13,696 results for Masters

  • Failure mechanisms in sensitive volcanic soils in the Tauranga Region, New Zealand

    Mills, Philippa (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Sensitive soils derived from weathered pyroclastic materials have contributed to major landslides in the Bay of Plenty. Sensitive soils have a high ratio of peak to remoulded undrained strength. While it is known that (a) sensitive soils flow once failed, causing long runout distances, and (b) these failures often occur following heavy rainfall, the mechanisms that lead to failure are less understood. The aim of this thesis is to determine static and cyclic failure mechanisms of sensitive soils sampled from the failure scarps of two recent landslides in the Tauranga Region. Revelations about how these soils fail will allow slope stability models to more accurately capture geomechanical behaviour. Recent publications on sensitive soils derived from glacial till materials have indicated that these soils are brittle materials displaying undrained strain softening behaviour, where deviator stress drops significantly following peak stress. Failure is governed by rate dependant, excess pore pressure gradients accumulating during undrained, consolidated triaxial compression (Gylland et al. 2013c; 2014; Thakur et al. 2014). These publications provided a methodological backbone for this thesis. Field methods included geomorphological and stratigraphic site characterisation, and sampling of extra sensitive soil suspected of contributing to failure. Laboratory methods included geotechnical tests (Atterberg Limits, moisture content, bulk and particle density, particle size distribution, and static and cyclic undrained, consolidated triaxial tests). Static triaxial testing was undertaken at a high compression rate of 0.5mm/min to model rapid undrained during slope failure. Different combinations of average and cyclic shear stresses allowed replication of Anderson’s (2015) cyclic contour plot. Shear zone microstructure of failed triaxial samples was analysed using thin section and micro-CT techniques. Two coastal cliff landslide sites were characterised and sampled: (1) a significant landslide at Bramley Drive, Omokoroa, which initially occurred in 1979, with reactivations in 2011 and 2012, and (2) a landslide on the south side of Matua Peninsula, which occurred in 2012. The bowl-shaped landslide crater at Bramley Drive and long runout component of sensitive material are likely due to failure within an over-thickened sequence pyroclastic material (Pahoia Tephras), which initially accumulated in a paleovalley. At Matua, the failure surface was long, slightly rotational, and comprised a sequence of variable sandy lenses and silty clays. Landslide debris comprised remoulded sensitive material underlying intact overlying blocks, indicating failure of a sensitive soil layer at depth. Material sampled at Omokoroa (OM1) was an extra sensitive (St = 15 ± 3) silty CLAY, 19 m from top of profile within Pahoia Tephras. Material at Matua (M1) was an extra sensitive (St = 10 ± 1) silty CLAY, 16 m from the top, within the Matua Subgroup. Clay mineralogy of these soils is known to be various morphologies of hydrated halloysite. Samples from both sites have dominant clay fractions (OM1: clay: 62.6%, silt: 37.3%, sand: 0.1%, M1: clay: 40.1%, silt: 22.3 %, sand: 37.6%). High porosity (OM1: 70% M1:66%), void ratio (OM1: 2.3 M1: 1.8), and moisture content (OM1: 72%, M1: 64%), together with low wet and dry bulk densities (wet b.d: OM1:1320 kgm-3, M1: 1690 kgm-3, dry b.d: OM1: 760 kgm-3, M1: 980 kgm-3), are in keeping with previously published values of halloysite-rich clays derived from pyroclastic material. Atterberg Limits are high for both materials (Liquid limit: OM1: 66 M1: 52, Plastic limit: OM1: 41, M1: 37, Plasticity index: OM1: 25 M1: 15, Liquidity index: OM1: 2.9 M1: 1.8). M1 and OM1 both plot below the A-line in the range of high compressibility silts (MH). M1 and OM1 both have low activity, reflecting the hydrated halloysite composition (OM1: 0.4, M1: 0.4). Static undrained, consolidated triaxial tests show that failure occurs at less than or near to 5% strain for all tests, indicating brittle failure. Two main types of failure mechanisms were recognised from triaxial results. Post failure, type A was characterised by significant strain softening, contractive, left trending p’q’ stress paths, and a rise in global pore pressure after failure. Type B response post-peak deviator stress showed minor to no strain softening, dilative, right trending p’q’ paths, and a drop in global pore water pressure. In general, test rate, confining pressure and material affect the type of failure: higher compression rates and confining pressures correlate with type A failure, whereas the opposite is true for type B failure. Failure modes observed in failed triaxial samples were either wedge or shear, with the exception of M1a (tested at 75 kPa confining pressure) which failed by barrel deformation. Strain softening increased with effective confining pressure (R2= 0.58). Average effective cohesion and friction remain essentially consistent between peak and residual states (OM1: c’f = 26, c’r = 24, φ’f = 31, φ’r=26, M1: c’f = 17, c’r = 17 φ’f = 32, φ’r = 29). Thin sections captured shear zones tested at 240 kPa and 340 kPa (OM1), and 150 kPa and 255 kPa (M1) confining stress. Riedel shears (R and R’) and P shears were observed in all thin sections. Evidence for progressive failure, most notably changes in the abundance and spacing of shears along the same shear zone, was found in both materials. Clay mineral realignment was observed in shear zones. Micro-CT results showed clay matrix material to be denser in shear zones, implying localised contraction of microstructure. I infer that type A failure mechanism is comparable to sensitive soils that Gylland et al. (2013c; 2014) studied. During compression, pore pressure does not have time to dissipate, leading to excess pore pressure gradients, which initiate brittle failure where a release of potential energy results in R shear fractures and R’ fractures which become linked by P shears. Microstructural collapse within these fractures induces further excess pore pressure, liquefying material in shear zones, and resulting in a loss of material resistance as evidenced by the strain softening behaviour observed. Realigned material in shear zones provides a pathway for excess pore pressure to dissipate, finally registering as a rise in pore pressure in the post-peak region. Integrity of cohesive bonds and asperity interaction is preserved during shearing, resulting in little to reduction of c’ and φ’. For type B failure, lower confining pressures and/or test rates mean that pore pressure has ample time to dissipate during compression, so that when the critical state line in p’q’ diagrams is reached, grains interlock, causing pore pressures to drop (dilation). Boulanger & Idriss (2007) conclude that for sensitive materials, it is difficult to assess the strain or ground displacement that will reduce the clay from peak to residual strength during cyclic loading. In this study, I utilised a new geotechnical tool, a cyclic contour plot (Anderson, 2015), that predicts the cycles to failure, and the average shear strain and cyclic shear strain at failure, for combinations of applied average and cyclic shear stresses. Seven samples were tested at different combinations of average and cyclic shear stresses. Tests with high average and low cyclic shear stress applications resulted in progressive, positive strain accumulation. Tests with no average but high cyclic shear stresses resulted in progressive accumulation of strain in both positive and negative directions. In comparison to Drammen Clay (Anderson, 2015), in general, for the same application of average and cyclic shear stress, failure occurs after a lesser number of cycles, but both average and cyclic strain accumulation is lower. Although limited microstructural evidence was analysed, observations tests show similar mechanisms as described above are responsible for failure under cyclic stresses; post-failure strain softening occurs, and excess pore pressure increases. One micro-CT sample of an entire failed sample tested at high (60 kPa) cyclic shear stress and zero average shear stress shows intense contraction in the shear zone. It is likely that following heavy rainfall events, excess pore pressure gradients develop in sensitive material at Bramley Drive and Matua, resulting in localised fracture development. Collapse of the disturbed sensitive soil in developing shear zones releases additional pore water, enhancing pore water pressure gradients and leading to progressive fracture. Ultimately, breakdown of the sensitive material results in liquefaction along a macroscopic failure surface and rafting away overlying material.

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  • Community Resilience of People of Kampong Kamal Muara, North Jakarta, Indonesia

    Mayasari, Rini (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research focuses on the resilience to flooding events of the people of Kampong Kamal Muara, in North Jakarta, Indonesia. Flooding has been a major threat in coastal cities in Indonesia. The coastal areas are considered to be the most vulnerable areas to flooding events due to sea level rise and land subsidence. In addition, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation of the coastal area of Jakarta have changed the land conditions and exacerbated the flooding events’ frequency and impact. This research explores crucial resources for the capacity of communities to live, or cope, with flooding events. Their resilience is examined through several networked resources: economic development, social capital, information and communication, and community competence. The research finds that social capital is the key strength of the community. Vulnerability of the community is explored through interactions of the coupled human and environment systems. This research showed disparities of impacts experienced by the target community. The data collected showed that some adaptations practised by the community and the government are ineffective in the longer term. Finally, it is important to understand that although the community seems to be able to cope with the flooding events, they are not necessarily resilient. This finding shows that resilience and vulnerability are related in a way that government interventions, both economically and politically, can have a significant impact to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerability.

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  • The Waikato Data Privacy Matrix

    Scoon, Craig (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Data privacy is an expected right of most citizens around the world, but there are many legislative challenges within boundary-less cloud computing and World Wide Web environments. Despite its importance, there is limited research around data privacy law gaps and alignment; the legal side of the security ecosystem seems to be in a constant effort to catch-up. There are recent issues showing a lack of alignment that caused some confusion. An example of this is the `right to be forgotten' case in 2014 that involved a Spanish man and Google Spain. He requested the removal of a link to an article about an auction of his foreclosed home, for a debt that he had subsequently paid. However, misalignment of data privacy laws caused further complications to the case. This thesis introduces the Waikato Data Privacy Matrix, our global project for alignment of data privacy laws, by focusing on Asia Pacific data privacy laws and its relationships with the European Union and the United States. While much alignment work is already done for the European Union and United States, there is a lack of research on Asia Pacific alignment within its region and across other regions. The Waikato Data Privacy Matrix also suggests potential solutions to address some of the issues that may occur when a breach of data privacy occurs, in order to ensure an individual has their data privacy protected across the boundaries within the Web. With the increase in data processing and storage across different jurisdictions and regions (e.g. cloud computing services with servers in several countries), the Waikato Data Privacy Matrix empowers businesses using or providing cloud services to understand the different data privacy requirements across the globe - paving the way for increased cloud adoption and usage.

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  • Sustainability Vs Profitable Dependable Supply: A Case Study of Institutional Constraints on the Adoption of New Sustainable Technology

    Given, Tim (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines policy tensions arising from the emergence of sustainable technologies and the institutional barriers to their adoption. Its starting point is an analysis of conflict over electricity pricing between Wellington City Council and Wellington Electricity, sparked by Wellington City Council’s proposal to replace all existing street lighting with Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology. The thesis analyses key policy documents informing the position of Wellington City Council and Wellington Electricity, to identify the ideational and related institutional drivers of this conflict. The idea of holistic sustainability has been a key driver of policy at the local government level, and the idea of profitable dependable supply informs central government legislation that sets the terms of reference for Wellington Electricity. The idea of profitable dependable supply is expressed in institutions which constrain flexibility and limit policy options for addressing sustainable energy use. The intention to embrace change, shown in the concern for integration and future focus on the part of the Wellington City Council, stands in contrast to the focus and constraint of profitable dependable supply which restrains the capacity to engage with change to more efficient and effective technology. The limitations imposed by existing electricity generation and supply institutions create policy rigidity at a time when more responsive approaches to the challenges of sustainability are needed.

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  • A reflective account of successful leadership: Māori special character secondary boarding schools.

    McAllister, Theresa (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the leadership and Māori student achievement in Māori boarding schools taking into account cultural contexts, environments and the leadership ideologies around educational leadership. What are the leadership practices in Māori boarding schools that have made a difference for Māori student achievement? I argue that, Māori secondary boarding schools continue to offer an educational framework whereby Māori students achieve as Maori. In order to better understand the philosophies and goals of those early Māori boarding school leaders through to the present time I have researched a sample of current leaders within those boarding schools. This research interest arose many years ago when I first realised that there was a significant gap in Māori student educational achievement compared to non-Māori. What was also realised was that few people understood the contribution that Māori boarding schools have played in Māori student achievement and success over many decades. While some people had heard of Māori boarding schools, not a great deal was really known about what Māori boarding schools delivered in terms of education for Māori and Māori culture. What is apparent from an historical perspective is that Māori boarding schools have contributed to the retention of Māori culture, language and identity resulting in student achievement. This is a result of what successful leadership has provided for Māori students to achieve. Student achievement is a direct result of leadership. In a Māori boarding school setting, achievement is multifaceted. For Māori secondary boarding schools, achievement is taken from three perspectives: Christian, Māori and Academic. Flowing down from those three perspectives is the holistic wellbeing of students’, mind, body and soul, while recognizing and including whānau, hapū and iwi. Therefore, this research investigates the leadership practices in Māori boarding schools that have made a difference for Māori student achievement.

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  • Inhibitors to the Organisational Adoption of Gamification

    Jefferies, Dannette Louise (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study looks at how organisations can use technology to engage, motivate, and reward staff by embedding game-like elements into business applications and processes through a phenomenon called gamification. Gamification is an emerging phenomenon that has the potential to increase engagement, productivity and performance in organisations. It is the convergence of motivation theory, information systems, and the rise of digital communications systems. Gamification has been trending academically since 2010, and appears to support the human drivers of motivation and engagement through the appeal of both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Yet, while gamification appears to be a solution to the issues surrounding employee motivation, there is little documented evidence of successful enterprise integrations. Gamification may be the modern elixir to all that ails organisations as they struggle to attract, nurture and retain talented employees. However, if this is the case, then why are gamified practises not widely adopted by companies? Twelve participants were interviewed for this qualitative study. The first three participants work in software organisations that have first-hand experience with gamified product and process development. Next, a further nine participants were interviewed, three in the broadly-defined communications industry, three in finance, and one each in real estate, retail sales, and manufacturing. These participants were selected as potential users of gamification within an organisational context. The grounded theory methodology is used to explore the inhibitors to gamification techniques in organisations. Data collection strategies included in-depth interviews and grounded theory methodology techniques are used for data analysis. This study found the adoption of gamification in organisations is largely inhibited by the infancy of the gamification industry as the availability of gamified platforms, and the demand from organisations is relatively low. It is expected that gamification will become more mainstream in the future as an applied business practice. Voluntariness is a critical factor within any managerial initiatives aimed at cultivating positive employee attitudes and experiences at work. The concept of employee consent includes mandatory fun events such as companywide social events as well as gamification systems. The original contributions to knowledge of this thesis include two conceptual models. The first draws on an existing model for game design and proposes that employee engagement is an emergent property of an open gamification system. Emerging from the combination of mechanics and dynamics creating an aesthetic experience that meets the motivational needs of employees and thereby evokes an emotional commitment to the organisation and furthermore, it motivates employees to focus on shared organisational and individuals’ goals. The second conceptual model draws on Hofstede’s organisational culture dimensions framework and posits that there may be a specific cultural pattern for organisations best suited for effective gamification. This study finds organisations with cultures that are goal-oriented; externally driven; easy-going work discipline; local; open systems; and have an employee orientation, are more likely to find gamification is an appropriate fit for their organisation. In addition, this thesis distinguishes between gamification and organisational gamification and offers a unique definition for gamification implemented within organisations, which has been purposefully and strategically implemented.

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  • Anthropogenic Influences on the Sedimentary Evolution of the Coromandel Harbour

    Harpur, Alexander (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Coromandel Harbour is located on the eastern side of the Coromandel Peninsula, North Island, New Zealand. To date, sedimentological research conducted in the harbour has been confined to nearshore areas, with limited data existing for the subtidal regions of the harbour. The primary aim of this thesis is to identify whether and how various human activities in the catchment have altered harbour-wide, intertidal and subtidal, sedimentation rates and sediment geochemistry. A secondary aim is to identify the sedimentary evolution of the whole Coromandel Harbour over broad time scales (i.e. thousands of years). Sedimentological data has been collected from 17 intertidal and subtidal sediment cores. Cores have been analysed for down-core changes in sediment texture, mineralogy, observational characteristics and geochemistry measured through portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF). A facies model constructed from this data has been used to interpret the sedimentary development of the harbour. Pre-human and anthropogenic sediment accumulation rates (SARs) have been estimated using radiocarbon dating, qualitative pollen analysis and facies analysis. Anthropogenic heavy metals have been interpreted against pre-human baselines to identify influences on natural contaminant levels, with specific values compared with regional contaminant guidelines to assess ecological threats. Deeply weathered soils developed in a subaerial environment somewhere between the last interglacial at c.120 ka and the extended last glacial maximum (eLGM) at 29 ka. These soils were overtopped by streambank and floodplain deposits at the eLGM to the onset of the mid-Holocene sea level rise at c.7500 cal yr B.P. As sea level rose, inundated eLGM and early estuarine sediments were initially pyritised in a stratified, restricted marine setting. Over time, sea level rose and the stratification of the harbour was destroyed, ceasing pyritisation. Streams began to rapidly aggrade at the harbour with the positive change in base level, giving early estuarine (c.7500-5000 cal yr B.P) subtidal SARs of ~0.31-0.45 mm/yr. As streams reached stable profiles, SARs decreased to generally conformable rates of 0.25-0.47 mm/yr in the intertidal regions and ~0.1-0.25 mm/yr in the subtidal regions during the pre-Polynesian phase (c.7500-700 cal yr B.P). Polynesian SARs (700-130 cal yr B.P) decreased to ~0.05-0.13 mm/yr. Whole European (1820 A.D-present) SARs in the northern parts of the harbour are ~0.52-0.77 mm/yr and appear to be chiefly related to mining and deforestation. Recent European (1975 A.D-present) SARs are ~3.52-10.37 mm/yr in the southern parts of the harbour and are chiefly related to pine plantation erosion. A secondary depocentre for pine plantation sediments appears to be at the inlet where rates of ~4.98 mm/yr occur. Only arsenic and mercury exist over Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG) Low concentrations in anthropogenic sediments analysed. Maximum harbour-wide arsenic concentrations of up to 33.5 mg/kg that exceed the ISQG-Low value of 20 mg/kg are associated with mining related sediments near the Whangarahi Stream mouth. Maximum arsenic concentrations in pine plantation sediments is 22.3 mg/kg. Mercury may also exceed ISQG-Low/High values throughout all harbour sediments, though it is unclear whether mercury has been incorrectly measured by pXRF.

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  • The Coconut Tree and the Computer Tiger: Information Technology in Traditional Pacific Societies

    Philp, Roger (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This literature review explores the extent to which Information Technology (IT) has affected the cultures of small traditional Pacific societies, with the South Pacific region as the point of focus. The assumption is that the educational systems of Pacific nations are in the developmental stage with the associated sophisticated technological applications. The thesis asks what if any, cultural challenges of adopting information technology have arisen? The review finds that traditional culture and information technology are in competition in the power stakes of human consideration, reflected in South Pacific indigenous academics seeking independence as researchers and acceptance in their own right. The realisation that culture and technology need to function together requires attaining academic freedom in the aftermath of post-colonial restrictions placed on the indigenous sociological and anthropological imagination. The first part examines the history of information technology generally, and the significance of work already done, providing a perspective of how the subject has developed and become established, assisting in the development and acquisition of the appropriate vocabulary. The review explains and describes the occurrence of information technology in the South Pacific, the effect of globalisation and shared knowledge through ethno-methodology, every day culture in action, describing the ways in which people make the sense they do and through the ways they communicate. In the second part the focus is on the detail of the commonsense character of everyday life and the practices by which they make their actions understandable by others. Scrutiny of how people do what they do provides an explanation of what those people do and why they do it in the way they do. Western form of governance is a reality, with nation building based on Western models of development. National independence and sovereignty with a wave of neo-colonialism and aid dependency led to economic globalisation, with resentment against value systems that erode indigenous values, producing a wave of re-indigenisation facilitated by the revolution known as information technology . There is a coherent body of Pacific thought, with a shared philosophy and ethic on the public agenda. In the material covered, elements standing out are the awareness among growing numbers of Pacific academics of the need for a genuine and far-reaching contextualisation, acknowledging the relevance and applicability of indigenous cultural values in contemporary settings. Second is the success of communities whose initiatives have followed familiar traditional ways they know and understand, reaping rewards. The region has development and governance failures in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Fiji to name a few; the national state of affairs in some countries is not encouraging. Where good development and governance are occurring, it is usually through the direct initiative of local communities using their knowledge base. The information upheaval is creating new opportunities in the lives of people from small traditional societies. Information Technology expands throughout the social structure of the Pacific in direct proportion to personal computer access literally at one's finger tips.

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  • The Molecular Weight Characterisation of Pinus radiata Bark Condensed Tannins

    Bogun, Ben Rowan (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Crude condensed tannins extracted from Pinus radiata bark (sourced from Tokoroa) with various solvents (Hot water (HW), methanol/water/acetic acid (MWA), acetone/water (AW) and hot aqueous 2% sulphite/urea solution (SFU)) were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to purify the condensed tannins by removing carbohydrate and flavonoid components (crude extracts were approximately 70% condensed tannins). The condensed tannins from the HW and MWA extractions were then fractionated on a Sephadex LH-20 column using a stepwise gradient of methanol, water and acetone to separate the condensed tannins according to molecular weight (MW). Fractions were collected and pooled to give eight final fractions (HW 1-8 and MWA 1-8). Purified and fractionated condensed tannin fractions were then analysed with a range of techniques including 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, acid/phloroglucinol depolymerisation coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV and MS detection, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). In the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of the crude extracts the most intense signal was typically the tetramer peak and the decamer was typically the largest oligomer detected. In the spectra of late-eluting column fractions (i.e. HW and MWA 5-7) oligomers greater than the nonamer (DP up to 14) were detected and the most intense signal was shifted from the tetramer to higher MW oligomers. ESI MS showed itself to be better at analysing small MW condensed tannins. The MS results demonstrated that prior separation of the condensed tannins was effective in improving MS detection of higher MW oligomers. The mDP of the crude and fractionated fractions was obtained by depolymerisation/HPLC. The mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of the purified condensed tannins ranged between 7.3 (AW) and 9.2 (SFU). The mDP of the fractionated condensed tannins ranged between 2 and 18. The depolymerisation/HPLC results of the fractionated condensed tannins were used to construct a GPC calibration curve of condensed tannin MW versus GPC retention time. To identify the GPC dimer peak a procyanidin dimer was synthesised by reacting condensed tannins with catechin under acidic conditions. Through the use of various NMR techniques (DEPT135, COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments) the synthetic dimer was characterised and the 1H and 13C NMR spectra fully assigned. The GPC calibration curve enabled MW profiles for the HW and MWA 2-8 fractions and crude extracts to be obtained. GPC analysis confirmed the presence of larger oligomers that were not detected by MALDI-TOF MS and ESI MS. GPC number average MW results were in agreement with the average MW results obtained from depolymerisation/HPLC results. Pinus radiata bark condensed tannins from two different geographical locations (Golden Downs (Nelson) and Waimate (South Canterbury)) and different tree heights (0, 10 and 20 m) were analysed using the techniques described above to discover if there was any variability between samples. Trends that were observed between the different condensed tannins were decreases in condensed tannin yield and mDP as bark was obtained from higher up a tree. Extracts from New Zealand native bark (totara, rimu and kauri) were also analysed, showing that Rimu was the only bark of these species that contained significant amounts of condensed tannins. Overall this research has provided additional information on the structure and MW of P. radiata condensed tannins.

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  • The Health and Wellbeing of Homeless People: Complexities around the Provision of Primary Healthcare in New Zealand

    Scanlen, Anna (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Homelessness is a pressing social issue, and people who are homeless, in particular those who sleep rough, often experience a confluence of physical and mental health issues. Health problems experienced by homeless people can be more severe than those experienced by domiciled people. Such problems can contribute to homelessness, and be exacerbated by homelessness. Previous research has found that for various reasons, primary healthcare services can be inaccessible for homeless populations. More recent research explores the growing availability of accessible, non-threatening health services targeting homeless people, with humanistic approaches to care. This thesis draws on a case study of an NGO clinic providing population-based primary healthcare to homeless and low-income people. The case study is informed by the perspectives of two groups of participants; homeless clinic patients and clinic staff. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with homeless clients, and six semi-structured interviews were undertaken with clinic personnel. Social representations theory informs the interpretation, analysis and discussion of the participants' conceptualisations of health and wellbeing, illness and disease, homelessness, health services and the NGO clinic. Social representations from both participant groups (micro perspectives) inform shared social representations (macro perspectives) of the NGO clinic. This determines whether participants conceptualise the clinic as an 'ideal' health service for homeless people. NGO clinic staff responses reveal that clinic staff have a personal and professional ethos to work with people in need and those that may have been stigmatised from society. This shared ethos has shaped the development of the NGO clinic, into its current structure of a holistic, population based primary healthcare for homeless people integrated within a wider social service structure. In this setting, relationships are developed between practitioners and homeless clients to ensure homeless patients healthcare needs are met. Also, practical needs are met as the clinic provides low-cost healthcare to homeless people within the context of an umbrella organisation that provides other much-needed social services. Collaboration is an important component to the efficacy of the NGO clinic, and meeting patient needs. However, clinic staff note that there are many dilemmas in providing healthcare to homeless people, and they can struggle to provide the service according to their vision, due to funding constraints. Nonetheless, NGO clinic personnel are committed to working with their patients, and find their jobs rewarding. The responses from homeless clinic patients brought to mind a military metaphor, which was utilised to anchor the experiences of homeless people in a familiar concept - the military. Each homeless client that was interviewed at the NGO clinic is written about in the form of a health biography, which summarises current health issues, health histories, health related practices and conceptualisations of health. The severity of three major health issues experienced by the participants - addictions, mental health issues and foot problems - are then explored in terms of detailed perspectives from homeless participants, and clinic personnel conceptualisations of those particular health issues. Social networks are discussed as important to homeless people's health and wellbeing, particularly through resource and information sharing. The clinic setting is conceptualised by homeless participants as a caring, welcoming environment; which contrasts with some negative experiences reported by homeless participants in other health service settings. This thesis explores the NGO clinic as a unique model for a health service that meets the various healthcare needs of homeless people. There is a need for more recognition from government organisations and policy makers of the impoverished life situations that many homeless people find themselves in - often without minimum standards of living, which jeopardises their ability to take care of their health. Appropriate health services need to be accessible to homeless people, in order for healthcare needs to be met.

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  • Remediation of Pulp and Paper Mill Biosolids using Vermiculture

    Shannon, Nicholas W. (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Historical wastewater treatment systems at a New Zealand pulp and paper mill, resulted in a biosolid mass in the K-basin at Kinleith mill. Products extracted during the pulping process include resin acids, which are further transformed in the K-basin by microbial activity into recalcitrant end products retene and fichtelite. These products are toxic to fish due to bioaccumulation and subsequent endocrine disruption. Traditional methods for diverting these toxins from waterways were deposition into landfills and incineration, neither of which are considered environmentally sound. The aim of this study was to investigate the viability of vermicomposting as a method for bioremediation of recalcitrant resin acid derivatives from biosolids. Vermicomposting is a cost-effective option for not only reducing toxicity but also reducing biomass. It was hypothesised that earthworms can degrade organic extractives, principally resin acids and derivatives, through microbial, enzymatic, and oxidative mechanisms. A series of vermicomposting experiments were set up, to test the ability of Eisenia fetida (the tiger worm) to reduce both the amount of resin acids and overall biomass in a range of substrates. These included the original biosolid collected from K-basin, a simulated biosolid containing potting mix with and without additional extractive resins, as well as sterilised and unsterilised controls. Five samples were taken from each experimental composter over 28 days and extracted into dichloromethane after removal of excess water followed by mechanical blending. Samples were concentrated and the amount of each extractive group was determined using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. The overall biomass in each composter as well as the depurated earthworm mass was measured at the start and cessation of the experiment. A slight reduction in biomass was observed in two out of the three substrates. This reduction was slightly enhanced by the presence of earthworms in the composter, however, it was not significant. The use of methyl bromide to sterilise the substrate was also not a significant factor in biomass reduction. The overall weight of the earthworms decreased in all cases indicating the unsuitability of any of the substrates as a desirable food source. The addition of supplements such as yeast or manure to the biosolid composter may increase its appeal. There was a significant reduction in extractive content in all substrates over the 28 day period however no significant difference attributable to the presence or absence of worms was observed. It was hypothesised that the rigorous sampling process encouraged oxidative breakdown of the extractives due to increased exposure to both air and light. This was evident when the extractive content of K-basin measured in 1993 was compared to the samples used in this study collected in 2006. Whilst vermicomposting does not appear to be an effective treatment for removing resin acids from biosolid mass, the sampling processes used in this study highlighted the effect that rigorous stirring and increased exposure to air and light can have on the natural breakdown of these products. An effective treatment for the removal of resin acids from K-basin may be as simple as regular ploughing.

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  • The Flavonoid Profile of New Zealand Manuka Honey

    Deadman, Benjamin Jade (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Flavonoids are a class of natural products derived from plants which are incorporated into honeys through propolis, nectar and pollen. Research has shown that many honeys possess characteristic flavonoid profiles which can be used as markers for the geographical and floral origin of honey. The objective of this study has been to determine the flavonoid profile of New Zealand manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey, a honey which is internationally recognised for its unique medicinal properties. While all honeys are antibacterial due to the production of peroxides, manuka is unique because it exhibits an additional non-peroxide antibacterial activity due to high levels of methylglyoxal. The established extraction method, which utilises Amberlite XAD-2 resin to extract phenolics from honey, has been modified to permit extraction of phenolics from samples as small as five grams, with no measurable loss of extraction reproducibility. This development opens up a much larger collection of honey samples to flavonoid profiling. Measurement of the recovery rates for this extraction method has been further developed in this study in an attempt to account for the matrix effects of the high carbohydrate and phenolic acid content, relative to the flavonoids, of honey. This was achieved by extraction of flavonoid standards from an artificial honey matrix. The recovery rates of 10 6%, 16 7% and 19 9% for quercetin, chrysin and kaempferol respectively, were significantly lower than rates (28-60%) measured using the accepted procedure of extracting flavonoids from a simple solution. However, it should be noted that the recovery rates measured for extraction from solution were lower than those reported by other research groups. This has been partly attributed to an additional filtration step using a sacrificial HPLC column which was implemented to protect the analytical HPLC system from an unknown contaminant in the phenolic extracts. Having evaluated the reproducibility and reliability of the modified extraction method, it was then applied to the analysis of 31 manuka honeys and 8 other non-manuka honeys from New Zealand. The results have shown that the honeys studied have a common flavonoid profile consisting mainly of the flavanone pinocembrin and the dihydroflavonol pinobanksin. These flavonoids are derived from propolis and are a common feature of honeys from temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The manuka honeys analysed had total flavonoid content ranging between 0.59-2.24mg/100g of honey, with an average level of 1.16 0.16mg per 100g of honey. The flavonoid profile of these samples consisted mainly of pinobanksin (0.27 0.04mg/100g honey), pinocembrin (0.17 0.02mg/100g honey), luteolin (0.14 0.02mg/100g honey) and chrysin (0.13 0.02mg/100g honey), together accounting for 61% of the total flavonoid content. Manuka honey was distinguishable from the other honeys studied by its high total flavonoid content, high luteolin content (greater than 0.05mg/100g honey) and high levels of an unidentified (unknown compound 01) which was found to elute with the flavonoids on HPLC but did not appear to be a flavonoid from its UV spectrum. Statistical analysis showed that a positive correlation existed between the levels of unknown compound 01 in manuka honeys and their non-peroxide antibacterial activity. A similar correlation was also observed for luteolin. The progress of this research has been hampered by the limited range of flavonoid standards available for comparison with HPLC chromatogram peaks. A total of eight flavonoids were found in manuka honey, and a further seven in the non-manuka honeys, which did not coincide with any of the flavonoid standards available. Two of unknown flavonoids were subsequently extracted from fifteen kilograms of manuka honey using Amberlite XAD-2 resin and liquid-liquid extraction, and isolated by a combination of Sephadex-LH20 column chromatography and HPLC. Characterisation of these flavonoids was achieved using a combination of UV absorption spectroscopy, 1H, 13C and HMBC NMR spectroscopy, and LDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The isolated flavonoids were identified as pinobanksin and 8-methoxykaempferol, both flavonoids which have been previously found in honeys.

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  • Flow Cytometric Enumeration of the Blood Cells of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and New Zealand Freshwater Crayfish (Paranephrops planifrons)

    Taylor, Sean Charles (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this study was to develop flow cytometric (FC) methods to enumerate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) whole blood cells and New Zealand freshwater crayfish (Paranephrops planifrons) haemocytes as non-lethal endpoints in the evaluation of physiological status. In the FC method development for rainbow trout, heparin was found to be superior to neutralised EDTA as a blood anticoagulant, because the use of EDTA resulted in significant lysis and shrinkage of erythrocytes. Leishman's-Giemsa and May Grunwald-Giemsa yielded comparable differential staining of leukocytes, and were superior to Wright-Giemsa staining. Morphological ambiguity between thrombocytes and lymphocytes in smears could not be resolved using Romanowsky or cytochemical staining. Use of FC was demonstrated to be a rapid, more accurate alternative to manual total cell counting procedures. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was found to be superior to IsoTon II as a FC sheath fluid; IsoTon II induced lysis of erythrocytes. Characterisation of fish blood cell types and differentiation of leukocytes using FC could be achieved using 50 nM concentrations of the fluorescent lipophilic dye dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6(3)), but inconsistent fluorescent behaviour exhibited by thrombocytes between specimens prevented clear resolution of these cells from erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Higher concentrations of DiOC6(3) did not enhance resolution and became cytotoxic, particularly to leukocytes. Resolution between thrombocytes and lymphocytes could only be achieved with a fluorescent-labelled thrombocyte monoclonal antibody (mAb). The results suggest that the application of FC and mAb to fish blood cells is the most accurate approach to differential counting of leukocytes. The second FC method objectively characterised and enumerated New Zealand freshwater crayfish haemocytes. Haemocyte populations were isolated by FC sorting based on differential light scatter properties, followed by morphological characterisation by light microscopy and software image analysis. Cells were identified as hyaline, semi-granular and granular haemocytes based on established invertebrate haemocyte classification. A characteristic decrease in nuclear size and increase in granularity between the hyaline and granular cells, and the eccentric location of nuclei in granular cells were also observed. The granulocyte subpopulations were observed to possess varying degrees of granularity. The developed methodology was used to perform total and differential haemocyte counts from three lake crayfish populations and between wild and captive specimens. Differences in total and differential haemocyte counts were not observed between wild populations. However, specimens held in captivity for 14 d exhibited a significant 63% reduction in total haemocyte count, while the relative haemocyte proportions remained the same. These results demonstrate the utility of this method for the investigation of sub-acute stressor effects in selected decapod crustacea.

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  • How Do You Sleep At Night? Investigating media representations and victim legitimacy of homeless individuals in the New Zealand news media

    Mueller, Sally (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Homelessness is a complex social issue affecting in excess of one billion people around the world. Despite varying definitions and cultural variations, key issues associated with homelessness appear to be similar across countries. Although New Zealand was once a country with high home ownership, recent governmental and welfare changes have contributed to a growing homeless population. Since contact between housed and homeless individuals is often limited, media coverage about the issue plays a vital role in the dissemination and distribution of information about homelessness and affected individuals. Although there are numerous studies analysing the portrayal of homeless individuals in overseas media, there is a distinct lack of comparable New Zealand based research. This study set out to investigate media representations and victim legitimacy of homeless individuals in the New Zealand news media, with a particular focus on how media representations and characterisations of homeless individuals may affect sympathy for them. This research encompasses both an overarching quantitative analysis of general reporting trends evident in the New Zealand news media (1995 - 2007), as well as an in-depth qualitative study of two particular case studies, namely media coverage following the murder of two homeless women, in order to further explore how sympathy can be supported or minimised, specifically during sad times. Findings from the content analysis reveal that homeless people are predominantly portrayed as negative stereotypes. Most were identified as rough sleepers, often depicted drinking in parks and socialising in public spaces. Homeless people rarely address audiences, as stories were mediated by professionals, journalists and service providers. Although there were aspects of the coverage that promoted a sympathetic understanding of the issue and affected individuals and moved beyond narrow characterisations and discussions of homelessness, the majority supported the typecasting of rough sleepers which resulted in a dichotomous, almost voyeuristic relationship between housed and homeless individuals. All in all, the New Zealand coverage appears unsympathetic as it typecasts individuals and perpetuates the 'othering' of homeless individuals The violent death of two homeless women was expected to yield very sympathetic coverage and tragic storylines. The first victim, Betty Marusich, was a 69-year old homeless widow whose decomposed body is found in the Auckland Domain. The second victim was Sheryl Brown, a 45-year old homeless mother of three. Despite initial assumptions, the analysis revealed little sympathy for either victim. Instead a negative reporting framework supported by typecast terminology, reporting techniques, derogatory characterisations and implied blameworthiness, challenged each woman's victim status. Ultimately, this chapter questions whether either woman was ever considered a true victim deserving of public sympathy at all. The study concludes with a discussion about the findings and how typecast representations, narrow characterisations, and marginal coverage can influence perception about the importance placed on, and extent of homelessness in New Zealand. Some suggestions for further research are discussed, as are recommendations to make media coverage more inclusive and less dichotomous in order to stress that homeless people are no different to housed individuals, but are merely individuals without suitable and affordable housing.

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  • Are zooplankton invasions in constructed waters facilitated by simple communities?

    Parkes, Samantha Maree (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The invasion of non-indigenous species is considered to be one of the leading causes of biodiversity loss globally. My research aimed to determine if constructed water bodies (e.g., water supply reservoirs, dams and ponds) were invaded by zooplankton with greater ease than natural water bodies, and whether this was due to a lower biodiversity, and therefore lower 'biotic resistance', in constructed water bodies. Sediment cores were collected from a cross-section of 46 lakes, ponds and reservoirs (23 natural and 23 constructed) throughout the North Island, New Zealand. Diapausing zooplankton eggs were separated from the sediments and hatched to assess species composition and richness. In addition, the distributions of non-indigenous zooplankton were examined to determine if they occurred more frequently in constructed water bodies than in natural ones. Species composition results showed that natural water body zooplankton communities appeared to consist mainly of a core group of truly planktonic species. However, the species assemblages of constructed water bodies were more varied, comprising of a number of littoral and benthic species, and a large number of species that were recorded from only a single water body. A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that Trophic Level Index explained a significant amount of variation in zooplankton community composition of natural waters (p = 0.002). Distance to nearest water body and number of water bodies within a 20 km radius explained significant amounts of variation in community composition of constructed water bodies (p = 0.040 and 0.038 respectively). Average species richness was slightly higher for natural water bodies than constructed water bodies (18.47 and 15.05 respectively), although overall there was a lot of variation for both natural and constructed water body datasets. A stepwise linear regression indicated that latitude and approximate maximum depth of water body were significant predictors of natural water body species richness (p = 0.002 and 0.016 respectively). However, no significant predictors of species richness were elucidated for constructed water bodies. The non-indigenous calanoid copepods Sinodiaptomus valkanovi and Boeckella minuta were only found in constructed water bodies. However, the non-indigenous cladoceran Daphnia galeata was recorded in both natural and constructed water bodies. The non-indigenous calanoid copepods are more likely to establish populations in constructed water bodies due to the absence of key species (i.e. native calanoid copepods), whose presence in natural waters seemingly provides 'biotic resistance'. The invasion success of D. galeata in constructed and natural waters may be attributed to the absence of a superior competitor, as native Daphnia populations, for example, are rare in the North Island. My results suggest that species richness may not be as important as species composition in influencing the ease with which non-indigenous species invade constructed water bodies. The core group of species found in natural water bodies are likely to be better adapted to pelagic conditions, and therefore better at resisting invaders, than the more varied constructed water body assemblages.

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  • Optimising the effectiveness of sediments retention ponds for Waikato soil materials

    Fazli, Bashirah Mohd (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Current Waikato sediment retention pond design is based on guidelines developed by the Auckland Regional Council. As soils in the Auckland and Waikato Regions are different, there is a need to investigate the effectiveness of sediment retention ponds in retaining sediments from Waikato soil materials. The objectives of this study were to: i) do a comparison between pipette, hydrometer and lasersizer methods for determining soil particle size and to characterise the sand, silt and clay in a range of Waikato soil materials, ii) evaluate turbidity and suspended solid concentration between the inlet and outlet of sediment retention ponds, and iii) investigate the use of chemical treatment (flocculants) in assisting sediment settling. Ten samples representing a range of Waikato soil materials were collected. Particle size was determined using hydrometer, pipette and lasersizer analysis. The pipette and hydrometer gave similar results. Lasersizer analyses were similar to pipette-hydrometer analyses for six samples. The remaining four samples analysed by lasersizer did not give a close agreement to conventional methods. However, error bars showed that between-sample variability was not large. The pipette was found to be the most reliable method for determination of particle size, however the lasersizer gave fast measurements which were easily repeatable. The soil texture of the ten Waikato soil materials tested ranged from sand to clay. A rain gauge connected to an autowater sampler was installed at the inlet of two sediment retention ponds, one at SH1 in Piarere and the other at a quarry in Ngaruawahia. Water samples were collected when rainfall reached 2mm in the previous 30 minute period. Samples were analysed for turbidity and suspended solids. The sediment retention ponds at both sites were effective, reducing suspended solids and turbidity by at least 94%. Water samples collected at Piarere showed a 94% reduction in turbidity (from 558.68 NTU to 35.27NTU) and a 97% declination in suspended solids concentrations (from 2365.63mg/L to 78.41mg/L). Results from water samples collected at Ngaruawahia demonstrated a 97% reduction in turbidity (from 491.33 NTU to 14.46 NTU) and a 95% drop in suspended solids concentration (from 210.43 mg/L to 9.5 mg/L). Flocculants (Polyaluminium Chloride, PAC) were being used at the sediment retention pond at Ngaruawahia. Further investigation into the effectiveness of flocculants in removing sediments from the water column found that samples 1 and 2 collected from the Ngaruawahia study site and allophanic soil materials do not require treatment with flocculants. The recommended dose of 8 ppm/litre of PAC was sufficient to treat sediment runoff without lowering pH level to a point that might induce aluminium toxicity in aquatic life of downstream rivers and streams for Ngaruawahia 3 and coarse materials of Hinuera Formation. PAC doses of 2.7ppm in the Hamilton Ash materials and 5.3 ppm in Hinuera Formation (fine materials) were sufficient to ensure flocculation. For the Piarere soil materials an 8 ppm PAC dose gave reasonable flocculation and 10.7 ppm PAC further reduced the turbidity after 24 hours.

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  • Carbon dynamics of a dairy pasture: annual balance and impact of cultivation

    Wallace, Dirk Fraser (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Maintenance of soil carbon (C) content is important because a relatively small percentage change in the global soil C store has the potential to cause a large change in atmospheric CO₂ concentration. Losses of soil C can also lead to a decline in soil quality and its capacity to be productive and carry out other services such as the filtering of pollutants. Globally, research on soil C dynamics has largely focused on forests, croplands and natural grasslands, while intensively grazed pasture has received much less attention. In New Zealand, the dynamics of soil C content and C cycling in intensively grazed dairy systems are poorly understood but large losses of soil C (1 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) have recently been reported for grazed dairy pastures. The objective of this research was to build on current knowledge of the C balance of intensively grazed dairy farm systems. To achieve this objective, net ecosystem CO₂ exchange (NEE) and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured over intensively grazed dairy pasture using eddy covariance from 15 December 2007 to 15 December 2009. Net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) were then calculated for 2008 & 2009 from NEE measurements combined with measurements and estimates of C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, silage, methane). A further objective was to determine the impact of periodic cultivation of contrasting soils on the C balance of a dairy farm. To achieve this objective, measurements of soil CO₂ emissions were made using the closed chamber technique following the cultivation of three paddocks of Horotiu soil (Typic Orthic Allophanic) and three paddocks of Te Kowhai soil (Typic Orthic Gley). Annual NEE of the farm was -1,212 ± 500 kg C ha⁻¹ for 2008 and -2,280 ± 500 kg C ha⁻¹ for 2009. Including imports and exports of C to the farm resulted in an annual NECB of -199 ± 500 kg C ha⁻¹ and -1,014 ± 500 kg C ha⁻¹ for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Applied uncertainty is at 90% confidence bound and derived from previous studies reported in the literature. The site was a net sink of C during both 2008 and 2009 in agreement with EC studies performed over grasslands in Europe. The large difference in NEE and NECB between years was due to a drought in 2008, when the site was a C source for the first four months of this year. Average daily water use efficiency (WUE) for 2008 (4 g C kg⁻¹H₂O) and 2009 (4.2 g C kg⁻¹ H₂O) were not substantially different between years and agreed with international field and laboratory studies for pasture. Soil CO₂ loss following cultivation was measured using the closed chamber technique. During the period of cultivation photosynthesis ceased, and potential C input (NEE) to pasture during this time was estimated at -750 kg C ha⁻¹from the adjacent EC study site. To calculate the maximum net soil CO₂₋C loss the potential C input from photosynthesis (NEE) must be added to measured CO₂ emissions. Total soil C loss from the Te Kowhai was between 2,880 kg C ha⁻¹ (CO₂ flux only) and 3,742 kg C ha⁻¹ (CO₂ flux + NEE) while the Horotiu soil lost between 2,082 kg C ha⁻¹(CO₂ flux only) and 2,944 kg C ha⁻¹ (CO₂ flux + NEE). The significant difference in C loss between the two soils was likely a result of their contrasting clay mineralogy and drainage. The Horotiu soil contains allophanic clays with a very high specific surface area, which protects soil C from decomposition. Additionally, poorly drained soils such as the Te Kowhai tend to lose more C following cultivation due to aeration caused by cultivation which increases oxygen penetration into the soil and accelerates decomposition of soil C. Based on these results this grazed pasture was a net sink of C for 2008 and 2009 which is in contrast to the measured decline of 1 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ from New Zealand’s flat to rolling dairy pastures. Cultivation of dairy pasture soil resulted in net C losses, however, these losses were not large enough to account for the measured decline in soil C from New Zealand’s flat to rolling dairy pastures. Further research is required to investigate long term soil C recovery following initial cultivation of pasture in order to be confident of this conclusion.

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  • Interspecific competitive interactions between Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus

    Foster, Stacey Patricia (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Interspecific competition is observed when one species experiences reduced survivorship or fecundity, due to another controlling access to resources either through being superior at harvesting a shared resource (exploitation competition), or physically preventing the other species from accessing the resource, either through territory defence, or aggressive behaviour (interference competition). The aim of this project was to investigate the idea that a balance of exploitation competition and interference competition working together contributes to governing the current distribution of ship rats and Norway rats in New Zealand. The ship rat is the most abundant species, being widespread in native forest, while the Norway rat is largely restricted to farm buildings, rubbish tips, riparian sites and wharves. Chapter Two aimed to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the ability of the two species to harvest resources above the ground in native forest. An artificial forest was created with stands of various heights, representing small trees; with inter connecting ropes of various widths to represent branches rats might encounter in the forest. Individual rats were placed in the artificial forest and their activity recorded during the night. As expected, ship rats were significantly faster climbing up and down all the stands, as well as being faster traversing the various ropes. They also utilised the artificial forest much more than Norway rats. This ability of the ship rat to utilise this habitat may give them advantages in exploitation competition. Chapter Three aimed to test which species is superior at inference competition, when they meet on the ground. This was done using two methods: (1) inter- and intra- specific staged encounters in a small box, with a rat at each end, separated by a partition, with the rats behaviour remotely recorded, and (2) placement of the scent of the opposite species or the actual animal in a self contained cage somewhere within the artificial forest, which was used in the previous chapter. Ship rats appeared to be disturbed by the presence of Norway rats in the artificial forest, but they ignored displays of aggressive behaviour exhibited by the Norway rats during the staged encounters. Chapter Four describes an attempt to validate the results found in Chapters Two and Three in the wild, under natural conditions. A 480 metre long trap line, with 17 trap stations, 30 metres apart was placed on Rahui Island, Lake Waikareiti. Each station consisted of two Victor snap traps with covers, one on the ground and one 2.0 metres above the ground on a platform, with seven trapping nights. Ship rats were trapped on the forest floor and 2.0 metres above the ground, while only one Norway rat was trapped, on the forest floor. Chapter Five summarises the results from the previous chapters and also outlines possible avenues for future research in this area. The results described in this thesis are consistent with the prediction that the distribution of both species in New Zealand is governed by shifting advantages of exploitation competition and interference competition, mediated by habitat.

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  • Hydrodynamic modelling for mangrove afforestation at Haji Dorani, west coast peninsular Malaysia

    Awang, Nor Aslinda binti (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Following the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster of 2004, which increased recognition of the importance of mangal for coastal protection, the Malaysian Government changed its‟ Policy in relation to mangrove and coastal vegetation. Since 2005, considerable effort had been made to establish mangroves in areas affected by the tsunami and rapid coastal development. Mangrove growth is affected by numerous coastal processes such as tides, waves, currents, the type of sediment, nutrient availability, and sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Therefore, a careful assessment of the multiple factors is necessary to facilitate successful replanting. In this thesis, a study has been carried out to determine whether the tidal flats at Sungai Haji Dorani are suitable for mangrove afforestation. The specific objectives are to establish tidal current velocities and flow patterns from hydrodynamic modelling in order to identify the likely sediment transport pathways, and investigate wave shoaling and their role in sediment transport. Sungai Haji Dorani is a low gradient muddy shoreline, consisting predominantly of silt and clay, over which occurs a fluid mud layer of about 0.3-0.5 m thick. There are three river sources of predominantly fine sediment, namely: Bernam, Haji Dorani and Selangor rivers. The existing mangal belt is very narrow (~20 m width) in the study area, and there is no natural mangrove regeneration to replace mangroves lost due to the tsunami and coastal development. Simulations of tides, currents and waves were carried out using the 3DD hydraulic modelling suites. Results were calibrated and validated against measured conditions to facilitate an accurate representation of the study area, and provide a high level of confidence in the model outcomes. The calibrated models were used to simulate the impact of a proposed mangrove replanting project on waves, currents and sediment transport pathways. Modelling results indicate that without mangroves, the average velocity over Haji Dorani is 0.14 ms-1 and peak velocities varied from 0.1-0.4 ms-1, which is high enough to transport fine sediments. The wave model predicted that at highest offshore spring tide and during storm conditions, waves of 0.2-2.0 m are transformed into 0.2-1.0 m high waves at the Haji Dorani shoreline, which will initiate fluidization of the bed sediment. These high waves, combined with tidal currents, can entrain the bed and transport sediment away. Results from the POL3DD Particle Tracking Model indicate little sediment is deposited close to the Haji Dorani shore and any deposited would not permanently consolidate. High waves will erode the bed and re-suspend the sediment while strong tidal currents will transport it into deeper waters offshore. Modelling of simulated mangrove replanting suggests a large reduction in current velocities and storm wave heights due to the increased friction provided by the mangrove roots and trunks. The particle tracking model shows that fine sediment from the Bernam and Haji Dorani rivers will accumulate along the adjacent coasts in response to the reduced transport capability and reduced potential to re-suspend sediment. These sediments will be trapped by the mangal, which may result in the long term build-up of islands around the trees. Increased sedimentation will also provide habitat and nutrients for mangroves to reproduce and regenerate new trees naturally. At the same time, the mangrove trees will provide nutrients and shelter for marine life and terrestrial animals, as well as behave as a wave breaker, reducing incoming wave heights and tidal currents and thereby protecting the coast from high waves and storm surge.

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  • Empowerment evaluation of Te Taiwhenua o Heretaunga Family Start: Improving service delivery

    Little, Gaylene Robina (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores child maltreatment in New Zealand by considering service delivery of the Family Start programme at Te Taiwhenua o Heretaunga through an empowerment evaluation. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the service delivery process of the Family Start programme at this site to inform the organization and other Family Start key agents of possible improvements to service delivery so that the Family Start programme is best able to reduce the risk factors that are known to influence child maltreatment in New Zealand. The best possible service delivery by kaupapa providers supports sustainability and the continuity of service with Māori through continual funding. The two objectives of this research are to look at how well the Family Start programme is implemented at Te Taiwhenua o Heretaunga and to consider the cultural appropriateness of service delivery. Community psychology is the paradigm within which I position myself. I respect the values of community psychology that aim to improve the position of disadvantaged people through their participation in social change and community development. Te Taiwhenua o Heretaunga is a kaupapa Māori provider and I see an empowerment evaluation as a tool for internal evaluation to assist organizations who value self determination in their own practice. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. There are two objectives to consider service delivery; firstly process aspects of service delivery are looked at and secondly the cultural relevance of service delivery to the population receiving the Family Start programme at this site. These are described as nine points about service delivery. The aim is to provide an empowerment evaluation for Te Taiwhenua o Heretaunga to inform, assist and improve service delivery of the Family Start programme in a culturally appropriate manner. The findings suggest better understanding is needed by Te Taiwhenua o Heretaunga Family Start staff, about the programme intentions, the use of tools such as Born to Learn/Ahuru Mōwai, individual family plans, service delivery levels, maintaining health records and ways to encourage collaboration between agencies. Te Taiwhenua o Heretaunga are shown in this research to be reaching the intended population for the Family Start programme, and service delivery appears to be culturally relevant to the clients on the programme at this time. The findings are limited by the fact that access to some information was restricted by Te Taiwhenua o Heretaunga Family Start management. Consequently, this research looked only at service delivery, and not the benefits of or barriers to the actual programme. The effectiveness of the programme in reducing child maltreatment is important but could not be measured in this research. Reducing child maltreatment is the main aim of the Family Start programme and would be measured through client outcomes. This research considered service delivery to see if the Family Start programme is offered optimally to assist the aim of reducing child maltreatment.

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