1,234 results for Masters, 2012

  • High-Rate Space-Time Block Codes in Frequency-Selective Fading Channels

    Chu, Alice Pin-Chen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The growing popularity of wireless communications networks has resulted in greater bandwidth contention and therefore spectrally efficient transmission schemes are highly sought after by designers. Space-time block codes (STBCs) in multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems are able to increase channel capacity as well as reduce error rate. A general linear space-time structure known as linear dispersion codes (LDCs) can be designed to achieve high-data rates and has been researched extensively for flat fading channels. However, very little research has been done on frequency-selective fading channels. The combination of ISI, signal interference from other transmitters and noise at the receiver mean that maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) requires high computational complexity. Detection schemes that can mitigate the signal interference can significantly reduce the complexity and allow intersymbol interference (ISI) equalization to be performed by a Viterbi decoder. In this thesis, detection of LDCs on frequency-selective channels is investigated. Two predominant detection schemes are investigated, namely linear processing and zero forcing (ZF). Linear processing depends on code orthogonality and is only suited for short channels and small modulation schemes. ZF cancels interfering signals when a sufficient number of receive antennas is deployed. However, this number increases with the channel length. Channel decay profiles are investigated for high-rate LDCs to ameliorate this limitation. Performance improves when the equalizer assumes a shorter channel than the actual length provided the truncated taps carry only a small portion of the total channel power. The LDC is also extended to a multiuser scenario where two independent users cooperate over half-duplex frequency-selective channels to achieve cooperative gain. The cooperative scheme transmits over three successive block intervals. Linear and zero-forcing detection are considered.

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  • Collateral exposure: the additional dose from radiation treatment

    Fricker, Katherine (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    For patients receiving radiation therapy, there is a risk of developing radiation induced carcinomas, especially if they have a long life expectancy. However, radiotherapy is not the only contributor of radiation exposure to healthy tissue. With the introduction of highly conformal treatment techniques comes the increase in pretreatment imaging necessary to accurately target tumour volumes and consequently, radiation exposure to healthy tissue. In this work the radiation dose delivered to radiosensitive organs from a number of treatment planning techniques was evaluated and the risk of radiation induced cancer was assessed. MOSFET detectors and Gafchromic film were used to measure the accumulative concomitant dose to the thyroid and contralateral breast from early stage breast carcinoma radiotherapy and to the contralateral testis from seminoma radiotherapy, with dose contributions from CT imaging for treatment planning, pretreatment imaging (CBCT) and treatment delivery peripheral dose. To the author's knowledge this is the first work investigating the total concomitant treatment related dose and associated risk to these treatment sites. Peripheral dose contributed the largest concomitant dose to the healthy tissue, measuring up to 0.7, 1.0 and 5.0 Gy to the testis, thyroid and contralateral breast, respectively. The highest testicular, thyroid and contralateral breast carcinoma risk was found to be 0.4, 0.2 and 1.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the risk of radiation induced carcinoma to the assessed radiosensitive tissues was found to be minimal, however, when considering treatment techniques and/or introducing pretreatment imaging protocols, the dose to the normal tissue should be kept as low as reasonably achievable.

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  • A correlational study of cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise

    Moore, Sara Louise (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Patients with an impaired reflexive cough response are at increased risk of pneumonia. This study examined the correlation between cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise. Eighty patients referred for a radiographic assessment of swallowing at an acute hospital over an 8-month period participated in the study. Nebulised citric acid diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride was inhaled through a facemask at four concentrations to assess cough sensitivity. These data were then compared to Penetration Aspiration Scale scores based on radiographic swallowing studies. There was a statistically significant correlation between cough response/lack of response and the radiographic features of airway compromise; that is, patients who had a weak or absent response to inhalation of citric acid were also likely to aspirate silently during radiographic assessment. Sensitivity for identifying absent cough was found to be high at all 4 concentrations (0.750, 0.833, 0.941, 1.000), however specificity was consistently quite low (0.344, 0.456, 0.238, 0.078). The significant findings of this research suggest that clinicians adopting cough reflex testing into their clinical practice will have a reliable screen for silent aspiration at bedside. Clinicians will be able to identify patients who require instrumental assessment and are at high risk of pneumonia. This will likely, in turn, decrease length and cost of hospital admissions as well as decrease aspiration pneumonia related morbidities.

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  • A home away from home? : the transitions of older people within two new zealand retirement villages.

    Hayward, Christine R (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores the experiences of retirement village residents as they move from an independent to a supported living environment within a retirement village. It focuses on residents’ perceptions of their transitions and adopts a qualitative approach to understand the nature of their transitions and the way in which they are experienced. A grounded theory framework is used in order to capture the meanings that participants apply to concepts such as home, and to the physical, social, personal and veiled spaces in which they live. The findings from the study reveal that as residents’ health fails, the impact of increasing dependence is such that their sense of social and personal autonomy is gradually eroded. The research also provides insights into residents’ expectations and fears surrounding end of life. In many ways the experiences of the residents in supported living environments do not differ greatly from those of residents in any aged care facility. One major finding of this research, however, is the debilitating impact on well-being that occurs as a consequence of these transitions from independent to supported living, taking place within one physical location – the retirement village – a physical space which promises prospective residents the opportunity for active and positive ageing.

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  • Sustainability and neoliberalisation in the political blogosphere

    Zhou, Zhou (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The following research analyses popular political blogs from the US and New Zealand, focussing on the way environmental sustainability is conceptualised and the way neoliberalism is embedded within these conceptualisations. This study follows from the recognised importance of sustainability, its tense relationship with neoliberalisation, the significance of media in communicating sustainability, and the emergence of political blogs as both purported supplement to, and contester of, mainstream media.

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  • Cellular and molecular mechanisms of salinity acclimation in an amphidromous teleost fish

    Lee, Jacqueline Amanda (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is an amphidromous fish species that is able to successfully inhabit a variety of salinities. Using an integrated approach this thesis has characterised for the first time the physiological characteristics that facilitate acclimation in inanga. Structural studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) revealed freshwater-acclimated inanga have a high density of apical pits and freshwater-type mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) that can facilitate ion absorption from the hypo-osmotic environment. In seawater, inanga remodel their gills by increased proliferation of seawater-type MRCs to facilitate ion secretion in the hyper-osmotic environment. Concentration-dependent sodium (Na+) kinetic analysis revealed that at a whole body level, inanga regulate Na+ using a saturable, high affinity, low capacity uptake system which makes them extremely adept at extracting Na+ from very dilute freshwater environments. In fact inanga displayed an uptake affinity (Km) of 52 ± 29 µM, which is one of the lowest ever recorded in freshwater fish. The sodium/potassium ATPase transporter (NKA) is central to Na+ regulation within the gill. In high salinties inanga displayed increased NKA activity (6.42 ± 0.51 µmol ADP mg protein-1 h-1) in an effort to excrete the excess Na+, diffusively gained from the hyper-osmotic environment. This increase in NKA was most likely a reflection of the proliferation of NKA-containing MRCs. The NKA activities seen in freshwater- and 50% seawater-acclimated inanga were similar (2.54 ± 0.19 and 2.07 ± 0.22 µmol ADP mg protein-1 h-1 respectively) to each other suggesting the inanga gill is capable of supporting ion regulation in brackish waters without a significant increase in NKA activities, and the energetically-expensive changes in gill structure and function that accompany such a change. Molecular investigation of NKA isoform expression using quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that inanga displayed salinity-induced changes in the expression of the three α NKA isoform variants investigated. Isoform α1a exhibited a pattern consistent with an important role in freshwater, confirming results from other fish species. While it is generally accepted that α1b isoform is the predominant NKA isoform in seawater, inanga did not display this pattern with a freshwater dominance seen. None of the salinity-induced changes could quantitatively explain the increased NKA activity in seawater suggesting that different isoforms may convey different activities, that there is also regulation of NKA at a post-transcriptional level, and/or other isoforms or subunits may have a significant role. The importance of the osmoregulatory hormone cortisol and prolactin is widely accepted and inanga were treated with cortisol, prolactin and a combination of the two in an effort to further elucidate their role. NKA activity and NKA isoform expression were assessed but no specific patterns were deduced, except for a decrease in both NKA activity and isoform expression in 100% seawater-acclimated inanga treated with cortisol and prolactin. The reasons for this decrease were not evident, although the impact of stress induced by the injection protocol was likely to be a confounding factor. The development of a new confocal-based technique in this study was able to describe, for the first time, intracellular sodium levels ([Na+]i) as a function of salinity in an intact euryhaline fish gill cell. Using the fluorescent Na+ indicator dye CoroNa Green this study demonstrated the ability of inanga gill cells to maintain [Na+]i in the face of environmental change. Freshwater-acclimated inanga displayed basal [Na+]i of 5.2 ± 1.8 mM, with 12 ± 2.3 mM and 16.2 ± 3.0 mM recorded in 50% seawater- and 100% seawater-acclimated cells, respectively. Low [Na+]i is advantageous in hypo-osmotic environments as it provides a gradient between the cell and the blood which is essential for generating electrochemical gradients cell volume regulation and other cellular homeostatic mechanisms. A slightly elevated [Na+]i seen at the higher sanities would help minimise the diffusive gradient for passive influx from the environment which would be of benefit in hyper-osmotic environments. Upon salinity challenge 50% seawater cells were equally adept at maintaining a constant [Na+]i at any salinity, suggesting these cells are have the necessary constituents to regulate Na+ in both lower and higher salinities. This novel LSCM approach is advantageous relative to existing transport models as it will allow the observation of cellular ion transport in real time, within a native filament structure displaying functional interaction of different cell types. The extreme ion uptake characteristics of the inanga and their amenability to in situ confocal-based studies demonstrated in this study, confirm inanga as a valuable model species for future research. 

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  • Investigating the Enigmatic Orbit of the Suspected 2.5 MJ Planet in the Nu Octantis Binary System

    Dallow, Andrew Thomas (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ν Octantis is a spectroscopic binary with a semi-major axis and period of 2.55 AU and 2.9 years, respectively. Ramm et al. (2009) discovered a 52 ms^(-1) radial-velocity (RV) perturbation with a period of 417 days in this system. All evidence, both photometric and spectroscopic, suggests the perturbation is the result of a 2.5 MJ planet orbiting the primary star. However, when assuming a “normal” prograde coplanar orbit, celestial mechanics predicts this orbit is unstable, contradicting the observed stability. Simulations by Eberle and Cuntz (2010) showed a retrograde orbit for the planet to be stable for at least 10^7 years. In this thesis, we performed a 10^8 -yr simulation of the retrograde orbit, and found it remained stable. Simulations over a range of planetary semi-major axes, eccentricities, and primary/secondary masses showed that stable retrograde orbits are not possible past a semi-major axis of 1.315 +/- 0.092 AU . Therefore, planetary retrograde orbits are most likely inherently more stable than prograde orbits owing to the absence of stability at known mean-motion resonances. Eccentricity simulations showed that the period of the planet's dominant eccentricity variation is related to the planet's semi-major axis by a second order exponential. However, retrograde orbits tend to have longer eccentricity periods than prograde orbits at the same semi-major axis. There is also evidence that this eccentricity period is connected to the orbital stability. By fitting a keplerian to both Ramm et al. (2009) and current radial velocities, the period of the ν Octantis binary was determined to be 1050.04 +/- 0.02 days with an eccentricity of 0.2359 +/- 0.001 . The planetary orbital solution for just the data reduced in this thesis gave a period of 416.9 +/- 2.1 days and an eccentricity of 0.099 +/- 0.015 , with an RMS scatter of 9.6 ms^(-1). Therefore, the orbital elements are within 1σ of the Ramm et al. (2009) elements. Assuming a retrograde coplanar orbit about the primary star then the planet has a mass of M_pl = 2.3 M_J and a semi-major axis of a_pl = 1.21 +/- 0.09 AU.

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  • Intervention for emotion knowledge and behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities.

    Randall, Aimee (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Children with impaired emotion knowledge are likely to also experience difficulties with social skills (Bukato, 2008) and internalising and externalising behaviour problems (Trentacosta & Fine, 2009, Fine et al, 2003). Given that children with developmental disabilities are both at risk of developing behaviour problems (Roberts & Lawton, 2001), and may have impairments in emotion knowledge (Wishart et al, 2007, Kasari et al, 2001, Sinzig et al, 2008; Bal et al, 2010), teaching emotion knowledge skills is likely to be beneficial in helping to ameliorate the risks faced by these children, for developing behaviour problems. The research question investigated in this study was; can using an adapted version of the PATHS programme with children and adolescents aged between 9 and 18, who have developmental disabilities, improve both their emotion knowledge and their behaviour problems? Four participants were recruited, aged between nine and 18 who had developmental disabilities, one of whom served as a pilot participant. The intervention was carried out in the participants’ homes, with two one hour-long sessions a week. The measurements used included the Vineland-II, a behaviour diary and the Emotion Knowledge Test (EKT) - designed specifically for this research by the researcher. All participants included in the main study made improvements on the sentence-labelling task but not on the photograph-labelling task of the EKT. Participants 2 and 4 improved in regards to the number of problem behaviours displayed each week, Participant 3’s problem behaviours did not occur often enough to determine whether improvements had been made. Participant 2 improved on both of the Socialisation and Maladaptive Behaviour domains of the Vineland-II, Participant 3 improved on the Socialisation domain and Participant 4 improved on the Maladaptive Behaviour Domain, however all improvements made were small. The results indicate that there may be promise with using the PATHS programme with children with developmental disabilities, in one-to-one settings. However this research involved several limitations, such as the reliability and sensitivity of the measures used and the short length of the baseline and intervention periods. More research is needed in this area, as there are many possible social, emotional and academic benefits for these children, using the skills taught in the PATHS programme.

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  • The English of Māori speakers: changes in rhythm over time and prosodic variation by topic.

    Vowell, Bianca (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates the rhythm and mean pitch of the English of Māori speakers. Recordings are analysed from speakers who have varying degrees of fluency and socialisation in Māori. The rhythm and mean pitch of their English language recordings are measured and analysed in order to address two questions. The first part addresses the question, ‘Has the distinctive syllable-timed rhythm of modern Māori English developed from the mora-timed rhythm of the Māori language?’ Changes in the rhythm of the English of Māori speakers are measured over time. The rhythm of these speakers is then compared with age-matched Pākehā English speakers. The results show that the distinctive syllable-timed rhythm has indeed developed from the mora-timed rhythm of the Māori language and the use of this rhythm is related to the degree of Māori identity felt by the speaker. The second part is also concerned with prosody and addresses the question, ‘Are rhythm and mean pitch influenced by topic?’ This is investigated by topic tagging the recordings and comparing the rhythm and mean pitch of each tagged section of speech. Two sets of topic tags are used; Set One has tags representing five categories (Subject, Referent, Location, Time and Attitude) and Set Two has only one tag per topic. The results suggest that mean pitch is not influenced by topic but is higher in sections of quoted speech than in regular speech. The subtle variations observed in rhythm are highly individualised and are influenced most strongly by the referent of the topic and the degree of affinity felt towards that referent.

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  • Evaluating the Significance of Framing in Public Diplomacy: A Case Study of American, Chinese and Vietnamese News Frames

    Cox, Whitney Elen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    News frames represent the way an issue is processed and presented by the media. As such, news frames have great influence over public opinion and could therefore be useful in controlling a country’s image abroad. This study builds upon existing literature and theories in an attempt to bring scholarship closer to an understanding of what frames are most likely to be effective for use in public diplomacy by identifying what frames and frame types currently influence audiences internationally. Specifically, The study examines what structures are commonly used to frame international issues, what frame content may not be accepted by a foreign audience and the extent to which elites control the local framing competition. This thesis uses both a framing discourse analysis and a content analysis to evaluate news stories from American, Chinese and Vietnamese outlets as well as American elites. The results found that while elites appear to control the general direction of framing in a country, American journalists are willing to suggest other frames as long as they enhance the drama of the narrative. However, this storytelling imperative is not likely to cross a line into questioning the legitimacy of the media’s home country, indicating that such challenging messages should be avoided in public diplomacy. Frequency of frame structure (conflict, responsibility and consequence) use was also identified, and a positive correlation found between privately owned media and use of consequence frame types. Given the less antagonistic nature of these frame structures, they may be extremely effective in public diplomacy communications - as long as the right consequence is emphasised. It is hoped that these findings will aid scholars and practitioners of public diplomacy in identifying effective ways to communicate messages across countries, and that it will strengthen the argument for the role of ‘listening’ in public diplomacy.

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  • An Investigation into the Fantasy Proneness Construct

    Gilmour, Lucy Patricia (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Evidence that an instrument measures what it purports to measure is essential to empirically study the given construct. Despite this fact, little attention has been made to investigate the validity of the Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings (ICMI) and the Creative Experiences Questionnaires (CEQ) - instruments that purport to measure the fantasy proneness construct. In assessing the validity of fantasy proneness measures, the aim of the current study was unique, in that, no known study had conducted a factor analysis of scores on the ICMI, CEQ and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) separately and simultaneously in the same study. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 223) from a large New Zealand University completed six questionnaires measuring fantasy proneness, imagery, dissociation, personality and desirable responding. Separate factor analysis results suggested a three factor solution for ICMI scores accounting for 22.60% of the total variance, a six factor solution for CEQ scores accounting for 42.93% of the total variance, and a three factor solution for DES scores accounting for 81.31% of the total variance. Simultaneous factor analysis results on factor scores of the ICMI, CEQ and DES revealed that dimensions of fantasy proneness loaded on two factors, whereas dimensions of dissociation loaded distinctively on a separate factor. The findings from this study suggest that there is less dimensional overlap between fantasy proneness and dissociation than has been suggested in the recent literature. Findings of this study also suggest that conclusions based on the overall scales of fantasy proneness may be limited and potentially misleading.

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  • Investigating Differences of Parental Involvement in Secondary Education across Child Gender, Ethnicity, and Year Level

    Roberts, Katie Ann (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Parental involvement is widely considered to be an important part of the educational process throughout the years of schooling. However, few studies have discussed parental involvement at the secondary level, which is the focus of this thesis. The Parental Involvement in Secondary Education Questionnaire (PISEQ) was created to measure the type and level of parental involvement in children’s secondary education, and the degree of differences in parental involvement across gender, age, or ethnicity. The PISEQ includes both quantitative measures based on Likert scales and qualitative items to allow for more personalized and idiosyncratic responses. Individual subscales include Parent Communication, Parent Event Participation, Parent Facilitation of Study Environment, and Parental Involvement with School Work, School Facilitation of Parental Involvement, and School Communication with Parents. The PISEQ was administered to 163 parents (83.4% female) of a co-educational Decile 7 high school (years 9-13) in Christchurch, New Zealand. Parent participants were primarily of Pakeha/New Zealand European ethnicity (83%; 6% Asian; 5.4% Other Ethnic Group; 3% Pacific Islander; and 2% Maori) with mean age of parents 46.5 years (S.D. = 6.3). Results showed no differences between child gender groups for all parental involvement measures. As a group, ethnic minority parents were more involved with their child’s homework than Pakeha/European New Zealand parents. In addition, across the entire sample, parents of older children were less likely to facilitate a home study environment and assist with homework. Qualitative data showed that parents felt that the school communicated well, yet specific types and content of communication required development. Suggestions for improvement of parental involvement at secondary school level were discussed.

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  • Factors limiting invertebrate recovery during stream restoration

    Roberts, Kimberley Jessica (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Many stream restoration projects, as part of returning a degraded ecosystem to a healthier state, aim to restore aquatic invertebrate populations. Unfortunately, many attempts only „beautify‟ streams without achieving improvements in biodiversity. Lack of connectivity of a restoration site to a regional species pool may explain some failures. I tested this by collecting larval and adult aquatic insects from an agriculturally impacted Canterbury high country stream to evaluate connectivity of the regional species pool. The stream was surrounded by high-quality habitat in an adjacent National Park. Surrounding streams contained diverse assemblages of aquatic insects, but processes in the environment and limitations of in-stream habitat meant their adults did not always arrive at the target. In addition, oviposition habitat for hydrobiosid caddisflies was added to sections of stream and compared to un-manipulated control sections to test oviposition site limitation. The addition of oviposition habitat led to more hydrobiosid egg masses in comparison to control reaches. However, oviposition was also limited by in-stream habitat conditions, particularly the abundance of fine sediments. Sedimentation is a common pollutant in streams and is linked to decreases in habitat, food resources, and invertebrate populations. Moreover, common restoration methods, such as riparian management, have little success at reversing already high sediment levels, and are therefore insufficient to bring improvements to in-stream communities or sought-after habitat conditions. Therefore, after determining sediment was restricting sensitive invertebrate recovery at Riversdale Stream, by adding patches of high quality habitat I experimentally compared the factorial effects of sediment flushing and channel narrowing on sediment removal. Treatments improved habitat and prompted recovery of sensitive invertebrates, but an interactive effect where both flushing and channel narrowing combined created the most improved habitat conditions and the greatest improvements of invertebrate communities. Thus, while habitat improvements are an important part of restoration, features limiting species recovery such as connectivity and sedimentation, are particularly important.

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  • Superconductive Effects in Thin Cluster Films

    Grigg, John Antony Hugh (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this thesis, the superconductive and superresistive properties of thin percolating films of lead nanoclusters are presented. The samples were created by depositing clusters from an inert gas aggregation cluster source onto substrates held at either room temperature or 10K. Observations of the characteristic behaviours of the samples were made through R(T ) and V (I) measurements. Several interesting features were observed - smooth and discrete steps in the R(I) curves, hysteresis between increasing and decreasing bias currents, and non-zero resistances at superconducting temperatures. Explanations are proposed in terms of theoretical models of several phenomena - phase slips, phase slip centres and hotspots - which have seen little prior application to percolating systems in literature.

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  • Responsibly Engaged: Ideology and Utopia along the Backpacker Trail

    Bohn, Sonja (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    By following the backpacker trail beyond the 'tourist bubble,' travellers invest in the ideals of freedom, engagement, and responsibility. Backpacker discourse foregrounds travellers' freedom to mobility as it constructs the world as 'tourable'; engagement is demonstrated in the search for 'authentic' connections with cultural Others, beyond the reach of globalised capitalism; responsibility is shouldered by yearning to improve the lives of these Others, through capitalist development. While backpackers frequently question the attainability of these ideals, aspiring to them reveals a desire for a world that is open, diverse, and egalitarian. My perspective is framed by Fredric Jameson's reading of the interrelated concepts of ideology and utopia. While backpacker discourse functions ideologically to reify and obscure global inequalities, to entrench free market capitalism, and to limit the imagining of alternatives, it also figures for a utopian world in which such ideology is not necessary. Using this approach, I attempt to undertake critique of backpacker ideology without invalidating its utopian content, while seeking to reveal its limits. Overall, I suggest that late-capitalism subsumes utopian desires for a better way of living by presenting itself as the solution. This leaves backpackers feeling stranded, seeking to escape the ills of capitalism, via capitalism.

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  • Incorporating refuge floors in a network model : fire engineering research report : a project.

    Glasgow, Daryn (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The modern urban landscape in many of the world's largest cites is increasingly becoming the domain of tall, super-tall and mega-tall buildings. These present designers and architects with a myriad of unique and challenging issues as a result of putting very large numbers of people at very high elevation, remote from their final exit to street level. One feature of such buildings which is designed to provide some efficiency to the egress solution, as well as improve life safety by giving occupants a location of relative safety which they can evacuate to in the event of an emergency, is the fire isolated refuge area or level within the building. EvacuatioNZ is a computer based network evacuation model being developed by the University of Canterbury. This research report covers the development of functionality within this model in which refuge areas and levels can be incorporated in the egress solution. The research offers a range of proposed functions and carries out some simple verification of their incorporation to a point where it is considered that the required functionality is working correctly. The work then takes this newly incorporated functionality and applies it to a real-life design case study - Signature Tower, proposed in the Jakarta CBD, on which the author is the lead fire and life safety engineer. This 111 level tower (638 m) and its potential design population of over 21,000 occupants pushes EvacuatioNZ to its limits and identifies a number of areas for computational improvement in the model itself. As part of the case study, the EvacuatioNZ model was compared to the commercial STEPS evacuation model developed by Mott MacDonald Ltd, which is being used for the Signature Tower design. At the macro level the EvacuatioNZ model simulated longer evacuation times compared to STEPS in predicting the performance of the egress solution. This was identified as primarily due to the handling of stair and door flow rates between the two models. At smaller scales within the geometry though (such as evacuation of individual floors), the two models produced very similar results. This comparative study featured no validation of these results against real evacuation data. The model also demonstrates its value as a tool in the early stages of design, being easy to set up and agile enough to allow constant design change. Improvements in processing efficiency and therefore runtime will make it even more valuable as iterative design 'experimentation' or even Monte Carlo style analysis could be undertaken to explore key elements of the egress solution.

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  • Generalisation of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) across transfer facilitated and non-facilitated settings.

    Desmond, Catherine Sarah (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which PECS would generalise from the training setting to other familiar settings as a function of properties of the settings. It was predicted that PECS would generalise better to the setting where PECS use facilitated was by having the same communicative partners and items available. Three preschool children all with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were trained to use the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to a minimum proficiency level of Phase 3. The experiment employed an ABA single case design with multiple target measures, replicated across participants, acknowledging that observations in the first baseline would be zero. Transfer of PECS across settings varied for each participant. One participant generalised PECS to the facilitated environment more than the non-facilitated environment as predicted. Another participant transferred PECS better to the non-facilitated environment compared to the facilitated environment contrary to the research prediction. The final participant did not generalise PECS to either environment, switching to functional verbal communication instead.

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  • Voices from our beaches: an investigation into community involvement in New Zealand coastal management.

    Steenson, Michael Allen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis argues the case of community involvement in coastal management in New Zealand. It takes as its starting point objective six of the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (2010). Which it is suggested, frames the issue on community involvement in specific but rather limited ways. The thesis examines the potential for community-based management in two contrasting places, namely Kaikoura and Waiheke Island. Not only are these within different Regional Council jurisdictions, but they also have different community profiles. Kaikoura is a small rural town with a strong Maori presence in coastal management. Waiheke Island is a more mono-cultural, but rapidly growing island well within wider metropolitan Auckland. Using three research questions the thesis explores existing methods of community-based management in these two places and considers the extent to which these are effective and might also give insight into how objective six could be more appropriately constructed in order to mobilise voices from our beaches.

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  • The school readiness of children born to mothers maintained on methadone during pregnancy.

    Lee, Samantha Jean (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ABSTRACT Introduction. Research from the early 1980s indicates that there are different neurodevelopmental differences between methadone-exposed and non-exposed infants. However, the extent to which these difficulties translate to later problems in the domain areas of physical health, social-emotional adjustment, approaches to learning, language, and cognition for children born to mothers maintained on methadone during pregnancy, is largely unknown. Accordingly, this research aimed to compare school readiness outcomes between children prenatally exposed to methadone and comparison children at age 4.5 years across five key developmental domains. A secondary aim was to assess the impact of known neonatal, and socio-familial risk factors associated with this population on school readiness outcomes of methadone-exposed children at age 4.5 years. Research Methods. Sixty seven children born to mothers maintained on methadone and 81 comparison children were followed prospectively from birth to age 4.5 years. At age 4.5 years, all children underwent a comprehensive school readiness assessment of health and physical development; social-emotional skills; approaches to learning; language; and cognition. A score < 1SD below the comparison group mean was used to classify children as unready in any one domain. Measures of socio-familial risk were collated from aspects of the maternal interview at the term assessments, based on risk indices used in the research of other at-risk populations. Results. Methadone-exposed children performed worse than comparison children across all school readiness domains. They also had higher odds of being classed as “unready” in each school readiness domain, relative to the control group. They were also iii more likely to have multiple readiness problems (p =<.0001). The most common pattern of comorbidity identified, was among children classified as unready in terms of cognition and general knowledge. However, after controlling for confounding and selection factors, methadone-exposure was not significantly associated with school readiness at age 4.5 years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal benzodiazepine use during pregnancy, and socio-familial risk were significant covariates of low school readiness at age 4.5 years, independent of group. Discussion. By age 4.5 years, a larger proportion of methadone-exposed than control children were experiencing school readiness difficulties across five key developmental domains. Prenatal methadone exposure alone was not a sufficient explanation for these problems. Findings suggest that readiness outcomes were largely explained by a range of confounding and selection factors, including the extent of socio-familial risk, and poly-drug use during pregnancy. The results raise concerns for the later school performance of methadone-exposed children and emphasise the importance of early and targeted intervention services prior to school entry for this population.

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  • Earthquake-Induced Ground Fissuring in Foot-Slope Positions of the Port Hills, Christchurch

    Stephen-Brownie, Charlotte Jane (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Following the 22 February 2011, MW 6.2 earthquake located on a fault beneath the Port Hills of Christchurch, fissuring of up to several hundred metres in length was observed in the loess and loess-colluvium of foot-slope positions in north-facing valleys of the Port Hills. The fissuring was observed in all major valleys, occurred at similar low altitudes, showing a contour-parallel orientation and often accompanied by both lateral compression/extension features and spring formation in the valley floor below. Fissuring locations studied in depth included Bowenvale Valley, Hillsborough Valley, Huntlywood Terrace–Lucas Lane, Bridle Path Road, and Maffeys Road–La Costa Lane. Investigations into loess soil, its properties and mannerisms, as well as international examples of its failure were undertaken, including study of the Loess Plateau of China, the Teton Dam, and palaeo-fissuring on Banks Peninsula. These investigations lead to the conclusion that loess has the propensity to fail, often due to the infiltration of water, the presence of which can lead to its instantaneous disaggregation. Literature study and laboratory analysis of Port Hills loess concluded that is has the ability to be stable in steep, sub-vertical escarpments, and often has a sub-vertically jointed internal structure and has a peak shear strength when dry. Values for cohesion, c (kPa) and the internal friction angle, ϕ (degrees) of Port Hills loess were established. The c values for the 40 Rapaki Road, 3 Glenview Terrace loess samples were 13.4 kPa and 19.7 kPa, respectively. The corresponding ϕ values were thought unusually high, at 42.0° and 43.4°.The analysed loess behaved very plastically, with little or no peak strength visible in the plots as the test went almost directly to residual strength. A geophysics resistivity survey showed an area of low resistivity which likely corresponds to a zone of saturated clayey loess/loess colluvium, indicating a high water table in the area. This is consistent with the appearances of local springs which are located towards the northern end of each distinct section of fissure trace and chemical analysis shows that they are sourced from the Port Hills volcanics. Port Hills fissuring may be sub-divided into three categories, Category A, Category B, and Category C, each characterised by distinctive features of the fissures. Category A includes fissures which display evidence of, spring formation, tunnel-gullying, and lateral spreading-like behaviour or quasi-toppling. These fissures are several metres down-slope of the loess-bedrock interface, and are in valleys containing a loess-colluvium fill. Category B fissures are in wider valleys than those in Category A, and the valleys contain estuarine silty sediments which liquefied during the earthquake. Category C fissures occurred at higher elevations than the fissures in the preceding categories, being almost coincident with bedrock outcropping. It is believed that the mechanism responsible for causing the fissuring is a complex combination of three mechanisms: the trampoline effect, bedrock fracturing, and lateral spreading. These three mechanisms can be applied in varying degrees to each of the fissuring sites in categories A, B, and C, in order to provide explanation for the observations made at each. Toppling failure can describe the soil movement as a consequence of the a three causative mechanisms, and provides insight into the movement of the loess. Intra-loess water coursing and tunnel gullying is thought to have encouraged and exacerbated the fissuring, while not being the driving force per se. Incipient landsliding is considered to be the least likely of the possible fissuring interpretations.

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