14,011 results for Masters

  • Content based authentication of Visual Cryptography

    Wang, Guangyu

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Visual Cryptography (VC) is perceived and studied as a perfect combination of secret sharing and digital image processing. The basic idea of VC is to split original secret image into several partitions which are also called shares. VC schemes include basic VC, grayscale VC, colour VC and multi-secret VC etc. Despite the security nature of VC in secret sharing, one of the common problems of current application of VC shares is that it lacks authentication. Previous related researches have proven the possibility of VC cheating through different methods. Attackers are able to complete both cheating and modification on VC process without being noticed by VC participants. Currently available authentication schemes for VC are derived from the view of utilizing additional shares and blind authentication. This research analyses effective authentication methods using 2D barcodes and embedding binary codes into VC shares for authentication purpose. A scheme of embedding 2D barcodes into VC shares to prevent cheating will be presented to enhance the use of VC in implementation. The embedding process includes four steps: resolution adaption, image matching and replacement, barcode selection and secret recovery. The aim of this research is to propose a method of embedding 2D barcode into VC shares, thereby strengthening the cheat prevention ability of VC shares by applying the security feature of 2D barcode into VC. As an international standard of reading guidance for the blind people, Braille has been widely used as an effective communication channel. In this thesis, we will also explain Braille encoding and explain how it is applied to handle the authentication problem in VC. Similar to the use of 2D barcode in VC, the utilization of Braille in VC is also attributed to the similarity of structure and construction between Braille cells and VC shares. Even though the research of visual cryptography is based on the combination of image processing and cryptography, knowledge of VC authentication related to digital image processing and cryptography has not been fully utilized in the past years. In this thesis, the analysis of both visual features and cryptographic features of VC will be presented and utilized to assist VC authentication. The visual features of VC in this thesis include moments, histogram, centroid, entropy and Tamura Texture. Compared to those existing methods, the contribution of this research is to propose an authentication scheme of integrate those features with Hash code and digital signature so as to be embedded into VC shares.

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  • No Longer/Not Yet: lacuna and dissemination in practice

    Meyle, Lucy

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This drawing project presently considers relationships between traditional elements of comics, and provisional, abstract painting. (Apparently) casual gestures are produced by labour-intensive means as ‘printed materials’, that are then dispersed. The concepts of lacuna and dissemination are key to this project for thinking through ideas of dispersion, production, and supplementation. The gaps between words/images and expectation/reality are used to disrupt normative ways of constructing meaning. The project infiltrates the public and the private: traveling into homes, getting lost, destroyed, pinned up, or thrown out. The categories of ‘original’ and ‘reproduction’ are purposefully blurred as a method to challenge the autonomy and value of images. As the work moves out into the world, how might it interact or disrupt an everyday experience in socio-political spaces?

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  • Luxury for oneself or luxury for others? Exploring the underlying emotions behind inconspicuous luxury consumption

    Makkar, Marian

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The field of luxury has been widely examined due to the financial advancement the industry has experienced over the last 10 years. Scholars have studied its antecedents by utilising attitude-behavioural models to discover consumers’ motivations to purchase luxury goods. However, research is scarce in understanding the different kinds of luxury brand signals and consumption involved, specifically the inconspicuous and conspicuous kind. This research focuses on inconspicuous luxury consumption with the aim of deepening insights around what related emotions are involved in this consumption preference, why do they experience them and how do they deal with them. Additionally, this study explores non-financial assets such as cultural capital and social capital and how these may emotionally drive inconspicuous consumers to purchase certain levels of luxury brand signals. Utilising an exploratory and qualitative approach, in-depth interviews with 10 luxury consumers in Dubai with inconspicuous preferences were undergone and thematic analysis was used for analysis and interpretation. Themes uncovered revealed that consumers go through a process of planning their luxury journey by pre-evaluating their choices of luxury conspicuousness. They exercise their active roles in the process and experience the choices they make and finally post-evaluate these choices. Emotions were revealed to have an important role in every part of this process, which dictates their behaviours, moving them on to the next stage of their journey. They experience these emotions because of the non-financial resources (social and/or cultural capital) they deem important to them. As they exercise their consumer choice, they experience positive, negative or mixed experiential emotions depending on whether it met their expectations. If it has, they are then able to enjoy their luxuries because it offers them symbolic schemas that complete their internal and external needs and extensions of themselves. After evaluating their experienced emotions throughout the journey, they begin the cycle once again by choosing inconspicuous luxury brands that positively elevates their emotions. It is interesting to note that inconspicuous luxury consumers demonstrate several characteristics based on their social and cultural capital, which have not been identified before in past literature. This research uncovers six groupings yielding a typology of inconspicuous luxury consumers: fashion influencers, trendsetters, fashion followers, fashion indifferent, cultural conservatives and habitual buyers. They not only desire inconspicuous luxury brands for its aesthetic beauty, functionality and quality but because it asserts their different roles in society. The usefulness of the typology is demonstrated through links to emotions and levels of social and/or cultural capital and its applications to consumption levels of inconspicuous luxury goods (i.e. highly inconspicuous versus lower inconspicuous levels). Findings offer theoretical implications in terms of luxury consumption and brand signalling and a deeper understanding into what can only be described as exploratory insights into the lives of inconspicuous luxury consumers. Further research in this line of work is needed to better uncover how emotions have a powerful role in luxury consumers’ decision-making process. Managerial implications for luxury retail management and communications of the brand are also explained to assist in the conception and development process of future luxury brands and designs to better segment and target different desired markets.

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  • He Marae Ora, He Marae Manawaroa: exploring the resilience in a Marae which has survived without gaming machine proceeds funding

    Thompson-Evans, Te Pora

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Quality funding that is clear of repercussion and ethical questioning is fundamental to marae development and whaanau wellbeing. With more and more communities becoming reliant on Gaming machine funding with little regard to the communities from which the funds were first generated. Gaming machines situated outside of casino are predominately located within low socio-economic, deprived and vulnerable neighbourhoods. Although the people within these neighbourhoods are least economically resourced, they are more than likely to be the greatest financial contributors to the gaming machine pool of funds. Problem gambling is a growing concern for such neighbourhoods and communities. Furthermore and quite often it is Maaori who make up a large portion of these communities and are again likely to suffer great harm from problem gambling, alongside their whaanau. To date studies have not yet considered in great depth the implications of receiving gambling funds from gaming machines. This eclectic kaupapa Maaori research study explored the resilience in marae who survived without the need for gambling funds from gaming machines. In-depth semi-structured interviewed were conducted with eight marae committee members of Te Iti o Hauaa marae in the Waikato region. The findings indicated that traditions of tikanga, tapu and mauri were the greatest factors that enabled and maintained a decision-making process by which gambling and the taking of gambling funds especially those from pokie machines has been disallowed on the marae for over one hundred years. The marae funding model in the form of four pou draws on whanaungatanga and relationship linkages the marae has established within the marae itself, the wider iwi and its kinship ties and also the relationship linkages to the community and government. Ethical issues relating to harms to whaanau also arose as a significant theme to not accepting gaming machine funding. Participants discussed their use of succession planning through building the capacity of their generations towards self-determinations has enabled the marae to sustain their operations and development with no funding sought outside their model. This study concludes that utilising such a model of funding based on tikanga values and ensuring succession planning to build social capital, community cohesion and participation may very well enable more marae to reduce and eliminate their reliance on gaming machine funding

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  • Effects of FUX on gemcitabine sensitivity in lung cancer cells

    Lu, Wei

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Lung cancer has accounted for the most deaths from cancer (19.2% of all cancer deaths) in registered cancer cases in New Zealand. At present lung cancer treatment is inadequate, as patients treated with the front-line drugs, such as gemcitabine, rapidly develop drug resistance by decreasing cellular accumulation and/or avoiding apoptosis. Fucoxanthin (FUX), extracted from edible seaweed such as Undaria pinnatifida, has recently been reported to inhibit membrane drug efflux transporters (ABC transporters) and induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Previous studies in AUT have defined FUX extracted from New Zealand Undaria pinnitifida with anti-cancer properties by using in vitro cell models. FUX has been reported to have few adverse effects in some animal models. We hypothesize that FUX may be a safe sensitizer to reverse gemcitabine resistance in lung cancer cells by increasing cellular accumulation of gemcitabine. The primary objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of FUX to reverse gemcitabine resistance in human lung cancer cell lines. The secondary objective of current study is to investigate the mechanisms of FUX actions if FUX may potentiate gemcitabine sensitivity. The third objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of FUX on modifying gemcitabine toxicity in two typical normal human cell lines. Several types of human cell lines were used in this study including a lung carcinoma cell line A549, and two typical normal human cell lines embryonic kidney cell HEK293 and adult dermal fibroblasts (HDFa). Anti-proliferative effects were determined by 48-hr and 72-hr MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. As a single agent, either gemcitabine or FUX showed concentration-dependant inhibition of lung cancer proliferation in 72-hr MTT assays, with IC50 values of 9nM and 13μM, respectively. FUX increases gemcitabine sensitivity in an NSCLC cell line, A549 cell in a time and concentration dependant manner. Indeed, the 72-hr IC50 value for gemcitabine was only 3.9nM in the presence of 8μM FUX, which was decreased by 59% when comparing with control (P< 0.05). More importantly, FUX has no apparent effects on gemcitabine toxicity in two typical cell lines representing normal human tissues. It would be expected that FUX may represent a unique sensitizer, which may turn a less effective anti-cancer drug into an exceptional one. To elucidate the mechanisms of action of FUX, it is necessary to carry out a mechanistic study to investigate if FUX changes the intracellular gemcitabine accumulation in A549 cells. To determine gemcitabine in A549 cellular homogenates, an HPLC method has been developed and validated. In this study, while gemcitabine cannot be separated sufficiently from the cellular interferences using a conventional C18 column, aphenyl-hexyl column was found to be efficient to achieve better separation for quantitation of gemcitabine. This is because that separation using the phenyl column is conducted via the π electron, which in this case utilizes the π-π interaction between the phenyl group π electron and the analyte's π electron. Validation data indicates that the method is sensitive and reliable, with acceptable accuracy (85-115% of true values) and precision (CV < 15%). The assay specificity was indicated by the absence of interfering chromatographic peaks in cellular homogenates, and the LOQ of the assay was 0.5 μM. Calibration curves for gemcitabine were linear with the mean correlation coefficients > 0.987. This method has the advantage of being relatively rapid and efficient, with the retention time of gemcitabine separated from the substances in cellular homogenates. Therefore, this HPLC method is suitable for gemcitabine measurement in A549 cellular homogenates studies. Cellular accumulation studies suggest uptake of gemcitabine may reach equilibrium after 4-hr in the presence or absence of FUX. FUX (10 μM) shows the potentials to increase the steady-state accumulation of gemcitabine in A549 cells. However, it does not affect the initial cellular uptake of gemcitabine in A549 cells. While this mechanistic research provides some clues to elucidate the effects of FUX on gemcitabine accumulation, more details about the exact mechanisms of its action, are warranted for further studies in the future. However, a major limitation of this HPLC method is a lack of detection of gemcitabine metabolites. The cytotoxic action of gemcitabine has been attributed to inhibition of DNA synthesis by dFdCDP and dFdCTP. The HPLC method described in this study may not be suitable to simultaneously measure these active metabolites. Thus it is worthwhile to determine the cellular pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and its metabolites in A549 cells and other NSCLC cells simultaneously by using an LC-MS/MS system. In conclusion, fucoxanthin increases gemcitabine sensitivity to A549 cancer cell lines, and more importantly, it has no apparent effects on gemcitabine toxicity in two typical cell lines representing normal human tissues. It would be expected that FUX may represent a unique sensitizer, which may turn a less effective anti-cancer drug into an exceptional one.

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  • Teenage girls' daily engagement with mass media: implications for identity construction and well-being

    Gooch, Andrea

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    A process of identity formation often defines teenage years where young people transition into adulthood. Multiple factors such as family environment and sociocultural context contribute to shaping teen girls’ identities, what they believe in and how they see themselves as fitting into the world around them. Mass media plays a big part in constructing social realities, often depicting narrow and limited depictions of masculinity, femininity and ideal girlhood. Young people, who may have less experience and critical awareness when it comes to media messages, may take on stereotypical or problematic images as representing reality. This research project explores from a social constructionist perspective, teenage girls daily engagement with the mass media and the implications of this for their identity construction, health, and well-being. Six face-to-face interviews were conducted with teen girls aged between 14 and 17 years old. These girls were asked to collect media images over one week and their responses to these images were discussed. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted and four dominant themes were identified within the talk: ‘It’s all about appearance’; ‘Attracting the boys’; “Inspirational content”; and ‘The pressure to be “trendy”. These themes are discussed demonstrating the difficult terrain teen girls face in navigating the vast and pervasive nature of mass media in constructing their personal identity. Further research is necessary into the nature of teen girls’ engagement with mass media with comparative data required from a teen boy population to expand and support initial insights gained from this project.

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  • Pursuing Self-determined Responses to Climate Change in the Cook Islands: Exploring the Interface between Government Organisational Directive and Local Community Engagement with Climate Change Adaptation

    Lusk, Anabel (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Small island communities are considered to be amongst the most ‘at-risk’ populations in the world to the impacts of climate change. Global, regional and national entities have framed the plight of Pacific communities through climate change discourses. This study contributes to an emerging line of inquiry that investigates how applying the concepts of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘resilience’ to frame communities might contribute to community empowerment, or marginalisation. Focused on the institutional setting of the ‘Strengthening the Resilience of our Islands and our Communities to Climate Change Programme’ (SRIC Programme), this thesis explores the engagement between government organisations of the Cook Islands and communities of Aitutaki to form adaptation responses to climate change. Qualitative methodologies coupled with Pasifika methodologies provide a culturally responsive approach to the research. This approach accommodated local narratives and indigenous knowledges throughout the study. The findings from semi-structured interviews suggest that Cook Islands government organisations increasingly frame Aitutaki communities through the concept of ‘resilience’. Interviews with community representatives suggest that Aitutaki communities use indigenous knowledges to make sense of changes in their local environment, without always understanding the science-based notions of climate change. Engagement approaches such as ‘knowledge sharing’, could offer a pathway to increasing community autonomy and confidence in climate change discussions, whilst also contributing to enhancing socio-ecological resilience. To maintain a ‘critical’ political ecology approach, governmentality theory was used to explain how power relations might be embedded in resilience discourse. Insight is offered into how the government-community relationship could enable ‘technologies of government’ as the SRIC Programme progresses. It is suggested that the social conditions of Aitutaki communities could pose sites of resistance to governmentality. Recently implemented, the SRIC Programme demonstrates potential for supporting self-determined responses to climate change and enhancing socio-ecological resilience in Aitutaki.

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  • Fostering new spaces: Celebrating and growing a diverse economy in Cape Town, South Africa

    Hosking, Emma Noëlle (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis explores and celebrates diverse understandings and experiences of the economy through the narratives of four people working in Cape Town, South Africa. The diversity and multiplicity of the economy has been made invisible by a capitalocentric economic discourse which casts alternative ways of being as uncredible and weak. Thus, from a post-development/community economy perspective, I seek to foster a space in which non-conventional economic and political practices are seen as relevant and valid sites for action, where hope for a better future can be enabled. Living in the segregated city of Cape Town, I began to question the polemic framing of the country‟s “two economies”, a framing which disregards the actions of ordinary people who are improving the well-being of their communities directly, in favour of neoliberal pro-growth strategies. Therefore, I interrogate the binaries used to describe the economy and scale of action so as reimagine other possible trajectories for transformation. In so doing, I trace some of the relational connections that the participants articulated and employed on a daily basis so as to foster a sense of place beyond dualistic notions of scale and politics. I also contend that if we are to appreciate the community economy as a significant and persistent site of struggle, there is a need to understand politics as happening beyond the horizon of direct mobilisation. Through these reframings I work to reinsert the experiences and perspectives of spatially and economically marginalised people and places into implications in broader issues. I approach this research from a post-structural, feminist stance, not only to deconstruct the supposed dominance of the capitalist economy, but also to contribute to a project of growing a diverse economic discourse and enabling people to occupy this terrain and reclaim their agency. Hence, using ethnographic and visual collaborative methodologies I aim to promote and value the agency and autonomy of ordinary people who are performing, dreaming, enacting, connecting and enabling a broad horizon of opportunities in hybrid, multi-scalar ways. Therefore, alongside its conceptual contribution of enabling other economic possibilities, I hope that this thesis adds to a conversation about the need for methodologies to be realised as part of a broader movement towards transformation and change.

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  • Customers' expectations of hotel green marketing: a New Zealand quantitative study

    Mat Yusof, Noor Amalina

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Tourists’ perceptions of destination impacts and environmental consequences of their visits to destinations likely play a central role in travel decision-making (Lee, Hsu, Han, & Kim, 2010) . Their demands for environmentally friendly products encourage hotels to react accordingly by participating in the ‘green movement’ and committing to green marketing strategies that require both financial and non-financial support. With a developing demand for environmentally friendly products and hotels, the purchasing of green products by customers should be increasing, but recently the actual purchasing of these products seems to have declined. Green marketing is proposed to neutralise negative perceptions towards green practices (Rex & Bauman 2007) This study therefore investigates customer perceptions of green marketing strategies and activities. Particularly, this study examines green marketing related activities with two main objectives: (1) explore hotel customers’ opinions of green marketing strategies and (2) explore hotel customer expectations of environmental best practices within green hotels. Focusing on the New Zealand context, this study aims to assist green hoteliers to better develop green marketing to improve such initiatives in the hotel industry. Customer perceptions are explored utilising the four Ps of the marketing mix: product, price, promotion and place. A quantitative case study approach to the research is used. In particular, a self-administered questionnaire was given to delegates who attended an environmental-related conference in Auckland in 2014. Respondents were expected to have informed knowledge about the environment and hotel green marketing programmes. This knowledge was expected to provide insights to help marketers develop better green marketing strategies. As explained in the results chapter, respondents acknowledged certain green marketing strategies as effective, neutral or ineffective. Effective strategies were those in which green products were seen as special, those that used internet technology to disseminate green initiatives to customers, where green practices were undertaken at the premises, where appropriate business partners were used, where environmentally friendly distribution channels (from vendors to customers) were used, and where the overall image was believed to encourage customers to purchase green products at a green hotel. The functionality of eco-labels in green promotions was perceived neutrally. Some respondents acknowledged the importance of these eco-labels as quality assurance, while others perceived them as uninteresting promotional strategies. The ineffective green marketing strategy was pricing strategy; respondents expressed their particular dislike of being charged extra for green products. The results also produced a surprise finding; in spite of viewing green products as special, respondents also believed green products may harm human health. In terms of green practices, generally respondents favoured tangible practices. However, they mostly preferred practices in which they could participate (e.g. recycling programmes, linen and towel re-use programmes), those which they were involved with at home (e.g. recycling programmes, linen and towel re-use programmes, using green cleaning products) and those which were convenient for them while staying at a hotel. These findings can assist hoteliers to review their current green marketing strategies and develop better ones to persuade green customers to purchase green products. In terms of the academic literature, results of this study were successful in their aim of adding new knowledge to the green marketing research area.

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  • Interactive evolutionary computation in design applications for virtual worlds

    Kruse, Jan

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Modern films, games and virtual reality are highly dependent on convincing computer graphics. Models of high complexity are a requirement for the successful delivery of many animated scenes and environments. While workflows such as rendering, compositing and animation have been streamlined to accommodate increasing demands, modelling of complex models is still a laborious and costly task. This research introduces the computational benefits of Interactive Genetic Algorithms to computer graphics modelling while compensating the negative effects of user fatigue, a commonly found issue with Interactive Evolutionary Computation. A multi-agent system is used to integrate Genetic Algorithms with computational agents and human designers. This workflow accelerates the layout and distribution of basic elements to form highly complex models. It captures the designer’s intent through interaction, and encourages playful discovery. A modelling pipeline integrating commercially available tools with Human-based Genetic Algorithms is implemented, and a Renderman Interface Bytestream (RIB) archive output is realized to provide easy adaptability for research and industry applications. Comparisons between Interactive Genetic Algorithms and Human-based Genetic Algorithms applied to procedural modelling of computer graphics cities indicate that an agent-based evolutionary approach outperforms a purely human-centric solution: More iterations are possible in less time, which ultimately leads to better results and a superior user experience. Based on initial testing, a range of suggestions for future investigation are given.

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  • High-Rate Space-Time Block Codes in Frequency-Selective Fading Channels

    Chu, Alice Pin-Chen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The growing popularity of wireless communications networks has resulted in greater bandwidth contention and therefore spectrally efficient transmission schemes are highly sought after by designers. Space-time block codes (STBCs) in multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems are able to increase channel capacity as well as reduce error rate. A general linear space-time structure known as linear dispersion codes (LDCs) can be designed to achieve high-data rates and has been researched extensively for flat fading channels. However, very little research has been done on frequency-selective fading channels. The combination of ISI, signal interference from other transmitters and noise at the receiver mean that maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) requires high computational complexity. Detection schemes that can mitigate the signal interference can significantly reduce the complexity and allow intersymbol interference (ISI) equalization to be performed by a Viterbi decoder. In this thesis, detection of LDCs on frequency-selective channels is investigated. Two predominant detection schemes are investigated, namely linear processing and zero forcing (ZF). Linear processing depends on code orthogonality and is only suited for short channels and small modulation schemes. ZF cancels interfering signals when a sufficient number of receive antennas is deployed. However, this number increases with the channel length. Channel decay profiles are investigated for high-rate LDCs to ameliorate this limitation. Performance improves when the equalizer assumes a shorter channel than the actual length provided the truncated taps carry only a small portion of the total channel power. The LDC is also extended to a multiuser scenario where two independent users cooperate over half-duplex frequency-selective channels to achieve cooperative gain. The cooperative scheme transmits over three successive block intervals. Linear and zero-forcing detection are considered.

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  • Collateral exposure: the additional dose from radiation treatment

    Fricker, Katherine (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    For patients receiving radiation therapy, there is a risk of developing radiation induced carcinomas, especially if they have a long life expectancy. However, radiotherapy is not the only contributor of radiation exposure to healthy tissue. With the introduction of highly conformal treatment techniques comes the increase in pretreatment imaging necessary to accurately target tumour volumes and consequently, radiation exposure to healthy tissue. In this work the radiation dose delivered to radiosensitive organs from a number of treatment planning techniques was evaluated and the risk of radiation induced cancer was assessed. MOSFET detectors and Gafchromic film were used to measure the accumulative concomitant dose to the thyroid and contralateral breast from early stage breast carcinoma radiotherapy and to the contralateral testis from seminoma radiotherapy, with dose contributions from CT imaging for treatment planning, pretreatment imaging (CBCT) and treatment delivery peripheral dose. To the author's knowledge this is the first work investigating the total concomitant treatment related dose and associated risk to these treatment sites. Peripheral dose contributed the largest concomitant dose to the healthy tissue, measuring up to 0.7, 1.0 and 5.0 Gy to the testis, thyroid and contralateral breast, respectively. The highest testicular, thyroid and contralateral breast carcinoma risk was found to be 0.4, 0.2 and 1.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the risk of radiation induced carcinoma to the assessed radiosensitive tissues was found to be minimal, however, when considering treatment techniques and/or introducing pretreatment imaging protocols, the dose to the normal tissue should be kept as low as reasonably achievable.

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  • A correlational study of cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise

    Moore, Sara Louise (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Patients with an impaired reflexive cough response are at increased risk of pneumonia. This study examined the correlation between cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise. Eighty patients referred for a radiographic assessment of swallowing at an acute hospital over an 8-month period participated in the study. Nebulised citric acid diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride was inhaled through a facemask at four concentrations to assess cough sensitivity. These data were then compared to Penetration Aspiration Scale scores based on radiographic swallowing studies. There was a statistically significant correlation between cough response/lack of response and the radiographic features of airway compromise; that is, patients who had a weak or absent response to inhalation of citric acid were also likely to aspirate silently during radiographic assessment. Sensitivity for identifying absent cough was found to be high at all 4 concentrations (0.750, 0.833, 0.941, 1.000), however specificity was consistently quite low (0.344, 0.456, 0.238, 0.078). The significant findings of this research suggest that clinicians adopting cough reflex testing into their clinical practice will have a reliable screen for silent aspiration at bedside. Clinicians will be able to identify patients who require instrumental assessment and are at high risk of pneumonia. This will likely, in turn, decrease length and cost of hospital admissions as well as decrease aspiration pneumonia related morbidities.

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  • God wills it? A comparison of Greek and Latin theologies of warfare during the Medieval period.

    Newman, Timothy John (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The history of the Church’s participation in, and attitudes towards warfare have been well-documented in several fields of research. The development of the doctrine of just war and the medieval crusades within Western Christianity, have been the subject of a considerable amount of scholarship. There has also recently been an increasing amount of research done by historians, theologians and political theorists comparing the status of warfare within the Christian and Islamic traditions. However, the current state of the historiography is focused almost entirely on Western Christianity, and does not address in any depth the attitudes toward warfare present in Eastern Christianity within the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages. This thesis seeks to address this historiographical imbalance by comparing the development of the Eastern and Western Church’s positions on warfare throughout the medieval period. The thesis examines the factors that led to the divergence of the two Churches’ attitudes towards warfare, and the development and impact of their differing theologies during the medieval period. It is argued that the fundamental point of divergence between the Eastern and Western Church’s attitude to warfare is linguistic and theological in nature. The linguistic differences between the Greek and Latin Churches, led to different theological interpretive frameworks regarding the subject of warfare. These different fundamental theological assumptions would lead the two Churches down different developmental paths and would prevent the development or acceptance of Western theories of just war and holy war in the Eastern Church.

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  • A home away from home? : the transitions of older people within two new zealand retirement villages.

    Hayward, Christine R (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores the experiences of retirement village residents as they move from an independent to a supported living environment within a retirement village. It focuses on residents’ perceptions of their transitions and adopts a qualitative approach to understand the nature of their transitions and the way in which they are experienced. A grounded theory framework is used in order to capture the meanings that participants apply to concepts such as home, and to the physical, social, personal and veiled spaces in which they live. The findings from the study reveal that as residents’ health fails, the impact of increasing dependence is such that their sense of social and personal autonomy is gradually eroded. The research also provides insights into residents’ expectations and fears surrounding end of life. In many ways the experiences of the residents in supported living environments do not differ greatly from those of residents in any aged care facility. One major finding of this research, however, is the debilitating impact on well-being that occurs as a consequence of these transitions from independent to supported living, taking place within one physical location – the retirement village – a physical space which promises prospective residents the opportunity for active and positive ageing.

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  • The effects of a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness intervention on the positive peer interactions of primary school aged children

    Mueller, Tara (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research suggests that pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities are necessary for healthy child development and are prerequisites for interacting in the school classroom in ways that avoid disruption and distress. Children without pro-social skills struggle to engage in positive social interaction with peers and may respond disruptively to classroom challenges. Increasing concerns in schools regarding problem behaviour displayed by students such as kicking, hitting and talking out of turn have been reported in the research. These behaviours often lead to a disruptive classroom environment, negative peer interaction and, according to teachers, remain the most challenging aspect of classroom management. Schools typically deal with problem behaviour by implementing rules and expectations for desired student behaviour. While these expectation-focused approaches have shown some positive effects, they do not directly teach skills for positive interaction and effective self-management of emotions. Conflict resolution education and mindfulness programmes have shown positive effects for improved pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities in children. This thesis describes a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness group intervention that was implemented in one primary school classroom with children aged between six and seven years. The intervention involved teaching children four skills for effective conflict resolution and self-regulation over a period of four weeks. Repeated measures and teacher ratings of positive and negative peer interaction were used to assess programme effects. A single case AB replication design was used. The repeated measures findings indicated no change in positive or negative peer interactions for all nine focus children. Teacher reports of behaviour related to positive and negative peer interaction for all children in the classroom showed good effects. Possible reasons for the lack of change in the repeated measures findings include the young age of the children and an insufficient number of sessions and skill practice opportunities.

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  • The state and income redistribution: a study of the social wage and taxation in New Zealand 1949-1975

    Reveley, J. W. C. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the role of the state in redistributing income between social classes in New Zealand during the years 1949-1975. It applies an innovative methodology, developed by E. Ahmet Tonak, to a set of data drawn from New Zealand's national accounts and estimates a quantity labelled 'net-tax', defined as the taxes that the working class cede to the state less the expenditure that the working class receives from the state in the form of a social wage. A detailed theoretical discussion precedes the empirical analysis. Insofar as Tonak's method requires that the social wage (the portion of state expenditure consumed by the working class) be identified as an empirical quantity, the argument that all taxes, and hence all state expenditures, originate from surplus value is confronted. The views of the main representatives of this contemporary school of thought are subjected to detailed scrutiny. They are rejected in favour of the views of a school which considers the portion of taxes funding the state expenditure that constitutes the social wage to originate in 'wages'. A model which theoretically 'grounds' the comparison of taxes paid to state expenditure received, effected in the remaining chapters of this study, is then formulated. In the empirical analysis, the empirical referent of the 'net-tax' concept is calculated for the years 1949-1975. The net-tax data set is then used to construct a transference ratio, which indicates the degree and direction of income redistribution effected by the state. The main finding to emerge is that, in all but one of the twenty-seven years surveyed in this study, the working class has surrendered more wealth in taxes to the state than it has received back from the state as a social wage. In light of these results, it can be concluded that the welfare state has not materially benefitted the working class in New Zealand. Moreover, insofar as income has consistently been redistributed from the working class to 'non-labour' (the capitalist class and the state itself), the state can be considered to owe the working class a debt in the amount of 3671.26 million (constant 1975) dollars.

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  • Shift happens? exploring the exception question in solution-focused therapy.

    Henson, Kay Jennifer (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Solution-focused therapy is appropriate for students in secondary schools as it works to revive children’s problem solving abilities. A key technique in solution-focused therapy involves asking the client the Exception Question, that is, inviting them to consider and talk about a time when their problem is or was less severe and dealt with in a satisfactory way. There is a scarcity of research exploring this technique from the client’s perspective. The aim of my study was to tell the stories of how students in a high school setting experience creative uses of the solution-focused, Exception Question. During the study, however, I found that this could not be researched without also including the way(s) that the use of Exception Questions influenced my counselling and ongoing learning as a counsellor. Solution-focused therapy was used in the counselling sessions and my research brought together students’ personal stories of their counselling experience and

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  • Symbols of recovery : the impact of earthquake images on vigilance

    Hancock, Nicola Jane (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores the impact post-earthquake images from Christchurch, New Zealand inserted into a task requiring sustained attention or vigilance have on performance, selfreports of task-focus, and cerebra activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The images represent the current state of Christchurch; a city struggling to recover from devastating earthquakes that peaked in February, 2011, killing 185 people, injuring hundreds more and causing widespread and massive damage to infrastructure, land and building in the region. Crowdsourcing was used to gather a series of positive and negative photos from greater Christchurch to be employed in the subsequent experiment. Seventy-one Christchurch resident participants (51 women, 20 men) then took part in a vigilance task with the sourced images embedded to assess possible cognitive disruptions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: embedded positive pictures, embedded negative pictures, or embedded scrambled image controls. Task performance was assessed with signal detection theory metrics of sensitivity A’ and β’’. Individuals viewing the positive images, relating to progress, rebuild, or aesthetic aspects within the city, were overall more conservative or less willing to respond than those in the other conditions. In addition, positive condition individuals reported lower task focus, when compared to those in the control condition. However, indicators of cerebral activity (fNIRS) did not differ significantly between the experimental groups. These results combined, suggest that mind wandering events may be being generated when exposed to positive post-earthquake images. This finding fits with recent research which indicates that mind-wandering or day dreaming tends to be positive and future oriented. While positive recovery images may initiate internal thoughts, this could actually prove problematic in contexts in which external attention is required. While the actual environment, of course, needs to recover, support agencies may want to be careful with employing positive recovery imagery in contexts where people actually should be paying attention to something else, like operating a vehicle or machinery.

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  • The impact of the Internet on small firms

    Martin, Ross A. (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Several researchers have designed frameworks to model and analyse impacts of the Internet on firms. This research takes one such framework aimed at small firms (Lymer et al., 1997b) and attempts to validate its usefulness by comparing it to similar and conflicting models, and by applying it to impacts collected from both the literature and from four case studies of small firms. The findings suggest that several changes to Lymer et al.'s (1997b) framework are necessary to make the model more effective and more practical for researchers and practitioners. A revised Internet impacts model is proposed that incorporates these changes. Preliminary evaluation has been performed on the revised model, resulting in the conclusion that the study makes a valuable contribution to the area of Internet research by significantly enhancing the usability and analytical usefulness of Lymer et al.'s (1997b) Internet impacts model.

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