1,217 results for Masters, 2013

  • A Palladium-Catalysed Allylic Alkylation Cascade: Towards the Total Synthesis of Thromboxanes A₂ and B₂

    Turner, Claire Alison (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The design and development of new chemical reactions is crucial to the ongoing success of organic synthesis research. In this work the scope and utility of a recently discovered regioselective palladium-catalysed allylic alkylation (Pd-AA) cascade was explored through increasing the range of non-symmetric pyran-based biselectrophiles and β-dicarbonyl bis-nucleophiles that can be used in this reaction. Four differentially protected tri-substituted dihydropyrans based on glucose were synthesised, including 2,3-unsaturated silyl glycosides and α,β-unsaturated lactones. These substrates were assessed as bis-electrophiles in the Pd-AA cascade. One silyl glycoside bis-electrophile, possessing a carbonate leaving group, was shown to be an excellent substrate for reaction with a number of cyclic bis-nucleophiles. Furthermore, a series of regioisomeric methylated 4-hydroxycoumarins were synthesised, tested and found to be equally effective as bis-nucleophiles in the Pd-AA cascade with both acyclic and cyclic bis-electrophiles. Advances made during this research include a novel Ferrier reaction with silanol nucleophiles, which was found to produce silyl glycosides, albeit in low yields. Additionally, several Perlin aldehydes were generated by the Ferrier-type hydrolysis of 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal and led to the discovery of discrepant structural assignments in the literature. Furthermore, a ¹³C NMR shielding template was generated as a tool for the stereochemical assignment of tri-substituted dihydropyrans. An extended variant of the Pd-AA cascade was achieved by employment of the bisnucleophile Meldrum’s acid with the optimal tri-substituted bis-electrophile in the presence of H₂O. The reaction afforded a γ-butyrolactone that could serve as a potential intermediate en route to the synthesis of the biologically interesting compounds thromboxanes A₂ and B₂. This extended Pd-AA cascade, although currently unoptimised, is capable of performing five synthetic transformations in one-pot and holds the potential to improve on the current syntheses of the thromboxanes.

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  • The question of survival: understanding the impact of liberalisation and development on indigenous peoples in Mindanao, Philippines

    Pueblos, Adora Penaco (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis aims to study the impact of mineral resource development on the indigenous peoples in the Philippines, focussing primarily on the consequential effect of the destruction of their ancestral domains and loss of access to their sacred spaces as it relates to their survival. Further, it seeks to bring to the widest attention possible their little known struggles against the invading and destructive forces of development, particularly large-scale mining, in their traditional areas. Most of all, this research ambitions to (1) debunk the prevailing research trend of dismissing emotions as irrational, illogical and useless in research because it is unquantifiable, and therefore, unscientific; and (2) critique Western-influenced paradigms on development by shedding light on the limitations of Eurocentric commitment to orthodox discourses that valorise resource development as supreme over cultural meanings and view environment as something completely detached from humans. In this study is presented the conflicting sides found at the heart of this age-old problem: the opposing views of government/mining companies on one hand, and those of the indigenous peoples on the other, their differing perceptions and stance on the issue of exploitation and control of natural resources found in ancestral domains. This research explored the deep emotional connections of indigenous peoples to their ancestral domains and how these are inexorably linked to their cultural identity. The data illustrate their profound sufferings in the hands of development agents and, paradoxically, the Philippine government itself through its open-arms policy on foreign investments and liberalised mining laws, heavily compounded by the unwarranted deployment of the military to ensure a smooth transition in approved mining areas. Using de-colonising methodologies and research approaches to tackle the issue, empirical data gathered are drawn from participant observation, semi-structured interviews and informal indigenous communities, and later organised according to themes evident upon collation of data. The findings are linked to a wider theoretical context and complemented with analyses of academic literature orientated to post-structural political ecology, emotional geographies and indigenous geographies that support the arguments in this study. As well as highlighting potential areas for future studies on indigenous peoples, this research points to the root cause of the problem to a people’s fundamental loss of power that denies them their control over their emotional spaces, resources and destiny. Accordingly, this fundamental relation needs to be given greater consideration in policy formulation and implementation of regulations that govern environment, natural resources and ancestral domains.

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  • "Winning Hearts and Minds"? An Exploration of New Zealand Peacekeeping, Masculinities, and Identity in the Solomon Islands

    Stevens, Kiri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Close attention to the practices of masculinity, and individual negotiations of identity are often rendered invisible when exploring the implications of having soldiers engaged as peacekeepers in communities emerging from conflict. Using a feminist post-structural framework and qualitative interviews, I investigate whether involvement in peacekeeping is producing new gender and identity experiences for some New Zealand soldiers. Specifically, I explore the perceptions of two New Zealand Army Reserve Force soldiers who participated in the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands. Additionally, I engage with the reflections of seven Solomon Islanders to understand the impacts that these new understandings of gender and identity might have for conflict resolution and gender equality in local communities. My research finds that the practices that soldiers value and consider most useful to be a successful soldier are changing as a result of their involvement in peacekeeping. New ideas about masculinity in the armed forces are being engendered by the need for soldiers to express a sense of equality and respect towards local people. The changing nature of soldering is resulting in the emergence of practices that offer alternatives and/or challenge hegemonic and racialized militarized masculinities over those more traditionally valued in the armed forces. However, at the same time, some soldiers continue to place value on practices associated with hegemonic militarized masculinities, such as a belief in the continued need to carry weapons to create security. I further suggest that Solomon Islanders interpreted participating soldiers' behaviours through broader historical-cultural narratives about different countries forces and their perceived cultural sensitivity. Therefore, soldiers' everyday resistances to racial narratives and militarized masculinities were important for creating a sense of trust and respect with local residents. However, while some Solomon Islanders welcomed the sense of security that soldiers produced, the carrying of weapons by soldiers undermined local conflict resolution practices. By focussing on men and masculinities, my research contributes to discussions about hegemonic and militarized masculinities in peacekeeping, and challenges ideas that see men, masculinities and other aspects of identity as static or unconnected to historical and social practices.

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  • Energy security in New Zealand politics: risk perceptions and political agendas

    Tyndall, Lucy Sarah Moor (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Energy security is a subjective concept, as to different actors it invokes different meanings and thoughts about risk. It is highly political because it is at the heart of the debate between the environmental consequences of burning fossil fuels and the economic consequences of constraining this consumption. How a government perceives energy security provides an important indication of how they intend to approach the complexity of current energy issues. No more important is energy security to consider than in New Zealand. As this thesis will show, the term is used in New Zealand's policy-making circles but it is not referred to consistently. This thesis will use the Copenhagen School's Theory of Securitisation and delineate the key features of energy security in New Zealand politics. It will show that there has been two distinct rhetorical politicisations of energy security that argue for two divergent energy policies. First, the Clark Labour Government used a strategy of politicisation to bring energy security risks onto the political agenda. This sought to legitimise strong government leadership in the energy sector to support the development of robust climate change policy. The second rhetorical politicisation is at the heart of the Key National Government, where energy security is subsumed to the immediate concern for economic growth in the wake of the global economic recession. Thus there is a heightened concern for short-term risk to security of energy supply and New Zealand's role in contributing to global energy security. The nature of energy security issues and how they are integrated with other policy challenges remain in dispute. Consequently, energy security is a highly contested and politicised concept in New Zealand politics.

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  • Food waste New Zealand: a case study investigating the food waste phenomenon

    Parr, Harriet (2013-11-29)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Food waste is an increasing concern for Governments in developed countries and in New Zealand it is estimated that the annual value of household food waste is 750 million dollars. The looming crisis in global food security including food waste has resulted in a detailed report from the United Kingdom’s Institute of Mechanical Engineers, IMechE’s (2013) which concluded that education is critical to help consumers lower their generation of food waste; and that policy changes led by Governments, must be introduced, to tackle this escalating problem. In New Zealand information on food waste is scarce however statistical evidence does show each household discards food valued at 450 dollars annually (Davison, 2011) yet ironically, 270 000 children in New Zealand live in poverty, where many do not have enough food to eat (Collins, 2012). This research aims to investigate the issues of household food waste, from the perspective of consumers, to discover if practical techniques can be applied to alleviate household food waste. Currently, advertising and marketing campaigns to enable consumers to think about their household’s food waste, instigated by Government or educational organisations are nonexistent. Also co-operation with supermarkets and food manufacturers to educate their consumers about the implications of creating food waste which would begin to address some consumer concerns raised in this research is unavailable. As with other issues of sustainability will it be consumer pressure or economic policy makers who will drive information transparency and best practice? Disposal methods, and landfill diversion of food waste was not the focus of the case study. Rather the practical implementation of food waste reduction methods from website information and suggestions was important. Adding to the case study family’s problem was that alternative food waste disposal methods, to divert food waste such as composting, or green waste collection services, were unavailable, in Auckland the service was not provided by Government. A case study methodology was used to underpin this research. The importance of using an in depth case study is highlighted by determining whether or not website information is informative enough to induce household behavioural change. The value of website information is a priority for this research as the thesis tested if informative suggestions from websites could encourage a change in waste behaviour. The relationship between the case study family, website information and amounts of food waste is analysed throughout the project and is vital to inform the research about successful methods of reduction. The outcomes of this study outlined information techniques which the family applied to the experiment. In theory these methods could be used in further research to test another family’s waste calculations. Overall findings from this research revealed that with the correct education, tools and techniques, a household can reduce food waste to a minimum. Connecting waste reduction methods via a virtual knowledge sharing system would provide consumers, producers and Government agencies with the option to create and exchange food waste reduction concerns and techniques.

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  • Crossing the borders of play and learning: ethnic Asian-Chinese perspectives on the value and purpose of a play-based early childhood curriculum

    Huang, Ming-Hua (Rita) (2013-11-29)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    “Learning through play” is an important component of Western early childhood education, and plays a key role in the play-based curriculum in New Zealand (Ministry of Education, 1996; White, O’Malley, Toso, Rockel, Stover, & Ellis, 2007). However, this concept is challenged in New Zealand by Ethnic Asian-Chinese (EAC) immigrant families, who question the educational value of play for young children (Guo, 2006; Li, 2001a; Liao, 2007; Wu, 2003, 2009). For the early childhood education sector in New Zealand, this tension is compounded by the early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education, 1996), because it affirms both the valuing of play and the valuing of diverse cultural perspectives. Further research and discussion of EAC immigrant parental perspectives on play in early childhood education will be essential to addressing this tension. The objective of this research is to investigate EAC parental perspectives on the value and purpose of a play-based early childhood curriculum and to explore the implications for early childhood teachers in order to support the building of effective partnership with immigrant families in New Zealand. This research involved eight EAC immigrant parents who had or currently have at least one child attending a play-based early childhood setting in New Zealand. A qualitative approach was employed to allow EAC parents’ experiences, values and beliefs of a play-based curriculum to be explored and examined in detail. Factors that EAC parents perceive as being most important for children to learn at a play-based early childhood curriculum were explored through interviews with the volunteer participants. Findings from the study revealed that although EAC parents may view learning as distinct from play, they agree that children should have an opportunity to play and expect their children to learn through play. The results of the study contribute to an understanding of the historical and cultural background of EAC parents and how they perceive children’s learning and play. Practical suggestions for pedagogy and future research were also identified.

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  • Monitoring training-induced fatigue in snowboard and freeski halfpipe athletes

    Turnbull, Jonathon (2013-11-29)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Snowboard and freeski halfpipe (HP) are relatively new skill-based high-risk alpine sports which have received very little attention in sport science research. It therefore appears prudent that initial studies first focus gaining a more detailed understanding of the sport. Information on the type and amount of load and consequent fatigue from normal halfpipe training is an important first step and will help coaches to better plan training sessions and adapt to athlete energy states. Such information is also essential for sport scientists to effectively prepare and recover athletes from training and competition. This thesis considers various forms of fatigue measurement and their sensitivity to training load. Ten male and 14 female elite snowboard and freeski HP athletes (21.8±3.3y, and 23.4±4.6y respectively) participated over the course of a 2-week on snow training camp. Immediately prior to on-snow training sessions, subjects’ countermovement jump (CMJ) and level of perceived fatigue (LPF) were recorded as were post-session CMJ and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). A GymAware linear position transducer was used to measure mean power (MP), peak velocity (PV) and jump height (JH). Reliability was established using coefficient of variation, and a repeated-measures generalised estimating equations (GEE) model used to examine relationships between variables within-day and between-day over the course of the camp. No significant relationships were found between subjective and objective variables when compared within-days indicating our variables may not be sensitive to changes in training load and fatigue from a day of HP training. Significant relationships were found between post-session RPE and load measures, and next day’s MP and PV. Specifically, as the subjective variables increased following training, the next day’s objective variables reduced by varying factors. When considering subjective and objective variables in isolation, subjective LPF was found to increase over the course of the 2 week training camp despite rest days, while neither of the pre-session objective CMJ variables exhibited significant trends. CMJ variables tended to increase after a day’s riding. It was concluded that traditional RPE scales used in conjunction with subjective fatigue ratings and/or MP and PV measurement using GymAware LPT can be useful tools to assist coaches and scientists in prescribing training and monitor fatigue over time. Some evidence of overreaching was found in this study and longer term monitoring of these objective and subjective variables may assist in alerting to signs of overtraining. Further research is required to determine methods of monitoring acute effects of fatigue from HP training.

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  • High Impedance Amplifiers for Non-Contact Bio-Potential Sensing

    Ryan, Brett (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research develops a non-contact bio-potential sensor which can quickly respond to input transient events, is insensitive to mechanical disturbances, and operates with a bandwidth from 0.04Hz – 20kHz, with input voltage noise spectral density of 200nV / √Hz at 1kHz. Initial investigations focused on the development of an active biasing scheme to control the sensors input impedance in response to input transient events. This scheme was found to significantly reduce the settling time of the sensor; however the input impedance was degraded, and the device was sensitive to distance fluctuations. Further research was undertaken, and a circuit developed to preserve fast settling times, whilst decreasing the sensitivity to distance fluctuations. A novel amplifier biasing network was developed using a pair of junction field effect transistors (JFETs), which actively compensates for DC and low frequency interference, whilst maintaining high impedance at signal frequencies. This biasing network significantly reduces the settling time, allowing bio-potentials to be measured quickly after sensor application, and speeding up recovery when the sensor is in saturation. Further work focused on reducing the sensitivity to mechanical disturbances even further. A positive feedback path with low phase error was introduced to reduce the effective input capacitance of the sensor. Tuning of the positive feedback loop gain was achieved with coarse and fine control potentiometers, allowing very precise gains to be achieved. The sensor was found to be insensitive to distance fluctuations of up to 0.5mm at 1Hz, and up to 2mm at 5kHz. As a complement to the non-contact sensor, an amplifier to measure differential bio-potentials was developed. This differential amplifier achieved a CMRR of greater than 100dB up to 10kHz. Precise fixed gains of 20±0:02dB, 40±0:01dB, 60±0:03dB, and 80±0:3dB were achieved, with input voltage noise density of 15nV / √Hz at 1kHz.

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  • God wills it? A comparison of Greek and Latin theologies of warfare during the Medieval period.

    Newman, Timothy John (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The history of the Church’s participation in, and attitudes towards warfare have been well-documented in several fields of research. The development of the doctrine of just war and the medieval crusades within Western Christianity, have been the subject of a considerable amount of scholarship. There has also recently been an increasing amount of research done by historians, theologians and political theorists comparing the status of warfare within the Christian and Islamic traditions. However, the current state of the historiography is focused almost entirely on Western Christianity, and does not address in any depth the attitudes toward warfare present in Eastern Christianity within the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages. This thesis seeks to address this historiographical imbalance by comparing the development of the Eastern and Western Church’s positions on warfare throughout the medieval period. The thesis examines the factors that led to the divergence of the two Churches’ attitudes towards warfare, and the development and impact of their differing theologies during the medieval period. It is argued that the fundamental point of divergence between the Eastern and Western Church’s attitude to warfare is linguistic and theological in nature. The linguistic differences between the Greek and Latin Churches, led to different theological interpretive frameworks regarding the subject of warfare. These different fundamental theological assumptions would lead the two Churches down different developmental paths and would prevent the development or acceptance of Western theories of just war and holy war in the Eastern Church.

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  • Evaluating the Use Of A Virtual Reality Patient Simulator an An Educational Tool In An Audiological Setting

    Sanderson, Elizabeth Anne (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is currently an international shortage of Audiologists (McIntyre, 2010). Audiology is a professional degree undertaken at a postgraduate level at most universities around the world. Students have training in anatomy and physiology, hearing aids, cochlear implants, electrophysiology and acoustics; combined with a clinical component to the course. The clinical component is undertaken throughout the entirety of the course and involves a mixture of observation and supervised clinical practice in a variety of settings. Clinical training often begins with students crowded around a single piece of equipment, such as an audiometer for testing puretone-hearing thresholds or by pairing up and simulating a hearing loss. This process creates time and access constraints for students as it restricts their ability to practice performing audiometry, particularly if there is a shortage of equipment, and also limits their exposure to a wide variety of hearing loss pathologies. The potential for universities worldwide to use Virtual Reality and Computer Based Simulations to provide Audiology students with basic clinical skills without relying on extensive support from external clinics warrants further investigation. In particular, it needs to be determined whether Audiology students value these simulations as a useful supplement to their clinical training, and whether the use of these simulations translates into measurable improvements in student abilities in real clinical placements. A computer based training program for Audiology students developed at the Human Interface Technology Lab (HITLAB) New Zealand is evaluated in this study as an educational tool at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The present study aims to determine if a sample of twelve first year Audiology students felt their interactions with Virtual Patients improved their ability to interact with clients and perform masking which is often part of a basic audiometric assessment for a patient with hearing loss. The study measures the students’ competency in performing masking in puretone audiometry on the Virtual Patient and then on a patient in a real-world setting to see whether the Audiology Simulator training tool improved the student’s basic audiometry skills (a training effect) and whether these skills were maintained after a period of four weeks (a maintenance effect). Statistical analysis is applied to determine any training and maintenance effects. Students also gave subjective feedback on the usefulness of the simulator and suggestions for ways in which it could be improved. Results indicated that there was no statistically significant training effect between students that had used the Audiology Simulator and those that hadn’t. Once all students had used the Virtual Patient there was an overall maintenance effect present in that student’s scores stayed the same or improved even for those students who had not used the Virtual Patient for a period of time. Students overall reported that they found the Virtual Patient to be ‘Moderately Useful’ and had many recommendations for ways in which it could be improved to further assist their learning.The present study indicates that computer based simulation programs like the Virtual Patient are able to present and simulate realistic hearing losses to an acceptable level of complexity for students studying in the field of audiology and that the Audiology Simulator can be a useful and complementary training tool for components of audiological clinical competence, such as puretone audiometry and masking.

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  • Aerobic Capacity in Individuals With Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Steele, Brydie Elizabeth (2013-11-28)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess if individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee have reduced aerobic capacity compared with age and gender matched healthy controls. This study also assessed the accuracy of submaximal exercise testing for predicting aerobic capacity in individuals with OA. Study design A cross sectional comparison study was undertaken with 24 participants with radiographic evidence of knee OA and 20 age and gender matched healthy participants within the control group. Background OA of the knee is a musculoskeletal condition that affects a large number of individuals. With an aging population the incidence of OA is set to increase. OA is associated with pain, joint stiffness and reduced muscle strength. It has been demonstrated some years earlier that OA is associated with a reduction in aerobic capacity. This is thought to be as a result of reduced physical activity, and exercise avoidance. In recent years there has been increased emphasis on physical exercise as a treatment approach to OA, and a series of guidelines have been introduced to promote physical activity in elderly and diseased individuals. Theoretically the increased awareness of the benefits of exercise should result in improvements in aerobic capacity in individuals with OA. However, no studies have examined this. As maximal effort exercise testing is expensive to undertake and requires significant training it is not practical in the clinical setting therefore submaximal effort exercise testing is a preferred alternative. However to date there have been no studies that provide evidence of the accuracy of submaximal exercise tests for predicting aerobic capacity in individuals with OA. Method Forty four participants aged 47-81 years were recruited. Four participants were excluded from the study for failing to achieve two of the three determinants of aerobic capacity. Therefore total numbers for the study were 22 participants in the OA group (12 males, 10 females) and 18 participants in the control group (9 males, 9 females). Both groups had a mean age of 67 years with a SD of 10 years A submaximal cycler ergometer test was utilised to predict aerobic capacity. Aerobic capacity was predicted from an equation that utilised exercise work rate (WR) and heart rate (HR) at the completion of the test. A ramped cycle ergometer exercise protocol was used for the measure of maximal aerobic capacity. The incremental resistance for the test was calculated so participants reached maximal exertion between 8-12 minutes. A breath by breath analysis of expired gas, participant HR and perceived exertion was used to determine if maximal effort was reached. Results There was a significant (P<0.05) reduction in aerobic capacity observed between individuals with OA of the knee (mean: 22 ml/kg/min) compared with age and gender matched healthy controls (mean: 27 ml/kg/min). The mean predicted values from the submaximal test were 19ml/kg/min and 22ml/kg/min for the OA and control groups respectively. The submaximal exercise test under-predicted aerobic capacity in both groups. The Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were .75 and .72 for the OA and control groups respectively. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with other literature indicating that individuals with OA of the knee have reduced aerobic capacity when compared with age and gender matched healthy controls. This study also indicates that submaximal exercise testing is a safe and accurate predictor of aerobic capacity in individuals with OA.

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  • Assessment of Standing Herbage Dry Matter Using A Range Imaging Sytem

    Benseman, Mark (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It has been known for a long time that a device that could quickly and accurately ascertain dry matter content would be very useful to pastoral farmers. Despite many years of various products being developed there is still a lack of consistent and accurate measurements available. We present a proof of concept using a time of flight imaging system to measure standing herbage dry matter. Scenes of herbage were captured using the SoftKinitec DS325 range imaging camera. Each scene included range and intensity images as well as colour images. Simple statistical analysis of the images was carried out and related to dry matter content. Twenty data points were gathered in late autumn growing conditions. The best correlation achieved was 0.9 with a standard deviation of 337 kgDM/ha. This was achieved used a multivariate linear regression. The predictors used were average depth, and standard deviations of both depth and intensity frames. The worst correlation achieved using a multivariate linear regression was 0.89 with a standard deviation of 365 kgDM/ha. Thirteen data points were also gathered during severe drought conditions. The same statistical analysis resulted in a best fit of 0.52 and a standard deviation of 533 kgDM/ha. Range cameras show promise when compared to currently available methods of dry matter measurement.

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  • An Investigation of Factors that Contribute to Dihydroxyacetone Variation Observed in New Zealand Leptospermum scoparium

    King, Jessica (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Honey derived from Leptospermum scoparium (commonly known as mānuka) is known to have anti-bacterial activity that is not entirely accounted for by the presence of hydrogen peroxide.1 This is known as non-peroxide activity (NPA). The discovery of this medical benefit has led to mānuka honey being a major export for New Zealand. In order to assure supply, mānuka trees are being investigated to determine why certain specimens yield honeys with a greater NPA than others. This might result in plantations of L. scoparium that would yield honey with a consistently high NPA. The compound responsible for the NPA is a 1,2-dicarbonyl known as methylglyoxal (MGO).2 The precursor to this molecule was found in nectar of the mānuka flowers and was identified as dihydroxyacetone (DHA).3 An investigation of DHA in the nectar of L. scoparium across different regions of New Zealand was carried out by Williams (2012).4 It was confirmed that trees vary within and between regions across New Zealand. This thesis describes different investigations into why the variation of DHA observed in various mānuka flowers is so great. Flowers were collected during flowering periods from 2011-2013 and were frozen prior to processing. The extraction method used ten flowers (10F) and samples were analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). The DHA quantity was expressed with respect to the total sugar (Tsugar) in the nectar (DHA/Tsugar) in order to allow for comparison between samples. The study by Williams (2012) was extended to include the Northland region.4 Wild L. scoparium var. incanum specimens were collected from this region and it was determined that these trees only produced a low to moderate amount of DHA/Tsugar. Williams (2012) also investigated the DHA variability of trees in close proximity to each other as these are supposed to be genetically similar.4 This study was repeated in a different region and the findings were the same; that is trees that were in close proximity to each other can have different DHA/Tsugar. One possibility of why DHA is observed in mānuka flowers is that it is used to combat stress as a compatible osmolyte. This was tested using chemical additives and it was found that the DHA/Tsugar varied as a result of the Tsugar as opposed to the amount of DHA. This response was cultivar dependent. Different flower physiologies were also investigated. This included the andromonoecious nature of mānuka and the specific colour change in the hypanthium of the flower. Male flowers were found to have a larger amount of DHA/Tsugar as a result of a higher level of DHA than hermaphrodite flowers. This could suggest that DHA is being used in the hermaphrodite flowers for processes such as seed production. The DHA/Tsugar of flowers with different hypanthium colour was shown to be dependent on the variety type. The source and reason for DHA still remains unclear and therefore further study is required.

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  • Synthesis of Perfluoroaryl Heterocycles To Provide Synthons For Crystal Engineering Using π−π Stacking Interactions

    Althagbi, Hanan Ibrahim (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Approximately 42 new arene-perfluoroarene compounds were synthesised by the reaction of pentafluorophenyl derivatives (C₆F₅R; R= CN, Br, Cl, I, CHO, CF₃, H) with imidazole, benzimidazole, parazole, indazole and their derivatives such as 2-methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole, 2-phenylimidazole and 2-methylbenz-imidazole. Attempts to synthesize 1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridyl)pyrazole and 1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridyl)indazole were unsuccessful. However, these reactions were achieved using different solvents, varying amounts of solvents and varying temperatures. Various chemical analytical techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, single-crystal X-diffraction and micro-elemental analysis, were used to characterise the compounds. The crystallization of these compounds was performed by the slow evaporation of their solutions in different solvents at ambient temperature. Single crystal structures were obtained for 1-(2,3,5,6- tetrafluoropyridyl)-2-methylbenzimidazole, 1-(4-bromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl)-3-benzyl-4-methylimidazolium bromide and 1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridyl)-3-benzyl-4-methylimidazolium bromide and this result has shown that π-π stacking interactions have an essential role in the packing of these compounds.

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  • Antipodean Naivety in the Contact Zone of Berlin: New Zealand writers in Berlin before and after the fall of the Wall

    Tahana, Jordin (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Man from Nowhere & Other Prose by James McNeish (1991), Berlin Diary by Cilla McQueen (1990), To Each His Own by Philip Temple (1999), and Phone Home Berlin: Collected Non-Fiction by Nigel Cox (2007) are all texts written by New Zealand writers who either visited or lived in Berlin before and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Their texts chronicle their experiences in Berlin and capture their observations of and reflections on the city, its people and their place as New Zealand writers in Berlin. This thesis discusses the texts they wrote while in Berlin, focussing particularly on the images of war, walls and the idea of ‘antipodean naivety’. My introductory chapter provides a brief history of New Zealand writers in Berlin. The chapter addresses key historical events which took place in Berlin and how they gave rise to artistic and cultural initiatives, providing the opportunity for McNeish, McQueen and Temple to be in the city. In the second chapter, I consider the images of war found in the writers’ texts. McNeish, McQueen and Temple focus particularly on Berlin’s Second World War history and to a lesser extent on the Cold War. I examine the reasons why they focus so heavily on this part of Berlin’s history, especially when the city has a much longer and broader military history that is ignored by the writers when they address issues of war and conflict in their texts. My third chapter addresses images of walls. For the artists and writers resident in Berlin before the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Berlin Wall is a prominent feature in their texts. But as foreigners to the city and country, they encounter other ‘walls’ such as language and cultural barriers. These metaphorical boundaries are examined further in my fourth chapter which discusses the idea of ‘antipodean naivety’. I apply Mary Louise Pratt’s theory of the ‘contact zone’ in reverse to the experiences of McNeish, McQueen and Temple in Berlin. In my fifth and final chapter I contrast the work of Nigel Cox who was in Berlin ten years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and for a different purpose. Perhaps surprisingly Cox nevertheless responds to Berlin in similar ways to the other New Zealanders. I argue that as New Zealanders these writers come to Berlin from a small country on the other side of the world with a less grandiose history to a country they think they know. In reality, the way the writers interpret their surroundings and the things on which they focus in their texts - almost always Berlin’s twentieth century history - illustrates how little they know about the city, but also suggests how unsettling the experience of the contact zone is, especially when it is such a historically and ideologically-loaded place, and how it makes them aware of their place of origin and their own naiveties and anxieties.

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  • Exploring Men's Coping With Psychological Distress Within the Context of Conforming to Masculine Role Norms

    Moodley, Komala G. (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among masculine and coping variables with psychological distress. It also identified the extent to which masculine variables and coping styles contributed to psychological distress, in a sample of New Zealand men. The study sample comprised of 80 adult men, recruited from tertiary and community organisations in Hamilton. Participants were required to read and complete a questionnaire comprising of a series of questions relating to adherence to masculine gender role norms, gender role conflict, coping styles and recent levels of anxiety, stress and depressive symptoms. The Conformity to Masculine Role Norms Inventory and the Gender Role Conflict Scale were used to assess the men’s degree of conformity to socialised masculine ideals, and the degree to which they experienced conflict, as a result of their gendered role. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was used to measure psychological distress, the outcome variable. Coping style was assessed using the Brief COPE Scale. The main findings were that some aspects of conformity to masculinity, such as the strict adherence to norms of Emotional Control and Self-Reliance were associated with higher levels of psychological distress, Emotional Control (r=.279, p=.008) and Self-Reliance (r=.395, p <.01), highlighting the benefits of using active, direct coping strategies to mitigate the effects of psychological distress. Results of the multiple regression indicated that coping styles in comparison to the gender variables accounted for more than half of the variance of the outcome variable (psychological distress), and was a better predictor of psychological distress in the sample of men. Furthermore, the gender variables helped to explain psychological distress over and above what was explained by coping strategies alone. These findings have highlighted that masculine gender role may be inextricable linked to the way men cope with psychological distress. It should therefore be considered together with coping styles in future studies examining psychological distress. Implications of these findings for the development of effective clinical interventions, and directions for future research were also discussed.

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  • Detection, Desire and Contamination: The Strange Case of Sherlock Holmes

    Laven, Eleni (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Arthur Conan Doyle’s famous creation, Sherlock Holmes, is often viewed as a fictional embodiment of justice and order in nineteenth-century Britain, a fantasy of epistemological mastery precisely calibrated against the social flux and uncertainty of the fin-de-siècle. Holmes solves perplexing crimes through logic and reason, and affirms a positivist conservative ideology that upholds the status quo. This thesis will challenge this comforting reading of Holmes by arguing, firstly, that he is in fact a highly ambivalent figure - morally problematic, culturally marginalised and sexually ambiguous. Secondly, it will demonstrate how Holmes should be situated within the context of various historical and contemporary discourses, including inquisitorial modes of punishment and surveillance, the discourse of atavism, contemporary anxieties about degeneracy in the upper classes and the cultural problematics of bachelorhood and bohemia in Victorian society. Finally, it will trace a continuum in which Holmes, as an archetype in a discourse of detection extending back to the work of earlier writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, sets the pattern for the legion of brilliant, eccentric and ambiguous detectives who have followed in his wake. Understood in terms of this genealogy, the detective’s characteristic flaws, traits, eccentricities and methodologies can be seen to have a specific relation to their historical moment: indeed, part of the lingering appeal of the eccentric detective lies in the fit between their eccentricities, the nature of the crimes they solve, and their ability to restore order. This thesis will demonstrate the fit in the case of Sherlock Holmes, but will also demonstrate that he is more ambiguous, ambivalent and even subversive than his consoling conservative appeal might suggest.

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  • Language death = identity death?: The role of Provençal in speaker identities

    Pickett, Jessica Valerie (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the role the Provençal language plays in the identities of those who speak, or are learning to speak the language. Twelve individuals, who were either teaching, learning or had been involved with Provençal, were interviewed in semi-structured interviews that lasted from 15 minutes to 90 minutes. The interviews were analysed to find the participants’ motivations and opinions in learning or teaching Provençal and how this reflected or impacted on their identity. Language-and-identity is a popular discourse amongst activists, linguists and academics in the field of language revival and maintenance. By interviewing the participants who were directly involved with Provençal, and analysing the role that Provençal plays in their identities, this research strengthened the arguments for the revival and maintenance of Provençal voiced in the language-and-identity argument. The participants’ opinions mirrored those set out in the language-and-identity discourse. The emergence of several themes – identity, aesthetics and status – showed the different ways in which Provençal was reflected in or impacted on the participants’ identities. Personal connection through personal history, family, regional ties and interest were the main factors in the identity theme. Aesthetics dealt with the Provençal language, and the way the participants perceived it, and how this reflected on them. Status was about the other, how other groups in society are perceived to feel about Provençal, and the actions they take (or do not take) because of these feelings. These findings constitute the need for further research into language and identity in a Provençal context, particularly the economic effects of a non-validated linguistic identity, and the role of technology in facilitating the validation of speakers’ identities.

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  • 'Don't you perceive gender as different because of the chromosomes': Examining the Impact of Gender Discourses on Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers?

    Lyall, Margaret Vida (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis is a qualitative study located within the context of contemporary New Zealand early childhood education. It investigates the impact and implications on pedagogy resulting from the gender discourses held by pre-service early childhood teachers, each of whom had just begun the final semester of the 3rd year of their Bachelor of teaching early childhood education. Specifically, using data generated through focus groups, it investigates the participant’s location and framing of gender, gender development and the participant’s understandings of gender diversity. The research, which extensively used post-structural feminism and Foucault’s notion of discourse as a theoretical framework, identified the participant’s discourses around gender which were conflicting, uncontested and confused. A series of influential discourses regarding gender were identified as potentially shaping pre-service teachers developing teacher subjectivity. I claim that the shaping of teacher subject, who are indifferent to gender, results, from a reduction of focus on gender in the early childhood sector in both professional practice and state policy. The increased dominance of the biological determinist discourse in lay society is keenly felt in these domains. The increased biologically determinist view inferring that gender difference is natural and therefore unchallengeable and the reduced focus on gender in professional and government fields decreases the importance placed on gender. As such, this thesis suggests that the importance placed on gender by the developing teacher subject may be inconsistent with the important role gender plays in the early years and may therefore inhibit pedagogy and practice. This research has implications for policy and teacher education. The results identify early childhood teacher education as being in a unique position to attempt to mitigate such issues. Specifically this can be done by supporting the development of the reflexive skills needed for pre-service teachers to consider and challenge the gender discourses that influence them.

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  • Policy options for the management of territorial disputes in South-East Asia: A case study of the Preah Vihear temple dispute

    Sattayarak, Tharita (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The stability of the Southeast Asian region has been affected by a number of unresolved territorial and maritime disputes because most parts of the region were not demarcated after the colonial period. Overlapping claims have led to disputes among ASEAN members for the rightful ownership of those areas. ASEAN, however, does not have the power to resolve disputes among its members or between its members and outsiders. The International Court of Justice (or the ICJ) has played an important role in ending long-standing disputes in the region; the ICJ’s judgements have normally been accepted. Thailand, which is an ASEAN member, has faced both territorial disputes due to the European colonists’ treaties over boundary agreements with its neighbouring states as well as maritime disputes due to the announcement of the 1983 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), particularly in the Gulf of Thailand. It seems to be easier to reach an agreement on the overlapping claims in the Gulf of Thailand than to settle disputes over land. Sharing the benefits of fisheries, oil and gas have contributed to Thailand and some claimants reaching an agreement by peaceful means. Territorial disputes are more complicated and sensitive than the maritime ones because they include strategic, ethnic and economic values, thus they are more likely to result in the use of military force which greatly harms the stability and peace of the region. Thailand has had many territorial disputes with its neighbours such as Myanmar, Laos, Malaysia and, particularly, with Cambodia. The rivalry between Thailand and Cambodia has existed since ancient times. One of the most important territorial disputes between the two nations is the territorial dispute over the sovereignty of the Preah Vihear temple which was awarded to Cambodia in 1962 by the ICJ. However, the 4.6 sq km area surrounding the temple has not yet been demarcated by the ICJ, thus the territorial dispute over the temple’s surrounding area occurred in 2008, and it was seen to be one of the bloodiest disputes in the region. The dispute has not yet ended. The ICJ has finally become involved and Thailand and Cambodia still need to provide evidence to the Court in 2013 to claim their rights over the disputed area. This dispute has caused ASEAN to become more concerned about its role and power to maintain peace in the region. ASEAN in the future must have more power to control such a situation so that it does not escalate into the use of military force among its members. This can prevent outsiders’ involvement and also improve trust among member states as well.

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