13,601 results for Masters

  • Water requirements for 'Hass' avocado flowering and fruit development in New Zealand

    Kaneko, Teruko (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this work was to determine water requirements for Persea americana 'Hass’ avocado trees (mature, ca. 9 years and young, ca. 3 years) from November 2014 to October 2015 in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. In addition, the effect of water deficit on flowering and early fruit development was investigated in young avocado (ca. 3 years) trees. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was calculated by the FAO Penman-Monteith equation based on weather information at the orchard. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of avocado was measured by sap flow measurements using the compensation heat pulse method (CHPM), and daily crop evapotranspiration was also estimated from a soil water balance (Ewb). Avocado tree water requirements were calculated as crop coefficients (Kc - the ETo/ETc ratio). • Monthly cumulative ETo showed a gradual reduction from 145.9 mm in January to 297.7 mm in June. Monthly cumulative ETc for both the mature and young plants was highest at 75 and 41.8 mm in January, and the lowest at 22.4 and 13.53 mm in July, respectively. The results showed a close correlation between ETc and ETo. • Ewb was higher than ETc by 22 % for the mature and 55 % for the young plants, probably caused by drainage which was not measured. • In summer, monthly average Kc varied between 0.45-0.60 for the mature and 0.25-0.30 for the young plants. In winter, Kc increased to 0.9-1.0 for the mature and 0.45-0.55 for the young plants. To investigate the effect of water deficit on flowering and fruit development, rainout shelters were set up under the young trees from mid-October 2014. During this treatment, the control plants were well irrigated and fertilized, while the drought plants received no irrigation, precipitation, or fertilizers. The rainout shelters were removed in early-May 2015, and monitoring was continued until late-October. • During the rainout treatment, at a depth of 0-30 cm, soil water contents of the drought treated plants dropped to 0.13 m3/m3, while that of the control remained above 0.2 m3/m3. However, from March, soil water content of the drought plants was stable at 0.20 m3/m3 at a depth of 31-60 cm and 0.25 m3/m3 at a depth of 61-90 cm. Spatial soil moisture demonstrated the soil was drier close to the drought treated trees, but wetter near the edge of the rainout shelters. These measurements suggest the drought plants were able to obtain some water from the deeper soil or outside the shelters. • Predawn leaf water potential (PLWP) of the drought plants was lower by 0.06-0.22 MPa than that of the control plants during the flowering season. However, in December, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance (gs) between the two treatments. The drought leaf water potential (LWP) and stem water potential (SWP) were more negative than the control LWP and SWP. In January and February, the drought LWP and SWP dropped to -0.43 MPa and -0.30 MPa, whereas the control LWP and SWP were around -0.25 MPa and -0.23 MPa, respectively, assuming the rainout shelters caused moderate water stress in the drought-treated plants. • Throughout the flowering season, in total, 1382 open female flowers on the control plants and 1515 flowers on the drought plants were marked and their fates monitored. About 21 % of control flowers and 23 % of the drought flowers remained on the tree 16 days after anthesis. 100 days after anthesis, only 4 control and 1 drought fruit from the monitored flowers were retained on the plants. • The two treatments had significant fruit drop in summer, about 70 % of marked fruit dropped in January and February, and a second peak of fruit abscission occurred in winter, caused by frost. At harvest, the retention rate of fruit for the control and drought treatments were 15 % and 5 %, respectively. Moreover, the drought plants had smaller fruit size than fruit of the control plants by 21 % at harvest. The differences in fruit abscission and fruit size were probably caused by the combined effects of water deficit, nutrient deficiency, and crop load. • The control had higher average yield at 36.4 ± 1.1 kg per plant than the drought plants at 27.8 ± 1.0 kg per plant. The dry matter content of the control fruit was 30.4 ± 0.3 %, 7% higher than that of the drought fruit. The results can be used to develop irrigation recommendations, and that under the conditions described here the trees were difficult to drought stress in spring and flowering did not appear to be very sensitive to drought stress. However, early fruit growth was very sensitive to water deficits, resulting in a large reduction in fruit size.

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  • House mouse (Mus musculus) use of vertical space and impact on bird nesting success

    Kelly, Catherine Lindsay (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Prior to human arrival, New Zealand was dominated by birds that had evolved in the absence of mammalian predators. Early Polynesian settlers brought with them the kiore (Rattus exulans), which subsequently decimated many native species. Following this, Europeans brought ship rats (Rattus rattus), Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), house mice (Mus musculus) and an array of other mammalian predators causing even more damage to the native flora and fauna. Present day conservation strategies seek to control or eliminate invasive predator populations to give the native birds a chance to recover. At Maungatautari – a pest-fenced reserve in the Waikato, New Zealand, mice remain as the sole invasive mammal following extensive eradication programmes. When left on their own, mouse populations are known to greatly increase. On some offshore islands in the South Atlantic and sub-Antarctic, their diet has been shown to include bird eggs and chicks, and on other islands they have used resources that were previously unavailable to them (by predator or competitive exclusion). Therefore, the aims of the present study were to examine how mice; (1) use vertical space in the presence and absence of other mammalian predators and (2) impact bird nesting success when they are the sole predator. Chapter Two examines how mice use vertical space in the presence and absence of other mammalian predators while also quantifying how other small mammals use vertical space. Tracking devices (that included chew tags) were placed at different forest heights within two separate patches of bush, one with only mice present (Maungatautari Sanctuary) and one where all pest mammals were present (Te Tapui Reserve). Mice were found to frequently use the lower (<5m) levels of the native bush; however, they were not detected in the canopy. In contrast, mice were detected much less frequently at Te Tapui and only on the ground. Rats and possums were detected at all forest levels. The presence of other mammals clearly constrains mouse activity through predation and/or resource competition. Chapter Two also examined how mice use the hood of the predator proof fences at Maungatautari in the presence (external) and absence (internal) of other mammals. Cameras and tracking card were installed within the hood of the fence with tracking card also installed at the base of the fence in two areas (i.e. one with mice only present and one with all small pest mammals present) at Maungatautari Sanctuary. Mice were only found to use the base of the internal fence and were never detected in the fence hood. However both rats and mice were detected in the external fence-hood. The hood of the predator-proof fence likely provides invertebrate resources as well as a source of cover. Chapter Three considered the impact of mice on bird nesting success when mice are the sole mammalian predator present. Bird nests were located and monitored until either chicks were fledged or they failed. Nests that were located with eggs already present were monitored for 30 days with a camera capturing any activity. These cameras were set to take an image every 5 seconds nocturnally or could be triggered at any time by movement. Of 17 nests that were found, only 2 were successful. 4 nests were found with eggs that were already deserted and 11 were abandoned during the building stage prior to egg laying. One mouse was filmed on one occasion at a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) nest, but it was not seen to interact with the nest contents. Chapter Four summarises the results from the previous chapters and also makes recommendations for future research. The results presented in this thesis are consistent with the prediction that mice will occupy different forest spaces when they are the sole mammalian pest than when other mammalian predators were present. However no further evidence for active mouse predation on bird nests was found.

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  • Functional trait variation along a hydrological gradient and trait-based predictions of the composition of a wetland plant community

    Purcell, Adam (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Predicting the assembly of plant communities is considered the Holy Grail of functional ecology and has never been more important as we head into an era of environmental change. Studying plant functional traits provides the best opportunity for understanding the community assembly processes that determine the abundance and distribution of plant species. Plant functional traits provide information on the direct physiological adaptations of plants to various environmental conditions. The assembly of plant communities is driven by filtering processes that select for or against certain functional traits and a plant can only be present within a community if it contains the functional traits necessary to germinate, survive and compete in the environment of the community. An understanding of how functional traits are filtered by the environment and biotic interactions provides the foundations for predictive community assembly models. However, the understanding of how functional traits are filtered along hydrological gradients is poor for the majority of functional traits. In this thesis I aimed to identify how plant functional traits respond to variation in soil hydrology in the presence and absence of grazing and determine whether a trait-based model of environmental filtering could predict the composition of an ephemeral wetland plant community. To achieve these aims, I performed a survey of the plant community in an ephemeral wetland in grazed and ungrazed transects. The survey was conducted along a hydrological gradient that was split into an elevation gradient above the flood line and a flooding gradient below the flood line. I measured nine root, leaf and shoot traits on 885 plant samples collected during the community survey and investigated the response of community-weighted and individual-level traits along the hydrological gradient using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). To determine whether a trait-based model of environmental filtering could predict the composition of the plant community, I incorporated the individual-level trait relationships into a community assembly model known as Traitspace and predicted the relative abundance of the 23 most common species found within the Kettlehole. Community-weighted root traits were more strongly related to the hydrological gradient than aboveground traits. Root aerenchyma increased as the number of days submerged increased while root dry matter content (RDMC), specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD) and root branching intensity (RBI) decreased with increasing flooding. Community-weighted specific leaf area (SLA) and root tissue density were more closely related to the elevation gradient than any other traits. SLA decreased as elevation above the flood line increased while RTD increased with elevation. The relationships between individual-level traits and the elevation and flooding gradients were far weaker than community-weighted traits but showed similar trends in the directions of trait responses along the gradients. Grazing reduced the community-weighted trait values of all traits except SLA and aboveground dry matter content (AGDMC) along the flooding gradient and had little effect on the trait values observed along the elevation gradient. Using environmental filtering of functional traits, the Traitspace model was able to predict the distribution and abundance of a number of key species within the wetland plant community but was unable to accurately predict the abundance and distribution of other species. The accuracy of the Traitspace model was best when all nine functional traits were used to produce predictions of species abundances but SLA and height were recognised as the two traits to provide the most predictive ability. The strong filtering of root traits illustrate the important information that root traits provide in terms of the adaptations of plants in environments with varied soil hydrology. Easily measurable aboveground traits are often favoured in functional ecology but these results highlight the importance of measuring root traits in trait-based research. Traitspace has the ability to predict the abundance and distribution of some species within a wetland plant community using environmental filtering of functional traits. Community assembly at small spatial scales is mostly driven by biotic interactions rather than environmental filtering which may limit the power of current predictive models. The inclusion of biotic interactions into trait-based models will improve the predictions of community composition at small spatial scales in wetland ecosystems and help us to progress towards achieving the goal of accurately predicting the composition of plant communities.

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  • Winter Leaf Yellowing in 'Hass' Avocado

    Mandemaker, Andries Jan (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The New Zealand avocado industry is worth $39.7 million in exports of 'Hass' avocados. Crop yields grew steadily from 1996 to 2001 to reach an average of 8.86 tonnes/ha. Since then however, crop yields have remained steady. To increase returns to growers, crop yields must increase. Avocado leaves in New Zealand become yellow in winter and it is hypothesised that chilling, followed by photoinhibition, is leading to photooxidation. Leaf yellowing leads to reduced photosynthetic capacity and early leaf abscission, at a time when carbon fixation and carbohydrate reserves are needed to support developing flowers, subsequent fruit set and vegetative flush, in addition to the existing mature crop. The focus of this research was to determine the underlying causes of yellowing in 'Hass' avocado leaves during winter. It is suspected that it is a result of the creation of free-radical oxygen that causes photooxidation of leaf components under excess light during low temperature conditions, such as experienced on clear winter mornings in the Bay of Plenty. An orchard in Katikati, in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand was selected has it had a history of leaf yellowing. Two open flow, differential gas exchange measurement systems, The CIRAS-1 and the CMS-400 were used to monitor leaf photosynthetic performance over the course of the 2006 winter, with particular focus on the month of August. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured with a Walz Mini-PAM, leaf colour with a Minolta Chroma meter CR-200b and chlorophyll content with Minolta SPAD chlorophyll meter (in addition to traditional extraction techniques). There was conclusive evidence that the cold nights resulted in decreased net photosynthesis over the winter, with the depression starting in May and ending around the middle of August, dates that coincide closely with the period when days with mean temperatures less than 10 C occurred. The decrease in photosynthesis appears to be due to a direct effect on the carbon reduction pathway and in unusual in that full recovery seems to occur at the same time during the day. No photodamage of significance was found and the avocado seems to be highly protected against high light when photosynthesis is inhibited. This investigation found that leaf yellowing is not caused by photodamage following depressed photosynthesis. A new hypothesis is proposed which suggests that leaf yellowing is produced by the re-allocation of nitrogen from leaves during cold weather during flowering. It is suggested that the chilled leaves are seen as unproductive, old or shaded leaves by the plant and nutrient resources are re-allocated away from these leaves. A foliar application of 1% low biuret urea and 0.5% magnesium sulphate is currently used by avocado growers to restore leaf colour in leaves that have become yellow over winter. An experiment was carried out on yellowed leaves on 23rd August 2006 to determine the effectiveness of the treatment. This study concluded that the treatment was able to restore some leaf colour, but had no effect on leaf photosynthetic function.

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  • Internationalization of the Yarra Valley Wine Industry Cluster

    Sedoglavich, Milan (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research investigates the ways in which firms in the cluster approach the process of internationalization through exploring the influence of business clustering and how it benefits firms in entering foreign markets. The purpose was to understand this process to enable firms to develop successful international strategies to expand in foreign markets. The focus of the study is on the Yarra Valley Wine Industry Cluster, the oldest wine growing region in Victoria, Australia. This research examined of Australian wineries to join together in order to achieve greater competitiveness in collaboration when entering foreign markets due to ever increasing global competition. This paper was an exploratory study that used qualitative information gathered from the case study firms to provide practical framework for the execution of the research using a multiple-case study design. The findings show the following: first, some of the wineries gain their perceptions of the foreign markets from their relationships with, as well as, by the input and suggestions of the distributors, agents, and partners in a particular market, while others seem to distance themselves from their international environments and only focus on serving domestic/local markets exclusively. Second, personal networks play an important role when it comes to the internationalization process of the wineries because they provide access to market knowledge. Third, cooperation among cluster firms plays a very limited role in assisting wineries in foreign market expansion; it has only been of benefit when it came to dealing with local issues. The cluster has played only a minor role, if any, when it comes to the internationalization of the cluster firms. Clustering has been identified as a place where wineries exchange knowledge, and techniques, in regards to wine production, or come together in a joint effort to sort out local issues. However, the cluster does not provide assistance to individual wineries entering international marketplaces. In conclusion there was a distinctive lack of active support and organization from the cluster with regard to the international expansion due to the lack of leadership and joint direction among cluster members. This is where local government could take more proactive role to facilitate better usage of geographical clusters. The findings could improve the company decision-making process. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of clustering as a means for the future international expansion can be useful in helping to develop international strategies for firms. This would be of great significance to business practitioners because this may have a crucial impact on the competitive advantage of firms in foreign markets. In addition to having significant implications for practice, the investigation has implications for international business research because it provides a better understanding of the role of a cluster in the internationalization.

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  • Population Ecology of Thelymitra matthewsii Cheeseman Orchidaceae, in Northern New Zealand

    Fraser, Elizabeth Anne (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The terrestrial orchid Thelymitra matthewsii Cheeseman, uncommon in New Zealand, was studied to increase knowledge of the species life cycle, morphology and ecology. Results will enhance future conservation management for the species. New information related to the morphology of T. matthewsii was obtained. The species was found to emerge in one of four discrete life stages of distinctive morphology and height range that remained constant for the season, not developing into a more advanced life stage. The leaf of the three pre adult life stages designated a hook, a spiral, and a non flowering stage, did not inflate at the base, but rose smoothly from the tuber. Apparent morphological differences in the column between descriptions of the Australian taxon and the small New Zealand sample examined suggested further study was needed. Comprehensive monthly monitoring was carried out at five study sites in three locations in the Te Paki area of the Far North, from 2002 to 2004. No patterns emerged in plant life stage succession, flowering, and presence or absence at labels reinforcing the concept that variability was a common component of the population census. Seasonal and partial absence was a major component of the populations. An average of 32.8% of plants, over five study sites, were present throughout three seasons, while 66.9% were recorded as absent (not visible) at monitoring. New plants appearing in 2003 and 2004 showed a high percentage of subsequent absence (mean 85.7%). To determine population stability, recruitment and absence were compared. Plant absence exceeded recruitment by 7% (mean plant absence 30.5%; mean recruitment 23.4%). Plants continued to appear during the monitoring period, and labeled plants increased two-fold over commencement numbers. Adults recorded as 28% of labeled plants over three seasons, were out numbered by pre-flowering stages. Only 5% of population numbers exhibited succession from a smaller to a flowering plant. Life stage modeling indicated a life stage was more likely to be followed by the same stage than an expected successive stage. Thelymitra matthewsii was found to be present in four substrates in the Far North. The survey of vegetation found the indigenous species Kunzea ericoides and the exotic Hakea gibbosa dominant for both height, and cover. Litter and bare ground dominated ground cover. Differences in vegetation and ground cover, of sites supporting T. matthewsii and comparison sites that did not, were minor and suggested that another factor, for example a suitable fungal partner, influenced the species presence or absence. The results of the study indicated the present threat classification of Thelymitra matthewsii is inadequate in the light of the species relatively circumscribed, widely separated habitats, the small number of reproducing individuals and vulnerability to habitat modification.

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  • A local Aotearoa New Zealand investigation of the contribution of Māori cultural knowledges to Pakeha identity and counselling practices

    Te Wiata, Joy (2006)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This project investigates the experiences of a small group of social service practitioners as they consider the question of what it means to be Pakeha in Aotearoa New Zealand in 2004. Specifically this study considers the contribution of Māori cultural knowledges to Pakeha identity. It also explores whether therapeutic practices that participants have available, are relevant to their current claims of Pakeha identity. This study highlights the complexity of experience and multiple stories that inform constructions of identity. In approaching the topic I was aware that many important stories of people's lived experience are not often told. People are often silenced due to the difficulty of 'telling'. In this exploration, space was created for the telling of stories, which are often not easily told: stories of struggle and pain; stories of compassionate witnessing; stories of rule-breaking; stories of stepping into territory beyond binaries and stories of richness and delight. Knowledges have been produced that indicate the need for carefully crafted space for often very difficult identity conversations to occur and for voices to be heard. Further, the study has produced knowledges for scaffolding for respectful and honouring conversations . The stories of this project indicate that the conversations required, have their foundation through engagement with the value of fairness. Findings also indicate that forums, where mutual contribution to identity for both Māori and Pakeha can be acknowledged, are a critical to establishing ongoing honourable relationships between Pakeha and Māori New Zealanders. Throughout this project participants acknowledge and honour the rich contribution of Māori knowledges and language to their Pakeha identity.

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  • Submerged Thin Plate Weirs With Unequal Upstream and Downstream Beds

    Nalder, Guinevere Vivianne (2006)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis describes a short study to examine the behaviour of submerged flow over a thin plate weir with differing upstream and downstream bed levels i.e. an unequal bed weir as opposed to an equal bed weir where the upstream and downstream beds are at the same level. As submerged weir flow is a function of downstream conditions, it was thought that a lower downstream bed would make submerged flow over the weir easier, This is turn suggested that; The shape of the upstream head (Hu) vs downstream head (Hd) graph would change, being initially more steep in the unequal bed case. The Froude Number of the approaching flow would be lower for the unequal bed weir than for an equal bed weir at the same submergence. Using one of the existing submerged flow formula would lead to an erroneous calculated value. A series of measurements was done on two model weirs of different sizes subject to successive levels of submergence. Analysis of the readings of upstream and downstream heads indicated that the difference in bed levels was significant and the three effects above were noted. The work also suggested a new form of equation to calculate flow over a submerged weir. This was looked at briefly.

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  • Epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells by zygotic factors

    Sowry, Blair Gavin (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Cloning cattle using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an inefficient process, with approximately only 5% of transferred embryos developing to live offspring. SCNT produced cattle have a high mortality rate due to a number of developmental abnormalities caused mainly by the incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor cell to a pluripotent state. Conventional bovine SCNT involves fusion of a somatic donor cell into an enucleated metaphase II (MII) arrested oocyte. The resulting embryo is cultured to the blastocyst stage before being transferred to a surrogate cow to produce live offspring. Zygotes were initially thought to be unsuitable as SCNT recipients in bovine, until it was revealed that using telophase II (TII) zygotes as opposed to MII oocytes results in improved in vivo development. Metaphase zygotes have also been used successfully as SCNT recipients in mouse to produce cloned blastocysts and it has been proposed that reprogramming factors sequester in the pronuclei of interphase zygotes. Little is known about the nature the nuclear reprogramming, however a few candidate reprogramming factors have emerged recently. TCTP is known to activate key pluripotency genes (POU5F1 and NANOG) in somatic cell nuclei. It has also been identified as present in bovine oocytes with a high potential to reprogram somatic cells. Reprogramming of cell nuclei by Xenopus egg extract has found to require BRG1. Immunodepletion of BRG1 was shown to decrease the reprogramming ability of the egg extract, whist its over-expression increased reprogramming potential. HDAC1 has been found to initiate a transcriptionally repressive state in preimplantation mouse embryos possibly inhibiting transcription of reprogramming factors. Knockdown of HDAC1 using TSA is known to increase development of mouse NT embryos. The aim of this study was to produce blastocysts using metaphase zygotes as recipients for SCNT in bovine. In addition, localisation and abundance of candidate reprogramming factors TCTP (TPT1 gene), BRG1 and HDAC1 were examined in MII oocytes as well as TII, interphase and metaphase zygotes. This study found metaphase zygotes are unsuitable as recipients for bovine SCNT using current methodologies, possibly due to the premature cleavage of the embryos. Control embryos produced using MII oocytes as recipients developed to blastocyst with an efficiency of ~ 11%. mRNA analysis of zygotes and oocytes did not reveal any significant differences in the relative concentrations of TPT1 or BRG1 between the samples. The TCTP and HDAC1 proteins showed a similar pattern of localisation in the MII oocytes and all stages of zygotes. Both proteins clearly localise to the maternal chromatin in the second polar body of TII zygotes. This finding has never previously been described and may in part explain why there is increased cloning efficiency observed when using TII zygotes as SCNT recipients. This increased understanding of these reprogramming factors may increase our knowledge of the processes which occur during NT and lead to greater efficiency of bovine cloning for commercial and therapeutic purposes.

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  • Stratigraphy and Sedimentology of Early to Middle Miocene Strata, Western Taumarunui Region, King Country Basin

    Evans, Thomas P. H. (2003)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The study area of this thesis is located in the King Country Basin, North Island, New Zealand. It contains a 400 m thick marine sedimentary succession of Miocene age and Quaternary ignimbrites. The field area comprises 900 km2 of steep to rolling farmland and some large patches of native forest, and includes the towns of Ohura in the west and Taumarunui in the east. There is limited outcrop exposure in the study area, and the sedimentary succession is often weathered. The study area is cut by numerous faults that have formed in an extensional regime behind the modem volcanic arc (Taupo Volcanic Zone). The major fault is the Ohura Fault, which has changed its sense of displacement (reverse to normal) in response to changing stress regimes during the Neogene. No basement is exposed in the field area, which lies wholly in Early Miocene (Otaian Stage) Mahoenui Group and Mokau Group sediments, and Middle Miocene Mangarara Formation, Otunui Formation, and Mt Messenger Formation sediments. The Mahoenui Group comprises the Taumarunui Formation, characterised by flysch deposits, and the Taumatamaire Formation, a massive mudstone that interfingers with the Taumarunui Formation in the field area. These Early Miocene units represent rapid subsidence and basin formation, with accumulation in outer shelf to slope environments. The Mokau Group comprises the Bexley Sandstone, Maryville Coal Measures, and Tangarakau Formation, which represent an overall marine transgression. The Mangarara Formation is unconformable on the Mahoenui Group, and represents marine transgressive onlap across a land surface cut into the Mahoenui Group during the late-Early Miocene. This unit is overlain by the Otunui Formation, which represents the development of a shelf succession, and which in tum is overlain by the Mt Messenger Formation which represents deposition in slightly deeper waters. Quaternary ignimbrites have a scattered distribution on hill tops in the study area. Seven lithofacies have been identifed in the study area, and these have been subdivided into 14 sub-facies. These range from massive mudstone deposited in a bathyal environment, to coal measures deposited in estuarine/swamp/flood plain environments. The facies have been described and interpreted within formations, and the environments for facies associations are inferred. The Mahoenui Group sediments represent deposition in a bathyal setting, and the Mokau Group was deposited in environments ranging from shoreface to inner shelf environments. The Mangarara Formation was deposited in a near shore environment, and the Otunui Formation accumulated in a shelf to uppermost slope setting. The Mount Messenger Formation, which overlies the Otunui Formation mainly south of the field area, occurs at one locality in the study area. The King Country Basin developed in response to transpression and crustal shortening related to the inception of the modem plate boundary system through New Zealand during the Early Miocene. The sedimentary succession of the Mahoenui Group, Mokau Group, Mangarara Formation, Otunui Formation and Mt Messenger Formation has developed in response to the coupled effects of tectonism associated with this plate boundary system, and changes in relative sea level.

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  • Sub-Optimal Choice Behaviour by Possums

    Hancox, Victoria Leigh (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study aimed to investigate sub-optimal choice using six brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula.). Experiment 1 replicated Zentall and Stagner’s (2011) procedure where the possums were required to choose between two alternating alternatives; The low probability alternative (sub-optimal) was a discriminative stimuli signalling 3.5-s reinforcement on 20% of the trials, and non-reinforcement on 80% of the trials; the high probability alternative (optimal) was a non-discriminative stimuli signalling 1-s reinforcement 100% of the time regardless of the stimulus presented. This was unsuccessful as the possums showed a clear indifference to the alternatives. Due to these ambiguous results, we replicated two conditions of Stagner and Zentall’s (2010) procedures to achieve sub-optimal responding in possums. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, however the alternation was removed and the high probability alternative was a non-discriminative stimuli associated with 50% reinforcement regardless of the stimulus presented. Sub-optimal responding was not achieved, however the possums now showed a preference for the optimal alternative. Alternation may have affected Experiment 1 and to examine this theory, Experiment 3 was replicated without alternation. Interestingly, we found a preference for the high probability alternative. Experiment 4 replicated Experiment 3; however the length of time for reinforcement was altered to attenuate sub-optimal responding. A preference for the high probability alternative which provided an overall greater net payoff was found. The possums changed from indifference to choosing optimally. It appears that possums do not have a preference for the sub-optimal choice the same as pigeons.

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  • Patenting in nineteenth century New Zealand: An economic and historical analysis

    Gibbons, Matthew Linus (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis has studied the relationship between patenting and economic development in nineteenth century New Zealand, and the extent to which different population groups patented. These topics are studied using all patents applied for in New Zealand between 1860 and 1899, with the data being weighted by fees and other required expenditure on each patent. Patent application costs were substantially reduced in the 1880s when the government sought to broaden access to patenting. This thesis has confirmed that the lower cost of patent applications was associated with increased patent applications by New Zealanders. In addition, the proportion of patenting by some skilled trades workers increased after application fees were reduced. However, despite reduced application costs, patenting by low income earners, such as labourers, remained low. New Zealand farmers made a higher proportion of patent applications than farmers in comparable patenting systems, but the rate at which they patented was below average for male workers. Engineers, who had trained through apprenticeships, were the occupational group that applied for the most patents. Patenting by women increased from the mid-1880s, but even in 1899 women applied for only 2.5% of total patent applications. Maori made little use of the patenting system. No New Zealand region had the highest patenting rates for very long. The highest spending New Zealand patentees were typically engineers who patented products, such as agricultural or mining equipment, they had invented. Furthermore, they usually owned a business that produced goods and services they had patented. Some of the highest spending patentees became prosperous, although those who developed mining technology were relatively economically unsuccessful. For individual output series there were more cointegrating relationships between patent expenditure and economic output than between patent applications and economic output. Output series usually led patenting, particularly using patent expenditure data, which indicates patentees were concentrating on economic needs. Nevertheless, there were important examples, such as agriculture, where output followed expenditure on patents. Furthermore, total patent applications per capita and total patent expenditure per capita both Granger caused GDP per capita in New Zealand. This suggests that patent applications and expenditure helped increase living standards in New Zealand over the period studied.

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  • Health, Culture, and Lifestyle in Contemporary Tonga: With Particular Reference to Diabetes and Diet

    Forde, Jacinta Maria (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Over recent decades there has emerged a significant literature regarding the effects of development and globalisation on the culture of Pacific Islanders. It often has emphasised the alarming rate at which non-communicable diseases and related health complications have increased, presumably due to changes in lifestyles. The aim of this thesis is to report on a research project that investigated the contradictory effects that globalisation and development have had on the people of Tonga, particularly in respect to their way of life and how they negotiate the relationship between tradition and modernity. It is informed by a period of ethnographic fieldwork undertaken by the researcher with three families in Tonga, as well as unstructured interviews with members of the Tongan community in Tonga and New Zealand. The study especially explores the link between the shift away from traditional lifeways and increasing ill health, with a focus on the link between diabetes and diet, and more generally Tongan understandings of ‘health’ and non-communicable diseases and their treatments.

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  • In vitro study of heat shock protein 60 expression and mitochondrial morphology in response to mitochondrial stress in HeLa cells

    Kaur, Supreet (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Diabetes mellitus ( DM) is a metabolic disorder and affecting worldwide as stated by WHO that diabetes will be seventh leading cause of death in 2030. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycaemia and the production of reactive oxygen species that damages proteins, lipids and DNA. This further elicits mitochondrial specific stress, resulting in increased production of HSP60 which is a mitochondrial stress protein. The aim of this study was to investigate the mitochondrial morphology changes and heat shock protein responses of HeLa cells subjected to physiological levels of hyperglycaemia (25mM). HeLa cell growth was found to be slightly reduced with increasing glucose concentrations (10mM – 25mM ) as compared to the control (5mM). Furthermore, high glucose conditions (25mM) also affected mitochondrial activity as statistically significantly decreased mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was observed as compared to the control. These results altogether conclude that high glucose (25mM) acted as a mitochondrial stressor. Mitochondria is a dynamic organelle that fuses and divides according to environmental stimuli and energy requirements. As a result the shape of mitochondria varies from small ovals to tubules and reticular networks. These events are mainly controlled by fission and fusion proteins and regulatory machinery. Therefore mitochondrial morphology was also analyzed by using confocal microscopy to determine the effects of high glucose (25mM) on mitochondrial morphology as compared to the control. It was found that the majority of mitochondria in the control (5mM) was tubular as compared to high glucose which showed increased mitochondrial fragmentation suggesting that growing cells in the presence of hyperglycemic conditions lead to mitochondrial stress. Mitochondrial specific stress results in selective induction of molecular chaperone, HSP60 which is mainly localized in the matrix of mitochondria. So furthermore , the expression of HSP60 was investigated. Consistent western blots results showed upregulation of HSP60 with heat shocked protein set as a positive control but not with high glucose concentration (25mM). Interestingly, HSP70 expression was found to be upregulated with high glucose (25mM) as compared to control therefore it can be concluded that there were more general cellular stress as compared to mitochondrial specific stress. This study concluded that high glucose (25mM) effects HeLa cell growth and mitochondrial activity as well as mitochondrial morphology . There are various evidence which links oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics and observed increased production of ROS along with short and fragmented mitochondria in high glucose conditions.

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  • Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration

    Robinson, Jasmine May (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Biogeochemical cycles, such as the carbon (C) cycle, are being continuously affected by anthropogenic activities such as carbon dioxide (CO₂) release from fossil fuels and the decomposition of soil organic C following some land management practices. The C cycle consists of four C pools: atmospheric CO₂, biota (mostly in vegetation), the ocean and soil organic matter (SOM), this being the largest actively cycling C pool. Respiration is the main driver of CO₂ release into the atmosphere, and is extremely sensitive to changes in moisture and temperature with small changes in these variables having a major influence on C cycling. Studies have argued in favour of both positive and negative feedbacks between CO₂ and global warming, where increasing temperatures could either increase CO₂ production, or enhance C storage. These contradicting arguments about how temperature changes will affect C exchanges, makes the understanding of how temperature change will affect temperature sensitivity of the C cycle dynamics (including respiration) critical for C modelling and budgeting. Studies have attempted to measure temperature sensitivity of respiration when trying to understand soil response variation in temperatures. However, synthesis of current literature highlighted that laboratory methods can be problematic and introduce artefacts that obscure true temperature sensitivity. Problems highlighted included, too few temperatures treatments at which respiration was measured, use of long-term incubations that do not control microbial adaptation, lack of seasonal measurements and accounting for variability in moisture content. A new laboratory method was developed for this thesis, which allowed for rapid determination of soil respiration rate at a wide range and number of temperatures to overcome some of the observed drawbacks frequently seen in the literature. A temperature block allowed simultaneous measurements of soil respiration rates over five hours at 44 different temperatures between ~4 and 50 °C. The objective of this thesis was to test this method on a variety of conditions (including different soil types, sampling season, range of moisture contents and pre-incubation temperatures) to understand how temperature sensitivity (Tm_sens) of soil respiration might change with different sample collection and processing approaches. Seasonal measurements of respiration rates from different soil types collected from a single farm found a significant interaction for Tm_sens between soil type and season over the year. This interaction indicated that temperature sensitivity of soil respiration differed between soil types depending on season and thus in order to assess temperature sensitivity of soil respiration from a site, samples should be taken from all soil types at the location. Tm_sens was not dependent on season alone suggesting that a single sampling per year may be sufficient to estimate temperature sensitivity for a soil type, at least at a site with moderate changes in temperature during the year. Surprisingly, respiration rate response to temperature was not very sensitive to variations in soil moisture. Pre-incubated soils sampled for 10 months at different temperatures similarly resulted in no significant change in Tm_sens suggesting that temperature sensitivity of soil respiration can be accurately determined using soils stored at various temperatures and that microbial populations are relatively stable in response to incubation temperature. Overall the developed method was able to rapidly assess temperature sensitivity of several soils through time under a variety of treatments and suggested overall the microbial population did not change rapidly and retained its temperature sensitivity. The success of this method allows for future testing of other hypothesis with regard to temperature sensitivity of respiration.

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  • Exploring Women's Leadership Journeys

    Loeffen, Olivia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Women comprise a very small proportion (28%) of senior managers and leaders in New Zealand organisations and statistics reveal a plateauing in their numbers over the last decade (Grant Thornton, 2012). The dearth of women business leaders has significant organisational consequences. Previous research has shown that women bring a variety of skills and talents to organisations due to their diversity of skills, and decision-making abilities (McKinsey & Company, 2010; Deloitte Australia, 2011). In addition, a series of Catalyst studies from 2004 to 2011 has shown that companies that have more women in their management ranks and on their boards have significantly better revenue and profitability (Catalyst, 2011). Women’s active participation in senior leadership is therefore good not only for New Zealand’s economy but also for their organisations’ bottom lines. This underutilised resource is too valuable for New Zealand to ignore. In this research, I sought to understand how existing women leaders had moved into senior leadership roles in New Zealand organisations and how they had succeeded, in order to find ways of increasing the number of women leaders in the future. Taking an Appreciative Inquiry research approach, I aimed to discover ways of raising the percentage above 28% by interviewing a number of women business leaders about the stories, methods, and strategies that they believed underpinned their transition to top leadership roles. To give the study breadth, I selected women leaders from areas as diverse as public relations, publicly listed companies and not-for-profit organisations and then interviewed them individually to learn about the successes and challenges of their leadership journeys. One unexpected but welcome finding was the lack of evidence from any of the participants of the famous “glass ceiling.” Nevertheless, the participants did provide insight into many other challenges women have to face in order to obtain senior leadership positions. While they didn’t find a glass ceiling, the women often indicated signs of continuing gender discrimination. Many of the participants expressed their frustration that getting to the top is a lot harder for women than men and many participants noted that work/life balance was one of the biggest obstacles they had to negotiate. The thesis closes by deriving practical recommendations for the advancement of women to influential leadership positions.

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  • Parented by Grandparents: Grandchildren Reflect on Their Lives

    Lee, Sharon (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The number of grandchildren being parented by their grandparents has grown significantly over the previous few decades. However, there is a lack of research focused on the lived experience of grandchildren parented by their grandparents in comparison to the volumes to date on the experience and impact on grandparents who are parenting their grandchildren. The purpose of this study was to invite grandchildren, who have been parented by their grandparent(s) to speak about their experience and in this way, to make a contribution to the fledgling body of knowledge beginning to be gathered. What, in particular, do they want others to know about their experience? What suggestions do they want to make to inform and influence our practice as counsellors, teachers, social workers, policy makers and grandparents involved in a parenting role? These questions formed the basis for this research. Seven young people aged between seventeen and twenty-four, five females and two males, were interviewed. As far as it has been possible to establish, this is the first research on this topic based in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Through the individual and group interview process, the young adults showed insight, maturity and demonstrated the ability to articulate their thoughts and feelings with a capacity beyond their years. Contrary to the dominant discourse in the published literature on this topic, which highlights emotional and behavioural difficulties, these young people were clearly thriving, going forward strongly in their lives and giving a lot of the credit for this to their grandparents' willingness to take them on and see them through. They demonstrated a keen awareness and appreciation for the implications of their situation for their grandparents, including the politics of inequity and the struggle to provide on a limited budget. They have strongly recommended government funding for grandparents/kin raising grandchildren is the same as for foster carers. Most wondered what life might have been like, had they grown up in the idealized nuclear family construct, however, they also highlighted the wisdom their respective grandparents offered and would not want to have missed out on the opportunity to have developed the close connection that being raised by their grandparents provided.

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  • Success Factors in Interactive Design

    Neave, Ryan Neave (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research explores the factors that contribute to success in interactive design in contrast to the traditional design process. The paper explores creativity within design, and how successful collaboration works in an interactive design context. The five stages of creativity are introduced, and then there is discussion about creating with an open mind “when you're open to what's possible, you get something new - that's creativity” (Alda, 2016). Then the study explores the design process by discussing three process models and their uses, particularly their relevance for interactive design. This section also looks at chaos within creating, and describing chaos as a tool for designers to escape the normal way of approaching problems. Next, the thesis looks at the art of collaboration in regards to an interactive project and discusses the importance of structure when intending to collaborate within a team. This section examines models for successful collaboration. In Chapter Two, existing interactive projects are reviewed and summarised in the form of case studies. In Chapter Three, a practise-led research methodology discusses how success factors are explored during the production of nine publicly exhibited interactive projects. The research concludes with success factors for interactive design projects in the form of a tentative new model.

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  • Teaching Social Skills to Children with Special Needs Using Video Modelling

    Turner, Amy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Video modelling was used to teach 4 different social skills to four children aged between 6 and 10 years. Two of the children had formal diagnosis for autism spectrum disorder, one child had a formal diagnosis of attention deficit disorder and displayed traits of autism, and one child was currently being diagnosed and displayed traits of autism. The 4 different social skills were greeting and small talk, initiation and responding to conversation and play, initiation for conversation and play, and turn taking. The aim of this study was to build on the current literature on the efficacy and usability of video modelling for teaching social skills to children with autism. A single-subject, multiple baseline design was used. The overall results showed that video modelling was effective as a resource for teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorder and other deficits. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed at the end.

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  • A Study of Green Space Access in the Waikato Region

    Wackrow, Aidan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Access to green space provides a wide range of social, economic, health and environmental benefits. However, there are disparities in the ways that people access these benefits. This research aimed to examine how access to green space was spatially distributed across the Waikato region, whether a relationship existed between access to green space and socioeconomic deprivation, and what the planning and policy implications of this were. In order to quantify access to green space, a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis was undertaken using the Access to Natural Greenspace Standard (ANGSt) model, an English distance based accessibility measure. The ANGSt model measures how many people meet each of four standards based on travel distance to different sized green spaces. The results of this analysis were compared with New Zealand Deprivation (NZDep) index scores in order to determine if socioeconomic deprivation had any effect on access to green space. Semi- structured interviews were then undertaken in order to ground the results in current planning theory and practice. The results of the GIS analysis showed that, generally, urban populations had better access to small green spaces within walking distance, while rural populations had better access to large green spaces. This study was unable to find evidence of a relationship between deprivation and green space access. While most people in the region have access to a green space, there are still areas where access is lacking. Further study is needed in order to better understand the determinants of accessibility and how equitable access to the benefits of nature can be achieved.

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