991 results for Masters, 2014

  • Impacts of Early Childhood Education Social Obligations on Families and Whanau

    Randall, Judith (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the impacts of ECE social obligations on affected families and whānau. In 2013 ECE social obligations were introduced through the Social Security (Benefit Categories and Work Focus) Amendment Bill. These obligations require beneficiaries to ensure their children are “enrolled in and attending an approved early childhood education programme from the age of three, until they start school” (Work and Income New Zealand, 2013c). A qualitative approach was utilised to hear the voices of those affected. Data was gathered through interviews with eight beneficiary families and two ECE centre managers who had knowledge of the impacts of obligations. Perceived impacts were analysed using thematic analysis. An examination of the discourses underpinning these obligations as represented in policy documents was undertaken utilising Bacchi’s (2000; 1999) “what’s the problem?” framework. The introduction of the ECE social obligation policy was found to have placed responsibility on beneficiaries but to have failed to adequately address barriers to ECE participation that families face. The study identified many barriers which impede a family’s ability to participate in ECE. These include transportation, cost, and provision of high quality, suitable ECE for their children available in their local community. Mandatory ECE does not provide the infrastructure needed to enable families to access ECE programmes as it does not address the accessibility, structural, and personal barriers that families face. The thesis argues that the context of incorporating ECE policy in Ministry of Social Development (MSD) legislation and the use of sanctions to ensure compliance is likely to lead to negative outcomes for children’s well-being. Policy-as-discourse analysis identified that social obligations were conceived in the context of reducing long-term benefit dependency. The three interrelated dominant discourses underpinning this policy, economic rationalisation, the positioning of beneficiaries as job seekers, and the positioning of children as vulnerable, has left the child as citizen invisible. I advocate that redefining the problem through a child as citizen lens could provide a framework for government to support families through barriers and address provision of high quality ECE. Three key suggestions are made. Firstly, utilisation of a child’s rights framework could ensure children’s rights are at the forefront of ECE policy. This would enable the primary emphasis to be on the welfare and best interests of all children. Within this framework this study identified the need for ECE matters to be in the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, rather than MSD, in order to ensure consistency and accessibility to quality ECE for all children. Secondly, ECE engagement needs to be promoted through a positive model rather than sanctions. Government financial investment in integrated ECE services within local communities could aid families to overcome participation barriers and provide an ideal model for enabling families to access social services. Thirdly, government policy and funding needs to support provision of high quality ECE services that are responsive to their local communities. Such services are essential to encouraging ECE participation.

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  • Efficacy of Secondary Level Short Term Study Abroad Programmes between Japan and New Zealand : The Case Study of Darfield High School

    Hayakawa, Sumiyo (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    International education has been a growing trend globally over the past thirty years. Since the late 1980s, the popularity of study abroad programme amongst Japanese students has also seen a significant increase following the international education trend. A more recent trend in international education has been the development of shorter term study abroad programmes and the value of these programmes has been widely recognised in Japan. In response to Japanese government initiatives, Japanese secondary schools have developed short-term programmes in order to develop students’ international awareness. As a result, a large number of Japanese high school students have participated in a short-term study abroad programme in the last 20 years. Japan and New Zealand have a long history of sister school relationships. By 2012, 191 Japanese high schools had established sister school relationships, and these school links have provided the impetus for exchange programmes; which means that many Japanese high school students visit New Zealand schools to study in short-term programmes (for less than 3 months) or longer. Several scholars have investigated the learners’ outcomes of the short-term study abroad of university students. From their studies, it has been established that the main learning objectives of study abroad programmes, are second language acquisition, intercultural competence and personal development. However, little is yet known about the outcomes of younger students who have participated in short-term programmes; only a few attempts have so far been made to analyse the case of Japanese secondary school students’ short-term programmes, and few still refer specifically to programmes in New Zealand. One of my main objectives was to determine a) what were the objectives of Japanese secondary students to participation in a short-term study abroad programme in New Zealand, b) whether they feel satisfied that their objectives have been. Also, as other researchers mentioned, could benefits such as second language acquisition, intercultural competence and personal development be claimed by secondary schools participating in these programmes – specifically the Darfield High School short-term programme that is my case study. In order to do this, I conducted two surveys with four different groups of Japanese secondary school students who visited Darfield High School from 2009 to 2012 as a case study. The findings suggest that many Japanese secondary school students expected to improve their English conversation skills, but they did not feel much improvement in this area after the programme, however, upon reflection, after the programme, students recognised that they had gained far more than they had expected in a general sense. For example, many participants expected to learn about some of the aspects of New Zealand culture as a result of the programme and indeed many students felt that they accomplished this objective, in addition to learning more about their own culture. It is anticipated that the results of my research will assist those who organise study abroad programmes, assist students to maximise their learning, and benefit organisations who host students from overseas.

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  • The Use of the Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method as an Initial Estimator of Liquefaction Susceptibility in Greymouth, New Zealand

    Gibbens, Clem Alexander Molloy (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Combined analysis of the geomorphic evolution of Greymouth with Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) provides new insight into the geotechnical implications of reclamation work. The MASW method utilises the frequency dependent velocity (dispersion) of planar Rayleigh waves created by a seismic source as a way of assessing the stiffness of the subsurface material. The surface wave is inverted to calculate a shear wave velocity (Park et al., 1999). Once corrected, these shear-wave (Vs) velocities can be used to obtain a factor of safety for liquefaction susceptibility based on a design earthquake. The primary study site was the township of Greymouth, on the West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island. Greymouth is built on geologically young (Holocene-age) deposits of beach and river sands and gravels, and estuarine and lagoonal silts (Dowrick et al., 2004). Greymouth is also in a tectonically active region, with the high seismic hazard imposed by the Alpine Fault and other nearby faults, along with the age and type of sediment, mean the probability of liquefaction occurring is high particularly for the low-lying areas around the estuary and coastline. Repeated mapping over 150 years shows that the geomorphology of the Greymouth Township has been heavily modified during that timeframe, with both anthropogenic and natural processes developing the land into its current form. Identification of changes in the landscape was based on historical maps for the area and interpreting them to be either anthropogenic or natural changes, such as reclamation work or removal of material through natural events. This study focuses on the effect that anthropogenic and natural geomorphic processes have on the stiffness of subsurface material and its liquefaction susceptibility for three different design earthquake events. Areas of natural ground and areas of reclaimed land, with differing ages, were investigated through the use of the MASW method, allowing an initial estimation of the relationship between landscape modification and liquefaction susceptibility. The susceptibility to liquefaction of these different materials is important to critical infrastructure, such as the St. John Ambulance Building and Greymouth Aerodrome, which must remain functional following an earthquake. Areas of early reclamation at the Greymouth Aerodrome site have factors of safety less than 1 and will liquefy in most plausible earthquake scenarios, although the majority of the runway has a high factor of safety and should resist liquefaction. The land west of the St. John’s building has slightly to moderately positive factors of safety. Other areas have factors of safety that reflect the different geology and reclamation history.

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  • The effects of an Alpine Fault earthquake on the Taramakau River, South Island New Zealand.

    Sheridan, Mattilda (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An Alpine Fault Earthquake has the potential to cause significant disruption across the Southern Alps of the South Island New Zealand. In particular, South Island river systems may be chronically disturbed by the addition of large volumes of sediment sourced from coseismic landsliding. The Taramakau River is no exception to this; located north of Otira, in the South Island of New Zealand, it is exposed to natural hazards resulting from an earthquake on the Alpine Fault, the trace of which crosses the river within the study reach. The effects of an Alpine Fault Earthquake (AFE) have been extensively studied, however, little attention has been paid to the effects of such an event on the Taramakau River as addressed herein. Three research methods were utilised to better understand the implications of an Alpine Fault Earthquake on the Taramakau River: (1) hydraulic and landslide data analyses, (2) aerial photograph interpretation and (3) micro-scale modelling. Data provided by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research were reworked, establishing relationships between hydraulic parameters for the Taramakau River. Estimates of landslide volume were compared with data from the Poerua landslide dam, a historic New Zealand natural event, to indicate how landslide sediment may be reworked through the Taramakau valley. Aerial photographs were compared with current satellite images of the area, highlighting trends of avulsion and areas at risk of flooding. Micro-scale model experiments indicated how a braided fluvial system may respond to dextral strike-slip and thrust displacement and an increase in sediment load from coseismic landslides. An Alpine Fault Earthquake will generate a maximum credible volume of approximately 3.0 x 108 m3 of landslide material in the Taramakau catchment. Approximately 15% of this volume will be deposited on the Taramakau study area floodplain within nine years of the next Alpine Fault Earthquake. This amounts to 4.4 x 107 m3 of sediment input, causing an average of 0.5 m of aggradation across the river floodplains within the study area. An average aggradation of 0.5 m will likely increase the stream height of a one-in-100 year flood with a flow rate of 3200 m3/s from seven metres to 7.5 m overtopping the road and rail bridges that cross the Taramakau River within the study area – if they have survived the earthquake. Since 1943 the Taramakau River has shifted 500 m away from State Highway 73 near Inchbonnie, moving 430 m closer to the road and rail. Paleo channels recognised across the land surrounding Inchbonnie between the Taramakau River and Lake Brunner may be reoccupied after an earthquake on the Alpine Fault. Micro-scale modelling showed that the dominant response to dextral strike-slip and increased ‘landslide’ sediment addition was up- and downstream aggradation separated by a localised zone of degradation over the fault trace. Following an Alpine Fault Earthquake the Taramakau River will be disturbed by the initial surface rupture along the fault trace, closely followed by coseismic landsliding. Landslide material will migrate down the Taramakau valley and onto the floodplain. Aggradation will raise the elevation of the river bed promoting channel avulsion with consequent flooding and sediment deposition particularly on low lying farmland near Inchbonnie. To manage the damage of these hazards, systematically raising the low lying sections of road and rail may be implemented, strengthening (or pre-planning the replacement of) the bridges is recommended and actively involving the community in critical decision making should minimise the risks of AFE induced fluvial hazards. The response of the Taramakau River relative to an Alpine Fault Earthquake might be worse, or less severe or significantly different in some way, to that assumed herein.

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  • Investigating the porphyrias through analysis of biochemical pathways.

    Ruegg, Evonne Teresa Nicole (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ABSTRACT The porphyrias are a diverse group of metabolic disorders arising from diminished activity of enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. They can present with acute neurovisceral symptoms, cutaneous symptoms, or both. The complexity of these disorders is demonstrated by the fact that some acute porphyria patients with the underlying genetic defect(s) are latent and asymptomatic while others present with severe symptoms. This indicates that there is at least one other risk factor required in addition to the genetic defect for symptom manifestation. A systematic review of the heme biosynthetic pathway highlighted the involvement of a number of micronutrient cofactors. An exhaustive review of the medical literature uncovered numerous reports of micronutrient deficiencies in the porphyrias as well as successful case reports of treatments with micronutrients. Many micronutrient deficiencies present with symptoms similar to those in porphyria, in particular vitamin B6. It is hypothesized that a vitamin B6 deficiency and related micronutrient deficiencies may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the acute porphyrias. In order to further investigate the porphyrias, a computational model of the heme biosynthetic pathway was developed based on kinetic parameters derived from a careful analysis of the literature. This model demonstrated aspects of normal heme biosynthesis and illustrated some of the disordered biochemistry of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). The testing of this model highlighted the modifications necessary to develop a more comprehensive model with the potential to investigated hypotheses of the disordered biochemistry of the porphyrias as well as the discovery of new methods of treatment and symptom control. It is concluded that vitamin B6 deficiency might be the risk factor necessary in conjunction with the genetic defect to trigger porphyria symptoms.

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  • Intertidal foraminifera of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary; response to coseismic deformation and potential to record local historic events

    Vettoretti, Gina Josephine (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Avon-Heathcote Estuary, located in Christchurch, New Zealand, experienced coseismic deformation as a result of the February 22nd 2011 Christchurch Earthquake. The deformation is reflected as subsidence in the northern area and uplift in the southern area of the Estuary, in addition to sand volcanoes which forced up sediment throughout the floor of the Estuary altering estuary bed height and tidal flow. The first part of the research involved quantifying the change in the modern benthic foraminifera distribution as a result of the coseismic deformation caused by the February 22nd 2011 earthquake. By analysing the taxa present immediately post deformation and then the taxa present 2 years post deformation a comparison of the benthic foraminifera distribution can be made of the pre and post deformation. Both the northern and the southern areas of the Estuary were sampled to establish whether foraminifera faunas migrated landward or seaward as a result of subsidence and uplift experienced in different areas. There was no statistical change in overall species distribution in the two year time period since the coseismic deformation occurred, however, there were some noticeable changes in foraminifera distribution at BSNS-Z3 showing a landward migration of taxa. The changes that were predicted to occur as a result of the deformation of the Estuary are taking longer than expected to show up in the foraminiferal record and a longer time period is needed to establish these changes. The second stage involved establishing the modern distribution of foraminifera at Settlers Reserve in the southern area of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary by detailed sampling along a 160 m transect. Foraminifera are sensitive to environmental parameters, tidal height, grainsize, pH and salinity were recorded to evaluate the effect these parameters have on distribution. Bray-Curtis two-way cluster analysis was primarily used to assess the distribution pattern of foraminifera. The modern foraminifera distribution is comparable to that of the modern day New Zealand brackish-water benthic foraminifera distribution and includes species not yet found in other studies of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary. Differences in sampling techniques and the restricted intertidal marshland area where the transect samples were collected account for some of the differences seen between this model and past foraminifera studies. xiii The final stage involved sampling a 2.20 m core collected from Settlers Reserve and using the modern foraminiferal distribution to establish a foraminiferal history of Settlers Reserve. As foraminifera are sensitive to tidal height they may record past coseismic deformation events and the core was used to ascertain whether record of past coseismic deformation is preserved in Settlers Reserve sediments. Sampling the core for foraminifera, grainsize, trace metals and carbon material helped to build a story of estuary development. Using the modern foraminiferal distribution and the tidal height information collected, a down core model of past tidal heights was established to determine past rates of change. Foraminifera are not well preserved throughout the core, however, a sudden relative rise in sea level is recorded between 0.25 m and 0.85 m. Using trace metal and isotope analysis to develop an age profile, this sea level rise is interpreted to record coseismic subsidence associated with a palaeoseismic event in the early 1900’s. Overall, although the Avon-Heathcote Estuary experienced clear coseismic deformation as a result of the 22nd of February 2011 earthquake, modern changes in foraminiferal distribution cannot yet be tracked, however, past seismic deformation is identified in a core. The modern transect describes the foraminifera distribution which identifies species that have not been identified in the Avon-Heathcote Estuary before. This thesis enhances the current knowledge of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary and is a baseline for future studies.

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  • A Capabilities Solution to Enhancement Inequality

    Swindells, Fox (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Human enhancements will dramatically alter individuals' capabilities and lead to serious harm if unregulated. However, it is unclear how states should act to mitigate this harm. I argue that the capabilities approach provides a useful metric to determine what action states should take regarding each enhancement technology. According to the capabilities approach, states are responsible for ensuring their citizens are able to function in certain ways that are essential to human life. I consider the impact of a range of enhancements on individuals' capabilities in order to determine what actions states should take regarding each technology. I find that in order to be just and prevent harmful inequality, states will need to ensure many enhancements are available to their citizens. I also explore a range of other regulations aimed at harm prevention. Considering the impact of enhancement technologies on human capabilities, and the appropriate regulatory options for states, under the guide of the capabilities approach allows me to demonstrate that the capabilities approach can provide valuable, realistic, advice to guide public policy in response to enhancement technologies.

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  • “You Want To Capture Something that Will Make People Change”: Rhetorical Persuasion in The Cove, Whale Wars, and Sharkwater.

    Stewart, Jessica (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Dolphins, whales, and sharks are some of the world’s most iconic animals. Yet, many people will only ever see these animals via the media. The media, then, hold significant power in creating, modifying, or reaffirming the imaginaries around various species which, in turn, influences how much concern is given to matters related to their welfare and conservation. Given the environmental and ecological concerns presently facing the ocean, protecting, conserving, and preserving the marine ecosystem is vital, and time is of the essence. Through the work of activists, three specific marine wildlife issues have received a lot of publicity across various forms of mainstream media: the killing of dolphins in Taiji, Japan for their meat; Antarctic whaling; and the practice of shark-finning. Three activist films, namely The Cove (2009), Whale Wars (2008-), and Sharkwater (2006), are centred on these issues, and filmmakers attempt to compel viewers to support the activists’ protectionist cause. In order for this goal to have a chance of coming to fruition, rhetorical arguments must be carefully crafted. Yet, the study of rhetoric in animal-focused activist films is still an understudied research area. This thesis contributes to this area of research by using the aforementioned films as case studies by applying Aristotle’s rhetorical proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos to analyse the rhetorical arguments. Ethos is demonstrable when the activists construct themselves as credible, moral heroes and the animals as possessors of positive traits worth protecting, and the hunters as immoral villains. The graphic imagery of animal death appeals to pathos to stir strong bodily and emotional responses such as sadness, and disgust in order to mobilize audience support for cause. Lastly, these films appeal to logos through the use of culturally authoritative discourses such as those of biology, western conventional medicine, and the legal system. This thesis essentially argues that these texts work rhetorically and discursively to persuade audiences to feel a connection with and sympathy towards the animals; to be supportive of the activists; and to prompt antipathy towards the hunters and industry spokespeople.

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  • How (Not?) to Adapt Chekhov: Adventures in Dramaturgy

    Ridley, Nathaniel (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Despite rapid growth of adaptation theory in the last two decades, there is a gap in the field. Books like Linda Hutcheon’s A Theory of Adaptation (2006) and Julie Sanders’ Adaptation and Appropriation (2006) approach adaptations from an audience’s perspective, describing the effects of the adaptation process and providing a robust taxonomy, identifying all of different forms that adaptation might take. They do not, however, describe the details of the process of adaptation itself, even though they often refer to the need for a process-oriented account of adaptation. Existing adaptation manuals focus on screen-writing, leaving someone with an interest in the specifics of adapting a play nowhere to turn. This paper begins to address this gap in the available knowledge by documenting the adaptation process involved in the creation of four new adaptations of Anton Chekhov's Uncle Vanya, targeted at a New Zealand audience. The experiments presented here confirm what is suggested by a survey of the reception of English-language adaptations of Chekhov: there is no single correct method for adapting a play. An adapter's greatest challenge can be identifying which strategy is appropriate for the conditions they face. This project experiments with different adaptive methods and strategies, developed by looking at other English-language Chekhov adaptations, including techniques of approximating the setting, language and themes to a target audience. I attempt to identify which methodologies will achieve the desired results, revealing a variety of different challenges, advantages and weaknesses inherent to each approach. Moreover, both the research and the experiments suggest how the success or failure of an adaptation depends on a variety of contextual factors, including the target audience's relationship with the adapted work, the dramaturgical characteristics of that work, and the abilities of the adapter.

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  • Developing alternative SCDDP implementations for hydro-thermal scheduling in New Zealand.

    Read, Rosemary Anne (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In a hydro-dominated system, such as New Zealand, the continual improvement and development of effective optimization and simulation software to inform decision making is necessary for effective resource management. Stochastic Constructive Dual Dynamic Programming (SCDDP) is a technique which has been effectively applied to the New Zealand system for optimization and simulation. This variant of Dynamic Programming (DP) allows optimization to occur in the dual space reducing the computational complexity and allows solutions from a single run to be formed as price signal surfaces and trajectories. However, any application of this method suffers from issues with computational tractability for higher reservoir numbers. Furthermore, New Zealand specific applications currently provide limited information on the system as they all use the same two-reservoir approximation of the New Zealand system. This limitation is of increasing importance with the decentralization of the New Zealand electricity sector. In this thesis we develop this theory with respect to two key goals: • To advance the theory surrounding SCDDP to be generalizable to higher reservoir numbers through the application of the point-wise algorithm explored in R. A. Read, Dye, S. & Read, E.G. (2012) to the stochastic case. • To develop at least two new and distinct two-reservoir SCDDP representations of the New Zealand system to provide a theoretical basis for greater flexibility in simulation and optimization of hydro-thermal scheduling in the New Zealand context.

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  • Using computer assisted instruction to build fluency in multiplication : implications for the relationship between different core competencies in mathematics.

    McIntosh, Brinley Rachel (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Dyscalculia is a specific learning disability that affects an individual’s core skills in mathematics, including calculation, recall of number facts, and approximating/comparing number. Research into the origins and aetiology of dyscalculia have suggested the presence of two different networks in the brain used for mathematics; one for verbal (symbolic) tasks such as recalling number facts, and one for non-verbal (non-symbolic) tasks such as approximation and number comparison. While these networks are located in different brain areas, they are often used together on calculation tasks, they are known to impact each other over the course of development, and they both appear to be impacted in dyscalculia. The current study used entertaining computer assisted instruction software, “Timez Attack”, to target the symbolic network, i.e. to improve the fluency of multiplication fact recall in three 9 and 10 year old children who were performing below the expected level on multiplication. An ABA (applied behaviour analysis) multiple-baseline across subject design was used to track participants’ performance on multiplication, addition, and number comparison over the course of the intervention. Results showed improved fluency of multiplication fact recall in all three participants; however this improvement did not generalise to addition or number comparison. This finding suggests that the symbolic and non-symbolic brain networks involved in mathematics are largely independent from each other by middle childhood, and that training targeting one network does not affect the other.

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  • Visualising the Invisible: Displaying Building Resource-use Benchmarks in a 3D City Visualisation

    Hills, Alex Josephine (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis proposes a reinvention of the means of presenting statistical data about 3D urban environments. Conventional GIS use of 3D ’enhances’ hard to understand 2D maps with even harder-to-understand histograms of data. The goal is to demonstrate the means by which data on energy and water-use in buildings can be used to enhance familiar 3D interactive city environments and be made accessible to the widest possible audience. Ultimately, resource benchmarks and other related publicly available information about the built environment could be presented in this highly accessible form. All information would be database driven, so automatically updateable. From this basic platform, applications that allow people to compare their own private records with public norms are easily constructed: a world where a building owner can compare their energy records with benchmarks for similar buildings and take action to improve if necessary, or to advertise accomplishments. This study draws on data from the ‘BEES’ Building Energy End-use Study - a BRANZ research project documenting energy and water use in New Zealand commercial buildings. During the study a ‘Websearch’ survey was conducted, building a detailed picture of non-residential building stock in New Zealand with data collected on building typologies, characteristics and surroundings. A thorough research methodology was developed to ensure that high level data could be collected from 3,000 randomly selected buildings within the budget allocated for the project. The data was examined for quality, building characteristics and typology mix and a valuable layer of detail was added by inferring additional information from the basic Websearch dataset. Where sub-samples used in the BEES study were subject to refusal / survey participation rates, the level of potential bias in the mix of building typologies could be tested and allowances made. Energy and water use data collected for a random subset of the sample, could then be applied as benchmarks to the census of New Zealand commercial buildings. In order to trial the communication of the benchmark results to the widest possible audience, an automated 3D city visualisation ‘pilot’ was generated of the Wellington Central Business District and a number of graphic tools were brought together to make the information publicly accessible and as useful as possible. The overall aim was to test the feasibility of applying this technique at a national level. The research revealed three major recommendations: firstly, a national unique building identifier is required to ensure the accuracy of national building data and enable statistical results about the built environment to be accurately and reliably applied to real buildings; secondly, resource use data in 3D format is urgently required to improve the value of sustainable properties; lastly, creating a significant impact on building stock efficiency will depend upon the engagement of a wider audience. Developed further, this visualisation will enable construction professionals, building owners, developers and tenants to understand the built environment and implications of building design and typology on energy and water use.

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  • The Further Analysis of Catania's Concept of the Operant

    Zhang, Yi (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Catania’s theory of the operant incorporated the continuous characteristic of behaviour, where the response distribution follows a normal distribution. That is, most responses fall within the reinforced range, a few responses persisted outside of the reinforced range. Three roosters and three hens were used as the subjects. A continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule was implemented throughout both experiments of the study. In Experiment 1, the screen was divided into four quadrants. Only one quadrant was active in each condition and the active area shifted to a different quadrant across conditions. Each peck within the active quadrant was considered as a correct response, which results in reinforcement. Each peck outside the active quadrant was considered as an incorrect response, which results in extinction. In Experiment 2, the screen was divided into vertical strips. During Conditions 1 to 8, the consequences for the correct and incorrect responses are the same as Experiment 1. In Condition 9, the consequence for the incorrect responses changed from extinction to punishment (delay to reinforcement). That is, a 3 second red screen was followed with each occurrence of an incorrect response. It was found that the incorrect responses persisted during each condition of the two experiments for most birds. It was also found that most of the hens’ responses were correct responses by the end of each condition in Experiment 2. However, for all birds in Experiment 1 and the roosters in Experiment 2, most responses were not correct by the end of each condition. The findings of Experiment 2 also indicated that the changes in condition length, active area’s size, and consequence of the incorrect responses might have had some influence on the number of incorrect responses. Overall, the findings demonstrated behavioral continuity through exploring the distribution of response proportion when reinforcement was placed on the correct responses, and when extinction or punishment was placed on the incorrect responses. Thus, the study provided some empirical support towards Catania’s concept of the operant.

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  • Constructing and Reconstructing Criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Dominant Media Discourses on Crime and Criminality and their Impact on Offenders’ Identities and Rehabilitation Efforts

    Riches, Murray (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigates the dominant media discourses and ideologies surrounding crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand, how such discourses are constructed and legitimised by media reporting of crime, and the implications of these discourses for deemed offenders. The study firstly involves a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of ‘mainstream’ media reports relating to crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand over a 12-month period – paying particular attention to the reporting evident in two major newspaper outlets. This analysis reveals two key themes: the construction of criminal offenders as undeserving criminalised others – particularly through the use of truth-claims about criminality and the simplification of offenders’ identities – and the legitimisation of retributive, tough-on-crime, responses to offending. The analysis of media discourses is augmented by an ethnographic study of an offender rehabilitation programme. This investigation is used to explore how dominant discourses and ideologies on crime and criminality contribute to the construction of offenders’ self-identities, the impact of such identity construction on their patterns of offending and rehabilitation, as well as the ways in which these discourses are contested (or reinforced) by those deemed ‘offenders’. This follow-up ethnographic case study involves participant observation, focus groups and interviews with participants of the Good Lives Model offender rehabilitation programme at Anglican Action in Hamilton over a 12-month period. The participants of this programme are men transitioning back into the community after serving significant prison sentences. The ethnographic investigation reveals the ways the otherising discourses exposed in the CDA are present for, and effect, the men as they make the challenging journey out of prison, particularly in their experiences of discrimination and otherisation when seeking to engage with, and transition back into, the wider community. This exploration also reveals a nuanced negotiation of identity and power, whereby the men both draw on and challenge the dominant discourses at different times in the process of negotiating an identity position and accessing agency within a marginalising discursive framework. Thus, the discourse analysis and the ethnographic study together provide rich insights into the pervasive impacts of dominant public constructions of criminality on offenders’ sense of identity and on their attempts to reintegrate with society. The study concludes by arguing that the CDA and ethnographic investigation together emphasise the need to challenge the destructive nature of the dominant discourses and cultivate a more inclusive and reasoned discursive framework for exploring ideas around crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The thesis argues that one way to counter the ‘wilful blindness’ exemplified in media and public discourses, is through the use of story for it is through listening and seeking to know the other that we can begin to have our assumptions challenged. It is important to note that this thesis in no way endorses any criminal offending nor does it seek to minimise the pain and suffering of any victims of crime. Rather, it argues that such a dualistic understanding of crime, and the relationship between victims and offenders, only inhibits our ability to look at the issues surrounding crime and criminality with clarity.

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  • The Photochemistry of Organic Materials for Photonic Devices

    Middleton, Ayla Penelope (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Optically active organic chromophores have attracted much interest in recent years for their potential for use in photonic devices. Chromophores such as compound (1) have been found to have a very high second order nonlinear susceptibility ( β ) value of 650 × 10⁻³⁰esu in dimethyl formamide.¹ The performance of 1 in a polymer film is much lower than this due to the formation of aggregates which hinder the poling process necessary to ensure a noncentrosymmetric arrangement of the molecules in order to display second order nonlinear behaviour. The molecular aggregation behaviour of a set of second order nonlinear compounds based on compound 1 have been studied in this thesis. These compounds share the backbone shown in figure 1 with pendant groups added to the R₁ R₂ and R₃ positions, with the aim of finding substituent groups that can be added to the optically active merocyanine backbone that reduce the aggregation and increase the solubility of the compounds. This in turn will make them more suitable for use in photonics devices. It was found that a C₁₁H₂₃ alkyl chain added to the R₃ position made the largest contribution to decreasing aggregation. Bulky groups on the R₁ and R₂ positions also reduced aggregation. As a result compounds 5 and 8, with R₃ = C₁₁H₂₃ and bulky groups attached displayed the least aggregation of the compounds studied. ¹ See Figure 1 (pg. i): Merocyanine backbone with substituent positions marked.

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  • Stratigraphy, facies architecture and emplacement history of the c. 3.6 ka B.P. Ngatoro Formation on the eastern flanks of Egmont Volcano, western North Island, New Zealand

    Dixon, Benjamin John (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Ngatoro Formation is an extensive volcaniclastic deposit distributed on the eastern lower flanks of Egmont Volcano, central North Island, New Zealand. Formally identified by Neall (1979) this deposit was initially attributed to an Egmont sourced water-supported mass flow event c. 3, 600 ¹⁴C years B.P. The Ngatoro Formation was subsequently described by Alloway (1989) as a single debris flow deposit closely associated with the deposition of the underlying Inglewood Tephra (c. 3,600 ¹⁴C yrs B.P) that had laterally transformed into a hyperconcentrated- to- flood flow deposit. Such water-supported mass flows have been well documented on volcanoes both within New Zealand (i.e. Mt Ruapehu) and elsewhere around the world (i.e. Mt Merapi, Central Java and Mt St Helens, Washington). This thesis comprises field mapping, stratigraphic descriptions, field and laboratory grain size and shape analysis, tephrochronology and palaeomagnetic analysis with the aim of refining the stratigraphy, facies architecture and emplacement history of the c. 3,600 ¹⁴C yrs B.P. Ngatoro Formation. This study has found that the Ngatoro Formation has a highly variable and complex emplacement history as evidenced by the rapid textural changes with increasing distance from the modern day Egmont summit. The Ngatoro Formation comprises two closely spaced mass flow events whose flow and emplacement characteristics have undergone both proximal to distal and axial to marginal transformations. On surfaces adjacent to the Manganui Valley on the deeply incised flanks of Egmont Volcano, the Ngatoro Formation is identified as overbank surge deposits whereas at the boundary of Egmont National Park it occurs as massive, pebble- to boulder-rich debris flow deposits. At intermediate to distal distances (17-23 km from the modern Egmont summit) the Ngatoro Formation occurs as a sequence of multiple coalescing dominantly sandy textured hyperconcentrated flow deposits. The lateral and longitudinal textural variability in the Ngatoro Formation reflects downstream transformation from gas-supported block-and-ash flows to water-supported debris flows, then subsequently to turbulent pebbly-sand dominated hyperconcentrated flows. Palaeomagnetic temperature estimates for the Ngatoro Formation at two sites (Vickers and Surrey Road Quarries, c. 10 km from the present day Egmont summit) indicate clast incorporation temperatures of c. 300°C and emplacement temperatures of c. 200°C. The elevated emplacement temperatures supported by the Ngatoro Formation’s coarse textured, monolithologic componentry suggest non-cohesive emplacement of block-and-ash flow debris generated by the sequential gravitational collapse of an effusive lava dome after the paroxysmal Inglewood eruptive event (c. 3,600 ¹⁴C yrs B.P.). The occurrence of a prominent intervening paleosol between these two events suggest that they are not part of the same eruptive phase but rather, the latter is a product of a previously unrecognised extended phase of the Inglewood eruptive event. This study recognises the potential for gravitational dome collapse, the generation of block-and-ash flows and their lateral transformation to water-support mass flows (debris, hyperconcentrated and stream flows) occurring in years to decades following from the main eruptive phase. This insight has implications with respect to the evaluation of post-eruptive hazards and risk.

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  • Infant and peer relationships in curriculum

    Redder, Bridgette Miriam (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore the relations between infants and their peers as they interacted intersubjectively with one another in an early childhood care and education environment and to investigate how the teacher was answerable through her engagement in these intersubjective events. Drawing upon a Bakhtinian methodological approach to research utterance was employed as my unit of analysis, providing a means to investigate the intersubjective interactions between infants and their peers in tandem with the teachers’ engagement in these interactions as answerable acts. This thesis builds on a previous pilot study which utilised dialogic methodology to investigate the nature of infant and teacher dialogue in an education and care context (White, Peter & Redder, 2015). The research that formed the basis for my subsequent analysis took place in a New Zealand education and care centre that catered for children less than two years of age. In the present study the same polyphonic video recording was used to capture infant and peer intersubjective interactions and the teacher’s engagement within these events. A mixed methods research approach was employed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse the video data. The findings of this study suggest that infants are intersubjective agents in their relationships with peers and with teachers. Infants intentionally communicated with peers in lived relational experiences that were characterised by the fleeting, elongated or connected nature of their interactions. Mutual understanding, joint attention, attunement and the employment of synchronised language forms were features of infant ― peer intersubjective experiences. In addition, the findings revealed the capacity of infants and peers to relate with one another in social interactions that promote ‘dialogic spaces’ through which intersubjective relationships are sought. When teachers engaged in the infant ― peer intersubjective relations they either restrained by ‘shutting’ down or sustained by ‘opening up’ the intersubjective experience for the peers. The teacher’s body language was a feature of their engagement that contributed in a variety of ways to the infant ― peer intersubjective experience. Indeed how teachers engaged themselves in the interactions that were taking place between infants and their peers often determined the orientation of the teacher’s body positioning. The findings suggest when teachers restrained infant ― peer intersubjective dialogue, this form of engagement had the potential to alter how infants related to peers in subsequent interactions, highlighting the importance of sensitive, ‘in tune’ teacher engagement. Furthermore, the results highlight the pivotal role of the teacher as a ‘connecting’ feature within infant and peer intersubjective experiences, one who has the potential to ‘open up’ dialogic spaces for infants and their peer partners through engagement that is dialogic. These findings taken together may have implications for policymakers, educators and teacher education by ‘opening up’ dialogic spaces through which infants are seen as intersubjective agents and dialogic partners.

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  • Saudisation and Women’s Empowerment through Employment in the Health Care Sector

    Alghamdi, Fatemah (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The majority of studies concerning Saudisation policy as a solution to decrease the unemployment of nationals and reduce the reliance on expatriate. However, this study looks at Saudisation as a tool to empower Saudi women working in the health care sector. Saudi working women have been lacking opportunities of empowerment, due to challenges they face in their daily life that hinder the development and equality of those women. The thesis has been guided by the literature and qualitative evidence that suggests obstacles to women’s empowerment and development involve socially constructed norms, traditions, religion and culture that primarily favour men. The study, also, adopts feminist geography and gender perspective and focuses on the individual voices of women working in the health care sector. This research uses different empowerment frameworks of Kabeer, Rowland, Stromquist and Freire, which are relevant to women employment and empowerment. This research utilises feminist methodology in obtaining deep understanding of the reality and experience of women employed in the health care sector. Findings of this research reveal conditions that maintain disempowerment of women working in health care sector, as well as identifying the tools that might guarantee their empowerment. Findings also show those women necessities in the case of gender needs that revolve around their domestic and working responsibilities. This thesis provides some recommendations to government, policy makers, educational institutions and employers about how to contribute in empowering women and overcoming challenges that hinder their development and wellbeing. Ultimately, this study aimed to, first, contribute to the literature of women’s empowerment by exploring their employment in a Saudi context and second, to put the spotlight on Saudi women’s issues through development lens and enrich that field of study.

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  • The effects of a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness intervention on the positive peer interactions of primary school aged children

    Mueller, Tara (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research suggests that pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities are necessary for healthy child development and are prerequisites for interacting in the school classroom in ways that avoid disruption and distress. Children without pro-social skills struggle to engage in positive social interaction with peers and may respond disruptively to classroom challenges. Increasing concerns in schools regarding problem behaviour displayed by students such as kicking, hitting and talking out of turn have been reported in the research. These behaviours often lead to a disruptive classroom environment, negative peer interaction and, according to teachers, remain the most challenging aspect of classroom management. Schools typically deal with problem behaviour by implementing rules and expectations for desired student behaviour. While these expectation-focused approaches have shown some positive effects, they do not directly teach skills for positive interaction and effective self-management of emotions. Conflict resolution education and mindfulness programmes have shown positive effects for improved pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities in children. This thesis describes a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness group intervention that was implemented in one primary school classroom with children aged between six and seven years. The intervention involved teaching children four skills for effective conflict resolution and self-regulation over a period of four weeks. Repeated measures and teacher ratings of positive and negative peer interaction were used to assess programme effects. A single case AB replication design was used. The repeated measures findings indicated no change in positive or negative peer interactions for all nine focus children. Teacher reports of behaviour related to positive and negative peer interaction for all children in the classroom showed good effects. Possible reasons for the lack of change in the repeated measures findings include the young age of the children and an insufficient number of sessions and skill practice opportunities.

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  • Shift happens? exploring the exception question in solution-focused therapy.

    Henson, Kay Jennifer (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Solution-focused therapy is appropriate for students in secondary schools as it works to revive children’s problem solving abilities. A key technique in solution-focused therapy involves asking the client the Exception Question, that is, inviting them to consider and talk about a time when their problem is or was less severe and dealt with in a satisfactory way. There is a scarcity of research exploring this technique from the client’s perspective. The aim of my study was to tell the stories of how students in a high school setting experience creative uses of the solution-focused, Exception Question. During the study, however, I found that this could not be researched without also including the way(s) that the use of Exception Questions influenced my counselling and ongoing learning as a counsellor. Solution-focused therapy was used in the counselling sessions and my research brought together students’ personal stories of their counselling experience and

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