in magma geochemistry and crystal populations over short timescales, and to enable observed changes to be related back to known eruption dates. Mineral major and trace element chemistry highlights the importance of mixing between distinct basaltic and dacitic melts to generate the basaltic andesite whole rock compositions erupted. The basaltic end member can be identified from the presence of olivine crystals with Mg# 75-87, clinopyroxene cores with Mg# 82-92, and plagioclase cores of An₈₀₋₉₀. The dacitic melt is identified by SiO₂-rich clinopyroxene melt inclusions, clinopyroxene zoning with Mg# 68-76 and plagioclase rims of An₆₀₋₇₀. Textural evidence from complex mineral zoning and large variability in the widths of reaction rims on olivine crystals suggests that mafic recharge of the more evolved system is frequent, and modelling of Fe-Mg inter-diffusion applied to the outermost rims of the clinopyroxene crystal population indicates that such recharge events have occurred weeks to months or even shorter prior to each of the historical eruptions, and thus likely trigger the eruptions.

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  • A Study of Unconventional Gas Accumulation in Dannevirke Series (Paleogene) Rocks, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand

    Cozens, Nick (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis aims to assess the potential of unconventional gas accumulation of Danevirke aged (65-43 Ma) mudrock of the Canterbury Basin, South Island, New Zealand. Unconventional hydrocarbon resources contained in low-porosity, low-permeability rocks are potentially a large source of natural gas. Recent developments throughout the United States and increasingly so in Australia, signify a shift in exploration efforts from conventional natural gas targets towards unconventional shale gas plays and basin centred gas systems. Despite extensive international progress made in this field of exploration, little is known about New Zealand unconventional hydrocarbon systems. The Canterbury Basin is approximaty 360,000km² in area and is located approximately between 44°S and 46°S. The deepest part of the basin is located offshore and is known as the Clipper Sub-Basin, which exhibits economic basement depths of 6500m. The Clipper Sub-Basin is a late Cretaceous syn-rift horst and graben feature which trends north east-south west and is bound basinward by the Benreoch High and landward by the Canterbury Bight High. Dannevirke aged transgressive rocks overlay these structures and intermittently exhibit gas-charged intervals in low porosity facies. Elevated gas concentrations are recorded in four exploration wells in the Clipper Sub-Basin from gas chromatograph readings (up to 2 .7/00.4%). These high-gas zones correspond to intervals of elevated quartz (up to 72wt%), whereas non-gaseous intervals corresponded to quartz values as low as 30wt%. Scanning electron microscopy results do not reveal biogenic silica populations in the cutting samples examined. High silica is related to diagenetic silica transformations of mica, various clay minerals, pyrite and silica transformations. Although no visible porosity is observed in thin sections, FMI wireline analysis illustrate natural fractures predominately occur in siliceous intervals, where resistive fractures can account up to one fracture per 10m of stratigraphic thickness. These fissile or laminated brittle lithologies are likely hydrocarbon conduits or accumulation intervals for wet gas. RockEval pyrolysis results indicate the siliceous mudrocks are organic le-n, comprising an immature gas-prone source rock which averages 1.5% total organic carbon. Findings made in this research are compared to the. Whangai Formation, considered in this study to be a comparable shale gas system and also to the Monterey Formation of the United States which is a known basin centred gas system. Dannevirke aged sediments found in the Clipper Sub-Basin appear to constitute the requisites of a near-to-source, direct type., basin centred gas system. Implications of this study open up the possibility that New Zealand's widespread Paleocene-Eocene mudrocks are capable of natural gas accumulation and therefore viable natural gas exploration targets in New Zealand.

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