13,307 results for Masters

  • Characterisation of Food Intake and Expression of Feeding-Related Genes in The VPA Rat Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Laloli, Kathryn (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting roughly 1% of the global population. Aberrant food selectivity (AFS) is a common comorbid symptom of ASD which can result in nutritional deficiencies, increased parental stress and reduced quality of life. However, alarmingly little research has been conducted investigating the nature and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of AFS in ASD. This study attempts to determine whether the VPA rat model of ASD exhibits AFS when presented with various diet types. These include standard chow and water, palatable sweet tastants (sucrose, saccharin and complex liquid diet) and finally palatable high fat milks. The mRNA expression levels of oxytocin, oxytocin receptor, dynorphin and kappa-opioid receptor were then determined. These genes have previously demonstrated to be involved in both feeding and social behaviours. The VPA rats were found to consume less standard chow and water, yet increased intake of the sweet tastants was observed. Additionally, in the VPA rats’ oxytocin expression in the hypothalamus was increased, as was dynorphin expression in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Increased expression of the anorexigenic oxytocin may have resulted in the decreased intake of chow and water, and could potentially be a result of increased leptin or melanocortin levels. However, increased dynorphin expression may be responsible for the increased intake of the palatable sweet tastants, via inhibition of proopiomelanocortin or neuropeptide S. The development of effective treatments for AFS in ASD requires an understanding of the underlying neurological mechanisms. This research provides the first evidence of AFS and elevated oxytocin and dynorphin expression in the VPA rat model of ASD, thus paving the way for further research in this area.

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  • Secondary Traumatic Stress and Vicarious Posttraumatic Growth in New Zealand Clinical Psychologists: The Consequences of Working with Traumatised Clients

    Stapleton, Madeleine (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Clinical psychologists who provide trauma treatment are vicariously exposed to their clients’ traumatic experiences. The responsibility of clinical psychologists to practise both effectively and safely makes assessing the negative and positive psychological consequences of vicarious exposure to trauma imperative. If provisions are not put in place to prevent the negative psychological consequences and facilitate the positive psychological consequences, then detrimental outcomes may arise for the clinician, their clients, and the organisation that they work for. The present study was designed to assess the experience of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG) in clinical psychologists who work with traumatised clients in New Zealand. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that were related to these phenomena, including the level of vicarious exposure to trauma (years working as a clinical psychologist, hours per week working with traumatised clients, and percentage of traumatised clients on caseload), posttraumatic cognitions, secondary trauma self-efficacy (STSE), perceived social support, and engagement in self-care activities. Seventy-two clinical psychologists completed the online survey. Significant relationships were found between the main variables in this study: STS correlated positively with posttraumatic cognitions and VPTG correlated positively with self-care. Non-hypothesised significant relationships were also found. Posttraumatic cognitions correlated significantly with hours per week working with traumatised clients, STSE, perceived social support, and self-care. Additionally, self-care correlated significantly with perceived social support. The results of this study suggest that clinical psychologists who experience more posttraumatic cognitions following vicarious exposure to trauma may be more likely to experience STS. The results also suggest that those clinical psychologists who engage in more self-care activities may be more likely to experience VPTG. As the majority of the proposed hypotheses were not supported, it appears that the factors thought to be related to STS and VPTG may not be as pertinent as previous research indicates. Overall, the results suggest that there may be other factors not explored in this study that may influence the experience of STS and VPTG. As discrepant results were found in this study, future research should continue to investigate the factors that are related to STS and VPTG in clinical psychologists. Investigation into the ways in which posttraumatic cognitions following vicarious exposure to trauma can be prevented, or reduced, would also be beneficial, as would investigation into the specific self-care activities that are related to VPTG. Future research could also investigate the barriers that may prevent clinical psychologists from engaging in self-care. Taken together, this study provides insight into the factors that are related to STS and VPTG, and importantly, identifies how STS may be prevented and VPTG may be facilitated.

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  • Effective, accountable and inclusive institutions? An analysis of the Chevron v. Ecuador (II) investment arbitration and the Lago Agrio environmental justice movement

    McGiven, Timothy Clyde (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The international investment agreement regime, one of the more obscure global institutions, has a significant impact upon how states, local governments and communities develop. Many investment agreements include investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanisms, which seek to protect investors from unjust expropriation by host states. Yet, the implications of such a mechanism for fulfilling the vision of the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have never been studied. This thesis examines the ISDS mechanism by conducting a case study of the Chevron v. Ecuador (II) [CvE2] investment arbitration. The thesis analyses case documents such as hearing transcripts, decisions and submissions to identify the discourses at work within the arbitration; determine the implications of such discourses for processual developments; and explore how such processes influence the space afforded to those nongovernmental organisations and environmental justice groups affected by the arbitration. The research utilises an analytical framework informed by critical development theory and environmental justice theory, to demonstrate that the CvE2 arbitration is dominated by an exclusive discourse that prioritises a strict adherence to international investment law, to the exclusion of other principles such as those of international human rights law and environmental law. The dominance of such a discourse reduces the legitimacy of the institution and its rulings for many key stakeholders. The findings also reveal that marginalised stakeholders, such as environmental organisations representing indigenous communities, were refused access to the arbitrations though they were materially affected by the claims, and additionally, were denied consideration - whereby the material impact of the ruling upon the stakeholder group was deemed irrelevant to the proceedings. The findings provide evidence that ISDS, in its current form, is incompatible with the United Nation’s goal for ‘effective, accountable and inclusive institutions’ (United Nations Development Programme, 2016, p. 1). This thesis contributes to the scholarship on environmental justice and environmental policy through its analysis of the implications of arbitration mechanisms embedded in international investment regimes for environmental justice claims and, more broadly, the goal of sustainable development. The thesis highlights the need for further research into investor-state investment arbitrations and provides evidence that significant reform is necessary in order for the institution to be reconciled with the SDGs.

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  • You and me and shame

    Gillanders, Leah Esme (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research project investigated the effects of bringing an as-yet-untold story of shame to a narrative therapy counselling conversation. The researcher, who became the client, invited a narrative practitioner to join her in three conversations, a counselling conversation and two interpersonal process recall conversations. The data generated from these conversations as well as the personal research diary kept by the researcher are woven together as research findings, presenting a layered, journeyed account of the movement experienced by the researcher. This study noticed the challenges of recognising and speaking stories of shame. Attention is given to noticing vulnerability and the difficulty of speaking stories of shame and also to the role of witnessing in the relationship between the counsellor and the client meeting within a context of shame. This autoethnographic account offers itself as practitioner researcher. Knowledges produced in this research highlight the importance of considering first the role of shame in the life of a problem and second how it is to be positioned as a client in a counselling relationship.

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  • Emotional Well-Being and Secondary Traumatic Stress in New Zealand Youth Workers

    Takhar-Stapleton, Amber (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study aimed to explore the relationship of STS and emotional well-being among New Zealand youth workers using a qualitative approach. Eleven participants were interviewed for the study using a semi-structured interviewing technique. The purpose of this study was to fill a gap in the literature about the impact of working with traumatised youth and to identify if youth workers were at risk and vulnerable to the effects of trauma exposure. Three aims were incorporated in the study to answer the research question. The first aim was to explore ways in which youth work may be associated with decreased emotional well-being and STS with the second aim of identifying symptoms and causes of decreased emotional well-being and STS. Lastly, the third aim was to explore how decreased emotional well-being is associated with the development of STS. The findings suggest the majority of participants experienced moderate levels of decreased emotional well-being and displayed symptoms associated with the effects of secondary traumatic stress. The results confirmed the first aim of the study which identified youth work as being correlated with decreased emotional well-being and STS. The results suggested decreased emotional well-being increased vulnerability to developing STS and therefore, the third aim of the study was also confirmed. Several themes were found in the participants’ answers which revealed youth work is associated with emotional well-being and symptoms of STS. This included emotional detachment, suppression, and numbing, helplessness, burnout and lack of resources to cope, social withdrawal, difficulty sleeping and changes in appetite. Risk factors which appeared to increase vulnerability included personal trauma, PTSD, countertransference, and empathic engagement. Organisational stressors were also identified as increasing vulnerability which heavily influenced participants and contributed to extreme stress and exhaustion. Findings in this study contribute to the knowledge of secondary traumatic stress as well as increasing knowledge about the emotional effects of working with traumatised individuals. Furthermore, the study helps to educate helping professionals and increases knowledge of youth work.

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  • Barry Barclay: the Reflection of Maori and Pakeha Identities

    Hilal, Emad Jabbar (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This Media and Screen Studies thesis tries to investigate the identifications of Barry Barclay (1944-2008) - a New Zealand filmmaker, thinker and poet, of Māori and Pākeha ethnic background - who identified as Māori in the second part of his career, in the mid 1970s. The thesis relies on Barclay's writing and other historical and theoretical material in the reading of his own films. The thesis arrives at an argument that even when Barclay chose to identify more with the Māori side of his identity, the Pākeha side took part also in the shaping of his film practices. Studying Barry Barclay along this line of argument has several benefits for Screen Studies. It, on the one hand, covers what is left unstudied by the scholarship concerning his representation of the Māori world such as the way he commented on Māori cultural and social concerns and acheivements in his films. The thesis studies Barclay's films from the time he started his identification with his Māori side in Tangaata Whenua (1974), Te Urewera (1987), Ngati (1987),Te Rua (1991) and takes The Kaipara Affair (2005) as a case study and a carrier of change in film practices and development in outlook.The other important contribution is the way he represented Pākeha, and how he developed his representation of them in time. This representation which is unstudied at all, is important to Screen Studies becuase it contributes to Barclay's theory of Fourth Cinema. This thesis shows how representing Pakeha, especially in Barclay's last film problemematizes his theory of Fourth Cinema, but ultimately, deals with applies it creatively. The representation of Pākeha gives insight into Barclay's interest in the Māori world, which is not a dogma or a merely ethnic affiliation as much as an attraction to a world-view that can solve major universal issues such as environmental problems. Above all, the way how Barclay worked out this representation in his films sheds light on one of the important examples of how film can take part in healing social damages such as the history of colonizing and marginalization of Māori people.

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  • The Development of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) in the Philippines: Roles and Views of Secondary School Principals

    Capili-Balbalin, Wenefe (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It is widely recognised that principals play an indispensable role in the professional development of teachers in schools. In the Philippines, principals encourage teachers to participate in the traditional and most common approach to professional development such as conferences, seminars, workshops, and training. Despite documented benefits of these traditional approaches to teacher professional development, recent studies show that many teachers find them insufficient, inconsistent, and sometimes they do not necessarily address teachers’ classroom needs. There is a growing body of literature that recognises the importance of teacher engagement through professional learning communities (PLCs) as a new approach to teacher professional development. Unlike traditional approaches to teacher professional development, PLCs redefine professional development from programmes that regard teachers as passive learners to programmes that regard teachers as active learners who are responsible for their own professional growth. The study explored the roles and perspectives of secondary school principals in the development of PLCs in the Philippines. It is an underlying assumption that principals’ understanding of their roles in the implementation of teacher professional development policies in schools is central to the formation of PLCs. This raised two important questions that principals needed to contemplate: How did they view and implement national policies on teacher professional development in the school level? And, how did they perceive and establish PLCs in their schools? The study utilised a qualitative research methodology based on an interpretive paradigm. Through the use of semi-structured interviews alongside policy analysis, three main themes emerged: lack of continuing teacher professional development programmes in the Philippines; varying views of principals in the development of PLCs in schools; and, effective leadership styles as key to support continuing professional development of teachers. The lack of continuing teacher professional development programmes suggests that principals in the study failed to establish PLCs in their schools. This offers some important insights on the leadership experiences of principals in the implementation of national policies on professional development and how it affects their roles in supporting teachers’ continuing professional development. The study also reinforces theories around strong influence of school leadership in the formation of PLCs, particularly in developing countries such as the Philippines. This is an important issue for future work, as top-down leadership continuously predominates in school organisations in the Philippines. Further work is recommended to investigate the implications of this for the confidence level of principals in their leadership in the context of secondary schools in the Philippines.

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  • Adaptation to water scarcity in the context of climate change: A Case Study of the Nuku'alofa and Hihifo Districts, Tongatapu

    Fa'anunu, Jacqueline (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    For the most part, PICs and SIDS are constantly reminded of their vulnerability to climate change. Often, the increasing portrayal of island countries as vulnerable does not necessarily address what causes that vulnerability. The UNFCCC and IPCC have sought to adopt more adaptation measures alongside mitigation especially in vulnerability assessments. In the context of Tongatapu, adaptation in the water sector still holds significant political and economic challenges. This thesis explores the rural-urban adaptation experiences of residents in Nuku’alofa and Hihifo, Tongatapu, to water scarcity in the context of drought and climate change. It also seeks to investigate the role of vulnerability in the provision of aid, in reference to the PACC (Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change) water project in Hihifo. In utilising discourse analysis and analysis of semi-structured interviews and focus groups consisting of participants from Nuku’alofa and Hihifo, a range of themes emerged on the complexities of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Tonga. Hence, I sought to identify the ways that people can adapt to water scarcity in the context of drought and climate change. I draw from post structuralism, cultural geography and the vulnerability theory to uncover the discourses present in the climate change literature. It was also important to incorporate literature on sustainability and indigenous knowledge as they support better adaptation capacity in not only Tongatapu but also all of Tonga’s water sector. In particular, I examine vulnerability from a local point of view versus the views of those at the national level. In doing so, local knowledges can help shape decisions on policies regarding water and climate change. Government documents on climate change in Tonga has progressed from a vulnerability point of view to a resilience and adaptation frame of thinking. However, adaptation in the water sector is not solely a problem based on natural variability and climate change. A huge part of water problems is largely rooted on political and economic processes. This underpins the accessibility of people to water resources. This problem needs to be addressed, in order to increase the adaptive capacity of people in the rural-urban areas of Tongatapu.

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  • Investigating influences of incentives on implicit attitudes toward body size

    Taylor, Tokiko (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) was designed to detect relational responding that cannot easily be accessed via traditional survey methods. The IRAP requires participants to meet speed and accuracy criteria during practice trials before proceeding to test trials, which has resulted in an attrition rate of approximately 20%, on average, in the existing research. Variables affecting the attrition rate have not been systematically investigated. I examined the influence of incentives (in this case a $20 voucher contingent on meeting performance criteria) on attrition rate and other IRAP performance measures. In addition, I examined whether the IRAP would reveal an implicit anti-fat bias in 82 university students. I found significant differences in the performance of the incentive group compared to the control group in their response accuracy and measurement of their implicit bias. The results indicated higher levels of bias compared with those from previous research studies, particularly in the incentive group. I did not find statistically significant differences in the attrition rate but found a low attrition rate in both groups. This study reveals the utility of incentives for improving performance on the IRAP, a procedure that demands accurate responses under time pressure for assessing spontaneous relational responding.

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  • Emotional Well-Being and Secondary Traumatic Stress In New Zealand Youth Workers

    Takhar-Stapleton, Amber (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study aimed to explore the relationship of STS and emotional well-being among New Zealand youth workers using a qualitative approach. Eleven participants were interviewed for the study using a semistructured interviewing technique. The purpose of this study was to fill a gap in the literature about the impact of working with traumatised youth and to identify if youth workers were at risk and vulnerable to the effects of trauma exposure. Three aims were incorporated in the study to answer the research question. The first aim was to explore ways in which youth work may be associated with decreased emotional well-being and STS with the second aim of identifying symptoms and causes of decreased emotional well-being and STS. Lastly, the third aim was to explore how decreased emotional well-being is associated with the development of STS. The findings suggest the majority of participants experienced moderate levels of decreased emotional well-being and displayed symptoms associated with the effects of secondary traumatic stress. The results confirmed the first aim of the study which identified youth work as being correlated with decreased emotional well-being and STS. The results suggested decreased emotional well-being increased vulnerability to developing STS and therefore, the third aim of the study was also confirmed. Several themes were found in the participants’ answers which revealed youth work is associated with emotional well-being and symptoms of STS. This included emotional detachment, suppression, and numbing, helplessness, burnout and lack of resources to cope, social withdrawal, difficulty sleeping and changes in appetite. Risk factors which appeared to increase vulnerability included personal trauma, PTSD, countertransference, and empathic engagement. Organisational stressors were also identified as increasing vulnerability which heavily influenced participants and contributed to extreme stress and exhaustion. Findings in this study contribute to the knowledge of secondary traumatic stress as well as increasing knowledge about the emotional effects of working with traumatised individuals. Furthermore, the study iii helps to educate helping professionals and increases knowledge of youth work.

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  • Material Synthesis: Negotiating experience with digital media

    McLaren, Sasha (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    A DVD of six digital film works accompanying the thesis is available with the print copy of this thesis, held at the University of Waikato Library.

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  • The Effects of using Think-Pair-Share during Guided Reading Lessons

    Carss, Wendy Diane (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this research was to describe the effects of Think-Pair-Share strategies, used during Guided Reading lessons, on reading achievement. Think-Pair-Share is a co-operative teaching strategy that includes three components; time for thinking, time for sharing with a partner and time for each pair to share back to a larger group. The use of Think-Pair-Share unites the cognitive and social aspects of learning, promoting the development of thinking and the construction of knowledge. The strategy lends itself to inclusion within Guided Reading lessons, where the focus is on meaningful discussion around text and promotion of the use of comprehension skills and strategies to foster comprehension. The literature review describes the effectiveness of explicit comprehension strategy instruction within the context of small group discussion. Strategies that foster cooperative learning have been successful in developing interpersonal skills, cognitive skills and metacognitive awareness. There is very little research documenting the effects of the use of the Think-Pair-Share strategy. The study took place in a Year 6 classroom with two intervention groups, each containing six children. One group was reading above their chronological age and the other below. Control groups reading at these levels were also used. Three variations of Think-Pair-Share were utilised during the eight week intervention period; Predict-Pair-Share, Image-Pair-Share and Summarise-Pair-Share, and the research centred on the effects of the intervention on reading comprehension. A quasi-experimental design was employed using a pre-test, post-test format and a mix of quantitative and qualitative measures to ascertain the effects. The results confirmed the positive effects of the strategy on reading achievement, especially for those students reading above their chronological age, although an extended period of intervention may have had more significant effects on those reading below. Positive effects on aspects of oral language use, thinking, metacognitive awareness, and the development of reading comprehension strategies were noted with both of the intervention groups. Results have significance for those concerned with implementing effective literacy practice. They demonstrate the versatility of the Think-Pair-Share strategy as a tool to foster conversation, and one that can be adapted to suit the learning focus and the needs of particular groups of students.

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  • Identification and the role of hybridisation in Pittosporum.

    Carrodus, Susan Kathleen (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Godley (1985) proposed that species which have separate juvenile and adult forms may be derived from hybridisation, and proposed that the rare, heteroblastic species P. turneri is a putative hybrid. This study aims to identify whether Pittosporum turneri is derived from hybridisation between a divaricating shrub (P. divaricatum) and a non-divaricating tree (P. colensoi), and to improve resolution of relationships among very closely related species within the genus Pittosporum. A combined approach was used to test the origin of P. turneri. Phylogenetic analysis of the maternally inherited trnT-trnL region of chloroplast DNA was undertaken to compare with a phylogeny based on the biparentally inherited internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) for all New Zealand Pittosporum species. Additionally, inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR's) and allozymes were used in an attempt to identify hybridisation between P. colensoi and P. divaricatum. A morphological study was undertaken to determine whether P. turneri is morphologicaly intermediate to the putative parents. Cross-pollination between the putative parents of P. turneri was also undertaken in the wild between female flowers of P. divaricatum and male flowers of P. colensoi to investigate whether hybridisation between these co-existing species is possible. The trnT-trnL region resolved several clades within the New Zealand Pittosporum previously unresolved by the ITS region alone. P. turneri has the same trT-trnL sequence as P. divaricatum, implicating P. divaricatum as the maternal parent. The profile of ISSR bands in P. turneri, exhibit additivity of bands found in P. colensoi and P. divaricatum, supporting a hybrid origin of P. turneri. Morphological analyses also show that P. turneri is intermediate to P. divaricatum and P. colensoi. The cross-pollination experiment was unsuccessful and no seedlings germinated, although four seeds appeared viable. It is proposed that P. turneri has a hybrid origin, however this finding needs to be supported by further work.

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  • The space and place of grief in geography: The "Avalanche Lady"

    Hutcheson, Gail Yvonne (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis makes an original contribution to the socio-cultural and emotional geographies literature by focusing on Robyn Gordon's (the Avalanche Lady's ) experiences of grief. I argue that space, place, and emotions are mutually constituted. Thus, geographers are aptly positioned to examine the complexities and contradictions of spatialised emotions. Ideas about space and place do not exist in a vacuum. Also, the two terms, space and place offer geographers more when conceptualised as a complementary pair rather than individually (see Agnew 2005). By drawing on a wide range of contemporary geographical and social science literature, I explore how notions of space and place can be stretched to include the beyond , and how they can be conceptualised as fluid, contingent, and unfinished. In order to convey these new configurations of space and place from within an experience of grief, I employed three key methods. Three semi-structured interviews were conducted with Robyn. Further, she created a digital story using photographs, her choice of music and narrative, and kept a research diary. This empirically unique approach enabled me to produce a rich and contextualised account of what grief felt like, and continues to feel like for my respondent. Although grief is often touted as an individual experience, I contend that it radiates out into the wider social milieu through emotional, virtual, national, and international communities. Thus, connections between people and places are made and remade. I found that space, place, and grief interrelate on many levels including, private-public, personal-social, and specific-ethereal places. Robyn's home, her local community, and Japan were integral to the way in which she contextualised her grief. However, these conceptually traditional places pale in comparison to Robyn's spiritual (re)connections with James. This unexpected information required me to expand the analysis of place to include spirits in this research. Finally, representations of grief in public and media spaces were found to be paradoxical. Still, the digital story and this research as a process and as a representational space were considered by Robyn to be therapeutic. Overall, Robyn's grief is evolving, changing, complex, and contradictory, and something she lives with every day.

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  • Predicting Water Availability in the Antarctic Dry Valleys using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing

    Stichbury, Glen (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Water is one of the most important ingredients for life on Earth. The presence or absence of biologically available water determines whether or not life will exist. Antarctica is an environment where abiotic constraints, particularly water, strongly influence the distribution and diversity of biota. As Antarctic biology is relatively simple when compared to more temperate climates, it is a prime location for researching constraints on biodiversity, and what may be the impacts of changes to these constraints resulting from climate change and human disturbance. This research uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing to develop a relative water availability index of three Dry Valleys in Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. This study area is being used for the IPY Terrestrial Biocomplexity project, an international collaboration researching the distribution, diversity and complexity of biology in the Dry Valleys. The development of a predictive water availability model will contribute greatly to their research goals. This thesis describes the sources of biologically available water in the Dry Valleys and its interaction with biota. Remotely sensed data of these sources is gathered and various methods of analysing the data are explored. This includes creating a mean snow cover distribution model from MODIS data over 4 summer seasons, and Landsat7 ETM+ surface temperature data. These data sets, combined with a high resolution LIDAR Digital Elevation Model and glacier and lake locations, are then analysed with GIS to produce a Compound Topographic Index (CTI), a model showing the likely accumulation and dispersal of liquid water given the spatial distribution of water sources and the flow of water over the terrain according to the influence of gravity. Visualisation techniques are used to validate the resulting model, including the use of 3D visualisation and comparison of drainage patterns using overlays of a high resolution ALOS image. This research concludes that GIS and remote sensing are valuable tools for predicting water distribution in Antarctica. Although cloud cover, varied illumination and differing spatial resolutions can create limitations, remote sensing's cost effective and environmentally sound method of data capture and the computational and spatial modelling capabilities of GIS make their use well suited to the Antarctic environment.

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  • The Long Term Implication of RTLB Support: 'Listening to the Voices of Student Experiences'

    Pillay, Poobie (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research inquiry is based on the narratives of six secondary school male students who tell of their experiences of having learning and/or behaviour difficulties in school.The research explores the perspectives of these six participants, from one New Zealand Secondary School, who received support from a Resource Teacher Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) from a single RTLB cluster. The RTLB service is a school based resource that provides itinerant specialist support to schools and work with regular class teachers to improve the educational outcomes for students with moderate learning and/or behavioural difficulties (Ministry of Education, 1999; Walker et al, 1999). This study aims to capture the voices of the participants through narratives and to tell of their experiences with RTLB, their school and what makes sense in their lives. The purpose of this research is to induce reflection, themes or possibly questions for further discussion or research. There were four questions that drove this research inquiry: 1. What were the experiences of the participants who received support from the RTLB while they were at primary, intermediate or secondary school? 2. What were their current experiences of school life? 3. What is it about boys and school- especially those with learning and behaviour difficulties? 4. Were there any new insights available to support/extend the work of the RTLB in this cluster? A narrative approach was chosen as the methodology because it allowed the stories of the students to be told in their own voices. The principles of a narrative guided the construction, presentation and application of the interviews. The interviews were informally conducted and the transcription formed the narratives in this inquiry. The themes from the narratives generated discussion about the family as an important factor in raising positive, well balanced children. The similarities between the Caucasian participants and the Māori participants of the Te Kotahitanga project also featured. The themes also cover the impact of immigration on the South African participants and show the differences between the two school systems and how they affect students new to New Zealand. The impact of RTLB support was greatest on those who remembered quite clearly the RTLB and the support they received. The research presented a positive outlook for the participants despite their difficulties and experiences of school. Their resilience and the combination of support they received at school and home were important contributors to this optimism. The analysis of the narratives provided the RTLB in this cluster with some implications to support or extend their work. The implications included the development of proactive connections and meaningful relationships with the student. This was possible by getting to know them better and by making them aware of the purpose of RTLB involvement. The students could also be included in the problem solving and intervention processes. Two recommendations from this research are that future research could investigate a system to monitor progress of students who received RTLB support and a process to place immigrant children correctly in the New Zealand school system.

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  • Strategy and vision: The influence of the AMWU on the NZEU from 1987-1992 with respect to education and training reforms

    Piercy, Gemma Louise (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It has been established that in the late 1980s, early 1990s the AMWU and the NZEU developed a close relationship through which the NZEU altered it traditional bargaining strategies. This study set out to discover the specific details of this relationship and its implications, with respect to education and training reforms, from around 1987-1992. The thesis began the investigation with a literature review, followed by an extensive series of interviews in Australia and New Zealand. The interviews were conducted with officials and former officials of the AMWU and the NZEU. Key players from the education and training reform process in both countries. The conclusion of this thesis is that, the pressure from the rise of neo-liberalism and the changes to production drove the NZEU to find alternative bargaining strategy. The strength of the unions in Australia and historical ties drew the NZEU to the AMWU, who under similar constraints, had formulated new bargaining strategies. These new strategies embraced 'partnership unionism' which used co-operative practices and training as a means of maintaining leverage under hostile conditions. This thesis asserts that the NZEU took on board the AMWU's 'partnership unionism', through their relationship, as they saw them as a means of maintaining leverage in a neo-liberal environment. Training is the linchpin of this approach highlighting the strategic importance of education and training to unions. This thesis concludes that the NZEU has been able to maintain its leverage in a neo-liberal environment because, in line with Wolfgang Streeck's analysis, it has recognised that education and training provide a degree of leverage in a hostile environment.

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  • 'Soldiers and Shirkers': An Analysis of the Dominant Ideas of Service and Conscientious Objection in New Zealand During the Great War.

    Loveridge, Steven (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    During the First World War, ideas of duty and sacrifice were a dominant characteristic of public discourse in New Zealand. Specifically, concern centred on a perceived inequality of sacrifice, which saw brave soldiers die on the front lines, whilst other men remained on the home front, apparently avoiding duty. This thesis charts the prevailing and powerful ideas that circulated during wartime New Zealand around these two stereotypes; on the one hand there was the soldier, the ideal of service and duty; on the other, the conscientious objector, a target for the derogatory label of 'shirker'. While there are a few select critical works which examine the experiences of New Zealand World War One conscientious objectors, such We Will Not Cease (1939) and Armageddon or Calvary (1919), there is a near complete absence of studies which examine the home front and ask how conscientious objectors were perceived and consequently judged as they were. It is the contention of this thesis that ideas around the soldier and the 'shirker' were interrelated stereotypes and that both images emerged from the process of mass mobilisation; a highly organised war effort which was largely dependent for its success upon the cooperation of wider civilian society. In sum, the thesis examines and analyses the ideas within mainstream New Zealand society as they appeared in public sources (notably newspapers, cartoons and government publications), and in doing so, tracks how social mores and views towards duty, sacrifice and service were played out at a time of national and international crisis.

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  • Does Training Improve Performance on a Perspective-taking Task?

    Baker, Laura Maree (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigated the effect of training on perspective-taking with 22 normally developed adults. The perspective-taking task, similar to that used by McHugh, Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes, Whelan, and Stewart (2007), required the participants read two related statements per trial presented on a computer screen. They pressed one of two keys to indicate if they thought the second statement was true or false. The statements differed along three dimensions, perspective (Self, Other, or Photo), belief (true- or false- belief), and correct response (true or false). Latency to respond, timed from the end of the statement presentation, and accuracy were recorded. A reaction time task, that requiring participants to indicate if a statement ( This is (colour name) ) about a coloured square was true or false, was included to assess the effect of task repetition on response latencies. There were four blocks of reaction time trials alternating with three blocks of perspective-taking trials (Pre-test, Training, and Post-test). During the Training phase there was feedback on the accuracy of each response. Feedback was not given in the Pre-test, Post-test, or reaction time trials. Extended training on the perspective-taking task reduced latencies on this task over and above the decreases seen in the latencies on the reaction time tests, and this reduction generalized to a novel stimulus set. The Self and Other questions resulted in longer latencies than the Photo questions (both before and after the removal of reaction time) as predicted by Relational Frame Theory. The longer latencies were associated with greater relational complexity and partially replicated the results of McHugh et al. (2007a). These results suggest that training with multiple exemplars can be used to decrease response latencies, and so to improving performance, on a perspective-taking task.

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  • The impact of Chinese culture in online learning: Chinese tertiary students’ perceptions

    Cong, Yan (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis looks at Chinese students' understanding of online learning, investigates how culture impact on students online learning attitude, behaviour, and achievement, and seeks their recommendations for eLeaming and eTeaching guidelines and/or professional development. This study used a qualitative framework and took place over a year period. The research involved the methods of email surveys and interviews. The literature identifies many factors including the online learning and teaching pedagogy, aspects of Chinese culture, the implications for online Chinese students' learning, and Chinese students learning in another country. This review helps to identity some research findings of this research. This finding of this research identified participants' experience and their perceptions of learning online, explored their beliefs about Chinese cultural impact on their online learning, and sought their recommendations to eTeachers and other Chinese students about eTeaching and eLearning. In the light of literature, this research found that participants had different opinions about the impact of Chinese culture on their online learning. Participants had seen both positive and negative impacts on their online learning. The acknowledgment of individuals' differences and willingness of adapting to a new culture was viewed as a reason why some participants thought the cultural impact varied with individuals and could not be generalized. The invisibility of culture was also explained why some participants disagreed with the cultural impact. Participants' perceptions on the impact of Chinese culture on their online learning would help eTeachers to understand the learning difficulties for Chinese students to study online, and in what ways the Chinese culture influences on their online learning. The recommendations participants made to eTeachers were related to the effective eTeaching pedagogy such as to give timely feedback and more encouragements to students, to cater for students' different needs and interests by selecting some course contents or examples relevant to Chinese students' backgrounds. Participants suggested eTeachers to arrange the group meeting beside the course study, and to give more introductions about what online learning was before the online course started. Based on the consideration of the English language difficulties for Chinese students and some negative impacts from Chinese culture, participants made recommendations to other Chinese students such as to be willing to share ideas, to speak out their thoughts and to be active in asking for assistance, and to find more information before they chose online learning. Participants' those recommendations could help eTeachers to make some changes of eTeaching pedagogy and learn about Chinese students' culture in order to cater for Chinese students' interests and needs. Therefore, these recommendations could be helpful for eLearning and eTeaching guidelines and/or professional development on supporting Chinese students learning online both in New Zealand and China. This study raised some concerns about possible future research such as how to maximise librarian's assistance in online course, and in what ways both Chinese students' written and spoken English language could be improved through learning online.

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