1,231 results for Masters, 2012

  • High-Rate Space-Time Block Codes in Frequency-Selective Fading Channels

    Chu, Alice Pin-Chen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The growing popularity of wireless communications networks has resulted in greater bandwidth contention and therefore spectrally efficient transmission schemes are highly sought after by designers. Space-time block codes (STBCs) in multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems are able to increase channel capacity as well as reduce error rate. A general linear space-time structure known as linear dispersion codes (LDCs) can be designed to achieve high-data rates and has been researched extensively for flat fading channels. However, very little research has been done on frequency-selective fading channels. The combination of ISI, signal interference from other transmitters and noise at the receiver mean that maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) requires high computational complexity. Detection schemes that can mitigate the signal interference can significantly reduce the complexity and allow intersymbol interference (ISI) equalization to be performed by a Viterbi decoder. In this thesis, detection of LDCs on frequency-selective channels is investigated. Two predominant detection schemes are investigated, namely linear processing and zero forcing (ZF). Linear processing depends on code orthogonality and is only suited for short channels and small modulation schemes. ZF cancels interfering signals when a sufficient number of receive antennas is deployed. However, this number increases with the channel length. Channel decay profiles are investigated for high-rate LDCs to ameliorate this limitation. Performance improves when the equalizer assumes a shorter channel than the actual length provided the truncated taps carry only a small portion of the total channel power. The LDC is also extended to a multiuser scenario where two independent users cooperate over half-duplex frequency-selective channels to achieve cooperative gain. The cooperative scheme transmits over three successive block intervals. Linear and zero-forcing detection are considered.

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  • Collateral exposure: the additional dose from radiation treatment

    Fricker, Katherine (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    For patients receiving radiation therapy, there is a risk of developing radiation induced carcinomas, especially if they have a long life expectancy. However, radiotherapy is not the only contributor of radiation exposure to healthy tissue. With the introduction of highly conformal treatment techniques comes the increase in pretreatment imaging necessary to accurately target tumour volumes and consequently, radiation exposure to healthy tissue. In this work the radiation dose delivered to radiosensitive organs from a number of treatment planning techniques was evaluated and the risk of radiation induced cancer was assessed. MOSFET detectors and Gafchromic film were used to measure the accumulative concomitant dose to the thyroid and contralateral breast from early stage breast carcinoma radiotherapy and to the contralateral testis from seminoma radiotherapy, with dose contributions from CT imaging for treatment planning, pretreatment imaging (CBCT) and treatment delivery peripheral dose. To the author's knowledge this is the first work investigating the total concomitant treatment related dose and associated risk to these treatment sites. Peripheral dose contributed the largest concomitant dose to the healthy tissue, measuring up to 0.7, 1.0 and 5.0 Gy to the testis, thyroid and contralateral breast, respectively. The highest testicular, thyroid and contralateral breast carcinoma risk was found to be 0.4, 0.2 and 1.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the risk of radiation induced carcinoma to the assessed radiosensitive tissues was found to be minimal, however, when considering treatment techniques and/or introducing pretreatment imaging protocols, the dose to the normal tissue should be kept as low as reasonably achievable.

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  • A correlational study of cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise

    Moore, Sara Louise (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Patients with an impaired reflexive cough response are at increased risk of pneumonia. This study examined the correlation between cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise. Eighty patients referred for a radiographic assessment of swallowing at an acute hospital over an 8-month period participated in the study. Nebulised citric acid diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride was inhaled through a facemask at four concentrations to assess cough sensitivity. These data were then compared to Penetration Aspiration Scale scores based on radiographic swallowing studies. There was a statistically significant correlation between cough response/lack of response and the radiographic features of airway compromise; that is, patients who had a weak or absent response to inhalation of citric acid were also likely to aspirate silently during radiographic assessment. Sensitivity for identifying absent cough was found to be high at all 4 concentrations (0.750, 0.833, 0.941, 1.000), however specificity was consistently quite low (0.344, 0.456, 0.238, 0.078). The significant findings of this research suggest that clinicians adopting cough reflex testing into their clinical practice will have a reliable screen for silent aspiration at bedside. Clinicians will be able to identify patients who require instrumental assessment and are at high risk of pneumonia. This will likely, in turn, decrease length and cost of hospital admissions as well as decrease aspiration pneumonia related morbidities.

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  • A home away from home? : the transitions of older people within two new zealand retirement villages.

    Hayward, Christine R (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores the experiences of retirement village residents as they move from an independent to a supported living environment within a retirement village. It focuses on residents’ perceptions of their transitions and adopts a qualitative approach to understand the nature of their transitions and the way in which they are experienced. A grounded theory framework is used in order to capture the meanings that participants apply to concepts such as home, and to the physical, social, personal and veiled spaces in which they live. The findings from the study reveal that as residents’ health fails, the impact of increasing dependence is such that their sense of social and personal autonomy is gradually eroded. The research also provides insights into residents’ expectations and fears surrounding end of life. In many ways the experiences of the residents in supported living environments do not differ greatly from those of residents in any aged care facility. One major finding of this research, however, is the debilitating impact on well-being that occurs as a consequence of these transitions from independent to supported living, taking place within one physical location – the retirement village – a physical space which promises prospective residents the opportunity for active and positive ageing.

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  • Sustainability and neoliberalisation in the political blogosphere

    Zhou, Zhou (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The following research analyses popular political blogs from the US and New Zealand, focussing on the way environmental sustainability is conceptualised and the way neoliberalism is embedded within these conceptualisations. This study follows from the recognised importance of sustainability, its tense relationship with neoliberalisation, the significance of media in communicating sustainability, and the emergence of political blogs as both purported supplement to, and contester of, mainstream media.

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  • Cellular and molecular mechanisms of salinity acclimation in an amphidromous teleost fish

    Lee, Jacqueline Amanda (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is an amphidromous fish species that is able to successfully inhabit a variety of salinities. Using an integrated approach this thesis has characterised for the first time the physiological characteristics that facilitate acclimation in inanga. Structural studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) revealed freshwater-acclimated inanga have a high density of apical pits and freshwater-type mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) that can facilitate ion absorption from the hypo-osmotic environment. In seawater, inanga remodel their gills by increased proliferation of seawater-type MRCs to facilitate ion secretion in the hyper-osmotic environment. Concentration-dependent sodium (Na+) kinetic analysis revealed that at a whole body level, inanga regulate Na+ using a saturable, high affinity, low capacity uptake system which makes them extremely adept at extracting Na+ from very dilute freshwater environments. In fact inanga displayed an uptake affinity (Km) of 52 ± 29 µM, which is one of the lowest ever recorded in freshwater fish. The sodium/potassium ATPase transporter (NKA) is central to Na+ regulation within the gill. In high salinties inanga displayed increased NKA activity (6.42 ± 0.51 µmol ADP mg protein-1 h-1) in an effort to excrete the excess Na+, diffusively gained from the hyper-osmotic environment. This increase in NKA was most likely a reflection of the proliferation of NKA-containing MRCs. The NKA activities seen in freshwater- and 50% seawater-acclimated inanga were similar (2.54 ± 0.19 and 2.07 ± 0.22 µmol ADP mg protein-1 h-1 respectively) to each other suggesting the inanga gill is capable of supporting ion regulation in brackish waters without a significant increase in NKA activities, and the energetically-expensive changes in gill structure and function that accompany such a change. Molecular investigation of NKA isoform expression using quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that inanga displayed salinity-induced changes in the expression of the three α NKA isoform variants investigated. Isoform α1a exhibited a pattern consistent with an important role in freshwater, confirming results from other fish species. While it is generally accepted that α1b isoform is the predominant NKA isoform in seawater, inanga did not display this pattern with a freshwater dominance seen. None of the salinity-induced changes could quantitatively explain the increased NKA activity in seawater suggesting that different isoforms may convey different activities, that there is also regulation of NKA at a post-transcriptional level, and/or other isoforms or subunits may have a significant role. The importance of the osmoregulatory hormone cortisol and prolactin is widely accepted and inanga were treated with cortisol, prolactin and a combination of the two in an effort to further elucidate their role. NKA activity and NKA isoform expression were assessed but no specific patterns were deduced, except for a decrease in both NKA activity and isoform expression in 100% seawater-acclimated inanga treated with cortisol and prolactin. The reasons for this decrease were not evident, although the impact of stress induced by the injection protocol was likely to be a confounding factor. The development of a new confocal-based technique in this study was able to describe, for the first time, intracellular sodium levels ([Na+]i) as a function of salinity in an intact euryhaline fish gill cell. Using the fluorescent Na+ indicator dye CoroNa Green this study demonstrated the ability of inanga gill cells to maintain [Na+]i in the face of environmental change. Freshwater-acclimated inanga displayed basal [Na+]i of 5.2 ± 1.8 mM, with 12 ± 2.3 mM and 16.2 ± 3.0 mM recorded in 50% seawater- and 100% seawater-acclimated cells, respectively. Low [Na+]i is advantageous in hypo-osmotic environments as it provides a gradient between the cell and the blood which is essential for generating electrochemical gradients cell volume regulation and other cellular homeostatic mechanisms. A slightly elevated [Na+]i seen at the higher sanities would help minimise the diffusive gradient for passive influx from the environment which would be of benefit in hyper-osmotic environments. Upon salinity challenge 50% seawater cells were equally adept at maintaining a constant [Na+]i at any salinity, suggesting these cells are have the necessary constituents to regulate Na+ in both lower and higher salinities. This novel LSCM approach is advantageous relative to existing transport models as it will allow the observation of cellular ion transport in real time, within a native filament structure displaying functional interaction of different cell types. The extreme ion uptake characteristics of the inanga and their amenability to in situ confocal-based studies demonstrated in this study, confirm inanga as a valuable model species for future research. 

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  • Investigating the Enigmatic Orbit of the Suspected 2.5 MJ Planet in the Nu Octantis Binary System

    Dallow, Andrew Thomas (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ν Octantis is a spectroscopic binary with a semi-major axis and period of 2.55 AU and 2.9 years, respectively. Ramm et al. (2009) discovered a 52 ms^(-1) radial-velocity (RV) perturbation with a period of 417 days in this system. All evidence, both photometric and spectroscopic, suggests the perturbation is the result of a 2.5 MJ planet orbiting the primary star. However, when assuming a “normal” prograde coplanar orbit, celestial mechanics predicts this orbit is unstable, contradicting the observed stability. Simulations by Eberle and Cuntz (2010) showed a retrograde orbit for the planet to be stable for at least 10^7 years. In this thesis, we performed a 10^8 -yr simulation of the retrograde orbit, and found it remained stable. Simulations over a range of planetary semi-major axes, eccentricities, and primary/secondary masses showed that stable retrograde orbits are not possible past a semi-major axis of 1.315 +/- 0.092 AU . Therefore, planetary retrograde orbits are most likely inherently more stable than prograde orbits owing to the absence of stability at known mean-motion resonances. Eccentricity simulations showed that the period of the planet's dominant eccentricity variation is related to the planet's semi-major axis by a second order exponential. However, retrograde orbits tend to have longer eccentricity periods than prograde orbits at the same semi-major axis. There is also evidence that this eccentricity period is connected to the orbital stability. By fitting a keplerian to both Ramm et al. (2009) and current radial velocities, the period of the ν Octantis binary was determined to be 1050.04 +/- 0.02 days with an eccentricity of 0.2359 +/- 0.001 . The planetary orbital solution for just the data reduced in this thesis gave a period of 416.9 +/- 2.1 days and an eccentricity of 0.099 +/- 0.015 , with an RMS scatter of 9.6 ms^(-1). Therefore, the orbital elements are within 1σ of the Ramm et al. (2009) elements. Assuming a retrograde coplanar orbit about the primary star then the planet has a mass of M_pl = 2.3 M_J and a semi-major axis of a_pl = 1.21 +/- 0.09 AU.

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  • Intervention for emotion knowledge and behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities.

    Randall, Aimee (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Children with impaired emotion knowledge are likely to also experience difficulties with social skills (Bukato, 2008) and internalising and externalising behaviour problems (Trentacosta & Fine, 2009, Fine et al, 2003). Given that children with developmental disabilities are both at risk of developing behaviour problems (Roberts & Lawton, 2001), and may have impairments in emotion knowledge (Wishart et al, 2007, Kasari et al, 2001, Sinzig et al, 2008; Bal et al, 2010), teaching emotion knowledge skills is likely to be beneficial in helping to ameliorate the risks faced by these children, for developing behaviour problems. The research question investigated in this study was; can using an adapted version of the PATHS programme with children and adolescents aged between 9 and 18, who have developmental disabilities, improve both their emotion knowledge and their behaviour problems? Four participants were recruited, aged between nine and 18 who had developmental disabilities, one of whom served as a pilot participant. The intervention was carried out in the participants’ homes, with two one hour-long sessions a week. The measurements used included the Vineland-II, a behaviour diary and the Emotion Knowledge Test (EKT) - designed specifically for this research by the researcher. All participants included in the main study made improvements on the sentence-labelling task but not on the photograph-labelling task of the EKT. Participants 2 and 4 improved in regards to the number of problem behaviours displayed each week, Participant 3’s problem behaviours did not occur often enough to determine whether improvements had been made. Participant 2 improved on both of the Socialisation and Maladaptive Behaviour domains of the Vineland-II, Participant 3 improved on the Socialisation domain and Participant 4 improved on the Maladaptive Behaviour Domain, however all improvements made were small. The results indicate that there may be promise with using the PATHS programme with children with developmental disabilities, in one-to-one settings. However this research involved several limitations, such as the reliability and sensitivity of the measures used and the short length of the baseline and intervention periods. More research is needed in this area, as there are many possible social, emotional and academic benefits for these children, using the skills taught in the PATHS programme.

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  • The English of Māori speakers: changes in rhythm over time and prosodic variation by topic.

    Vowell, Bianca (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates the rhythm and mean pitch of the English of Māori speakers. Recordings are analysed from speakers who have varying degrees of fluency and socialisation in Māori. The rhythm and mean pitch of their English language recordings are measured and analysed in order to address two questions. The first part addresses the question, ‘Has the distinctive syllable-timed rhythm of modern Māori English developed from the mora-timed rhythm of the Māori language?’ Changes in the rhythm of the English of Māori speakers are measured over time. The rhythm of these speakers is then compared with age-matched Pākehā English speakers. The results show that the distinctive syllable-timed rhythm has indeed developed from the mora-timed rhythm of the Māori language and the use of this rhythm is related to the degree of Māori identity felt by the speaker. The second part is also concerned with prosody and addresses the question, ‘Are rhythm and mean pitch influenced by topic?’ This is investigated by topic tagging the recordings and comparing the rhythm and mean pitch of each tagged section of speech. Two sets of topic tags are used; Set One has tags representing five categories (Subject, Referent, Location, Time and Attitude) and Set Two has only one tag per topic. The results suggest that mean pitch is not influenced by topic but is higher in sections of quoted speech than in regular speech. The subtle variations observed in rhythm are highly individualised and are influenced most strongly by the referent of the topic and the degree of affinity felt towards that referent.

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  • Evaluating the Significance of Framing in Public Diplomacy: A Case Study of American, Chinese and Vietnamese News Frames

    Cox, Whitney Elen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    News frames represent the way an issue is processed and presented by the media. As such, news frames have great influence over public opinion and could therefore be useful in controlling a country’s image abroad. This study builds upon existing literature and theories in an attempt to bring scholarship closer to an understanding of what frames are most likely to be effective for use in public diplomacy by identifying what frames and frame types currently influence audiences internationally. Specifically, The study examines what structures are commonly used to frame international issues, what frame content may not be accepted by a foreign audience and the extent to which elites control the local framing competition. This thesis uses both a framing discourse analysis and a content analysis to evaluate news stories from American, Chinese and Vietnamese outlets as well as American elites. The results found that while elites appear to control the general direction of framing in a country, American journalists are willing to suggest other frames as long as they enhance the drama of the narrative. However, this storytelling imperative is not likely to cross a line into questioning the legitimacy of the media’s home country, indicating that such challenging messages should be avoided in public diplomacy. Frequency of frame structure (conflict, responsibility and consequence) use was also identified, and a positive correlation found between privately owned media and use of consequence frame types. Given the less antagonistic nature of these frame structures, they may be extremely effective in public diplomacy communications - as long as the right consequence is emphasised. It is hoped that these findings will aid scholars and practitioners of public diplomacy in identifying effective ways to communicate messages across countries, and that it will strengthen the argument for the role of ‘listening’ in public diplomacy.

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  • An Investigation into the Fantasy Proneness Construct

    Gilmour, Lucy Patricia (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Evidence that an instrument measures what it purports to measure is essential to empirically study the given construct. Despite this fact, little attention has been made to investigate the validity of the Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings (ICMI) and the Creative Experiences Questionnaires (CEQ) - instruments that purport to measure the fantasy proneness construct. In assessing the validity of fantasy proneness measures, the aim of the current study was unique, in that, no known study had conducted a factor analysis of scores on the ICMI, CEQ and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) separately and simultaneously in the same study. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 223) from a large New Zealand University completed six questionnaires measuring fantasy proneness, imagery, dissociation, personality and desirable responding. Separate factor analysis results suggested a three factor solution for ICMI scores accounting for 22.60% of the total variance, a six factor solution for CEQ scores accounting for 42.93% of the total variance, and a three factor solution for DES scores accounting for 81.31% of the total variance. Simultaneous factor analysis results on factor scores of the ICMI, CEQ and DES revealed that dimensions of fantasy proneness loaded on two factors, whereas dimensions of dissociation loaded distinctively on a separate factor. The findings from this study suggest that there is less dimensional overlap between fantasy proneness and dissociation than has been suggested in the recent literature. Findings of this study also suggest that conclusions based on the overall scales of fantasy proneness may be limited and potentially misleading.

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  • Investigating Differences of Parental Involvement in Secondary Education across Child Gender, Ethnicity, and Year Level

    Roberts, Katie Ann (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Parental involvement is widely considered to be an important part of the educational process throughout the years of schooling. However, few studies have discussed parental involvement at the secondary level, which is the focus of this thesis. The Parental Involvement in Secondary Education Questionnaire (PISEQ) was created to measure the type and level of parental involvement in children’s secondary education, and the degree of differences in parental involvement across gender, age, or ethnicity. The PISEQ includes both quantitative measures based on Likert scales and qualitative items to allow for more personalized and idiosyncratic responses. Individual subscales include Parent Communication, Parent Event Participation, Parent Facilitation of Study Environment, and Parental Involvement with School Work, School Facilitation of Parental Involvement, and School Communication with Parents. The PISEQ was administered to 163 parents (83.4% female) of a co-educational Decile 7 high school (years 9-13) in Christchurch, New Zealand. Parent participants were primarily of Pakeha/New Zealand European ethnicity (83%; 6% Asian; 5.4% Other Ethnic Group; 3% Pacific Islander; and 2% Maori) with mean age of parents 46.5 years (S.D. = 6.3). Results showed no differences between child gender groups for all parental involvement measures. As a group, ethnic minority parents were more involved with their child’s homework than Pakeha/European New Zealand parents. In addition, across the entire sample, parents of older children were less likely to facilitate a home study environment and assist with homework. Qualitative data showed that parents felt that the school communicated well, yet specific types and content of communication required development. Suggestions for improvement of parental involvement at secondary school level were discussed.

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  • Factors limiting invertebrate recovery during stream restoration

    Roberts, Kimberley Jessica (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Many stream restoration projects, as part of returning a degraded ecosystem to a healthier state, aim to restore aquatic invertebrate populations. Unfortunately, many attempts only „beautify‟ streams without achieving improvements in biodiversity. Lack of connectivity of a restoration site to a regional species pool may explain some failures. I tested this by collecting larval and adult aquatic insects from an agriculturally impacted Canterbury high country stream to evaluate connectivity of the regional species pool. The stream was surrounded by high-quality habitat in an adjacent National Park. Surrounding streams contained diverse assemblages of aquatic insects, but processes in the environment and limitations of in-stream habitat meant their adults did not always arrive at the target. In addition, oviposition habitat for hydrobiosid caddisflies was added to sections of stream and compared to un-manipulated control sections to test oviposition site limitation. The addition of oviposition habitat led to more hydrobiosid egg masses in comparison to control reaches. However, oviposition was also limited by in-stream habitat conditions, particularly the abundance of fine sediments. Sedimentation is a common pollutant in streams and is linked to decreases in habitat, food resources, and invertebrate populations. Moreover, common restoration methods, such as riparian management, have little success at reversing already high sediment levels, and are therefore insufficient to bring improvements to in-stream communities or sought-after habitat conditions. Therefore, after determining sediment was restricting sensitive invertebrate recovery at Riversdale Stream, by adding patches of high quality habitat I experimentally compared the factorial effects of sediment flushing and channel narrowing on sediment removal. Treatments improved habitat and prompted recovery of sensitive invertebrates, but an interactive effect where both flushing and channel narrowing combined created the most improved habitat conditions and the greatest improvements of invertebrate communities. Thus, while habitat improvements are an important part of restoration, features limiting species recovery such as connectivity and sedimentation, are particularly important.

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  • Superconductive Effects in Thin Cluster Films

    Grigg, John Antony Hugh (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this thesis, the superconductive and superresistive properties of thin percolating films of lead nanoclusters are presented. The samples were created by depositing clusters from an inert gas aggregation cluster source onto substrates held at either room temperature or 10K. Observations of the characteristic behaviours of the samples were made through R(T ) and V (I) measurements. Several interesting features were observed - smooth and discrete steps in the R(I) curves, hysteresis between increasing and decreasing bias currents, and non-zero resistances at superconducting temperatures. Explanations are proposed in terms of theoretical models of several phenomena - phase slips, phase slip centres and hotspots - which have seen little prior application to percolating systems in literature.

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  • Studies of Bore Water Oxidation Using a Multi Electrode-Perforated Electrode flow Through Cell

    Kurian, Ronnie (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Anoxic groundwaters in the Waikato region are naturally contaminated with iron and manganese at levels of 25.0 mg/L and 0.9 mg/L respectively and above. Often these contaminants can be removed by simple aeration and clarification and/or filtration. However when present with elevated levels of silica and/or organic matter, these waters, upon oxidation, can form highly stable brownish colloidal suspensions that are difficult to filter. Typical treatment methods for these waters usually involve expensive ion exchange to remove the metal ions in their reduced forms or chemical oxidation, using strong oxidising agents such as calcium hypochlorite, to precipitate the metals as their respective hydrous oxides. An improved multiple electrode perforated electrode flow through (ME-PEFT) cell has been developed for in-line electrochemical oxidation of these problem waters. In initial work, using low cost graphite anodes and with added sodium chloride (250 mg/L), 40% instant oxidation at 16 V was achieved. When dimensionally stabilised anodes (DSA) consisting of titanium metal coated with TiO₂/RuO₂/IrO₂ were used in a dual electrode pair ME-PEFT cell, 100% oxidation of the iron was obtained after a single pass through the cell using only the naturally available chloride (10 to 12 mg/L). Power consumption was 3.80 kWh/m³. The oxidised iron clarified readily yielding a clear solution containing less than 0.2 mg/L of iron and having a turbidity of 1.5 NTU after 5 hours settling time. Preliminary tests for an inline flotation clarifier have yielded promising results.

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  • Responsibly Engaged: Ideology and Utopia along the Backpacker Trail

    Bohn, Sonja (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    By following the backpacker trail beyond the 'tourist bubble,' travellers invest in the ideals of freedom, engagement, and responsibility. Backpacker discourse foregrounds travellers' freedom to mobility as it constructs the world as 'tourable'; engagement is demonstrated in the search for 'authentic' connections with cultural Others, beyond the reach of globalised capitalism; responsibility is shouldered by yearning to improve the lives of these Others, through capitalist development. While backpackers frequently question the attainability of these ideals, aspiring to them reveals a desire for a world that is open, diverse, and egalitarian. My perspective is framed by Fredric Jameson's reading of the interrelated concepts of ideology and utopia. While backpacker discourse functions ideologically to reify and obscure global inequalities, to entrench free market capitalism, and to limit the imagining of alternatives, it also figures for a utopian world in which such ideology is not necessary. Using this approach, I attempt to undertake critique of backpacker ideology without invalidating its utopian content, while seeking to reveal its limits. Overall, I suggest that late-capitalism subsumes utopian desires for a better way of living by presenting itself as the solution. This leaves backpackers feeling stranded, seeking to escape the ills of capitalism, via capitalism.

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  • Incorporating refuge floors in a network model : fire engineering research report : a project.

    Glasgow, Daryn (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The modern urban landscape in many of the world's largest cites is increasingly becoming the domain of tall, super-tall and mega-tall buildings. These present designers and architects with a myriad of unique and challenging issues as a result of putting very large numbers of people at very high elevation, remote from their final exit to street level. One feature of such buildings which is designed to provide some efficiency to the egress solution, as well as improve life safety by giving occupants a location of relative safety which they can evacuate to in the event of an emergency, is the fire isolated refuge area or level within the building. EvacuatioNZ is a computer based network evacuation model being developed by the University of Canterbury. This research report covers the development of functionality within this model in which refuge areas and levels can be incorporated in the egress solution. The research offers a range of proposed functions and carries out some simple verification of their incorporation to a point where it is considered that the required functionality is working correctly. The work then takes this newly incorporated functionality and applies it to a real-life design case study - Signature Tower, proposed in the Jakarta CBD, on which the author is the lead fire and life safety engineer. This 111 level tower (638 m) and its potential design population of over 21,000 occupants pushes EvacuatioNZ to its limits and identifies a number of areas for computational improvement in the model itself. As part of the case study, the EvacuatioNZ model was compared to the commercial STEPS evacuation model developed by Mott MacDonald Ltd, which is being used for the Signature Tower design. At the macro level the EvacuatioNZ model simulated longer evacuation times compared to STEPS in predicting the performance of the egress solution. This was identified as primarily due to the handling of stair and door flow rates between the two models. At smaller scales within the geometry though (such as evacuation of individual floors), the two models produced very similar results. This comparative study featured no validation of these results against real evacuation data. The model also demonstrates its value as a tool in the early stages of design, being easy to set up and agile enough to allow constant design change. Improvements in processing efficiency and therefore runtime will make it even more valuable as iterative design 'experimentation' or even Monte Carlo style analysis could be undertaken to explore key elements of the egress solution.

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  • Strata Movement Study Using a 250 m Deep Inclinometer Borehole, Huntly East Coalmine, New Zealand

    Du, Zhaodong (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Strata movement has adverse impacts on structures located on the surface and in the subsurface within a subsidence basin or affected area. Damages to a mine shaft may result from lateral movement and/ or vertical subsidence of the strata at a depth when the resultant stress is larger than the strength of the lining. My study was developed in collaboration with Solid Energy NZ Limited. My research concentrated on monitoring a 250 m deep borehole to assess changes of strata movement that occurred as underground mining approached the inclinometer borehole. The borehole was a simulation of a proposed shaft. The objectives of my research were to study strata movement characteristics above and adjacent to the North 5 coal mining area by monitoring the inclinometer and interpreting the reading data collected from the inclinometer borehole as the underground mining advanced; develop a model of subsidence using Phase2 software; then compare the modelling subsidence with what we have measured to identify any correlation or difference. The inclinometer borehole was located west of Te Ohaki Road, 300 m from the location of a proposed shaft in the adjacent panel in the Huntly East Mine. A total of 13 sets of inclinometer measurements were undertaken over two years from March 2009. Measurement stopped on 11 March 2011 because the probe could not be lowered through a depth of approximately 38 m in the borehole. My study uses ‘extraction vector’, and ‘movement trajectory of the borehole’ for analysing and interpreting the deep borehole movement in underground mining, and addresses the far field subsidence movement as to its potential impact on structures on the surface or in the subsurface. This thesis also introduces the concept of negative vertical additional friction, developed in China, which is a potentially helpful concept for this study, and the proposed shaft project. Three major movement zones were identified, two ‘shear zones’ from 135.0 to 135.5 m and from 166 to 170 m, and one ‘creeping zone’ from the surface to 115 m. The borehole movement was presented by the trajectory of the intersection of the borehole at depths of surface (1 m), 135 m, and 166 m. The two shear zones occurred on the bedding planes in Te Kuiti Group, the creeping zone occurred in the weak strata of the Tauranga Group and upper Te Kuiti Group. The borehole movements were non-linear, and the borehole lateral movement trajectories varied with depth. Three polynomial equations were developed from regression and modelling for indicating the relationship and predication between the nearest extraction distance and the induced lateral movement. The installation of an inclinometer borehole deeper than 120 m was not found in around 100 literature articles reviewed. No reports of use of inclinometer monitoring of ground movement induced by underground extraction were found in the literature reviewed. According to ASTM (2005), no standards are available yet for evaluation against precision and bias issues arising from use of borehole inclinometer. Therefore, the inclinometer borehole in this study may be one of the most complicated cases for monitoring and measurement of strata movement induced by the underground extraction in New Zealand.

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  • A Survey of Dihydroxyacetone in Nectar of Leptospermum Scoparium in Several Regions of New Zealand

    Williams, Simon Douglas (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Mānuka honey has been identified as having non-peroxide antimicrobial activity (NPA). This medical benefit has led to mānuka honey becoming a major export for New Zealand. Hives are currently located in preserved or regenerating mānuka bush. With the growth in the mānuka honey industry, interest has arisen to determine why mānuka trees produce the non-peroxide active honey. Identification of this reason will allow mānuka plantations to be planted that are expected to provide honey with a high level of non-peroxide activity. These plantations will also allow marginal land to become more productive due to mānuka being a resilient plant able to grow under harsh conditions. It has been shown that the majority of the non-peroxide activity arises from the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO). In fresh honey a minimal amount of MGO was present, but a large amount of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was found. Previous work has shown that DHA can undergo chemical conversion into MGO under the correct conditions. A similar conversion is postulated to take place in honey, testing suggests that this conversion is a non-enzymatic reaction. Preliminary surveys have been carried out which have identified DHA in the nectar of mānuka owers. This thesis describes a wider survey of mānuka trees around New Zealand.The trees were sampled in the flowering seasons of 2009 and 2010 between October and January. Flowers were picked and frozen for processing and an aqueous soaking method was developed to extract the DHA and sugar from a pooling of 20 owers. Analyses of the samples were carried out by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection. This method was further improved to include the nectar extraction and measurement of DHA levels within a single flower. To allow the DHA to be related back to honey, it was measured in ratio to the total sugar (Tsugar) in the nectar to give the ratio DHA/Tsugar. It was confirmed that DHA/Tsugar measured in the nectar of the mānuka flower does vary within and between the regions surveyed. Suggested causes of within region variation are the age of the tree, micro-environments and possibly genetics. Variation between regions is strongly suggested to be genetically linked. Using the work by Adam set al.(2008, 2009), it was possible to predict honey NPA values based upon the DHA/Tsugar found in the nectar and these values were comparable with the measured NPA of the honey as supplied by beekeepers. Only a poor correlation of DHA/Tsugar was found with the soil components measured by Kiefer(2010); with the leaf oil components measured by Janusch(2010) some correlation was found, when these were correlated across all the sampled regions. When each region was correlated individually, the correlation proved much stronger, suggesting a link, though most likely indirect, to the mānuka oil chemotype. Using these survey results, mānuka trees have been identified for the purpose of breeding and on-going study.

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  • An investigation of the stability of yacon storage roots under commercial conditions and the feasibility of preparing blackcurrant-yacon juice mixtures for the retail market

    Revell, Maria Teresa (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The stability of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was investigated in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl., Asteraceae) storage roots and blackcurrant-yacon juice mixtures. The roots and syrup are from yacon plants grown for NZ Biotechnologies, the only company in New Zealand licensed to grow yacon commercially for export. The hydrolysis of FOS in storage roots packaged in a semi-permable polymer was significantly reduced compared to unpackaged roots from the same plant, stored in the same conditions (5 °C for up to 72 days). The effectiveness of the packaging was dependent upon a complete seal around the root, indicating the need for selection of relatively straight and smooth roots for successful packaging. Blackcurrant-yacon juice mixtures offer the prebiotic effect of FOS combined with the antioxidant activity of blackcurrant juice. This study was designed to assess the effect of pasteurisation conditions on carbohydrate and polyphenol concentrations and antioxidant activity. The reduction in active ingredients per mL can then be compensated for by the initial formulation before pasteurisation. The rates of hydrolysis and release of FOS, 1-kestose, sucrose, D-glucose and D-fructose were calculated and agreed with previous studies with the exception of 1-kestose. The initial concentrations of polyphenols (330.67-524.4 gallic acid equivalent mg L⁻¹) and anthocyanins (1013.11-1362.25 cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent mg L⁻¹) were also similar to other studies. The concentration of both polyphenols and anthocyanins decreased with heating time, but this difference was statistically significant at a 99.95 % confidence level only for anthocyanins. The decrease of anthocyanin concentration with time in blackcurrant-yacon juice without pH stabilisation was correlated with the rate of FOS hydrolysis. This indicates that the presence of FOS stabilizes the anthocyanins possibly by formation of a complex or compound. This is supported by evidence from elsewhere that dietary fibre-type molecules can transport antioxidants to the large bowel, with associated health effects.

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