14,090 results for Masters

  • Relations between Japan and Korea : a diachronic survey in search of a pattern

    Yoon, Seok Hee (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ever since Korea and Japan established kingdoms in the 6th century, both countries greatly influenced each other politically, militarily, socially, culturally, and economically through international exchange. Korea and Japan kept their close relationship throughout history because of geographic proximity. It is also notable that 54 per cent of Japanese males and 66 per cent of Japanese females carry Sino-Korean genes in present-days and there are records that Japan carried a close relationship with Paekche, a kingdom of the Korean peninsula which introduced script, Confucianism, and Buddhism to Japan at an early stage. In the Medieval Period, Korea and Japan maintained a friendly trade policy but there were incidents such as Mongol invasions, wakō (Japanese pirates) raids and two invasions by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, which worsened the relations between the two countries. And yet, during Japan’s period of isolation (from 1639 to1854), Korea was the only nation with which full and free trade was permitted. The 20th century is based on invasion and colonisation of Japan over Korea. For 35 years from 1910 to 1945, under the control of Japan, the Japan-Korea relationship was nothing but misfortune: forced labour, suppression of Korean culture and language, press-gangs, sex slaves, and so forth. The aim in this thesis is to go into greater detail about each significant event and its effect on the relationship between Japan and Korea to uncover some rationale or pattern such as gekokujō (the master being outdone by the pupil, and being treated thereafter with contempt).

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  • Promoting sustainable management in local resource management issues

    Weastell, Lynda (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Resource Management Act (RMA) 1991 is a much discussed and frequently criticised piece of legislation in New Zealand. The RMA 1991 is much discussed because it is part of a substantial reform of New Zealand's resource management law. It is much criticised because the overall purpose of the RMA 1991 is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources (S.5(1)) but the meaning given to sustainable management in the RMA 1991 (S.5(2)) is ambiguous. These discussions and criticisms focus on the legislation. Little research on promoting sustainable management in the context of resource management practice has been undertaken so far. This research needs to be done because the context of resource management issues and the public planning process will influence how sustainable management is interpreted and applied in resource management practice. This thesis is a comparative analysis of promoting sustainable management in four local government resource management issues: the northern access road issue, Christchurch; underground coal mining at Mount Davy, Rewanui; subdivision of Travis Swamp and Kennedy's Bush Spur, Christchurch; and air access into Westland National Park. The aims of the research are to establish: how sustainable management is being promoted in resource management practice; how important the RMA 1991 and promoting sustainable management is in determining resource management outcomes in the public planning process; and whether promoting sustainable management is resulting in a radical change in resource management practice. The thesis makes three conclusions. Firstly, that while sustainable management is an ambiguous concept a 'working' interpretation is emerging in resource management practice based on managing adverse environmental effects. Secondly, that the RMA 1991 and promoting sustainable management is important to legitimise resource management proposals in terms of the law, but it is not the raison d'etre for these proposals. Thirdly, that promoting sustainable management has resulted in changes in the way in which resource management proposals are assessed, but there are a lot of conitunities in resource management practice despite resource management law reform.

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  • Assessment and revision of a paediatric diagnostic audiology report

    Donald, Ashleigh (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Optimising outcomes for children with hearing impairment (HI) requires a family centred approach that prioritises parent involvement. Families must be provided with information to encourage participation; and meet their need for emotional support and knowledge. Diagnostic audiology reports can help provide this information, but their delivery alone is insufficient. If these reports are not readable and comprehendible they cannot meet national and international legal standards, nor can they support the health literacy of parents. The majority of New Zealand adults have insufficient health literacy skills, a concerning fact given the strong association between poor health literacy and negative health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate a paediatric diagnostic audiology report, revise it and verify the revision. A mock audiology report was evaluated via a readability analysis and semi-structured interviews with parent participants. Results confirmed that the report was difficult to read and understand. Next, the report was revised using best practice guidelines and parental recommendations. Verification of the revision process with 32 participants revealed that parents who read the revised report had significantly greater comprehension, self-efficacy and perception ratings than parents who read the unrevised report. Additionally, the report’s readability was markedly improved. These results may have critical implications for parents and their children with HI. Incomprehensible audiology reports fail to support parental health literacy, promote understanding, encourage participation or offer emotional support. Because knowledge is power for these families, it is hoped that the findings of this study will be recognised and implemented into clinical practice.

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  • Engineering geological roading aggregate investigations of the Wakatipu Basin

    Watts, C. R. (1988)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Wakatipu Basin lies within the Otago Schist belt, and aggregates derived from the schist do not meet New Zealand basecourse specifications. This study comprises engineering geological investigations of the roading aggregate with the objective of identifying potential aggregate source areas which comply with specifications. Five aggregate sources, two glacial and three post-glacial, have been identified, and their geology related to aggregate quality. A survey of existing aggregate quarries confirmed the sub-specification quality of schist derived roading aggregate, and that the highest quality roading aggregate of the Basin is produced from exotic glacial transported graywacke. A graywacke rich aggregate source area of Kame terraces was investigated. Investigations included mapping at scales of 1:10 000 and 1:1 500, and the excavation of test pits. A geotechnical testing programme concluded that the Kame terrace source area was capable of producing roading aggregate for basecourse, and is comparable with the highest quality roading aggregate of the Wakatipu Basin. Subsequently, the Queenstown - Lakes District Council has developed an aggregate quarry within the Kame terrace source area.

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  • The environmental concern of commerce students -a survey

    Saunders, Louise M. (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The evolution of attitudes towards the environment has culminated in the entrenchment of environmental concern as a characteristic of Western society. Overseas research has found young, well educated, urban individuals are most likely to express concern for the environment. However, the features of environmentally concerned New Zealanders have largely failed to attract the attention of researchers. In a sample of University of Canterbury Commerce students, aspects of environmental concern, and salient issues, were identified. As expected, individuals raised in urban centres were more likely to express environmental concern, although the expected influence of age and education were not observed. Women were more concerned about the environment, as were New Zealand-raised and New Zealand-ethnic respondents. It was concluded that the environmental concern of this population has many similarities to populations in other Western nations in the salience of issues, the issues of concern, and the levels of concern shown. As the respondents in this study were not representative of the New Zealand public, the suggestions for further research focus on the need to investigate environmental concern in a representative sample. A need was also suggested for research into areas of specific concerns, actual behaviour, commitment, and knowledge in the New Zealand population.

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  • Isolating Madness: Photographs from Seacliff Lunatic Asylum, 1887-1907

    Laing, Elizabeth (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Frederic Truby King (1858-1938) is an eminent figure in New Zealand history. His name continues to flourish in contemporary society, due in part to its affiliation with the Royal New Zealand Plunket Society. However, the general populace is still relatively unaware of the time that King spent employed as the medical superintendent of Seacliff Lunatic Asylum, on the remote outskirts of Dunedin. The prevailing image of King during this period is of a single-minded physician, whose career was in a state of acceleration towards the establishment of Plunket. But historians like Barbara Brookes and Catherine Coleborne have rightly started to establish this epoch as significant in its own right. This thesis extends their work by engaging with previously unpublished casebook photographs of patients in King’s care, taken between 1887 and 1907, from the restricted Seacliff Lunatic Asylum archives. Through six case studies, this thesis draws connections between these photographs and the paradigms established by such internationally renowned photographers as Hugh W. Diamond and James Crichton-Browne. It then discusses some distinctive photographs that appear unique to this institutional environment, images that challenge our preconceived notions of psychiatric institutions and their functions. This visual history complicates, and sometimes even challenges, the argument about psychiatric institutions and disciplinary power proposed by Michel Foucault and John Tagg, by demonstrating the diverse forms of photography that can occur within a single institution. This study is part of a growing body of research on the Seacliff Lunatic Asylum archives. In using a largely untapped source of photographic history, this project will contribute to future research on similar topics.

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  • Relocating Tokelau: Recreating Island Villages in the Urban/Suburban Settings of New Zealand

    Huang, Henry (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Many Pacific Island communities face having to leave their homeland to other countries due to effects of climate change, extreme weather events, rising sea levels and the subsequent economic impacts. Tokelau, a country comprised of three small atolls in the South Pacific represents one of these effected communities. The extreme cultural shift from an incredibly isolated and densely populated environment where collective culture, elder governance and multigenerational living thrive, to New Zealand’s capitalist economy and individualistic family living has considerably challenged the traditional Tokelau way of living. The aim of the thesis is to develop a greater understanding of the role that architecture can play in facilitating; successful cultural relocation and preservation, and the strengthening of migrated community groups in foreign contexts. The thesis argues that the essence of a Tokelau village can be captured in the design of a Tokelau community centre in the suburban setting of New Zealand through; understanding and interpreting the culture and lifestyle of the Tokelau community in New Zealand through participatory design; designing hybrid Tokelau architecture which draws from traditional Tokelau construction, contemporary design and the built environment of New Zealand; embodying sociocultural Tokelau principles in design; and lastly, designing resilient community facilities for collective use that accommodate the cultural practices of the Tokelau community and the desires of all age and gender groups.

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  • Exploring the acceptability of, and adherence to, a carbohydrate-restricted, higher fat diet as an instrument for weight loss in women aged 40-55 years

    McPhee, Julia

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    It is well recognised that aging in females is associated with a predilection for weight gain. Women with abdominal obesity are known to be at especially high risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, as well as associated poorer overall health outcomes. Many of these metabolic disorders however, can be alleviated through weight loss. The increasing evidence around the impact of hormonal function on weight gain and body composition validates the need for further investigation into the dietary effect on menopause-affected hormones. Current dietary and weight-loss guidelines, considered to be ‘best practice’, equate to promotion of a diet with a macronutrient profile comprising high levels of carbohydrate, moderate amounts of protein, and minimal fat. In contrast to this traditional ‘best practice’ approach, an alternative weight-loss strategy promoting a model of eating that is lower in carbohydrate, moderate in protein, and higher in fat has been posited as an effective weight-loss option. The low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) dietary approach recognises that the macronutrient composition of the diet itself may have a positive impact on weight loss due to hormonal interactions. This exploratory study investigated the acceptance of, and adherence to, a LCHF diet in women aged 40 – 55 years. The primary outcome measures of this study were barriers to and motivators for acceptance of and adherence to this way of eating. Secondary outcomes included mood state, adherence, satiety levels, and weight loss. The aim of this study was to determine factors affecting women aged 40 – 55 years in modifying dietary behaviours and maintaining those behaviours while undertaking a LCHF way of eating. The hypothesis underpinning this study was that LCHF - through its macronutrient profile - has the potential to enhance an individual’s adherence to the behavioural lifestyle modifications required to reduce weight and improve metabolic health outcomes. Furthermore, adherence to dietary modifications could be maximised by the combination of appropriate health behaviour theories (HBT), the web-based nature of the study, and the satiating effect of LCHF food options. Overall, mean percentage weight loss from baseline to study completion was 5.6%. Weight loss was greatest in participants with the highest average adherence levels across the study period. The overall average adherence level of 83.5% was a positive outcome and reflected focus group results around factors that impacted adherence. These key findings included support by family members, in particular spouses, who appeared to act as both a barrier and motivator to adherence, satiety, or feeling of fullness, and being prepared, in particular having acceptable LCHF options readily available. Findings from this study suggest that a LCHF way of eating was both acceptable and feasible for study participants. Furthermore this way of eating elicited weight loss and allowed adherence to the dietary intervention, possibly through the mechanism of improved satiety. While findings suggest that LCHF may be a promising weight loss approach for this population, further research is required for this target group.

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  • This Was Now Here! Filmic exploration of hidden meaning imbued in the architectural model

    McCormick, Jason Rodney James

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This visual arts research project utilises filmic explorations of scale models to investigate the nature of Colonial Nelson Civic buildings as architectural spaces of implicit and hidden power, with the notion that governance is in the hands of corporations and not elected councils governments. It questions if democracy is an illusion; an ideology rather than a reality. It explores hidden meanings within this architecture; the inherent metaphysical connotations imbued not only in the architecture, but also in the model and the image. The project investigates the merging of boundaries between what is real and unreal, creating an illusionary space that aims to establish the uncanny through the transformation of the familiar to the unfamiliar. This filmic exploration acknowledges the paradoxical nature of the project; that while investigating and critiquing manipulation, it is at the same time attempting to draw the viewer into a manipulated experience.

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  • Response of New Zealand birds to the presence of novel predators

    White, Robyn (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Predation is the highest cause of mortality for birds and can place intense selection pressures on their behavioural traits. A number of studies have shown that some animals have innate predator recognition, while others which are predator-naïve have been unable to adapt to the introduction of exotic predators. For my thesis, I firstly studied how eight species of introduced and native birds respond to model predators at their nests. This enabled me to determine whether the native birds have been able to adapt to introduced mammalian predators and have developed recognition of them being a threat. In most species, the reaction to the stoat (Mustela erminea) (an introduced predator) was similar to that of a model morepork (Ninox novaeseelandiae) (a native predator). This suggests these species can successfully recognise introduced mammals as a risk. It also allowed me to test whether recently introduced birds have any innate recognition of snakes, which are a significant nest predator in their native ranges but do not exist in New Zealand. I found that introduced birds did not appear to have any recognition of snakes as being a threat. These losses and gains of recognition may have been caused by evolutionary changes or they may be influenced by learning and experience. Secondly, I examined how South Island robins (Petroica australis) on a predator-free island responded to predator models and compared this to the responses of robins on the mainland (where they co-occur with mammalian predators). The island birds were assumed to show the ancestral reactions to mammalian predators, while any differences in response shown by the mainland robins would indicate they had acquired these behaviours in response to increased predation risk. I found that the island robins did not appear to recognise or react to a taxidermic mount of a stoat while mainland robins did respond to the stoat, confirming that at least some native birds can develop recognition of novel predators. Finally, I compared the personalities of South Island robins on a predator-free island and on the mainland (where mammalian predators are present). I tested where individuals placed on the ‘bold-shy’ continuum by observing their willingness and speed to approach a risky situation in order to collect food. Studies have shown that average personality between populations can differ where predation risk differs. I found that the island robins were on average bolder than mainland robins. They came nearer to the observer and were faster to approach and remove a food item, while mainland robins were less likely to approach, and those that did approach took a longer time. It is likely that these differences were due to selection pressures by mammalian predators favouring shy individuals on the mainland while other pressures such as interspecific competition favours bold individuals on the island. Personality has been shown to be genetic and heritable, however, learning and experience cannot be ruled out and may also play a part in influencing how personality is expressed. Together, my results support the importance of historical and ontogenetic factors in influencing how predator recognition and personality traits are expressed.

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  • Emotional appeals: the effects of donation button design on donor behaviour

    Seyb, Stella Kara (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Webpage design is an important factor in the capturing of new donor populations and increasing charitable giving. Charities often use emotional appeals when soliciting donations but little is known about the effects of embedding different verbal triggers directly into donation buttons. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three emotional triggers on donor compliance, donation amount and trust in the charity. A between-groups experimental design was used to test six hypotheses regarding the impact of social approval, empowerment, and guilt on donor compliance, donation amount and trust in the charity. Eighty students completed the research protocol using a simulated online donating platform. The hypotheses were not supported and the implications of the findings are discussed within the context of the strengths and limitations of the research design.

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  • Detailed characterisation of ground water nitrate/leachate flow in gravelly deposits using EM and GPR methods with particular reference to temporal flow changes

    James, Matt (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Irthing Road is situated 20 kilometres north of the small town of Lumsden in Northern Southland, New Zealand. Irthing Road is accessed from State Highway 97 and leads north-west for 7 kilometres up the Irthing Creek Valley. The research site is situated 4.4 kilometres from the Irthing Road - State Highway 97 intersection and the area is at 300 metres elevation above sea level on gently south sloping Quaternary alluvial deposits. The study was initiated by Environment Southland and Southern Geophysical Ltd with the intention of investigating the potential uses of near surface geophysics in the mapping of shallow groundwater contamination, specifically agriculturally sourced nitrates and leachates. The changes in land use and the introduction of high density grazing of dairy cattle on free draining soils in Southland has created cause for concern around the ease at which large volumes of contaminants could potentially gain access to the shallow groundwater system. The investigation of the Irthing Road field site included: (1) background research into historical land use changes that may have affected the area 2) a study of the Lumsden area geological and hydrogeological setting 3) six trips to the field site throughout the year to collect near surface geophysical data using a Geonics Ltd EM31-MK2, Dualem Inc. DUAL-EM 421s, and Sensors & Software pulseEKKO Pro GPR system; 4) ground- water testing conducted by Environment Southland; 5) an evaluation of the geophysical and groundwater data sets to identify whether leachate concentrations were high enough to register an anomalous response 6) the identification of how the groundwater system at the Irthing Road field site behaves 7) a conclusion as to the effectiveness of all three near surface geophysical techniques in this application. The major conclusions that emerged from this study are: (1) the groundwater system is transporting a large volume of water beneath the site and this leads to such effi- cient removal of contaminants that the concentrations are not high enough to register a response in the geophysical data 2) the groundwater system is highly sensitive to rain- fall and this is a contributing factor to the variation within the geophysical data 3) the Geonics Ltd EM31-MK2 and Sensors & Software pulseEKKO Pro GPR system returned highly consistent results and have great potential in further contaminated groundwater applications 4) Environment Southlands' DUAL-EM 421s needs more consistency, how- ever the device has a lot of potential once reliability can be ensured 5) further research is needed to determine the contamination ow paths and destinations at a larger, regional scale.

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  • Turning points in therapy with Bulimia Nervosa clients: a qualitative analysis of the therapist's perceptions

    Mysliwiec, Nadia

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explored therapeutic turning points as experienced by therapists working with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa. A growing body of research reveals that turning points make important contributions to change, transformation and recovery during therapy (King et al. 2003). This research aims to develop a deeper understanding of how turning points and mindfulness-based techniques effect the treatment of this complex eating disorder. While there is existing research on the turning points that occur during therapy with eating disorder clients there is a paucity of research on the turning points that occur specifically with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa. Studies have documented various changes in clients during and after treatment for bulimia, however, most of this research stems from quantitative data and little from the actual experiences of clients and their therapists. Therefore, this study conducted in-depth interviews with five experienced psychologists and psychotherapists working in this field. Using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step guide to thematic analysis, five major themes emerged from the therapists’ discourses. Firstly, therapists believed that it was essential for their clients to build social relationships with others, and that one of the first turning points was the initial trust and collaboration between client and therapist. Secondly, therapists said that an important turning point in therapy was when clients felt that they wanted to change. This need was often driven by a client’s shame and guilt related to their bulimia and the detrimental consequences of their illness. Thirdly, it was crucial for clients to experience a feeling of success. An initial turning point, as experienced by the therapists, was when a client could resist the urge to binge and purge. This allowed the client to feel empowered and hopeful, in turn increasing their motivation and allowing space for the clients to realise that their lives could be different. Fourthly, therapists strongly believed that “negative” turning points were just as useful as positive ones. Lastly, therapists supported the use of mindfulness and acknowledged the positive influence it had on turning points. A key turning point was when clients could let go of their rigid thinking and be with their emotions. This often lead to “ah-ha” moments, ultimately facilitating the realisation that bulimia is a choice they could have control over. This study has added to the growing field examining the turning points that occur in therapy with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa and has yielded much needed information for practice and future research.

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  • Children whose parents foster other children: the experiences of growing up with a foster sibling

    Nel, Luzaan

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Within today’s society, many different forms of “alternative parenting” exist, including single parent homes, step-parent homes, grandparent headed households, adoption, and foster-care, all of which are family systems that differ to the traditional nuclear family form. In several of these different family forms there is the likelihood that children who are not genetically related are being raised together as siblings. The current study sought to investigate the experiences of the resident child growing up with a foster sibling. The findings from this study will add to the very limited literature on growing up with a foster sibling in New Zealand and may influence future policy. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted. The study explored whether the lived experiences of adolescent resident children is congruent with the research literature within the field of foster care; and sought to expand the knowledge of this population. There were nine topical areas investigated: parents’ motivations to foster from the resident children’s perspectives, preparation for fostering, overall experiences of having a foster sibling, the positives of fostering, the challenges of fostering, what resident children felt they gained from fostering, advice to parents and other resident children, resident children fostering when they are adults and the impact of permanence of the foster sibling relationship. A descriptive qualitative analysis was used to investigate the experiences of resident children, and concluded that in contrast to the majority of the literature, resident children overall had positive experiences of growing up with a foster sibling. Implications for families, limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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  • The role of autonomy in the self-management of exercise in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes – an exploratory study.

    McPherson, Melinda Clare (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of autonomy in participants’ self-management of exercise behaviours and the transfer of responsibility throughout adolescence. The design of this study used qualitative description with information collected and presented using a case study approach. Participants were five emerging adults (aged 18–24) with Type 1 diabetes for a minimum of one year who lived in Canterbury. Data was gathered through three sources: a semi-structured interview seeking self-reported exercise throughout adolescence, a set of questionnaires based on four instruments, and physical activity performed over a week as recorded by an activity monitor. All participants achieved autonomy for exercise, however participants achieved autonomy at different ages. Participants’ diabetes self-management and physical activity levels varied according to their stage of life and lifestyle. They received varying advice about exercise from health professionals. Participants sought to determine their own exercise choices during adolescence, leading them to obtain a driver licence to be independent of parental transport. Three of the five met current guidelines for physical activity levels, and another met recommendations by her clinician. Policy implications regarding healthcare advice and barriers to exercise for young people are discussed, as are limitations of the research and future avenues for research.

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  • Population genetic structure of New Zealand blue cod (Parapercis colias) based on mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers

    Gebbie, Clare Louise (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Parapercis colias (blue cod) is an endemic temperate reef fish that supports an important commercial and recreational fishery in New Zealand. However, concerns have been raised about localized stock depletion, and multiple lines of evidence have suggested P. colias may form several biologically distinct populations within the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone. Mark and recapture studies along with otolith and stable isotope studies have indicated that individuals are sedentary with very limited movement beyond the scale of 10-20km. The primary goal of this research was to advance the current knowledge of P. colias population genetic structure. This information can be incorporated into stock assessment models with the aim of improving the management of the P. colias fishery. This study made use of 454 pyrosequencing technology to isolate and develop the first set of microsatellite DNA markers for P. colias. These seven microsatellite loci, along with mitochondrial control region sequences, were used to determine the levels of genetic variation and differentiation between sites around the New Zealand coastline, including the Chatham Islands. Significant differentiation was observed between the Chatham Islands and mainland New Zealand sample sites, indicating that these two regions form distinct populations. Interpretation of the results for the mainland sites was more complex. Mitochondrial sequence data detected no significant pairwise differentiation between mainland sites, although a pattern of isolation-by-distance was observed. However, evidence for genetic differentiation among mainland sites was weak based on the microsatellite DNA analysis. Although pairwise Gѕт levels were significant in some sites, this was not reflected in principal component analysis or Bayesian structure analysis. It is likely that through long range dispersal, migration is at or above the threshold for genetic connectivity, but below a level necessary for demographic connectivity. This is indicated by both the genetic structure reported here, along with previous studies showing limited dispersal of P. colias.

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  • Traversing Memory: the last days of the old Mangere bridge

    Alleyne, Hannah

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    We rely very heavily on things, environments, or people external from ourselves to preserve our own memories. Mnemonic reminders, whether they are visual, aural, olfactory, or tactile, reinforce our memories, strengthening neural pathways. The removal of reminders through the destruction or disintegration of an environment that might have scaffolded mental processing could very likely cause the destruction or disintegration of the memories themselves. In his book, Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape, Professor Marc Treib argues that built structures both hold and project memories.1 Pieces of architecture and infrastructure become repositories into which both deposits and withdrawals can be made. Treib sees the built environment as a memory bank for both individual and communal use. Auckland city’s Old Mangere Bridge, in the Manukau Harbour, is a mnemonic device that offers communities, as well as individuals, an opportunity to recall and preserve memories of the area. As the bridge falls into disrepair and faces demolition, associated memories for communities and generations of people could well be lost. This thesis offers a spatial intervention that attempts to foster and retain memories long after the old bridge is gone. Through an iterative drawing practice and the collection of both individual and community memories of the Old Mangere Bridge, I intend to construct a site-specific spatial provocation with two memory related outcomes. Firstly, the piece will attempt to stimulate recollections of the area, strengthening both individual and collective memory pathways, fostering old and new memories. Secondly, the installation intends to illustrate the temporality of both built structures and memory. 1 Marc Treib, “Yes, Now I Remember: An Introduction,” in Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape (New York; London: Routledge, 2009), x–xv.

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  • Understanding visitor perspectives on volcano tourism at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines: a mixed methods study

    Aquino, Richard

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Despite the risks involved, travel to undertake leisure activities on active volcanoes is a growing form of special interest tourism. Some argue that this is due to the increased accessibility of these landforms and the popularisation of global volcanic activities through traditional and social media. In addition to the attraction of tourists to volcano tourism, tourism researchers have also increasingly focused their attention on this phenomenon. However, there is a lack of research on understanding volcano tourists including their motivations, experience expectations, and actual experiences. By researching visitors to Mount Pinatubo, an active volcano in the northern Philippines, the primary aim of this study is to gain insight into these issues. A multiphase mixed methods research design with concurrent/parallel phases was adopted for this study. The first phase (QUAN/qual) was a pre-tour survey of visitor motivations and expectations of volcano tourism experiences. A survey with 26 five-point Likert-type scale items based on a push-pull motivation framework, embedded with open-ended qualitative questions was developed. This was administered to a quota sample of visitors on-site at Mount Pinatubo, prior to them undertaking a volcano tour. Statistical analysis of 204 valid survey responses reveals four push motives, namely, escape and relaxation, novelty-seeking, socialisation, and volcano knowledge-seeking; and two pull motives, namely, dark and activities-induced, and volcanic and natural attribute-driven motives. Novelty-seeking is found as the core motivation factor for visiting the volcanic site. Statistical testing also reveals differences in terms of gender, prior experience of volcanic sites, and visitor types. Females were discovered to have higher motives to learn about volcanoes. Visitors who have visited other volcanoes prior to their Mount Pinatubo tour report higher attraction to the volcanic and natural features compared to first-time volcano tourists. Domestic visitors are more likely to escape and relax compared to international visitors, while international visitors are more likely to seek unique experiences compared to their domestic counterparts. A qualitative content analysis of the reported experience expectations reveals that visitors anticipate fun and hedonic experiences prior to the tour. The second phase (QUAL) entails post-tour semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore the actual volcano tourism experiences of the visitors. Those who had a recent experience of the tour were purposely selected to participate in the interviews. A thematic analysis of the 12 interviews show varied perceptions, emotions, and views on the experience. A conceptual framework was developed based on interactional theory, which suggests these experiences are found to be influenced by Mount Pinatubo’s natural, recreational, and socio-cultural dimensions. Thereafter, findings from the two phases of the study were analysed together to draw inferences based on convergence and divergence of findings. Convergences across findings were found except in the educational aspect of the tour which is absent on the post-tour narratives of the interviewees. Likewise, findings reveal that the pre-tour hedonic expectations are more likely to be exceeded by the spiritual and transformative outcomes of the experience. The implications of this study may aid tourism administrators in marketing and managing the volcanic site. Finally, practical recommendations for management and suggestions for future research are provided.

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  • Understanding consumers’ relational behaviour: an integrated model of psychological contracts, trust and commitment in the context of beauty services for females

    Kucherenko, Yekaterina

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Psychological contracts play an important role in relationships between consumers and service providers. Due to their cognitive nature, it is essential to understand how psychological contracts are created and perceived by consumers. Though psychological contracts are widely explored in the context of inter-organizational and interpersonal relationships, studies investigating psychological contracts in the context of consumer-service provider relationships have received limited academic attention. Past studies in this area of research have focused on consumers’ perceptions of different marketing strategies offered by a firm as well as individual characteristics that determine the formation of various types of psychological contracts with the firm. However, it is unknown how psychological contracts affect important marketing concepts such as satisfaction, trust, and commitment. This research, therefore, aims to advance the understanding of consumers’ relational behaviour with service providers by exploring various types of psychological contracts and incorporating them in the model as the antecedents of satisfaction, trust, and commitment. A cross-sectional survey method is proposed to address two research questions: (1) how two types of psychological contracts (i.e. transactional and relational) influence the formation of a communal psychological contract; and (2) the extent to which psychological contracts affect consumers’ satisfaction, trust, and commitment to a service provider. This study is expected to contribute to the marketing literature by exploring the nature of relationships between the customer and service-provider based on psychological contracts as the main determinant of customer satisfaction, trust and commitment. A quantitative approach is used to bridge this important gap in the literature. Data of this study were collected using the street intercept method and online survey. 305 women living in Auckland completed the survey. Hypotheses were tested by using Hayes (2013) regression based path-analytic procedure. Specifically, an ordinary least squares (OLS) criterion was used as it defines the best fitting line linking independent to dependent variables by providing a linear regression routine that derives the regression constant and regression coefficient (Hayes, 2013 ). The results of this study provide a general support of the model and show that consumers’ transactional and relational psychological contracts are associated with the formation of a communal psychological contract. Furthermore, each type of psychological contract influences consumers’ core relational outcomes in a different but certain way. A transactional psychological contract was found to have a negative effect on the formation of a communal psychological contract which in turn affected satisfaction, trust and commitment to the service provider. A relational psychological contract was found to have a positive impact on the formation of a communal psychological contract and the three core relational outcomes. Finally, a communal psychological contract was found to mediate the relationships between both types of psychological contract (i.e., transactional and relational) and consumers’ satisfaction, trust and commitment.

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  • Marion Milner and Creativity: a thematic analysis

    Puckey, Jane Elizabeth

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation analyses literature written by the psychoanalyst and artist Marion Milner, in relation to creativity. The focus of this research is Milner’s personal, creative process in order to bring further understanding as to how a psychotherapist can facilitate creativity for optimal practice. An interpretative methodology informed this study, which utilised a method of thematic analysis. The themes identified in this study have been conceptualised as a psychological model (Ego, Duality and Oneness) which addresses the way we can process lived experience to elicit psychic growth through an act of creative surrender – in order to develop the capacity to think unknown thoughts and to further awareness and freedom. The significance of creativity for clinical practice and a critical reflection of this research are discussed.

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