957 results for Masters, 2016

  • Aroha Across the Pa: Whānau and the role of Kuia in the 21st century - a Māori perspective

    Ikkala, Shirley (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    He wāhine, he whenua e ngāro ai te tāngata “by women and land men are lost” Kuia held key roles such as whare Mātauranga (repositories of knowledge) within whānau, linking past with the present and it is these roles that were valued and protected within whānau, hapū and iwi. Kuia nurtured and protected these roles and were the kaitiaki (guardians) of whānau, hapū and iwi knowledge thus ensuring the well-being of whānau, hapū and iwi. Historically many of these traditions were passed down through waiata, haka, whakataukī, mōteatea and were the primary means of transferring knowledge, values and belief. However, these traditional means of transferring knowledge have evolved with the advancement of technology and moving into the 21st century. Kuia were and are the kaitiaki (guardians) of the maintenance and transference of history and knowledge for future generations

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  • Does a ‘baby-led’ approach to complementary feeding alter the risk of choking and growth faltering in infants aged 0-12 months?

    Fangupo, Louise Joan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Although baby-led approaches to complementary feeding such as Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) are growing in popularity, research exploring the safety and efficacy of these approaches is sparse. Concerns have also been expressed regarding the potential for BLW to increase the risk of choking, growth faltering and iron deficiency. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) randomised controlled trial investigated whether a form of BLW, modified to address these concerns, was a suitable way to introduce solids to infants. Aim: To investigate whether the BLISS approach to complementary feeding alters the risk of food-related choking and growth faltering among infants aged 0-12 months. Methods: Dunedin families (n=206) were randomly allocated to a Control or intervention (BLISS) group. Control families (n=101) received the standard government funded ‘Well Child’ health service. BLISS families (n=105) received Well Child care plus at least 8 parent contacts for advice and support on following the BLISS approach. Data on the frequency of choking and gagging, the characteristics of choking events, and the impact of adherence to a baby-led approach to infant feeding were collected by questionnaires when infants were 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12 months of age. Choking and gagging frequencies were also assessed by daily calendars at 6 and 8 months. Data on infant exposure to foods thought to pose a choking risk were obtained using three-day weighed diet records at 7 and 12 months. Parental feeding practices were evaluated by questionnaires at 7, 8, 9 and 12 months. Infant growth was determined from repeated anthropometric measurements (infant weight at 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12 months, and length at 6 and 12 months). Growth was checked against five “growth triggers” to ensure the early identification of infants at potential risk. Growth faltering was defined as a weight deceleration of >1.34 of a weight-for-age z-score (using the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards) between 6 and 9 months. Results: Overall, 35% of infants choked at least once between 6 and 8 months of age but there were no significant group differences in the number of choking events at any time point (all p>0.20). BLISS infants gagged more frequently than Controls at 6 months (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.17), but less frequently than Controls at 8 months (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.87). At 7 and 12 months of age, 52% and 94% of infants respectively were offered food thought to pose a choking risk during weighed diet recording, although no statistically significant group differences were observed at either age (all p>0.30). Consistently safe parental feeding practices were often lacking in both groups, particularly at 12 months when only 44% of Control and 65% of BLISS infants always had an adult sitting with them while they ate. Although 32 infants (16 Control, 16 BLISS) met at least one growth trigger between 6 and 12 months, only 3 (2 BLISS, 1 Control) were potentially serious enough to be referred to the study paediatrician. However, growth improved in all three infants and no child met the criterion for growth faltering. Conclusions: Infants following the BLISS approach to complementary feeding were no more likely to choke or experience growth faltering than Control infants, although it is acknowledged that this was a relatively small study.

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  • Fads, Façade and Face of Building: A proposal for an urban university campus expansion

    Kuepper, Ann-Kathrin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    “Transparency means a simultaneous perception of different spatial locations. Space not only recedes but fluctuates in a continuous activity” (Kepes). Universities in New Zealand are increasingly under scrutiny as sites of public investment. This presents a socio-political necessity for academic transparency, and visibility inevitably becomes a matter of architecture through the universities’ physical presence; the façade. Preoccupations with the aesthetics of a building’s envelope, and the pursuit of technological advancement, has led to a singular understanding of the façade as a mechanical boundary. This research challenges the hermetic nature of the contemporary façade and its legitimacy as a subject matter of architectural design within the overall architectural discourse. Drivers for this project include the need to revisit historical precedents, the ambivalence of the label ‘façade’, and a speculative siting as a campus expansion of Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. The design response to the site’s topography via the theory-charged, re-oriented, and as a heterogeneous space, and threshold redefined, façade enables a novel way of projecting a building’s image without depleting the façade’s autonomy. This is achieved through a rigorous iterative modelling methodology. That in turn provokes an ambitious urban campus complex scaling the site between Wellington city and Kelburn Campus. The architectural outcome provides a sophisticated symbolism of the meaning of University when moving through the campus expansion: one transitions from experiencing the visual indication of how learning occurs to the personal experience of it. A constant transparent process of reciprocal visibility, legibility, communication and understanding.

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  • Revitalising the Heart: Addressing the vacant CBD of Rotorua

    Dittmer, Zakary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The issue of abandoned retail stores is one that is evident throughout the country and at different scales throughout the world. The appearance leaves main streets and central business districts’ looking tired and run down and does little to benefit the local economy. The rise and demand of international retail corporations in provincial cities, has transformed inner city infrastructure. This combined with suburban sprawl has resulted in high building vacancies and poor community moral. Looking to new theories around Urban Interior Architecture, this research explores the boundary between internal and external design methods and pushes for a merger of the design disciplines to create a coherent spatial context. In order to repopulate the city, human focused design methods are explored to encourage social interactions, commercial activity and habitation of the many vacant sites. Through the use of site-specific design, Rotorua will be investigated to understand the reasoning for the abandoned stores and will look to the urban context to identify potential remedies to solve the neglect. The identity of Rotorua its Placemaking and Cultural Heritage of its people will inform the design response to bring the community back into the heart of the central city.

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  • Architecture as a Catalyst for Activity

    Tungatt, Rory (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Many of New Zealand’s smaller town centres struggle to remain viable. A common issue for these declining public realms is the hollowing out of their city centres. Numerous factors may contribute to this problem. Issues such as a lack of access, connectivity and identity within the urban fabric, or instances of privatisation, where forums that were once public have now shifted to a digital interface. One of the challenges facing cities is the diminishing number of “civic” buildings and activity located in the town centre. The Indoor Community Sports Centre (ICSC) offers a partial remedy for this problem. Even with the merging and downsizing of Council’s and their funding, Territorial Authorities continue to invest in ICSCs. This thesis investigates whether these buildings can make a positive contribution to the public domain of town centres. New Zealand ICSC’s, more often than not, are simple shed-like buildings on the periphery of cities or town centres, predominantly occupying or adjacent to large park areas, sports fields or schools. This thesis examines whether the building type can be adapted to become an “urban” building, where it will have the opportunity contribute to a revitalised town centre. A design case study based on Upper Hutt identifies three key design criteria established from initial research of Sports Centres and best-practice Urban Design. These three criteria – breaking up mass, active edges from the outside and creating a dynamic connection – allow the ICSC to become part of the civic realm. The research concludes that an ICSC can be successfully integrated into an “urban” context. In the Upper Hutt case study, success depends on two broader design strategies. First, the ICSC should be located in an area where walkability, functionality and visual and physical connectivity will benefit the public domain. Second, the ICSC should be part of a mixed-use development, which exploits the building type’s inherent flexibility. This is achieved through combining a transport hub, another essential civic amenity, as well as other commercial programmes that provide occupancy during periods of disuse. The thesis shows how a carefully adapted ICSC can turn a somewhat disconnected, hollowed out town into a functional, integrated and walkable one. The redesigned facility does so by linking existing amenities, feeding city-fringe activity back into the city centre and projecting a consciousness of place.

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  • Retrofitting Memory: Retrofitting a Non-Physical Architecture

    Low, Soon Yie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This project looks at how destroyed architecture, although physically lost, fundamentally continues to exist within human memories as a non-physical entity. The site chosen is Avonside Girls’ High School in Christchurch, New Zealand, a school heavily damaged during the February 22nd earthquake in 2011. The project focuses on the Main Block, a 1930s masonry building which had always been a symbol for the school and its alumni. The key theories relevant to this are studies on non-material architecture and memory as these subjects investigate the relationship between conceptual idea and the triggering of it. This research aims to study how to fortify a thought-based architecture against neglect, similar to the retrofitting of physical structures. In doing so, the importance of the emotive realm of architecture and the idea behind a building (as opposed to the built component itself) is further validated, promoting more broadminded stances regarding the significance of the idea over the object. A new method for disaster recovery and addressing trauma from lost architecture is also acquired. Factors regarding advanced structural systems and programmes are not covered within the scope of this research because the project instead explores issues regarding the boundaries between the immaterial and material. The project methodology involves communicating a narrative derived from the memories alumni and staff members have of the old school block. The approach for portraying the narrative is based on a list of strategies obtained from case studies. The final product of the research is a new design for the high school, conveyed through a set of atmospheric drawings that cross-examines the boundaries between the physical and non-physical realms by representing the version of the school that exists solely within memories.

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  • The Three Pathways to Happiness: How Orientations to Pleasure, Engagement, and Meaning Relate to Grit and Well-Being in a Longitudinal, International Sample

    Ross, Catherine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Orientations to happiness (OTH)--to what extent people endorse pleasure, engagement, and meaning--and Grit--perseverance and passion for long term goals--have not been studied together longitudinally before. Further, grit and OTH have not been investigated together along with a measure of psychological well-being before. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the links between and among OTH, grit, and well-being through a number of longitudinal mediation analyses. Data from the International Well-Being Study was used, in which 755 participants completed surveys at five time points over one year. The results illustrated that all of the variables were positively related to each other over time, except for a negative relationship found between grit and pleasure OTH. Pleasure, meaning and engagement were all found to be significant predictors and outcomes of the longitudinal mediations of grit to well-being and of well-being to grit. Additionally, engagement was found to be the only OTH pathway that was a marginally significant mediator of the relationship between grit and well-being. Future research should further investigate the relationships between OTH, grit and well-being. This research also has implications for devising and implementing interventions that increase grit and OTH, which also in turn are likely to improve well-being, decrease mental illness, and improve levels of success.

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  • How does a music therapy student work to facilitate reminiscence and memory in dementia patients

    Sun, I-Chen (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study was prompted in response to increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision in improving quality of care for dementia patients. It is an exploration of the strategies to facilitate memory and reminiscence in persons with dementia, and considers the need for those preparing for end of life to recall identities, connect with family and others, and express feelings. This research is a qualitative study involving secondary analysis of clinical data from my clinical practice and identifies the strategies, techniques and procedures that I applied in my clinical work to stimulate preserved memory ‘islands’. The findings show that familiarity is central in enabling a remembering process, and music can have unique ways of accessing memory in people with limited cognitive and social abilities. Eight core categories of music therapy strategies were found to be helpful in enabling memory and reminiscence. This study includes examples of both individual and group music therapy. The objective of this study was to examine my music therapy practice, and potentially provide some beneficial ideas and insights to other music therapists working on memory and reminiscence with dementia patients.

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  • Data for Surf's Sake - Illustrating a subculture through interactive data visualisation and action sports trackers

    Everitt, Matthew (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Over the last two years action sports trackers have emerged for those seeking thrills in risk-taking sports (Mitchell, 2014). The data generated by these trackers is creating digitised representations of communities participating in action sports such as surfing. The surfing database comprises of activity all over the globe, and due to its size and complexity it can be categorised as big data. Understanding this complex database requires specific data visualisation methods which visually map relationships and patterns. This research asked: can an interactive data visualisation illustrate hierarchical, nomadic, and experiential aspects of the surfing subculture? This thesis is based on ethnographic research which focuses on exploring qualitative visualisations of the quantitative databases generated by action sports trackers for surfing. The research focused on the design of data visualisations which explored contemporary methods and principles of data visualisation and their applicability to communicate aspects of the surfing subculture. This manifested in the design of an interactive web application, Gone Surfing, which focused on global, local, and personal views which communicate Stranger’s (2011) substructure model of the surfing subculture. The hierarchical, nomadic, and experiential aspects of the surfing subculture are only known from long term immersion in the subculture itself. This design made these aspects explicit through the visualisation of the database. For example, pilgrimage’s to revered surfing locations and hierarchy within local communities, and a surfer’s relationship with the waves are forms of implicit knowledge which were made explicit. The final creative output, Gone Surfing, visualises these aspects in an interactive web application consisting of global, local, and personal views to each communicate an aspect effectively. The interactive visualisation allows non-surfers to explore the subculture while enhancing a surfer’s understanding of their position within the surfing nation.

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  • Going all the way: The implications of life history and phenotype on reproductive success of the common triplefin, Forsterygion lapillum

    Moginie, Benjamin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Identifying sources of variation in individual reproductive success is crucial to our understanding of population dynamics and evolutionary ecology. In many systems, the determinants of success are not well known. Where species have parental care, for example, determinants of success can be particularly challenging to partition between parents and offspring. In this thesis I investigate drivers and consequences of variable life histories, for a small reef fish that exhibits male parental care (the common triplefin Forsterygion lapillum). I examined the influence of individual life history, phenotype and behaviour on (1) the performance of recently settled juveniles, and (2) the reproductive success adult males. I made field-based observations of adult males during the breeding season, measured their phenotypic traits (body size and condition) and used their otoliths to reconstruct life history characteristics (hatch dates and mean growth rates). My life history trait reconstructions suggested two alternate pathways to ’success’ for adult males. Successful males hatched earlier and therefore had a developmental ’head start’ over less successful males (i.e., males with eggs > male territory holders without eggs > floaters). Alternatively, males can apparently achieve success by growing faster: for males born in the same month, those with eggs grew faster than those with territories and no eggs, and both groups grew faster than floaters. These results suggest that accelerated growth rate may mediate the effects of a later hatch date, and that both hatch dates and growth rates influence the success of adult males, likely through proximate effects on individual phenotypes. Identifying sources of variation in individual reproductive success is crucial to our understanding of population dynamics and evolutionary ecology. In many systems, the determinants of success are not well known. Where species have parental care, for example, determinants of success can be particularly challenging to partition between parents and offspring. Male parental care is common among fishes, where resources such as high quality territories and mates often may be limiting. In such systems, individual success of offspring may result from distinct life history pathways that are influenced by both parental effects (e.g., timing of reproduction) and by the offspring themselves (e.g., ’personalities’). These pathways, in turn, can induce phenotypic variation and affect success later in life. The drivers and consequences of variable life histories are not well understood in the context of reproductive success. In this thesis I investigate drivers and consequences of variable life histories, for a small reef fish that exhibits male parental care (the common triplefin Forsterygion lapillum). I examined the influence of individual life history, phenotype and behaviour on (1) the performance of recently settled juveniles, and (2) the reproductive success adult males. I made field-based observations of adult males during the breeding season, measured their phenotypic traits (body size and condition) and used their otoliths to reconstruct life history characteristics (hatch dates and mean growth rates). Some males showed no evidence of territorial defence and were defined as ’floaters’; others defended territories, and a subset of these also had nests with eggs present. Adult male body size was significantly higher for males that defended breeding territories, and body condition was significantly higher for the males that had eggs (i.e., had successfully courted females). My otolith-based reconstructions of life history traits suggested two alternate pathways to ’success’ for adult males. Successful males hatched earlier and therefore had a developmental ’head start’ over less successful males (i.e., males with eggs > male territory holders without eggs > floaters). Alternatively, males can apparently achieve success by growing faster: for males born in the same month, those with eggs grew faster than those with territories and no eggs, and both groups grew faster than floaters. These results suggest that accelerated growth rate may mediate the effects of a later hatch date, and that both hatch dates and growth rates influence the success of adult males, likely through proximate effects on individual phenotypes. I evaluated the effects of variable life history in a complimentary lab-based study. Specifically, I manipulated the developmental environments (feeding regime and temperature) for young fish and evaluated the direct effects on life history traits and phenotypes. Then, I conducted an assay to quantify the indirect effects of developmental environment, life history traits, and phenotypes on aggression and performance of young fish. These developmental environments did not have a clear, overall effect on juvenile phenotype or performance (i.e. behavioural aggression and the ability to dominate a resource). Instead, individuals (irrespective of developmental environment) that grew faster and/or longer pelagic larval durations had increased odds of dominating a limited resource. I attributed the non-significant direct effect of developmental environment to within-treatment mortality and variation among individuals in terms of their realised access to food (i.e., dominance hierarchies were apparent in rearing chambers, suggesting a non-uniform access to food). Fish that were more likely to dominate a resource were also more aggressive (i.e., more likely to engage in chasing behaviours). Fish that were larger and more aggressive established territories that were deemed to be of higher ’quality’ (inferred from percent cover of cobble resources). Overall, this study suggests a complex interplay between social systems, phenotype and life history. Developmental environments may influence phenotypes, although behavioural differences among individuals may moderate that effect, contributing to additional variation in phenotypes and life history traits which, in turn, shape the success of individuals. Collectively, my thesis emphasises the consequences of life history variability on success at multiple life stages. These results may be relevant to other species that exhibit male parental care or undergo intense competition for space during early life stages. In addition, my results highlight interactions between life history, phenotype and behaviour that can have important implications for population dynamics and evolutionary ecology.

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  • Evolution of a Normal Fault System, northern Graben, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    Cameron, Hamish (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study investigates the evolution (from initiation to inactivity) of a normal fault system in proximity to active petroleum systems within the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The aim of this research is to understand the evolution, interaction, and in some cases, death of normal faults in a region undergoing progressive regional extension. This research provides insight into the geometry, development, and displacement history of new and reactivated normal fault evolution through interpretation of industry standard seismic reflection data at high spatial and temporal resolution. Insight into normal fault evolution provides information on subsidence rates and potential hydrocarbon migration pathways. Twelve time horizons between 1.2 and 35 Ma have been mapped throughout 1670 square kilometres of the Parihaka and Toro 3D seismic reflection surveys. Fault displacement analysis and backstripping have been used to determine the main phases of fault activity, fault growth patterns, and maximum Displacement/Length ratios. The timing, geometry, and displacement patterns for 110 normal faults with displacements >20 m have been interpreted and analysed using Paradigm SeisEarth and TrapTester 6 seismic interpretation and fault analysis software platforms. Normal faults within the Parihaka and Toro 3D seismic surveys began developing at ˜11 Ma, with the largest faults accruing up to 1500 m of displacement in 1000 m cumulative displacement reach the seafloor and are potentially active at present day. An earthquake on one of these faults could be expected to produce MW 2.2 based on the maximum strike-parallel length of the fault plane.

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  • Life on Parole: Examining how the Quality of Parolees' Experiences after Release from Prison Contributes to Successful Re-entry

    Gwynne, Jessie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Individuals who have spent time in prison face a multitude of challenges during the transition from prison to the community, including finding suitable accommodation, obtaining stable employment, and establishing prosocial support networks (Bucklen & Zajac, 2009; Kubrin & Stewart, 2006; Zamble & Quinsey, 1997). The cumulative impact of these challenges makes it difficult to achieve successful reintegration to the community, yet some men are able to survive the difficult re-entry process without reoffending. What differentiates men who reoffend after release from those who succeed in remaining conviction-free? The present research went some way towards answering this question by investigating how the quality of an individual’s experiences after release from prison relates to the likelihood that he will achieve successful re-entry. A comprehensive measure, named the Parole Experiences Measure (PEM), was developed to assess the type and quality of high-risk parolees’ experiences during re-entry. The PEM was then used to examine whether experiences in the first two months after release predicted both short-term recidivism (i.e., recidivism in the first two months after release) and slightly longer-term recidivism (i.e., recidivism in the first year after release). Three indices of recidivism were examined, varying in severity from breaching a parole condition to committing an offence that resulted in reimprisonment. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the PEM significantly predicted three indices of short-term recidivism, demonstrating that men who had poorer experiences on parole were more likely to fail quickly after release than those who had better experiences. Further, the PEM significantly predicted reconvictions in the first year following release, after controlling for possible confounding variables. Additional analyses explored the relative contribution of different aspects of an individual’s parole experiences to the prediction of recidivism. In general, factors related to individuals’ external circumstances (e.g., accommodation, finances, personal support) were predictive of recidivism over and above factors related to their subjective wellbeing (e.g., mental health, physical health). The findings of this research demonstrate that men who have better experiences after release from prison, particularly with regard to their external circumstances, are significantly more likely to successfully avoid recidivism within their first year in the community. To our knowledge, this study was one of the first methodologically rigorous studies to explore the relationship between the quality of re-entry experiences and recidivism in a sample of New Zealand men at high risk of reoffending.

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  • Dynamic Risk Factors and their Utilisation in Case Formulation: A New Conceptual Framework

    Palmer, Lauren (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The social pressure on policy makers and clinicians working with sexual offenders to reduce recidivism is extreme. A result of this pressure is the amount of research investigating risk-related features that has surged over the last few decades. Risk assessment has progressed from unstructured clinical judgement to development of risk factors that correlate with recidivism to predict levels of risk, and more recently, to forensic case formulation. This thesis concentrates on two key issues with forensic case formulation that has been largely neglected thus far. First, forensic case formulations rely heavily on the use of dynamic risk factors as causes of offending. The concern is that dynamic risk factors are composite constructs not causal mechanisms. Second, forensic case formulation models do not explain how to use an offender’s information and their risk factors to hypothesise about the cause of their offending leading to issues of reliability. To address these issues, the RECFM consists of five phases that guides clinicians on how to appropriately use forensic case formulation. The Risk Etiology Case Formulation Model (RECFM) aims to incorporate a reconceptualised version of dynamic risk factors using an Agency Model to identify the interaction of agent and context that causes offending behaviour. By using the RECFM, treatment can be targeted to the individual and their specific causes of offending, which will lead to better results in reducing recidivism. The aim of this thesis is to provide a forensic case formulation model is comprehensible for clinicians and that targets the causes of offending.

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  • Development of a career and competency framework for Occupational Health Nurses working in New Zealand using participatory action research

    Howard, Stella Mary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This participatory action research (PAR) study was undertaken to review the New Zealand Competencies for Practising as an Occupational and Environmental Health Nurse (2004) document and develop an integrated career and competency framework for nurses working in the field of occupational health. The 2004 competency document needed to be reviewed to ensure Occupational Health Nurses (OHNs) have up-to-date guidelines for the skills and knowledge required by businesses to support and promote the health and wellbeing of the workforce, as well as enabling OHNs to identify their training requirements and career planning. Eight OHNs (including myself) from Christchurch over a 10-month period applied a PAR approach to this qualitative study. The nurses actively engaged in the project from research design to dissemination so linking theory and practice. Achieving the aims and objectives required collaboration, democratic participation, joint decision making, sharing resources, gaining knowledge, and empowerment. The study had six phases. Recruitment of the OHNs occurred during the first phase and in the second phase information was collected through a questionnaire gaining awareness of the OHNs role within the workplace. This information stimulated the first action cycle inquiry. During the third phase data was collected from transcripts of the PAR group meetings. The fourth phase was reflection of the PAR theoretical process of the study. This reflection included understanding what occurred leading to the turning points and what sustained the PAR group. From this phase, evolved phase five, formation of a sub-PAR group, and phase six of the study when the original PAR group reconvened and four subsequent meetings were held concluding the study in May 2015. The study provides contribution to PAR by showing importance of the time commitment of homogenous co-researchers, and role of primary researcher. A number of areas were identified by the nurses as important skills and knowledge areas for occupational health nursing. Areas include fitness for work, health promotion, risk assessment, legislation and standards, leadership and management skills, research and professionalism. These skills and knowledge topics were then expanded and applied into the career framework from competent to expert nurse. The final participatory cycle involved distributing the framework to the New Zealand Occupational Health Nurses Association to complete the review. The outcome of this research is an integrated occupational health nursing competency and career framework which has been disseminated nationally to New Zealand OHNs waiting for feedback. It is expected that the framework will raise the profile of OHNs within New Zealand, and the vital contribution they make to the public health strategy and supporting businesses to apply employment legislation.

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  • Assessment of the Opportunity of Modern Cable Yarders for Application in New Zealand

    Campbell, Thornton (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study examined the opportunity of implementing modern yarder machinery to increase the productivity and worker safety of cable logging operations within New Zealand. Cable yarding equipment used in New Zealand is generally based on designs from pre-1980 with the majority of the machines built around that time in the Pacific Northwest, USA. New yarder designs have a number of features that may give them an advantage, including being; smaller, quieter, more fuel efficient, safer and more ergonomic to operate. These benefits can be of even greater value as the forest industry transitions from predominantly larger scale commercial plantations, to a significant proportion of woodlot scale operations. Field studies ranging from three to five day of duration were carried out on three new machines believed to have potential in New Zealand; the Active 70 at two locations in the central North Island region of New Zealand, the Koller 602h in the Gisborne region of New Zealand and for comparison the Koller 507 in Austria. The studies focussed on assessing productivity and ergonomic advantages. Productivity was measured with a time and motion study and the potential ergonomic advantages were assessed using choker-setter heart rates and machine noise emissions. The time and motion study found a productivity level for the Active 70 of 23.5m3/SMH with a utilisation rate of 65% at site one and 24.5m3/SMH at a utilisation rate of 76% for site two. The productivity for the Koller 602h was 21.0m3/SMH at an utilisation rate of 55% and 7.9m3/SMH for the Koller 507 at an utilisation rate of 55%. Productivity was deemed to be negatively impacted by poor site conditions for the Active 70 and Koller 507, and utilisation was low for the Koller 602h which was mainly attributed to the lack of crew experience with the new machine. Choker-setter heart rate results showed choker-setters to be working at the level of ‘hard continuous work’ (‘relative heart rate at work’ over 30%, but less than 40%). In this study the motorised carriage used at the first Active 70 study site offered no ergonomic advantages over the traditional North Bend system at the second site. Decibel analysis found that the modern equipment was significantly quieter, resulting in smaller zones in which hearing protection is required. In particular, the Koller K602hrecorded 70dB at 5 meters during operation, well below the 85dB level that is common recognised as the decibel threshold for hearing damage. During these case studies the machines all operated below the average New Zealand productivity rate of 26.3m3/SMH and no clear ergonomic advantage was established for the choker-setters. As such these machines are not likely to out-compete existing machinery choices in either productivity or choker-setter work rate. However, cost-benefit analyses were not possible because of limited information about operating cost and the absence of truly comparable settings. Advantages such as the advanced control systems and lower noise levels, while still achieving respectable productivity figures, indicate that they are viable alternatives for New Zealand cable yarding if applied correctly.

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  • The impact of heavy metals on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Christchurch's urban waterways

    Eden, Jason Scott (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The urbanisation of a catchment results in substantial changes to associated waterways. These effects, known as the “urban stream syndrome” can include flashier hydrographs due to stormwater inflows, altered geomorphology, and increased inputs of sediment, nutrients, and toxicants. Metal pollution of rivers and streams is an area of significant concern for management of freshwaters, and urban runoff is recognised as an increasingly relevant source of metals. Heavy metals can to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates, and can impact community structure and abundance. To investigate the influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrate community composition, I compared invertebrate community composition over a gradient of heavy metal pollution within Christchurch City’s urban waterways. I also investigated the survival of three taxa, the mayfly Deleatidium spp., the caddisfly Pycnocentria spp., and the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum in short-term in situ mesocosm experiments in six streams of varying metal contamination. CCA analysis identified that sediment bound metals, dissolved metals, and impervious surface area were the three most significant environmental factors explaining invertebrate community structure. Stepwise regression analysis of invertebrate community metrics and indices identified metals bound to the sediment to be among the prevailing factors in explaining invertebrate community composition across my study sites. The results of my mesocosm experiments suggest that heavy metal contamination could be rendering more impacted streams uninhabitable to relatively sensitive taxa (such as Deleatidium and Pycnocentria). However, over the seven day time frame of my mesocosm experiment, conditions in moderately polluted streams did not appear to directly affect survival of Deleatidium significantly more than conditions in streams containing natural populations of the mayfly. Knowledge of relevant stressors is key to the management and rehabilitation of urban streams. My results suggest that heavy metals are likely a key stressor on many invertebrate communities in Christchurch’s urban waterways. While rehabilitation of streams in Christchurch’s heavily urbanised areas can improve attractiveness and societal value, unless stormwater inputs and associated pollutants are mitigated an improvement in biological communities seems unlikely.

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  • A comparison of MDMA (Ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (Methylone) in their acute behavioural effects and development of tolerance in rats

    Davidson, Mark L. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone), the β-ketone analogue of the popular party drug MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, “ecstasy”), is a relatively new designer drug that is reported to have similar subjective effects and psychopharmacological properties to MDMA. However, unlike MDMA, little is known about the acute behavioural effects or the effects of repeated use of this drug. The goal of the current thesis was to investigate the behavioural effects of methylone and compare these to the effects of MDMA using an animal model. The second aim was to determine whether there was evidence of behavioural sensitisation or tolerance to methylone with repeated exposure. To achieve this, 108 male and female PVG/c hooded rats (6M and 6F per group) were administered various doses of MDMA or methylone (2.5, 5, 8, 12mg/kg), or saline vehicle (i.p.). The behavioural effects of these drugs were examined 20 m later, including horizontal locomotor activity, rearing behaviour, and central occupancy of an open field, anxiety behaviours in a light/dark box, and working memory in a novel object recognition task. The results showed that MDMA and methylone administration produce similar, but not identical, behaviours. Methylone was shown to produce greater psychostimulant effects, while MDMA produced more toxic effects. Female rats demonstrated greater psychostimulant effects than males, while males had higher rates of lethality. In order to assess the effects of repeated drug use, one week after binge-type drug administration of MDMA or methylone (5 mg/kg for 3 doses every 1h on 2 consecutive days), open field and light/dark box testing was repeated following a further 5 mg/kg challenge of drug. There was no evidence of locomotor sensitisation in the open field, although females showed sensitisation in rearing activity. These findings suggest that methylone may produce less toxic, but more stimulant, effects than MDMA. Methylone may therefore be a cocaine-MDMA mixed psychostimulant, both in a psychopharmacological and a behavioural sense.

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  • He Kiteka Hauā i Murihiku. Perspectives of disability and wellness of hauā Māori living in Murihiku

    Bryant, Katrina Anne Pōtiki (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Disability is of considerable concern for Māori as they are over represented in this area and have more severe disabilities than the non-Māori population in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Whilst many initiatives have been put forward to facilitate access to disability services, utilisation of services remains proportionately low for hauā Māori (Māori living with disability) despite their experiencing a higher incidence of multiple disabilities. This poor uptake of services indicates the need for targeted research to assess Māori experiences and viewpoints of disability, in order to better understand how to deliver relevant services for hauā Māori and their whānau (families). Given the prevalence of disability within the Māori population, it is also interesting to note the concept of ‘disability’ is largely non-existent within Te Ao Māori (Māori world-views) and in recent literature. Investigating the impact of disability for Māori and their whānau, more specifically Māori perceptions of ‘disability’ (MOH, 2011), has been identified as a research priority by Māori whānau living with disability. In 2012, a collaborative study, Hauā Mana Māori, was conducted to explore, accessibility issues for hauā Māori and their whānau. This thesis reviews the qualitative component within this project that explicitly explored hauā Māori perspectives of disability and health and also aims to present the effective data collection techniques developed to perform disability research within this community. This study was guided by Kaupapa Māori Research (KMR) methodology, using philosophies steeped in tikaka Māori (Māori culture), Whānau Ora (community well-being) and hauora Māori (Māori health) ideologies. This process was largely informed by a group of hauā Māori living in Murihiku, Rōpū Kaiārahi (leadership group), to ensure the methods used were relevant and empowering to hauā Māori. Thirty hauā Māori living in Southern Aotearoa/New Zealand were interviewed using the data collection instrument, the Whakāro Pōkare Visual Tool, and the findings from thematic analysis are presented within. Common themes of wellness for hauā Māori interviewed included feeling valued, being connected to community, having a strong sense of self and self-worth, having access to determinants of health and having a positive approach towards physical health. Conversely, frequently referred to themes within perspectives of disability comprised of being undervalued, feeling disconnected, a low self-esteem, limited access to resources and poor physical health. A noteworthy finding was that many hauā Māori do not consider a physical limitation a disability, and are therefore not whakamā (embarrassed) to openly discuss issues that non-Māori tend to avoid. This attitude revealed a cultural dissonance, between Māori and non-Māori views on disability and pointed to a preference of Māori perspectives of acceptance for the hauā Māori interviewed. Lastly, being guided by KMR principles allowed for relevant research process to be established leading to the development of an appropriate qualitative data collection instrument, the Whakāro Pōkare Visual Tool. This tool enabled the qualitative research to successfully collect voices of hauā Māori. Participants reported beneficial outcomes from being interviewed using the data collection tool. Future research investigating the potential for utilisation within the clinical setting is suggested.

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  • Managing Jurisdictional Overlap for Closed Coastal Landfills: An Evaluation of Cross-jurisdictional Planning Practice within New Zealand

    Lindsay, Kirstyn Jane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Cross-jurisdictional management is a complex and, at times, fraught issue and this is never more obvious than in the coastal environment. When closed landfills and associated contamination effects are also present within this environment, additional layers of management complexity are introduced. Effective management of these environments depends on support from the legislative framework and the capacity and willingness of those agencies responsible for each jurisdiction to facilitate a co-ordinated and integrated approach. The purpose of this research is to examine current approaches to cross-jurisdictional management to identify how planning practice may be improved. The research considers the theoretical framework surrounding integrated management and inter-agency co-operation and reviews current planning practice against the theoretical framework. It explores the nature of the organisations responsible for cross-jurisdictional management and how organisational structure, culture and communication empowers or hinders collaboration and inter-agency relationships. The research design includes a contemporary case study involving multi-agency management of a closed coastal landfill and interviews with planning practitioners practicing within New Zealand. The research found that while the legislation may not have been overtly encouraging of a co-operative management approach, it did not hinder or obstruct co-operation; rather any lack of co-ordination was more a consequence of inter-agency relationships. Communication between organisations was often inconsistent and perfunctory, and effective communication and relationship building did not appear to be prioritised. Ultimately, the research found that optimising inter-agency relationships and undertaking clear and frequent communication is fundamental for effective and efficient cross-jurisdictional management of closed landfills within the coastal environment.

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  • Understanding How Mature Students Make Sense of Success in the Social Work Programme at the University of Otago

    Roxborogh, Phillip Andrew (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    My thesis explores how mature students, those aged 25 or older, understand the knowledges necessary for success in the social work programme at the University of Otago. In this thesis I argue that there is a social logic that underpins the programme which sits below the awareness of all involved and acts to marginalise those who lack the knowledges privileged by that logic. In turn, I propose that when staff, mature and non-mature students, the university, and the social work profession make use of this information, they can foster an environment where student success is revolutionised. My vision is a programme where everyone is successful and no one is marginalised. As a starting point, I have included a table of contents of a student success guide for future discussion. The use of Pierre Bourdieu’s thinking tools allow this social logic to be revealed in all its complexity. As such, my study was conducted as a qualitative research endeavour, where the work of Bourdieu and Wacquant (1992) informed an analysis of the social work programme at a government, profession and programme level to reveal the social logic in operation. I then utilised an online survey combined with follow-up focus group and semi-structured interview events to determine how staff and students made sense of my findings for maximising student success. My thesis contributes to the debates on 1) using the work of Bourdieu to analyse the dynamics of power in an education context to bring to the surface the social logic of a field of interactions, 2) using that knowledge as a basis for bringing about the positive social transformation of those in marginalised positions by equipping struggling agents to play the social game better, and by changing the game itself to be more supportive of struggling, and, 3) how the transformation of the experience of struggling agents requires the enabling actions of those in positions of power.

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