960 results for Masters, 2015

  • Adapting a Hyper-heuristic to Respond to Scalability Issues in Combinatorial Optimisation

    Marshall, Richard J. (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The development of a heuristic to solve an optimisation problem in a new domain, or a specific variation of an existing problem domain, is often beyond the means of many smaller businesses. This is largely due to the task normally needing to be assigned to a human expert, and such experts tend to be scarce and expensive. One of the aims of hyper-heuristic research is to automate all or part of the heuristic development process and thereby bring the generation of new heuristics within the means of more organisations. A second aim of hyper-heuristic research is to ensure that the process by which a domain specific heuristic is developed is itself independent of the problem domain. This enables a hyper-heuristic to exist and operate above the combinatorial optimisation problem “domain barrier” and generalise across different problem domains. A common issue with heuristic development is that a heuristic is often designed or evolved using small size problem instances and then assumed to perform well on larger problem instances. The goal of this thesis is to extend current hyper-heuristic research towards answering the question: How can a hyper-heuristic efficiently and effectively adapt the selection, generation and manipulation of domain specific heuristics as you move from small size and/or narrow domain problems to larger size and/or wider domain problems? In other words, how can different hyperheuristics respond to scalability issues? Each hyper-heuristic has its own strengths and weaknesses. In the context of hyper-heuristic research, this thesis contributes towards understanding scalability issues by firstly developing a compact and effective heuristic that can be applied to other problem instances of differing sizes in a compatible problem domain. We construct a hyper-heuristic for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem domain to establish whether a heuristic for a specific problem domain can be developed which is compact and easy to interpret. The results show that generation of a simple but effective heuristic is possible. Secondly we develop two different types of hyper-heuristic and compare their performance across different combinatorial optimisation problem domains. We construct and compare simplified versions of two existing hyper-heuristics (adaptive and grammar-based), and analyse how each handles the trade-off between computation speed and quality of the solution. The performance of the two hyper-heuristics are tested on seven different problem domains compatible with the HyFlex (Hyper-heuristic Flexible) framework. The results indicate that the adaptive hyper-heuristic is able to deliver solutions of a pre-defined quality in a shorter computational time than the grammar-based hyper-heuristic. Thirdly we investigate how the adaptive hyper-heuristic developed in the second stage of this thesis can respond to problem instances of the same size, but containing different features and complexity. We investigate how, with minimal knowledge about the problem domain and features of the instance being worked on, a hyper-heuristic can modify its processes to respond to problem instances containing different features and problem domains of different complexity. In this stage we allow the adaptive hyper-heuristic to select alternative vectors for the selection of problem domain operators, and acceptance criteria used to determine whether solutions should be retained or discarded. We identify a consistent difference between the best performing pairings of selection vector and acceptance criteria, and those pairings which perform poorly. This thesis shows that hyper-heuristics can respond to scalability issues, although not all do so with equal ease. The flexibility of an adaptive hyper-heuristic enables it to perform faster than the more rigid grammar-based hyper-heuristic, but at the expense of losing a reusable heuristic.

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  • Treaty over the teacups : an exploration of teacher educators’ understandings and application of the provisions of the Treaty of Waitangi at the University of Canterbury, College of Education.A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degreeof Master of Education in the University of Canterbury

    Stark, Robyn Ann (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Teacher educators at the University of Canterbury, College of Education, like all teacher educators in Aotearoa New Zealand, have ethical, legal, and moral obligations in relation to Te Tiriti o Waitangi/the Treaty of Waitangi. The Treaty is an agreement that was signed in 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and representatives of independent Māori hapū (sub-tribe). The failure of the Crown to uphold the Treaty plus the colonisation of New Zealand has held wide-ranging ramifications for Māori, including a negative impact on Māori education. Policy guidelines both at a national level and locally at the University of Canterbury provide requirements and guidelines for teachers and teacher educators in relation to the Treaty. The aim of many of these guidelines is to address equity issues in education and to support Māori ākonga (students) to achieve success as Māori. This thesis draws upon data from interviews with five teacher educators from the University of Canterbury, College of Education to explore their understandings of the Treaty and how these understandings inform their practice. A qualitative research approach was applied to this study. Semi-structured interviews were used and a grounded theory approach to the data analysis was applied. Three key themes arose from the data and these provided insights into the teacher educator participants’ understandings of the Treaty, how they acquired Treaty knowledge and their curriculum decision making. Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological systems theory approach was used as a framework to situate how the teacher educators’ understandings of the Treaty have developed. Critical theory and concepts associated with critical pedagogy underpin this research. Critical pedagogy highlights the importance for teacher educators in New Zealand to have an understanding of the historical and contemporary complexities of educational issues related to the Treaty.

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  • Tall Poppy Syndrome and its effect on work performance

    Dediu, Igorevna (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this study was to find out whether employees would perform worse if they perceived their work colleagues to have negative attitudes towards tall poppies (colleagues favoured the fall of tall poppies rather than rewarding tall poppies), thus displaying typical tall poppy syndrome perceptions. Performance measures were: decision-making vigilance, decision-making dependence, decision-making avoidance, problem solving, creativity, service quality, and the personality construct need for affiliation. Control variables were age, tenure and need for achievement. The design of the study was cross-sectional, online surveys were used to collect the data. The link to the survey was distributed using LinkedIn groups and Facebook advertising, yielding a sample of 229 participants. The data was analysed using regression; the results confirmed 3 of the 7 hypotheses. The results indicated that employees working in an environment that favoured the fall of tall poppies, showed lower decision-making dependability and higher decision-making avoidance. Internal service quality was partially confirmed, it was negatively associated with participants working in an environment that favoured the fall of tall poppies, rather than reward; Theories about the contribution New Zealand’s history has made to the development of tall poppy syndrome are considered. Practical implications of the results are discussed. Directions for future studies in industrial and organizational psychology on the effects of tall poppy syndrome on work performance are discussed.

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  • The Function of TAR1 and the Evolution of the Retrograde Response

    Walker, Mark (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    TAR1 is a protein coding gene situated antisense to the 25S rRNA in S. cerevisiae. Tar1p is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane, and expression is enhanced under conditions of respiratory dysfunction. One common cause of respiratory dysfunction in S. cerevisiae are selfish mitochondrial mutants known as ρ- mitotypes. ρ- mitotypes exhibit drive within the cell following sexual reproduction ; outcompeting host cells and inducing respiratory dysfunction. Respiratory dysfunction activates the Retrograde Response, which involves the expression of genes to compensate for loss of anabolic activity that accompanies respiratory dysfunction. The Retrograde Response also leads to the formation of lifespan shortening Extrachromosomal rDNA circles. Amplification of rDNA circles has the effect of increasing TAR1 at the same time as lifting transcription repression. This observation led to the hypothesis that the formation of rDNA circles was a positive effect of the Retrograde Response, and that TAR1 may serve to ameoleriate the spread of respiratory incompetent mitochondria following sexual reproduction. In this thesis, experiments are conducted that show that TAR1 does suppress the drive of selfish mitochondrial mutants. Additional bioinformatic analyses show that the Retrograde Response may be a recent adaption to selfish mitochondrial mutants.

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  • The use of head mounted displays (HMDs) in high angle climbing : implications for the application of wearable computers to emergency response work.

    Woodham, Alexander, Timothy (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As wearable computers become more ubiquitous in society and work environments, there are concerns that their use could be negatively impactful in some settings. Previous research indicates that mobile phone and wearable computer use can impair walking and driving performance, but as these technologies are adopted into hazardous work environments it is less clear what the impact will be. The current research investigated the effects that head mounted display use has on high angle climbing, a task representative of the extreme physical demands of some hazardous occupations (such as firefighting or search and rescue work). We explored the effect that introducing a secondary word reading and later recall task has on both climbing performance (holds per meter climbed and distance covered), and word reading and recall (dual-task effects). We found a decrease in both climbing performance and word recall under dual task conditions. Further, we examined participant climbing motion around word presentation and non-word presentation times during the climbing traverse. We found that participants slowed around word presentations, relative to periods without word presentation. Finally, we compared our results to those found in previous research using similar dual-tasking paradigms. These comparisons indicated that physical tasks may be more detrimental to word recall than seated tasks, and that visual stimuli might hinder climbing performance more than audible stimuli. This research has important theoretical implications for the dual-tasking paradigm, as well at important practical implications for emergency response operations and other hazardous working environments.

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  • Enrichment facilitates recovery of spatial memory but not retrosplenial immediate early gene hypoactivation after anterior thalamic lesions

    Mercer, Stephanie Ann (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The anterior thalamus exists within an ‘extended hippocampal memory system’ and has extensive reciprocal connectivity with regions known to support spatial memory function such as the retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Damage to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) in humans as a result of injury or neurodegenerative disease is associated with severe anterograde amnesia that is not therapeutically manageable. Rat models of ATN lesions have provided potential avenues of treatment through environmental enrichment, to ameliorate some of the lesion-induced deficits. Previously, behavioural recovery after enrichment did not accompany recovery of the striking immediate early gene (IEG) hypoactivation in the RSC found after ATN lesions, but the tasks used may not have been sensitive to RSC function. A modified radial arm maze (RAM) task sensitive to RSC lesions was therefore used to determine whether behavioural recovery was associated with improved expression of zif268, an IEG associated with spatial memory. Initially, water maze spatial tasks were used to establish spatial memory deficits prior to enrichment and to assess memory during the period of continuous enrichment and when overnight enrichment was continued thereafter. There was little or no evidence of recovery from substantial impairments in water maze memory tasks in rats with ATN lesions. However, subsequent testing on the RAM revealed clear, albeit partial, recovery of spatial memory in the enriched rats with ATN lesions. Nonetheless, levels of zif268 expression in the superficial layers of the granular RSC remained at the same level of hypoactivity of standard-housed ATN rats; instead, there was some evidence of recovered CA1 zif268 expression. ATN lesions were also associated with reduced cell counts in the mammillary bodies, which were also not recovered in enriched rats. These findings suggest that IEG expression in the RSC may not always be a critical biomarker for spatial memory function in rats.

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  • Small business tax compliance burden : what can be done to level the playing field.

    Ma, David (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    One of the major issues associated with taxation are the costs incurred by taxpayers when they comply with their tax obligations, this is particularly important for smaller business taxpayers. Compliance costs are found to be regressive, falling with disproportionate severity on smaller businesses. This trend can be found across the globe and more importantly, in New Zealand. Prior research has shown that the severity of the regressiveness has increased over time. The current, “one-size-fits-all”, approach used in the New Zealand tax system, and others alike, have created undue complexity for small businesses. This study reviews small business tax regimes and concessions currently implemented (or proposed) in different countries to relieve the compliance burden for smaller businesses. Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States have either implemented a separate tax regime, or offers tax concessions to smaller business taxpayers. New Zealand on the other hand, presents minor ad hoc tax concessions for small business taxpayers, but since 2009, there have been proposals to change this system. This study evaluates and compares all the implemented (or proposed) regimes and concessions of the selected countries. Following from the case studies, interviews are conducted with tax professionals that have worked closely with smaller businesses, in order to shed light on the possibility of implementing a similar regime in New Zealand. The findings show that a small business tax regime has many avenues to consider, however, there is general consensus that suggests small business taxation should be kept as simple as possible. This thesis puts forward a baseline for further discussion and development of a small business regime to reduce compliance costs for smaller businesses.

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  • Refinement and Normalisation of the University of Canterbury Auditory-Visual Matrix Sentence Test

    McClelland, Amber (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Developed by O'Beirne and Trounson (Trounson, 2012), the UC Auditory-Visual Matrix Sentence Test (UCAMST) is an auditory-visual speech test in NZ English where sentences are assembled from 50 words arranged into 5 columns (name, verb, quantity, adjective, object). Generation of sentence materials involved cutting and re-assembling 100 naturally spoken ‟original” sentences to create a large repertoire of 100,000 unique ‟synthesised” sentences. The process of synthesising sentences from video fragments resulted in occasional artifactual image jerks (‟judders”)‒quantified by an unusually large change in the ‟pixel difference value” of consecutive frames‒at the edited transitions between video fragments. To preserve the naturalness of materials, Study 1 aimed to select transitions with the least ‟noticeable” judders. Normal-hearing participants (n = 18) assigned a 10-point noticeability rating score to 100 sentences comprising unedited ‟no judder” sentences (n = 28), and ‟synthesised” sentences (n = 72) that varied in the severity (i.e. pixel difference value), number, and position of judders. The judders were found to be significantly noticeable compared to no judder controls, and based on mean rating score, 2,494 sentences with ‟minimal noticeable judder” were included in the auditory-visual UCAMST. Follow-on work should establish equivalent lists using these sentences. The average pixel difference value was found to be a significant predictor of rating score, therefore may be used as a guide in future development of auditory-visual speech tests assembled from video fragments. The aim of Study 2 was to normalise the auditory-alone UCAMST to make each audio fragment equally intelligible in noise. In Part I, individuals with normal hearing (n = 17) assessed 400 sentences containing each file fragment presented at four different SNRs (-18.5, -15, -11.5, and -8 dB) in both constant speech-shaped noise (n = 9) and six-talker babble (n = 8). An intelligibility function was fitted to word-specific data, and the midpoint (Lmid, intelligibility at 50%) of each function was adjusted to equal the mean pre-normalisation midpoint across fragments. In Part II, 30 lists of 20 sentences were generated with relatively homogeneous frequency of matrix word use. The predicted parameters in constant noise (Lmid = 14.0 dB SNR; slope = 13.9%/dB ± 0.0%/dB) are comparable with published equivalents. The babble noise condition was, conversely, less sensitive (Lmid = 14.9 dB SNR; slope = 10.3%/dB ± 0.1%/dB), possibly due to a smaller sample size (n = 8). Overall, this research constituted an important first step in establishing the UCAMST as a reliable measure of speech recognition; follow-on work will validate the normalisation procedure carried out in this project.

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  • Descriptions of coping with commonly occurring events by highly self-regulated boys living in earthquake-affected Christchurch

    Gillman, Solfrid Hessellund (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Children are often overlooked in the aftermath of a natural disaster, and children’s use of coping strategies plays an important part in their post-disaster adaptation (Vernberg, La Greca, Silverman, & Prinstein, 1996). The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the coping strategies of children with adequate self-regulation skills and minimal behaviour problems, living in Christchurch following the major 2010 and 2011 earthquakes. This aim was achieved through the use of semi-structured interviews with five seven-year-old children, their parents, and their teachers. These interviews were analysed using Directed Content Analysis and results showed that children most often reported using active and adaptive coping strategies, followed by avoidant strategies. Results in the current literature regarding children’s coping suggest that children exposed to natural disasters are able to utilise strategies that involve some personal control over their environment and emotions, through the use of active and adaptive coping strategies. Findings from this study contribute to the current understanding of children’s use of coping strategies when faced with commonly occurring childhood upsets. Further research is required regarding the outcomes associated with the use of effective coping strategies following traumatic events.

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  • Geochemical variations in glauconitic minerals : application as a potassium fertiliser resource.

    Smaill, Joshua Ballantyne (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Nutrients for plant growth are often limited in soil systems and additions are required in the form of fertiliser. Potassium is an essential macro-nutrient for plants and demands for K are expected to increase in the future. Glaucony is an abundant marine mineral which may provide an alternative K-rich fertiliser resource. The South Island of New Zealand contains deposits of glaucony-rich rocks which were deposited in the Early- to Mid-Cenozoic during periods of low sedimentation to the seafloor. Here, the geochemistry of glaucony from the Waitaki Basin (Otago), the Waipara Greensand (North Canterbury) and the Stoney Creek Limestone (Karamea) was examined using spatially resolved geochemical analysis and dissolution experiments. Grain-by-grain analysis using Laser Ablation Induction Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM + EDS) revealed that glaucony from all deposits were of the mature type and were enriched in K. Glaucony derived from growth inside faecal pellets was found to contain elevated K and Fe concentrations compared to bioclast hosted glaucony. These variations can be explained by the physical properties of host grains and sea-floor redox conditions at the time of precipitation, both of which increased ionic mobility into the zone of glauconitisation. Solubility analysis showed that K^{+} was released from glaucony more rapidly than any other element. Additionally, decreasing the pH and introducing an oxidising agent (i.e, birnessite which is ubiquitous in soil environments) accelerated K^{+} release 13-fold. Trace metals including Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were present in the solid phase analysis, however further investigation revealed that these elements were released into solution in low concentrations and may present a source of micro-nutrients, not a soil contaminant. These results suggest that glaucony may offer a source of slow releasing K fertiliser, and the South Island of New Zealand is ideally situated as a place to consider using glaucony as a locally sourced, environmentally sustainable K resource for agriculture.

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  • Lesions of the Dorsal Medial Hippocampus induce different forms of Repetitive Behaviour in the rat

    Haq, Sahina (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The dorsal dentate gyrus (DDG) of the hippocampus plays a role in the expression of different forms of flexible behaviour mainly due to its ability to sustain neurogenesis throughout life. In the present thesis, we examined the role that the DDG and its adjacent areas, both collectively referred to as dorsal medial hippocampus (DMH), play in flexible, adaptive behaviour and cognitive processing. We used the neurotoxin, colchicine, to induce lesions of the DDG, which were found to affect neighbouring areas. Thus these lesions will be referred to as lesions of the DMH. In the first experiment, rats were tested for (1) perseverative behaviour before and after receiving chronic methamphetamine (METH) treatment, (2) METH-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy in an open field, and (3) working memory in a T-maze. The results showed that rats with lesions of the DMH exhibited perseveration and supersensitivity to the locomotor- and stereotypy-inducing effects of METH (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mg/kg i.p.) as well as increased long-term METH sensitization. Rats with DMH lesions also showed significant working memory deficits. Taken together, these results reveal specific forms of behavioural inflexibility in rats with lesions of the DMH that are mainly associated with perseveration, drug-related behaviours, including stimulant motor supersensitivity and drug sensitization, and impaired working memory functions.

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  • Moving beyond sustainability: To what extent does the Cradle to Cradle framework play a role within New Zealand's fashion industry?

    Dransfeld, Josephine Gisela (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Our planet is threatened by a rapidly changing climate, alarming resource depletion and a steadily rising population growth. This calls for intensified sustainable practices within businesses of all sizes and industries. In recent years this resulted in a wholly new model called the circular economy. Inherent to this is the Cradle to Cradle framework which seeks to design and create commodities in such a way that the impact on the environment, i.e. the carbon footprint is neutralised. Significant efforts are currently being undertaken in Europe and the United States in various sectors with a recent focus on transforming the fashion industry. The literature finds that that there is generally still little known in this area, there was barely any evidence of this change taking in New Zealand. The objective of this research is to explore this and to eventually build a theoretical understanding to what extent Cradle to Cradle plays a role within the fashion industry. This was achieved by employing the grounded theory method. Data was collected by conducting semi-structured interviews with owners-managers supplemented by secondary data such as sustainability reports. In line with grounded theory principles, open and selective coding, theoretical sampling and constant comparison were used to analyse all data within the Nvivo 10 Software. The theory showed that somewhat severe resource constraints and an occurring loss of transparency by outsourcing manufacturing operations to overseas locations impede the shift towards the circular economy at present. This research contributes to sustainable development literature by providing a comprehensive model of how the uptake of sustainable practices is influenced and dependent on multiple aspects and therefore fosters the understanding of a complex, intertwined and intransparent industry. Furthermore, this research benefits companies and business networks alike.

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  • Usability Assessment of a Powered Wheelchair Controller: How Impairments Affect Human Computer Interaction Based Tasks

    Horne, Rory Michael (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: Designing the user experience is a growing trend in product design; however this trend has not greatly benefited people with impairments and disabilities. There are no practical tools to broadly assist with this issue. There is a need for standardized measures to quantify impairment, a model to predict how designs may perform and a need for data regarding how people with impairments interact with consumer technology. Purpose: To conduct a usability analysis with an industry partner on their powered wheelchair controller using participants with varying impairments. The industry partner was seeking better insight into the benefits of formal user testing. Method: Forty consenting adults were given a score representing their level of impairment using six measures from the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). These measures were identified by the researcher to affect interaction with a device. Performance was measured by time taken to complete tasks, errors made, reported task difficulty and reported controller usability. Results: Performance was reduced in participants with a higher ICF score and age. An ICF score less than or equal to 2 was 117 times more likely to not complete the tasks, greater than or equal to 3 was not able to complete the experiment. Age >50 years took an average 79 seconds longer than <35 years to complete a task and reported greater difficulty, more errors and a lower usability for the controller. Implications: Low to moderate levels of impairment has a significantly negative effect on the usability of common devices. Difficulties were mostly cognitive with participants unable to create an accurate mental model of the system. Participants with lower performance tended to be overly optimistic about their abilities. Mistakes were the greatest source of error followed by lapses and almost no reported or observed slip errors. Original Contribution: The ICF has never been used as a metric for usability testing. This study successfully applied the ICF alongside other measures to prove its validity. Based on the results and current literature the Task Process Model was created to provide a simple and practical way to describe the interaction of people completing a task of basic to moderate complexity.

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  • Hearing aid satisfaction among adults with hearing impairment in New Zealand.

    Kengmana, Caitlin (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Introduction: This study investigated hearing aid (HA) satisfaction among adult with hearing impairment (HI) in New Zealand. This study aimed to answer three questions: 1) What are the current HA satisfaction levels amongst adult HA users in New Zealand? 2) How do the satisfaction findings of this study compare with other HA satisfaction data? 3) What client factors are related to HA satisfaction? Method: Participants were recruited prospectively. They completed a questionnaire prior to HA fitting and a questionnaire three months post-fitting. Information was collected on: age, gender, HA experience, HI severity, hearing ability, change in hearing ability, hearing handicap, communication self-efficacy, change in communication self-efficacy, HA self-efficacy, HA usage, and number of appointments. HA satisfaction was measured via the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire (SADL; Cox & Alexander, 1999). Results: Data were collected for 47 participants. Of these, 91.5% fell within or above the normative range for global satisfaction established by Cox & Alexander (1999). The mean SADL scores were predominantly high compared to previous research. Satisfaction with negative features of HAs was especially high in this study. However satisfaction with the service and cost of HAs was low compared to other research. SADL scores were found to significantly relate to age, gender, change in hearing ability, hearing handicap, communication self-efficacy, change in communication self-efficacy, and HA self-efficacy. Conclusions: Results differed from previous research indicating that HA satisfaction may differ over time and across countries. Assessing HA satisfaction in a comprehensive standardised way, as opposed to with a single-item measure, can help identify important related factors. Targeting identified variables such as communication and HA self-efficacy may lead to improved treatment efficacy.  

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  • Covalently anchored polymerisation initiator monolayers for polymer brush growth.

    Lankshear, Ethan Robert (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the covalent modification of carbon electrodes with a monolayer of polymerisation initiators and the growth of polymer brushes by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerisation (SI-ATRP). Monolayer modification was sought to preserve the underlying electrode properties and topography and to produce a well-organised layer from which the polymer brushes can be grown. This work investigated two approaches for immobilising a monolayer of polymerisation initiators. Firstly, the electrochemical grafting of protected aryl diazonium salts produced a covalently anchored monolayer of tether groups that can participate in subsequent amide coupling and click reactions, to covalently anchor the polymerisation initiator. Secondly, specific reactions between the electrode surface and appropriate polymerisation initiator derivatives have been used to covalently anchor the initiators. For most systems, electro-active ferrocene (Fc) groups were reacted with modified surfaces as model reactants to enable the electrochemical estimation of the surface concentration of the polymer initiator groups. Film thickness measurements of the ethynylaryl (Ar-Eth) monolayer were carried out using atomic force microscopy confirming a monolayer. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of bromine on most of the polymerisation initiator modified samples. Modification of surfaces with polymer brushes can introduce new surface properties, such as switchable wettability, while maintaining the underlying bulk substrate properties. This work focused on examining SI-ATRP at each of the polymerisation initiator monolayers, with the aim to identify the most promising system(s) for further investigation. Polymer brushes of poly(3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)-N,N’-dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide) (PMPDSAH) were grown from initiators tethered through the aryl diazonium salts modification procedure. Redox probe voltammetry and XPS analysis indicated that the grafting from polymerisation by the copper catalysed SI-ATRP was successful. Polymer brushes of poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA were grown from the Ar-Eth modified monolayer by three SI-ATRP procedures: a standard procedure, an electrochemically mediated SI-ATRP method and a one-pot copper catalysed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction and SI-ATRP reaction from the Ar-Eth monolayer. Redox probe voltammetry and AFM images provided evidence for the growth of polymer brushes by these three methods. The successful one-pot CuAAC/SI-ATRP reaction for simultaneous coupling of the polymerisation initiator to the surface and polymerisation is a new approach for the production of polymer brushes and it minimises the number of surface modification steps needed. This method appears most promising for further development.

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  • Predicting the Activation Time of a Concealed Sprinkler

    Suen, Yeou Wei (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research examined a heat transfer model to predict the activation time of a concealed sprinkler. Concealed sprinklers consist of two stages of activation. They include the release of cover plates from a recess housing and the breakage of the glass bulbs or melting of the solder links. The research analysis is divided into two sections. The first section includes the prediction of cover plate activation time (stage one) and the second section includes the prediction of glass bulb activation time (stage two). Each prediction result is compared with the experimental data conducted by Annable (2006) and Yu (2007). A lumped heat capacity method is introduced to predict the activation time of the cover plate. This method has been used for predicting the activation time of a standard pendent exposed sprinkler. It is reasonable to apply this method by assuming they are flush with the ceiling. The analysis results are compared based on the percentage of predicted and measured uncertainties. A recommendation is provided for which method is appropriate to apply to predicting the cover plate activation time. The proposed of using FDS5 simulations is to simulate the heat transfer to the sensing element (glass bulb only) within the recessed housing. The constructed simulation models comprises of ceiling within a compartment. The simulations of various sprinkler heads are performed to investigate any parameters that can potentially affect the activation time of the sprinklers. To simulate the glass bulb, combined thermal properties including glass and glycerine are modified to account for the differences in mass. Prior to stage two analysis, the FDS5 simulation was tested to predict the activation time of a standard pendent exposed sprinkler. The results showed positive progress to carry onto the next analysis. In stage two analysis, the simulations are constructed with and without the presence of vent holes within the recess housing. The combined activation time for concealed sprinklers show lack of solid predictions compared to the experimental data especially Yu experimental data.

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  • An Investigation into the Classroom Interactions of Twice Exceptional Students in Comparison to their Typically Developing Peers

    Lewis, Taryn (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Students who meet criteria for both being intellectually gifted and having a disability are known by the term ‘twice exceptional’. To date there is little known about the classroom interactions of these students, and how these interactions impact their developing self-esteem. The interactions of four gifted primary school students with identified learning difficulties (twice exceptional) were observed along with four matched typically developing students and their teacher during normal classroom teaching activities. The number and type of positive, negative, neutral or no response interactions were recorded over four, one hour observation sessions. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was then administered to the four twice exceptional and four comparison students. Results indicated that there was little difference between the twice exceptional and comparison students in terms of number of interactions recorded, with the twice exceptional students showing slightly more positive interactions with their teacher and peers. All four twice exceptional students reported lower self-esteem levels than their matched peers, with two students being in the low range. The results suggested that these four twice exceptional students were interacting in a manner similar to their typically developing peers, although they displayed lower self-esteem levels. The implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.

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  • Exploring the Role of the Customer in the Fuzzy Front End of Innovation

    Harker, Liam (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The early stages of development for new advanced technologies are notoriously difficult to navigate and manage effectively in such a way that leads to successful commercial application. This paper explores how the use of flexible and exploratory frameworks based in customer engagement can provide valuable insights into how advanced technologies can be developed to solve validated market problems. The paper reflects on the challenges faced and lessons taken from our practical experience using this approach to develop advanced technologies emerging from within Victoria University of Wellington.

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  • How information affects attributions for ambiguous behaviours resulting from stroke

    Gallagher, Jake (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research has shown that when people see young survivors of stroke, they often misattribute the person’s symptoms to other factors (Wainwright et al., 2013). Consequently, these stroke survivors may suffer feelings of resentment towards, and from their acquaintances. They may also struggle to obtain or retain a job. This thesis examines whether these misattributions for stroke survivors’ symptoms are affected by the information people have about the stroke survivor and the rapidity of the change in their behaviours. Experiment 1 investigated if the stroke survivor’s age (72, 32 or unstated) and the level of information (no information, implied stroke or explicit stroke) for their behaviours influenced people’s attributions. Experiment 1 showed that people attributed the behavioural changes to factors other than stroke when no additional information is present, and they attributed the behaviours to stroke when stroke was explicitly described. When stroke was implied, participants rated stroke as the best explanation but only when the target person was 72. Experiment 2 manipulated the rapidity of the stroke survivor’s behavioural changes to assess the effect on attributions. Experiment 2 showed that people attributed the behaviours to stroke more if only one week had passed, and if the target person was 72, but not when he was 32. It was concluded that young stroke survivors may need to disclose their stroke in order for others to correctly attribute their behaviours, as this could improve their rehabilitation.

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  • People's Supermarket

    Ting, James (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Public markets were once a very important place to a city. However with the growth of the city and heavy usage of traffic, big-box supermarkets start to find its way into the city. The supermarket revolution had overtaken the public markets identity in most urban cities. However, due to recent events known as the supermarket bully-boy tactics, brought an awareness to the public. In result, the public starting to turn away from these chain supermarkets and start to support the local produce. However, even with the support from the public, public markets still find hard to grow within the urban city. This thesis investigates how a hybrid building could be the solution for the public markets in the city from being evicted due to urban land development. This is investigated by incorporating the public market as part of the building’s design development. Besides incorporating the market into the building, the nature of the market as a public place needed to be retained. As the chosen site for this project is situated in an area between two high activity neighborhoods, the project’s design seeks to channel the vibrancy from the surrounding area through the building. The research had identified several public programs other than the market to be integrated into the project’s design. The aim is to design a vibrant urban public place, engaging with the people and building a sense of community within the inner city area. This design-led research thesis breaks-down the project’s complexity into three separate faces to be investigated. The first design phase introduces the overall design scheme and describes the programs relativity to the project. This phase carried on with the investigation and documentation of the form finding process through a series of physical modelling and images. This then led to the second phase of the research involving the market. This phase investigates the physical realms in public market design from a socio-spatial perspective and design principles for making farmer’s markets a public space. The investigation considers the circulation route defined by the promenade and the layout of the stalls. Diagrammatic analysis was conducted throughout these investigations. The outcome of these investigations will reflect on the latter decision for the overall design outcome. The research carried on to phase three where the final design outcome of the design is documented. The design process is generated through the combination of investigation outcomes gathered in phase one and two.

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