13,137 results for Masters

  • “You Want To Capture Something that Will Make People Change”: Rhetorical Persuasion in The Cove, Whale Wars, and Sharkwater.

    Stewart, Jessica (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Dolphins, whales, and sharks are some of the world’s most iconic animals. Yet, many people will only ever see these animals via the media. The media, then, hold significant power in creating, modifying, or reaffirming the imaginaries around various species which, in turn, influences how much concern is given to matters related to their welfare and conservation. Given the environmental and ecological concerns presently facing the ocean, protecting, conserving, and preserving the marine ecosystem is vital, and time is of the essence. Through the work of activists, three specific marine wildlife issues have received a lot of publicity across various forms of mainstream media: the killing of dolphins in Taiji, Japan for their meat; Antarctic whaling; and the practice of shark-finning. Three activist films, namely The Cove (2009), Whale Wars (2008-), and Sharkwater (2006), are centred on these issues, and filmmakers attempt to compel viewers to support the activists’ protectionist cause. In order for this goal to have a chance of coming to fruition, rhetorical arguments must be carefully crafted. Yet, the study of rhetoric in animal-focused activist films is still an understudied research area. This thesis contributes to this area of research by using the aforementioned films as case studies by applying Aristotle’s rhetorical proofs of ethos, pathos, and logos to analyse the rhetorical arguments. Ethos is demonstrable when the activists construct themselves as credible, moral heroes and the animals as possessors of positive traits worth protecting, and the hunters as immoral villains. The graphic imagery of animal death appeals to pathos to stir strong bodily and emotional responses such as sadness, and disgust in order to mobilize audience support for cause. Lastly, these films appeal to logos through the use of culturally authoritative discourses such as those of biology, western conventional medicine, and the legal system. This thesis essentially argues that these texts work rhetorically and discursively to persuade audiences to feel a connection with and sympathy towards the animals; to be supportive of the activists; and to prompt antipathy towards the hunters and industry spokespeople.

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  • Therapeutic Approaches in the Attenuation of Seizure-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Andreianova, Anastasia Alexeevna (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Single subcutaneous administration of Kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces significant levels of seizure activity, including head tremors, salivation and tonic-clonic convulsions. Using electrophysiological quantitative techniques which measure electroencephalographic (EEG) as well as electrocardiographic (ECG) trace activity following KA administration, the effects of seizure activity on the function of the heart were assessed over a 48 hour period. In addition, histopathological analysis was carried out in order to determine whether the ongoing seizure activity produced significant changes in ventricular myocardium indicative of irreversible cardiomyopathy. In order to determine the potential mechanism of action of KA-induced cardiac damage, a further two animal groups were examined. The groups consisted of animals pretreated with either atenolol or clonidine. The two different drugs were used in order to isolate systems involved in cardiac damage, where atenolol acts specifically in the periphery, while clonidine is known to act in the central nervous system. Analysis of EEG and concomitant ECG traces, during and following seizure activity demonstrated significant changes in heart rate (HR) as well as associated HR parameters compared to baseline. Upon further histological observations it was apparent that at 48 hours following KA administration, ischaemia was present as well as evidence of inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue tearing and oedema compared to saline treated animals. Further assessment of pretreated animal groups lead to the conclusion that atenolol was not protective against KA-induced cardiac damage in the rat while clonidine was. These findings propose that the mechanism by which KA-induced seizure activity results in cardiomyopathy is through modulation of brain centres associated with cardiac control, as opposed to KA binding to peripheral cardiac receptors as previously suggested.

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  • Descriptions of coping with commonly occurring events by highly self-regulated boys living in earthquake-affected Christchurch

    Gillman, Solfrid Hessellund (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Children are often overlooked in the aftermath of a natural disaster, and children’s use of coping strategies plays an important part in their post-disaster adaptation (Vernberg, La Greca, Silverman, & Prinstein, 1996). The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the coping strategies of children with adequate self-regulation skills and minimal behaviour problems, living in Christchurch following the major 2010 and 2011 earthquakes. This aim was achieved through the use of semi-structured interviews with five seven-year-old children, their parents, and their teachers. These interviews were analysed using Directed Content Analysis and results showed that children most often reported using active and adaptive coping strategies, followed by avoidant strategies. Results in the current literature regarding children’s coping suggest that children exposed to natural disasters are able to utilise strategies that involve some personal control over their environment and emotions, through the use of active and adaptive coping strategies. Findings from this study contribute to the current understanding of children’s use of coping strategies when faced with commonly occurring childhood upsets. Further research is required regarding the outcomes associated with the use of effective coping strategies following traumatic events.

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  • Geochemical variations in glauconitic minerals : application as a potassium fertiliser resource.

    Smaill, Joshua Ballantyne (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Nutrients for plant growth are often limited in soil systems and additions are required in the form of fertiliser. Potassium is an essential macro-nutrient for plants and demands for K are expected to increase in the future. Glaucony is an abundant marine mineral which may provide an alternative K-rich fertiliser resource. The South Island of New Zealand contains deposits of glaucony-rich rocks which were deposited in the Early- to Mid-Cenozoic during periods of low sedimentation to the seafloor. Here, the geochemistry of glaucony from the Waitaki Basin (Otago), the Waipara Greensand (North Canterbury) and the Stoney Creek Limestone (Karamea) was examined using spatially resolved geochemical analysis and dissolution experiments. Grain-by-grain analysis using Laser Ablation Induction Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM + EDS) revealed that glaucony from all deposits were of the mature type and were enriched in K. Glaucony derived from growth inside faecal pellets was found to contain elevated K and Fe concentrations compared to bioclast hosted glaucony. These variations can be explained by the physical properties of host grains and sea-floor redox conditions at the time of precipitation, both of which increased ionic mobility into the zone of glauconitisation. Solubility analysis showed that K^{+} was released from glaucony more rapidly than any other element. Additionally, decreasing the pH and introducing an oxidising agent (i.e, birnessite which is ubiquitous in soil environments) accelerated K^{+} release 13-fold. Trace metals including Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were present in the solid phase analysis, however further investigation revealed that these elements were released into solution in low concentrations and may present a source of micro-nutrients, not a soil contaminant. These results suggest that glaucony may offer a source of slow releasing K fertiliser, and the South Island of New Zealand is ideally situated as a place to consider using glaucony as a locally sourced, environmentally sustainable K resource for agriculture.

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  • How (Not?) to Adapt Chekhov: Adventures in Dramaturgy

    Ridley, Nathaniel (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Despite rapid growth of adaptation theory in the last two decades, there is a gap in the field. Books like Linda Hutcheon’s A Theory of Adaptation (2006) and Julie Sanders’ Adaptation and Appropriation (2006) approach adaptations from an audience’s perspective, describing the effects of the adaptation process and providing a robust taxonomy, identifying all of different forms that adaptation might take. They do not, however, describe the details of the process of adaptation itself, even though they often refer to the need for a process-oriented account of adaptation. Existing adaptation manuals focus on screen-writing, leaving someone with an interest in the specifics of adapting a play nowhere to turn. This paper begins to address this gap in the available knowledge by documenting the adaptation process involved in the creation of four new adaptations of Anton Chekhov's Uncle Vanya, targeted at a New Zealand audience. The experiments presented here confirm what is suggested by a survey of the reception of English-language adaptations of Chekhov: there is no single correct method for adapting a play. An adapter's greatest challenge can be identifying which strategy is appropriate for the conditions they face. This project experiments with different adaptive methods and strategies, developed by looking at other English-language Chekhov adaptations, including techniques of approximating the setting, language and themes to a target audience. I attempt to identify which methodologies will achieve the desired results, revealing a variety of different challenges, advantages and weaknesses inherent to each approach. Moreover, both the research and the experiments suggest how the success or failure of an adaptation depends on a variety of contextual factors, including the target audience's relationship with the adapted work, the dramaturgical characteristics of that work, and the abilities of the adapter.

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  • The effect of paramedic position on external chest compression quality: a simulation study

    Davey, Paul

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a globally important public health issue that continues to be a significant cause of premature death. The incidence of OHCA treated by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is around 50 to 55/100,000 per person-years across the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. There is significant disparity in the rates of survival to hospital discharge from OHCA. For OHCA treated by EMS this rate can vary as much as 1% to 31%. In order to improve outcomes for cardiac arrests the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) aims to integrate resuscitation science with real world clinical practice. ILCOR states there is a need to develop a culture of high quality resuscitation using a quality improvement approach. Survival from cardiac arrest is a complex issue with many stakeholders that form the basis of a system of care. ILCOR proposes that individual performance needs to be evaluated so that participants within the system of care are informed and can therefore effectively intervene to improve care Paramedics are the primary treatment providers for OHCA. Recently the resuscitation guidelines, which paramedics use in their practice, have emphasised the performance of quality chest compressions. With this in mind this thesis sought to investigate whether the position of the paramedic performing chest compressions, either from-the-side (FTS) or over-the-head (OTH), influenced the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A review literature identified only a few small studies in which OTH CPR was investigated over short durations. There was heterogeneity in the study design, types of participants and quality metrics measured with inconsistencies in the results across the studies. All of the studies identified in the review were manikin studies that used manikin-based technology, such as the Laerdal Skill Reporter (LSR), to measure the quality of CPR. Subsequent to these studies defibrillator technology has evolved and now devices that can measure CPR quality have been integrated into the defibrillator, an example of which is Q-CPR associated with the MRx defibrillator. Such devices enable measurement of CPR quality in both manikin and human studies. The first study (Chapter 3) investigated if the new defibrillator technology could be used to measure CPR quality in a manikin study. This study compared the measurement of CPR quality metrics simultaneously using LSR and Q-CPR, for chest compression performed OTH and FTS. The principle finding of this study was that there is no significant difference in the majority of chest compression quality metrics measured between the LSR and the Q-CPR devices. However, there were significant differences in the measurement of duty cycle and also the depth of compressions between the two devices. The mean difference in the depth of compression was observed to increase with an increasing incidence of leaning. The conclusion was that Q-CPR is a suitable alternative to LSR for measurement of the CPR quality and thus it was used in the main study. The main study compared OTH and FTS CPR quality (performed by 30 paramedics) during two simulated cardiac arrest scenarios, each of approximately 25 minutes duration. There was no significant difference in mean CPR quality between compressions performed OTH or FTS for all metrics measured. We concluded that for two rescuer CPR the composite technique, where the paramedic that is positioned at the head of the manikin performs OTH CPR, is an effective alternative to the traditional method of only performing CPR FTS.

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  • W. E. Gudgeon : his contribution to the annexation of the Cook Islands.

    Currie, Ernest Rowland (1963)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 90 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaf iv-v.

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  • Lesions of the Dorsal Medial Hippocampus induce different forms of Repetitive Behaviour in the rat

    Haq, Sahina (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The dorsal dentate gyrus (DDG) of the hippocampus plays a role in the expression of different forms of flexible behaviour mainly due to its ability to sustain neurogenesis throughout life. In the present thesis, we examined the role that the DDG and its adjacent areas, both collectively referred to as dorsal medial hippocampus (DMH), play in flexible, adaptive behaviour and cognitive processing. We used the neurotoxin, colchicine, to induce lesions of the DDG, which were found to affect neighbouring areas. Thus these lesions will be referred to as lesions of the DMH. In the first experiment, rats were tested for (1) perseverative behaviour before and after receiving chronic methamphetamine (METH) treatment, (2) METH-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy in an open field, and (3) working memory in a T-maze. The results showed that rats with lesions of the DMH exhibited perseveration and supersensitivity to the locomotor- and stereotypy-inducing effects of METH (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mg/kg i.p.) as well as increased long-term METH sensitization. Rats with DMH lesions also showed significant working memory deficits. Taken together, these results reveal specific forms of behavioural inflexibility in rats with lesions of the DMH that are mainly associated with perseveration, drug-related behaviours, including stimulant motor supersensitivity and drug sensitization, and impaired working memory functions.

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  • Developing alternative SCDDP implementations for hydro-thermal scheduling in New Zealand.

    Read, Rosemary Anne (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In a hydro-dominated system, such as New Zealand, the continual improvement and development of effective optimization and simulation software to inform decision making is necessary for effective resource management. Stochastic Constructive Dual Dynamic Programming (SCDDP) is a technique which has been effectively applied to the New Zealand system for optimization and simulation. This variant of Dynamic Programming (DP) allows optimization to occur in the dual space reducing the computational complexity and allows solutions from a single run to be formed as price signal surfaces and trajectories. However, any application of this method suffers from issues with computational tractability for higher reservoir numbers. Furthermore, New Zealand specific applications currently provide limited information on the system as they all use the same two-reservoir approximation of the New Zealand system. This limitation is of increasing importance with the decentralization of the New Zealand electricity sector. In this thesis we develop this theory with respect to two key goals: • To advance the theory surrounding SCDDP to be generalizable to higher reservoir numbers through the application of the point-wise algorithm explored in R. A. Read, Dye, S. & Read, E.G. (2012) to the stochastic case. • To develop at least two new and distinct two-reservoir SCDDP representations of the New Zealand system to provide a theoretical basis for greater flexibility in simulation and optimization of hydro-thermal scheduling in the New Zealand context.

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  • Moving beyond sustainability: To what extent does the Cradle to Cradle framework play a role within New Zealand's fashion industry?

    Dransfeld, Josephine Gisela (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Our planet is threatened by a rapidly changing climate, alarming resource depletion and a steadily rising population growth. This calls for intensified sustainable practices within businesses of all sizes and industries. In recent years this resulted in a wholly new model called the circular economy. Inherent to this is the Cradle to Cradle framework which seeks to design and create commodities in such a way that the impact on the environment, i.e. the carbon footprint is neutralised. Significant efforts are currently being undertaken in Europe and the United States in various sectors with a recent focus on transforming the fashion industry. The literature finds that that there is generally still little known in this area, there was barely any evidence of this change taking in New Zealand. The objective of this research is to explore this and to eventually build a theoretical understanding to what extent Cradle to Cradle plays a role within the fashion industry. This was achieved by employing the grounded theory method. Data was collected by conducting semi-structured interviews with owners-managers supplemented by secondary data such as sustainability reports. In line with grounded theory principles, open and selective coding, theoretical sampling and constant comparison were used to analyse all data within the Nvivo 10 Software. The theory showed that somewhat severe resource constraints and an occurring loss of transparency by outsourcing manufacturing operations to overseas locations impede the shift towards the circular economy at present. This research contributes to sustainable development literature by providing a comprehensive model of how the uptake of sustainable practices is influenced and dependent on multiple aspects and therefore fosters the understanding of a complex, intertwined and intransparent industry. Furthermore, this research benefits companies and business networks alike.

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  • Usability Assessment of a Powered Wheelchair Controller: How Impairments Affect Human Computer Interaction Based Tasks

    Horne, Rory Michael (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: Designing the user experience is a growing trend in product design; however this trend has not greatly benefited people with impairments and disabilities. There are no practical tools to broadly assist with this issue. There is a need for standardized measures to quantify impairment, a model to predict how designs may perform and a need for data regarding how people with impairments interact with consumer technology. Purpose: To conduct a usability analysis with an industry partner on their powered wheelchair controller using participants with varying impairments. The industry partner was seeking better insight into the benefits of formal user testing. Method: Forty consenting adults were given a score representing their level of impairment using six measures from the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). These measures were identified by the researcher to affect interaction with a device. Performance was measured by time taken to complete tasks, errors made, reported task difficulty and reported controller usability. Results: Performance was reduced in participants with a higher ICF score and age. An ICF score less than or equal to 2 was 117 times more likely to not complete the tasks, greater than or equal to 3 was not able to complete the experiment. Age >50 years took an average 79 seconds longer than <35 years to complete a task and reported greater difficulty, more errors and a lower usability for the controller. Implications: Low to moderate levels of impairment has a significantly negative effect on the usability of common devices. Difficulties were mostly cognitive with participants unable to create an accurate mental model of the system. Participants with lower performance tended to be overly optimistic about their abilities. Mistakes were the greatest source of error followed by lapses and almost no reported or observed slip errors. Original Contribution: The ICF has never been used as a metric for usability testing. This study successfully applied the ICF alongside other measures to prove its validity. Based on the results and current literature the Task Process Model was created to provide a simple and practical way to describe the interaction of people completing a task of basic to moderate complexity.

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  • Hearing aid satisfaction among adults with hearing impairment in New Zealand.

    Kengmana, Caitlin (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Introduction: This study investigated hearing aid (HA) satisfaction among adult with hearing impairment (HI) in New Zealand. This study aimed to answer three questions: 1) What are the current HA satisfaction levels amongst adult HA users in New Zealand? 2) How do the satisfaction findings of this study compare with other HA satisfaction data? 3) What client factors are related to HA satisfaction? Method: Participants were recruited prospectively. They completed a questionnaire prior to HA fitting and a questionnaire three months post-fitting. Information was collected on: age, gender, HA experience, HI severity, hearing ability, change in hearing ability, hearing handicap, communication self-efficacy, change in communication self-efficacy, HA self-efficacy, HA usage, and number of appointments. HA satisfaction was measured via the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire (SADL; Cox & Alexander, 1999). Results: Data were collected for 47 participants. Of these, 91.5% fell within or above the normative range for global satisfaction established by Cox & Alexander (1999). The mean SADL scores were predominantly high compared to previous research. Satisfaction with negative features of HAs was especially high in this study. However satisfaction with the service and cost of HAs was low compared to other research. SADL scores were found to significantly relate to age, gender, change in hearing ability, hearing handicap, communication self-efficacy, change in communication self-efficacy, and HA self-efficacy. Conclusions: Results differed from previous research indicating that HA satisfaction may differ over time and across countries. Assessing HA satisfaction in a comprehensive standardised way, as opposed to with a single-item measure, can help identify important related factors. Targeting identified variables such as communication and HA self-efficacy may lead to improved treatment efficacy.  

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  • Covalently anchored polymerisation initiator monolayers for polymer brush growth.

    Lankshear, Ethan Robert (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the covalent modification of carbon electrodes with a monolayer of polymerisation initiators and the growth of polymer brushes by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerisation (SI-ATRP). Monolayer modification was sought to preserve the underlying electrode properties and topography and to produce a well-organised layer from which the polymer brushes can be grown. This work investigated two approaches for immobilising a monolayer of polymerisation initiators. Firstly, the electrochemical grafting of protected aryl diazonium salts produced a covalently anchored monolayer of tether groups that can participate in subsequent amide coupling and click reactions, to covalently anchor the polymerisation initiator. Secondly, specific reactions between the electrode surface and appropriate polymerisation initiator derivatives have been used to covalently anchor the initiators. For most systems, electro-active ferrocene (Fc) groups were reacted with modified surfaces as model reactants to enable the electrochemical estimation of the surface concentration of the polymer initiator groups. Film thickness measurements of the ethynylaryl (Ar-Eth) monolayer were carried out using atomic force microscopy confirming a monolayer. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of bromine on most of the polymerisation initiator modified samples. Modification of surfaces with polymer brushes can introduce new surface properties, such as switchable wettability, while maintaining the underlying bulk substrate properties. This work focused on examining SI-ATRP at each of the polymerisation initiator monolayers, with the aim to identify the most promising system(s) for further investigation. Polymer brushes of poly(3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)-N,N’-dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide) (PMPDSAH) were grown from initiators tethered through the aryl diazonium salts modification procedure. Redox probe voltammetry and XPS analysis indicated that the grafting from polymerisation by the copper catalysed SI-ATRP was successful. Polymer brushes of poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA were grown from the Ar-Eth modified monolayer by three SI-ATRP procedures: a standard procedure, an electrochemically mediated SI-ATRP method and a one-pot copper catalysed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction and SI-ATRP reaction from the Ar-Eth monolayer. Redox probe voltammetry and AFM images provided evidence for the growth of polymer brushes by these three methods. The successful one-pot CuAAC/SI-ATRP reaction for simultaneous coupling of the polymerisation initiator to the surface and polymerisation is a new approach for the production of polymer brushes and it minimises the number of surface modification steps needed. This method appears most promising for further development.

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  • Accounting for thinking with reference to the deaf

    Long, D. S. (1975)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Faced with an apparent conflict between two approaches to the teaching of deaf children : (i) that we should teach deaf children a language so that they can think, and (ii) that we should teach deaf children to think so that they can then acquire a language - I have examined the assumptions about thinking assumed by these two schools of thought. Reductionists hold that thinking is nothing but such things as inner speech (they identify thinking with its expression). Duplicationists argue that this is an inadequate explication of the concept of thinking (that it is only half the story) and they argue that thinking is something else as well as its expression. If successful Duplicationism becomes an objection to Reductionism. Unfortunately it results in an infinite regress. A third alternative account of thinking (Ryle's Adverbial account) regards thinking as an adverbial characterization: thinking is the way or circumstances in which we perform certain diverse and neutral (vis-a-vis thinking) activities. By such an account the elements of thinking which Duplicationists accuse Reductionist of ignoring become conditional dispositions. I argue that they should be regarded as categorical dispositional ascriptions. Additionally Ryle assumes a "process" account of thinking when in point of fact an "episodic" account is required. The thesis concludes by arguing that we need an ontology sufficiently large to take in all the aspects of thinking and that in turn this will generate not one precept but a matrix of precepts for the education of the deaf.

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  • How to be a Prehistoric Weatherman: Using n-alkanes as a Proxy for Holocene Climate and Hydrology, Southwest South Island, New Zealand

    Burrington, Peter (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The latitudinal position and strength of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) plays a critical role in global CO2 air-sea flux and the distribution of rainfall in the southern mid-latitudes. Strengthening and southward shifting westerlies are thought to be reducing the efficiency of the Southern Ocean carbon sink, which has direct implications for modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Southern New Zealand intersects the northern margin of the SHWW belt, where a direct relationship exists between annual precipitation and zonal wind speeds. Reconstructing past hydrological variations from the southwest of the South Island (SWSI) can provide a regional record of climatic response to changing SHWW. A 5.4 m sediment core spanning the last 10.8 ka was recovered from South Mavora Lake, Southland. Magnetic susceptibility, bulk organic C and N isotopes and concentrations, and lipid biomarker (C21-C33 n-alkanes) concentrations, distributions, and hydrogen isotope values (δD) serve as proxies for change in lacustrine productivity, relative proportions of terrestrial and aquatic input, and hydrology. Modern SWSI meteoric water isotope values (δ18O, δD) collected over a 12-month period, and meteorlogical station data, show orographic rainout and air temperature are the primary drivers of hydrological isotope composition in SWSI. Downcore interpretation of data suggests a period of increased precipitation, rapid warming, and greater terrestrial input from 10.8-9.0 ka, likely corresponding to weaker westerly influence over SHWW. From 9.0-7.0 ka, decreasing δDn-alkanes shows gradual cooling, δ13C and ACL suggest increased aquatic productivity, and stratigraphy shows an increase in storm strength. From 7.0-5.1 ka δDn-alkanes and δ13C are characteristic of a relatively stable temperate climate, Paq and C/N ratios suggest a relatively humid environment, and stratigraphy showed an increase of storm events. From 5.1-3.6 ka δDn-alkanes showed a large cold excursion followed by gradual warming, Paq and stratigraphy reflected a significant increase in storm event frequency and strength, and an increase in ACL reflected the expansion of cool-moist Nothofagus menziesii into the region. From 3.6 ka to present δDn −alkanes showed a cooling trend to present day, likely related to strengthening of the SHWW, and low amplitude and frequency variation in Paq and decreased storm events signaled a gradual decrease in precipitation to modern day conditions.

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  • Predicting the Activation Time of a Concealed Sprinkler

    Suen, Yeou Wei (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research examined a heat transfer model to predict the activation time of a concealed sprinkler. Concealed sprinklers consist of two stages of activation. They include the release of cover plates from a recess housing and the breakage of the glass bulbs or melting of the solder links. The research analysis is divided into two sections. The first section includes the prediction of cover plate activation time (stage one) and the second section includes the prediction of glass bulb activation time (stage two). Each prediction result is compared with the experimental data conducted by Annable (2006) and Yu (2007). A lumped heat capacity method is introduced to predict the activation time of the cover plate. This method has been used for predicting the activation time of a standard pendent exposed sprinkler. It is reasonable to apply this method by assuming they are flush with the ceiling. The analysis results are compared based on the percentage of predicted and measured uncertainties. A recommendation is provided for which method is appropriate to apply to predicting the cover plate activation time. The proposed of using FDS5 simulations is to simulate the heat transfer to the sensing element (glass bulb only) within the recessed housing. The constructed simulation models comprises of ceiling within a compartment. The simulations of various sprinkler heads are performed to investigate any parameters that can potentially affect the activation time of the sprinklers. To simulate the glass bulb, combined thermal properties including glass and glycerine are modified to account for the differences in mass. Prior to stage two analysis, the FDS5 simulation was tested to predict the activation time of a standard pendent exposed sprinkler. The results showed positive progress to carry onto the next analysis. In stage two analysis, the simulations are constructed with and without the presence of vent holes within the recess housing. The combined activation time for concealed sprinklers show lack of solid predictions compared to the experimental data especially Yu experimental data.

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  • An Investigation into the Classroom Interactions of Twice Exceptional Students in Comparison to their Typically Developing Peers

    Lewis, Taryn (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Students who meet criteria for both being intellectually gifted and having a disability are known by the term ‘twice exceptional’. To date there is little known about the classroom interactions of these students, and how these interactions impact their developing self-esteem. The interactions of four gifted primary school students with identified learning difficulties (twice exceptional) were observed along with four matched typically developing students and their teacher during normal classroom teaching activities. The number and type of positive, negative, neutral or no response interactions were recorded over four, one hour observation sessions. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was then administered to the four twice exceptional and four comparison students. Results indicated that there was little difference between the twice exceptional and comparison students in terms of number of interactions recorded, with the twice exceptional students showing slightly more positive interactions with their teacher and peers. All four twice exceptional students reported lower self-esteem levels than their matched peers, with two students being in the low range. The results suggested that these four twice exceptional students were interacting in a manner similar to their typically developing peers, although they displayed lower self-esteem levels. The implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.

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  • Exploring the Role of the Customer in the Fuzzy Front End of Innovation

    Harker, Liam (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The early stages of development for new advanced technologies are notoriously difficult to navigate and manage effectively in such a way that leads to successful commercial application. This paper explores how the use of flexible and exploratory frameworks based in customer engagement can provide valuable insights into how advanced technologies can be developed to solve validated market problems. The paper reflects on the challenges faced and lessons taken from our practical experience using this approach to develop advanced technologies emerging from within Victoria University of Wellington.

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  • Static animation: an exploration into the ambiguous boundaries of Little Red Riding Hood through an illustrative typographic inquiry within animation

    Ryan, Sarah Patricia

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This practice-led thesis explores the ways in which a narrative can create a sense of the macabre, which instills the sense of fear of death, through an investigation of the relationship between illustration and typography. The research takes the traditional children’s folk tale Little Red Riding Hood as a reference for this investigation. The research invites a rethinking of the notion of the narrative through an examination of the relationship between static and moving image developed through an illustrative and typographical short animation. It also questions the potential of how illustration and typography interact within a children’s folk tale as part of the visual narrative, and how these elements can add a subliminal component to the static animation. Contradictions between text and image is a re-occurring theme within this thesis as the idea of pairing something threatening with something nonthreatening can also help in imprinting an unsettled or disturbed feeling in the viewer. This thesis also explores the idea of the psychoanalytic gaze, and how ideas put forth through the narratology code help to develop the sense of the macabre through story telling techniques and camera movement. The combination of these elements raise questions and provoke a rethinking of a cherished childhood folk tale.

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  • Hybrid Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Benge, Kathryn Ruth (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis investigates the chemistry of ammonia borane (NH₃BH₃) relevant to the development of hydrogen storage systems for vehicular applications. Because of its high hydrogen content and low molecular weight ammonia borane has the potential to meet stringent gravimetric hydrogen storage targets of >9 wt%. Two of the three moles of H₂ in ammonia borane can be released under relatively mild conditions, with the highest gravimetric yield obtained in the solid-state. However, ammonia borane does not deliver sufficient H₂ at practical temperatures and the products formed upon H₂ loss are not amenable to regeneration back to the parent compound. The literature synthesis of ammonia borane was modified to facilitate large scale synthesis, and the deuterated analogues ND₃BH₃ and NH₃BD₃ were prepared for the purpose of mechanistic studies. The effect of lithium amide on the kinetics of dehydrogenation of ammonia borane was assessed by means of solid-state reaction in a series of specific molar ratios. Upon mixing lithium amide and ammonia borane, an exothermic reaction ensued resulting in the formation of a weakly bound adduct with an H₂N...BH₃-NH₃ environment. Thermal decomposition at or above temperatures of 50◦C of this phase was shown to liberate >9 wt% H₂. The mechanism of hydrogen evolution was investigated by means of reacting lithium amide and deuterated ammonia borane isotopologues, followed by analysis of the isotopic composition of evolved gaseous products by mass spectrometry. From these results, an intermolecular multi-step reaction mechanism was proposed, with the rates of the first stage strongly dependent on the concentration of lithium amide present. Compounds exhibiting a BN₃ environment (identi-fied by means of solid-state ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy) were formed during the first stage, and subsequently cross link to form a non-volatile solid. Further heating of this non-volatile solid phase ultimately resulted in the formation of crystalline Li₃BN₂ - identified by means of powder X-ray diffractometry. This compound has been identified as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its lightweight and theoretically high hydrogen content. It may also be amenable to hydrogen re-absorption. The LiNH₂/CH₃NH₂BH₃ system was also investigated. Thermal decomposition occurred through the same mechanism described for the LiNH₂/NH₃BH₃ system to theoretically evolve >8 wt% hydrogen. The gases evolved on thermal decomposition were predominantly H₂ with traces of methane detected by mass spectrometry.

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