13,302 results for Masters

  • Strategy and vision: The influence of the AMWU on the NZEU from 1987-1992 with respect to education and training reforms

    Piercy, Gemma Louise (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It has been established that in the late 1980s, early 1990s the AMWU and the NZEU developed a close relationship through which the NZEU altered it traditional bargaining strategies. This study set out to discover the specific details of this relationship and its implications, with respect to education and training reforms, from around 1987-1992. The thesis began the investigation with a literature review, followed by an extensive series of interviews in Australia and New Zealand. The interviews were conducted with officials and former officials of the AMWU and the NZEU. Key players from the education and training reform process in both countries. The conclusion of this thesis is that, the pressure from the rise of neo-liberalism and the changes to production drove the NZEU to find alternative bargaining strategy. The strength of the unions in Australia and historical ties drew the NZEU to the AMWU, who under similar constraints, had formulated new bargaining strategies. These new strategies embraced 'partnership unionism' which used co-operative practices and training as a means of maintaining leverage under hostile conditions. This thesis asserts that the NZEU took on board the AMWU's 'partnership unionism', through their relationship, as they saw them as a means of maintaining leverage in a neo-liberal environment. Training is the linchpin of this approach highlighting the strategic importance of education and training to unions. This thesis concludes that the NZEU has been able to maintain its leverage in a neo-liberal environment because, in line with Wolfgang Streeck's analysis, it has recognised that education and training provide a degree of leverage in a hostile environment.

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  • 'Soldiers and Shirkers': An Analysis of the Dominant Ideas of Service and Conscientious Objection in New Zealand During the Great War.

    Loveridge, Steven (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    During the First World War, ideas of duty and sacrifice were a dominant characteristic of public discourse in New Zealand. Specifically, concern centred on a perceived inequality of sacrifice, which saw brave soldiers die on the front lines, whilst other men remained on the home front, apparently avoiding duty. This thesis charts the prevailing and powerful ideas that circulated during wartime New Zealand around these two stereotypes; on the one hand there was the soldier, the ideal of service and duty; on the other, the conscientious objector, a target for the derogatory label of 'shirker'. While there are a few select critical works which examine the experiences of New Zealand World War One conscientious objectors, such We Will Not Cease (1939) and Armageddon or Calvary (1919), there is a near complete absence of studies which examine the home front and ask how conscientious objectors were perceived and consequently judged as they were. It is the contention of this thesis that ideas around the soldier and the 'shirker' were interrelated stereotypes and that both images emerged from the process of mass mobilisation; a highly organised war effort which was largely dependent for its success upon the cooperation of wider civilian society. In sum, the thesis examines and analyses the ideas within mainstream New Zealand society as they appeared in public sources (notably newspapers, cartoons and government publications), and in doing so, tracks how social mores and views towards duty, sacrifice and service were played out at a time of national and international crisis.

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  • Does Training Improve Performance on a Perspective-taking Task?

    Baker, Laura Maree (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigated the effect of training on perspective-taking with 22 normally developed adults. The perspective-taking task, similar to that used by McHugh, Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes, Whelan, and Stewart (2007), required the participants read two related statements per trial presented on a computer screen. They pressed one of two keys to indicate if they thought the second statement was true or false. The statements differed along three dimensions, perspective (Self, Other, or Photo), belief (true- or false- belief), and correct response (true or false). Latency to respond, timed from the end of the statement presentation, and accuracy were recorded. A reaction time task, that requiring participants to indicate if a statement ( This is (colour name) ) about a coloured square was true or false, was included to assess the effect of task repetition on response latencies. There were four blocks of reaction time trials alternating with three blocks of perspective-taking trials (Pre-test, Training, and Post-test). During the Training phase there was feedback on the accuracy of each response. Feedback was not given in the Pre-test, Post-test, or reaction time trials. Extended training on the perspective-taking task reduced latencies on this task over and above the decreases seen in the latencies on the reaction time tests, and this reduction generalized to a novel stimulus set. The Self and Other questions resulted in longer latencies than the Photo questions (both before and after the removal of reaction time) as predicted by Relational Frame Theory. The longer latencies were associated with greater relational complexity and partially replicated the results of McHugh et al. (2007a). These results suggest that training with multiple exemplars can be used to decrease response latencies, and so to improving performance, on a perspective-taking task.

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  • The impact of Chinese culture in online learning: Chinese tertiary students’ perceptions

    Cong, Yan (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis looks at Chinese students' understanding of online learning, investigates how culture impact on students online learning attitude, behaviour, and achievement, and seeks their recommendations for eLeaming and eTeaching guidelines and/or professional development. This study used a qualitative framework and took place over a year period. The research involved the methods of email surveys and interviews. The literature identifies many factors including the online learning and teaching pedagogy, aspects of Chinese culture, the implications for online Chinese students' learning, and Chinese students learning in another country. This review helps to identity some research findings of this research. This finding of this research identified participants' experience and their perceptions of learning online, explored their beliefs about Chinese cultural impact on their online learning, and sought their recommendations to eTeachers and other Chinese students about eTeaching and eLearning. In the light of literature, this research found that participants had different opinions about the impact of Chinese culture on their online learning. Participants had seen both positive and negative impacts on their online learning. The acknowledgment of individuals' differences and willingness of adapting to a new culture was viewed as a reason why some participants thought the cultural impact varied with individuals and could not be generalized. The invisibility of culture was also explained why some participants disagreed with the cultural impact. Participants' perceptions on the impact of Chinese culture on their online learning would help eTeachers to understand the learning difficulties for Chinese students to study online, and in what ways the Chinese culture influences on their online learning. The recommendations participants made to eTeachers were related to the effective eTeaching pedagogy such as to give timely feedback and more encouragements to students, to cater for students' different needs and interests by selecting some course contents or examples relevant to Chinese students' backgrounds. Participants suggested eTeachers to arrange the group meeting beside the course study, and to give more introductions about what online learning was before the online course started. Based on the consideration of the English language difficulties for Chinese students and some negative impacts from Chinese culture, participants made recommendations to other Chinese students such as to be willing to share ideas, to speak out their thoughts and to be active in asking for assistance, and to find more information before they chose online learning. Participants' those recommendations could help eTeachers to make some changes of eTeaching pedagogy and learn about Chinese students' culture in order to cater for Chinese students' interests and needs. Therefore, these recommendations could be helpful for eLearning and eTeaching guidelines and/or professional development on supporting Chinese students learning online both in New Zealand and China. This study raised some concerns about possible future research such as how to maximise librarian's assistance in online course, and in what ways both Chinese students' written and spoken English language could be improved through learning online.

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  • The extent of burial of the Rena Oil Spill within Bay of Plenty coastal sediments

    de Groot, Neeltje, P.H.M. (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The grounding of the MV Rena on October 5th, 2011 caused 350-400 tons of heavy fuel oil to spill into the ocean. A significant portion of the oil reached the Bay of Plenty coastline six days later. This thesis investigated the effectiveness of oil clean-up operations that involved spill response crew and some eight thousand volunteers. Previous oil spill studies discussed in literature, have established that spilled oil can mix with sediment beneath the beach surface. 26 Sediment cores averaging ~80cm in length were retrieved ~one year after the Rena oil spill at 12 locations between Waihi and Maketu and were chemically analysed to a depth of 40 cm (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm). GC/MS quantitative results concluded that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were present in the sediment. However, only 7 of the 52 samples contained 4 of the 5 fingerprinted PAHs; phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene, that characterise the Rena oil, with naphthalene undetected in all of the 52 samples. Naphthalene degrades quickly due to its low molecular weight and commonly evaporates from the marine environment within the first few weeks of exposure. Therefore, the absence of naphthalene was anticipated. Variations of phenanthrene and pyrene were detected 27 other sediment samples at low, mid and high tide locations, in both surface 0-20 cm samples and the deeper 20-40 cm samples. Due to the absence of the most resilient PAHs benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene in the 27 samples characterise Rena oil, is likely that phenanthrene and pyrene have come from other hydrocarbon sources such as stormwater outfalls. Laboratory settling flask experiments demonstrated that heavy fuel oil formed droplets and would bind to sediment of both siliciclastic and bioclastic origin. Oil droplets would sink, float or stay suspended in the water column due to oil droplet density variations. Oil that bound to sand grains tended to sink and join the bottom sediments, and oil droplets that contained bubbles of water or air tended to float to the surface of the water column. Storms that occurred in the weeks after the initial Rena spill hindered oil clean-up operations and increased wave activity which potentially enabled oil to mix further into coastal sediments. The maximum depth of disturbance was recorded at Pukehina Beach at 28 cm during storm conditions which established that chemical analysis to a depth of 40 cm encompassed the maximum depth that oil could be mixed into the beach sediment in the intertidal zone. This study has set the foundations on understanding the geotechnical effects of spilled oil and coastal sediment interactions in the Bay of Plenty. The region would benefit from further depth of disturbance studies to assist in more efficient remediation of possible oil spills in the future.

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  • The use of otolith microchemistry to investigate natal origins and movement of lacustrine wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common smelt (Retropinna retropinna)

    Riceman, Matthew Sean (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Otolith microchemistry can be used to determine the natal origins of fish. Solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of water samples from tributary streams and beach locations around Lake Rotorua and Lake Rotoiti, Rotorua lakes district, New Zealand, indicate different and unique water isotopic chemistries at sample locations The concentrations of 24Mg, 43Ca, 55Mn, 85Rb, 88Sr and 137Ba differed significantly between tributary streams. The concentrations of 43Ca, 85Rb and 88Sr differed significantly between beaches. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to classify the stream water samples from six tributary streams around Lake Rotorua and Lake Rotoiti with 100% accuracy. Beach water samples from seven sample locations around Lake Rotorua and Lake Rotoiti were classified with 64% accuracy. When grouped by lake, the water samples could be classified with 93% accuracy. The ambient water chemistry is a major influence on the otolith chemical composition. The water results indicate unique water chemistries and suggest using the microchemistry of otoliths to determine natal origins. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for single spot analysis of otoliths of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common smelt (Retropinna retropinna) to determine concentrations of Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba. Juvenile trout otoliths from six spawning tributaries around Lake Rotorua and Lake Rotoiti could be classified to lake of origin with 98% accuracy overall. Using the DFA of 43 juvenile trout from spawning tributaries as the training set, classification coefficients were applied to analyses of elemental concentrations in the otolith nucleus of 92 adult wild rainbow of unknown natal origin captured in lakes Rotoiti and Rotorua and the Ohau Channel. Classification results suggest that the tributary streams of Lake Rotorua contribute the majority of individuals to the wild populations of adult rainbow trout of both lakes, comprising 88% of Lake Rotorua fish, 86% of Lake Rotoiti fish, and 100% of Ohau Channel fish. LA-ICP-MS spot analysis of common smelt otolith at the nuclei and edges provided information related to the movements between different chemical habitats across the fishes life. The concentrations of Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba differed significantly between the nucleus and edge spots in the smelt samples suggesting movement for some individuals. The scores from lake DFA classification functions showed two classes of smelt. Approximately 70% of smelt were lake residents and approximately 30% of smelt had migrated between the lakes. The nucleus results were compared with the known smelt capture location and the results are similar to the otolith analyses. The results of this investigation can be used to determine fish migration and assist with fisheries management decisions. Otolith microchemistry suggests that the construction of the wall diverting Lake Rotorua water into the Okere Arm of Lake Rotoiti is likely to impede migrations of wild rainbow trout from Lake Rotorua into Lake Rotoiti. Disruption of common smelt, migrations is likely to be less severe than for trout, but the prediction of smelt migration is less reliable because of the lower accuracy of classification.

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  • Soil climate and permafrost temperature monitoring in the McMurdo Sound region, Antarctica

    Adlam, Leah Seree (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    A soil climate monitoring network, consisting of seven automated weather stations, was established between 1999 and 2003 in the McMurdo Sound region of Antarctica. Soil temperature, soil water content, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed and direction are recorded hourly and downloaded annually. Two 30 m deep permafrost temperature monitoring boreholes were established adjacent to the soil climate stations in the Wright Valley and at Marble Point in January 2007. Sixteen thermistors (accurate to ±0.1°C) were installed in each borehole measuring temperature once every hour and recording the mean every six hours. One year of permafrost temperatures were available (January 2007 to January 2008). The overall aim of this thesis was to make use of the soil climate monitoring database from 1999 to 2007 to investigate Antarctic soil climate. Active layer depth (depth of thawing) varied inter-annually, with no significant trend between 1999 and 2007. The active layer increased with decreasing latitude (R2 = 0.94), and decreased with increasing altitude (R2 = 0.95). A multiple regression model was produced whereby active layer depth was predicted as a function of mean summer air temperature, mean winter air temperature, total summer solar radiation and mean summer wind speed (R2 = 0.73). Annual temperature cycles were observed at all depths in the boreholes. At Marble Point, an annual temperature range of lt;1°C occurred at 15.2 m, lt;0.5°C at 18.4 m and lt;0.1°C at 26.4 m and at Wright Valley, an annual temperature range of lt;1°C occurred at 14.0 m, lt;0.5°C at 17.2 m and lt;0.1°C at 25.2 m. Given that the depth of Zero Annual Amplitude determined depends on the sensitivity of the measurement method, it is suggested that instead of referring to a depth of Zero Annual Amplitude , the depth at which the annual temperature range is less than a given value is a more useful concept. Mean annual and mean seasonal air and soil temperatures varied inter-annually and there was no significant trend of warming or cooling over the 1999 - 2007 period. Mean annual air temperatures were primarily influenced by winter air temperatures. Mean annual and mean summer soil temperatures were warmer than air temperatures due to heating by solar radiation. Mean summer air temperatures correlated well with the Southern Annular Mode Index (SAMI) at all sites (0.61 lt; R2 lt; 0.73) except Victoria Valley; however there was no correlation between mean annual or mean winter temperatures and the SAMI. Air temperature was linearly correlated with near-surface soil temperature (1.3 - 7.5 cm) (R2 gt; 0.79). Near-surface soil temperature was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation at Victoria Valley (0.14 lt; R2 lt; 0.76) and Granite Harbour (0.49 lt; R2 lt; 0.82), but was not significantly correlated at other sites (0 lt; R2 lt; 0.57). There was no significant correlation between air temperature and wind speed, air temperature and solar radiation and near-surface soil temperature and wind speed, despite occasions of strong correlation on the diurnal time scale. Diurnal summer cycles in air and soil temperatures were driven by solar radiation. Multiple regressions combining the effects of air temperature, solar radiation and wind speed approximated near-surface soil temperatures well at every site during both summer and winter (0.88 lt; R2 lt; 0.98).

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  • Reducing establishment rates of non-indigenous zooplankton in constructed waters

    Taylor, Claire Maree (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Understanding the mechanisms that facilitate the establishment of non-indigenous species is imperative for devising techniques that will assist in reducing the establishment rates of non-indigenous species. The establishment non-indigenous species can have negative ecological, economic, and human health effects. Non-indigenous passively dispersing organisms such as zooplankton, have been reported to invade constructed lakes (e.g., dams, water supply reservoirs and ornamental ponds) at much faster rates than natural lakes. For example, in New Zealand, a high proportion constructed waters, including dams for hydroelectricity generation, ornamental ponds and disused mine pits, have been invaded by non-indigenous zooplankton, including a number of calanoid copepods that are seemingly currently confined to these habitats. This has lead to a number of theories that have attempted to explain what makes constructed water bodies more vulnerable to invasion than natural lakes. One common attribute of these water bodies is their relatively young age, leading to the assertion that low biotic resistance leads to higher vulnerability of zooplankton communities in early stages of development. The aim of this study was to determine if seeding water bodies with sediments containing native zooplankton eggs in early stages of their development will accelerate community colonisation, leading to greater biotic resistance to subsequent establishment of new zooplankton species. Twenty outdoor tanks were filled with tap water, and nutrients added to provide eutrophic conditions. Sediments were added to all tanks. Ten treatment tanks contained sediments and associated diapausing zooplankton eggs, sourced from local water bodies. The sediments were autoclaved in the remaining ten, which acted as controls, and thus received zooplankton colonised via natural means only. Tanks were left to colonise for 12 months and community composition and environmental variables were regularly monitored. During the 12 month colonisation period, species richness increased to a mean of 4.6 species in the treatment tanks and 2.6 in control tanks. Community composition also rapidly diverged between control and treatment tanks. Treatment tanks acquired a greater proportion of species adapted to pelagic conditions, such as cladocerans and copepods, with control tanks generally acquiring a high proportion of small, littoral dwelling rotifers. New species were added at 12 months, comprising of two copepods, four rotifers, and one cladoceran species, which were not established in the tanks already. After the introduction of these species, the unseeded control tanks had a much higher proportion of establishment of the new species during the three month post-introduction period. For example, the non-indigenous calanoid copepod Skistodiaptomus pallidus established exclusively in tanks that were void of any other calanoid copepod species. These were primarily control tanks, suggesting that native calanoid copepods play a key role in reducing establishment rates of this taxon. At 12 months, when the new species were added, none of the environmental variables measured (temperature, chlorophyll a, conductivity, specific conductance, DO concentration, DO saturation and pH) were statistically different between treatment and control tanks. This infers that at the time the new species were introduced to the tanks, they experienced similar abiotic conditions, and environmental variability was therefore not responsible for the differing establishment rates. This study proves that biotic resistance plays an important role in reducing the establishment rate of non-indigenous zooplankton. It also provides strong evidence that seeding constructed water bodies with sediments containing diapausing eggs from locally sourced communities can be used as an effective management tool to reduce establishment rates of non-indigenous zooplankton.

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  • Marriage Policy in the Philippines: A Case Study in Agenda Setting

    Guzman, Emmanuel Avila (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis asks why there is no legal provision for divorce in the Philippines despite obvious public interest in change in this area of policy. It draws on the public policy theories of Sabatier (1988), Kingdon (1995) and Lukes (1974) in seeking to understand this situation. In so doing it gives attention to questions about the influence of relevant policy actors, the core belief systems behind competing policy positions, the relation of the Catholic Church in this policy issue, the power of the Church compared with groups advocating for the re-establishment of divorce, and the implications of this for the prevailing policy. Law reform initiatives to re-establish divorce have been kept off the government agenda as a consequence of the sustained exercise of influence by the Catholic Church on the government. This often hidden and indirect exercise of power has organized the divorce issue out of politics in the Philippines. The lessons drawn here provide a deeper understanding of why some issues and not others come to be issues that are given attention by governments.

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  • Self-Mixing Diode Laser Interferometry

    Shrestha, Pawan Kumar (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Self-mixing interferometry in a laser diode is a very powerful tool in measurement science. The Self-mixing interferometer is a very robust and low cost interferometer with extreme simplicity in alignment and setup. In this thesis, a self-mixing interferometer is analysed and developed. The measurements of the self-mixing interferometer are verified using a Michelson interferometer. It is then followed by the signal processing of the detected signal. Three different methods are developed to retrieve the movement of the target. Results obtained by applying these methods to different experimental data sets are presented. In the later part of the thesis, a phase locked self-mixing interferometer is developed. This slightly modified interferometer follows the target movement. As a result no additional circuitry or signal processing is necessary for the recovery of the target movement. Phase locked interferometer developed in this thesis was able to measure down to 1 nm of vibration. It is then followed by a novel method to detect cracks in eggshells using the phase locked vibrometer. The proposed method is tested and proved to be capable of differentiating between the intact and cracked eggs.

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  • An Analysis of Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault

    Jacobs, Luke Brett (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the representation of the characters and content in the electronic game Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault first published in 2004. The thesis examines the history of conflict themed games and current academic literature on the subject of representation of ethnicity and history in these games. A methodological discussion is presented outlining the challenge of academic game study and how it was applied to this particular title. The findings of an analysis conducted under the methodology explored in the thesis, is presented. These findings conclude that in terms of representation the game has few novel aspects and that the way the characters are presented is motivated by game design decisions rather than historic revisionism.

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  • Timing in Possums: Accounting for Resurgence in the Peak Procedure

    Stanley, Christopher D. (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study attempted to account for resurgence on the Peak Procedure using 6 possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) as subjects. The Peak Procedure is made up of randomly mixed fixed intervals (FI) and peak intervals (PI), with the ratio of FI trials to PI trials being 4:1 respectively. Conditions 1-4 were used to replicate Church et al.’s (1991) procedure from their second experiment. The authors found that when the PI trial length was variable, data from PI trials showed that responding did not resurge, as it did when the PI duration was fixed. Condition 1 used a FI 20 s and a variable PI with a mean of 80 s. Responding did not resurge, but rather decreased to a low level throughout the PI trial. Condition 2 used a FI 20 and a fixed PI of 100 s. Responding resurged for this condition. Condition 3 and 4 repeated Condition 1 and 2 respectively to give an ABAB design. Responding again decreased and increased as the PI changed to being variable and fixed respectively. These results are similar to that found by Church et al. (1991), and show support for what Sanabria and Killeen (2007) call the anticipation theory (where escape from a non-reinforced PI trial is negatively reinforcing). The PI duration was shortened to twice the FI length in Condition 5 and lengthened to 300 s, or 15 times the FI in Condition 6. This was in order to investigate whether responding would resurge at very short and very long PI durations. Responding did not resurge at the shorter PI length, and this may be due to there not being enough time to do so. At the extreme length of 300 s, responding was seen to resurge; a result that is not consistent with other studies that used a similar procedure (Sanabria & Killeen, 2007). When the procedure returned to using a FI 20 s and a variable PI with a mean of 80 s in Condition 7, resurgence decreased to a minimum and remained stable till the end of the trial. Results from the present study support Church et al.’s (1991) anticipation theory, and that as long as the animals can track the end of the PI trial, responding will resurge; if it is variable, animals cannot predict the end of the trial and so response resurgence does not occur.

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  • Bioconversion of Glycerol to Dihydroxyacetone by immobilized Gluconacetobacter xylinus cells

    Black, Cathryn Sesengel (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Dihydroxyacetone, (DHA) is one of the primary ingredients used in tanning products by the cosmetic industry. DHA reacts with the free amino acids on the epidermis to form a tan-like appearance. DHA is also a building block for lactic acid; that is, a common ingredient in the food industry. In the pharmaceutical industry, DHA is used as a precursor for 1, 2-propylene glycerol and methotrexate. Due to the Food and Drug Administration’s strict regulations, DHA is produced via microbial synthesis. This is because the chemical synthesis involves toxic chemical reactions with epichlorohydrin. This poses problems with a chemical widely used for human application. Currently, the industrial process of DHA is carried out under microbial synthesis of glycerol. The strain, Gluconobacter oxydans produces high DHA yields although its productivity is low. As a result, its high cost of production is reflected in its price. Glycerol is the only organic compound that can be converted into DHA. The conversion requires oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group by glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH). In this study, DHA was converted from glycerol using Gluconacetobacter xylinus (G.xylinus) in a large-scale reactor. Previously the strain, G.xylinus, has been shown to produce high DHA yields under immobilization. In this study, G.xylinus was immobilized inside two carrier materials- calcium alginate and chitosan-coated alginate beads. A series of investigations were carried out to determine the DHA conversion efficiency using the mentioned carriers. The conversion efficiency of alginate immobilized cells was investigated under varying initial glycerol concentrations of: 1%, 2%, 4% and 7% (w/v) and aeration rates of: 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 vvm. This study found that the optimal glycerol concentration was at 2% (w/v) and the optimal aeration rate was at 0.3 vvm. The DHA conversion efficiency of chitosan-alginate immobilized cells was also tested under the same aeration rate previously mentioned. The investigation found that chitosan coating provided greater stability to the alginate matrix with increased aeration rate. The optimal aeration rate was found at 1.0 vvm.

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  • Effects of heavy metal contamination on burial rates of Austrovenus stutchburyi: Implications for sediment transport

    Simpson, Julia Marie (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Urbanisation in coastal catchments has significantly increased not only the input of terrestrial sediment to the marine environment but also the input of contaminants. In Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, heavy metals have accumulated in the upper estuarine muddy sediments and metal contamination has been detected on downstream intertidal sandflats. Sub-lethal levels of heavy metal contamination may affect the growth and behaviour of benthic organisms, which in turn may influence key ecosystem processes and productivity. The aim of this study was to examine whether the burial rate of an ecologically important bivalve species (Austrovenus stutchburyi) differed between a contaminated and a lesser-contaminated site and whether burial rates were affected by density. A secondary aim was to determine whether the burial of Austrovenus affected sediment transport and consequently if this was affected by density. This study demonstrated no consistent difference in burial time between source populations (sites). This was explained by a lack of measured difference in the condition index and heavy metal tissue loading of Austrovenus used throughout this study. The present range of contamination measured in Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, did not have negative biological consequences on the key ecosystem engineer, Austrovenus stutchburyi. Contamination levels in Tamaki Estuary may not be high enough to cause major physiological or behaviour changes to infaunal organisms, such as Austrovenus. Sediment erodability was not significantly correlated with any measured environmental and biotic factors. Austrovenus density was the only predictor variable that could be used to explain any variation in sediment erodability. There was no significant density effects observed between the amounts of sediment eroded for densities gt; 150 ind. m-2. There was a significant difference between sediment void of Austrovenus (0 ind. m-2; smooth, flat undisturbed sediment surface) and sediment containing Austrovenus (gt;150ind. m-2; physical structure on/in the sediment surface, increase in bed roughness). These results indicate that there is little or no effect of Austrovenus on the critical erosion threshold, suggesting that in the absence or presence of Austrovenus the current required to erode 10 g m-2 of sediment would remain somewhere between 28.5 and 30.5 cm s-1. This study found that there was considerable variation in the burial rate of individuals and the greatest variation was recorded in the lowest density treatments (150 ind. m-2), which corresponded to the same density that had the greatest variation in sediment erodability. Further investigations are needed to gain a better understanding into the important roles (the importance of the various feedbacks and limitations and interrelationships) that Austrovenus play in the soft-sediment ecosystem, as losses of this species are likely to have large-scale impacts on the wider soft-sediment communities and ecosystem functioning.

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  • Ngauruhoe inner crater volcanic processes of the 1954-1955 and 1974-1975 eruptions

    Krippner, Janine Barbara (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Ngauruhoe is an active basaltic andesite to andesite composite cone volcano at the southern end of the Tongariro volcanic complex, and most recently erupted in 1954-55 and 1974-75. These eruptions constructed the inner crater of Ngauruhoe, largely composed of 1954-55 deposits, which are the basis of this study. The inner crater stratigraphy, exposed on the southern wall, is divided into seven lithostratigraphic units (A to G), while the northern stratigraphy is obscured by the inward collapse of the crater rim. The units are, from oldest to youngest: Unit A, (17.5 m thick), a densely agglutinated spatter deposit with sharp clast outlines; Unit B, (11.2 m) a thick scoria lapilli deposit with local agglutination and scattered spatter bombs up to 1 m in length; Unit C, (6.4 m thick) a clastogenic lava deposit with lateral variations in agglutination; and Unit D, (10 m thick) a scoria lapilli with varying local agglutination. The overlying Unit E (15 cm thick) is a fine ash fallout bed that represents the final vulcanian phase of the 1954-55 eruption. Unit F is a series of six lapilli and ash beds that represent the early vulcanian episode of the 1974-75 eruption. The uppermost Unit G (averaging 10 m thick) is a densely agglutinated spatter deposit that represents the later strombolian phase of the 1974-75 eruption. Units A-D juvenile clasts are porphyritic, with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, minor olivine, within a microlitic glassy groundmass. Quartzose and greywacke xenoliths are common in most units, and are derived from the underlying basement. The 1954-55 and 1974-75 eruptions are a product of a short-lived, continental arc medium-K calc-alkaline magma. The magma originated from the mantle, then filtered through the crust, undergoing assimilation and fractionation, and evolving to basaltic andesite and andesite compositions. The magma body stagnated in shallow reservoirs where it underwent further crustal assimilation and fractionation of plagioclase and olivine, and homogenisation through magma mixing. Prior to the 1954-55 eruption a more primitive magma body was incorporated into the melt. The melt homogenised and fed both the 1954-55 and 1974-75 eruptions, with a residence time of at least 20 years. The 1954-55 eruption produced alternating basaltic andesite and andesite strombolian activity and more intense fire fountaining, erupting scoria and spatter that built up the bulk of the inner crater. A period of relative quiescence allowed the formation of a cooled, solid cap rock that resulted in the accumulation of pressure due to volatile exsolution and bubble coalescence. The fracturing of the cap rock then resulted in a vulcanian eruption, depositing a thin layer of fine ash and ballistic blocks. The 1974-75 eruption commenced with the rupturing of the near-solid cap rock from the 1954-55 eruption in an explosive vulcanian blast, the result of decompressional volatile exsolution and bubble coalescence, and possible magma-water interaction. The eruption later changed to strombolian style, producing a clastogenic lava that partially flowed back into the crater.

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  • How can we help you? Communicating Social Welfare

    Schoenberger-Orgad, Sehai (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines the ways in which public sector organisations communicate with people from lower socio-economic communities. The study is guided by the research question: Do the existing communication strategies of public sector organisations serve the needs of low decile communities in New Zealand? The study looks at the communication strategies used by three public sector organisations - Ministry of Social Development, Inland Revenue and Hamilton City Council - to interact with residents of a low-decile neighbourhood in Hamilton. Positioned within the critical theoretical paradigm (e.g., Deetz, 2005; Mumby, 2000) which looks at issues of power, domination and asymmetry in terms of communication practices, the research shows how social policy is socially constructed in order to serve the political aims of the public sector but is not necessarily constructed in terms of the target publics of that organisation. The study uses a three dimensional discourse analysis - text, context, and social practices (Fairclough, 1992) - to analyse the formal communication and information dissemination structures, processes, and texts of these organisations and to examine the ways in which some of the intended target publics of these organisations make sense of them and respond to them. The study includes an analysis of public documents put out by the organisations as well as interviews with youth workers, social workers, and representatives of the specific neighbourhood community. Juxtaposing the textual analysis with the analysis of the interviews facilitates an evaluation of whether the communication strategies of the organisations relate to the context of the socio-cultural practices of lowdecile neighbourhoods.

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  • Anō, ko te Riu ō Tāne Mahuta Possibilities and Challenges in a Ngāti Rangiwewehi Curriculum

    Mahuika, Rangimarie (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis considers how a curriculum might form a useful tool in meeting the needs and aspirations of Ngāti Rangiwewehi, a small, but dynamic tribe, who occupy specific territory from the north western shores of Lake Rotorua into the eastern Bay of Plenty of the North Island of New Zealand. In contemplating the potential benefits of a curriculum, this study begins by examining the epistemological frames of reference crucial to understanding how the tribe views the world around them, and their positioning within it. The thesis goes on to explore the pedagogical approaches specific to the iwi, and concludes by assessing the extent to which a curriculum is a viable means of maintaining and empowering Rangiwewehi mātauranga, and their underlying ambitions, and goals. Whether ‘curriculum’ is an appropriate framework to describe the way Ngāti Rangiwewehi view our educational processes, is an issue addressed in this study. To this extent, Rangiwewehi perspectives are intentionally privileged allowing appropriate representation of our understandings and aspirations. Eighteen people were interviewed as part of this study, yet many other voices included here were recorded during a tribal wānanga held in late 2010. Their accounts provide the core ideas and positions at work in this thesis, and are invaluable for the depth and texture they offer. An emphasis on the qualitative data collected here is important in allowing their words to take centre stage. In conveying their views and stories, three major themes emerged: these were people, place, and survival. Woven through the body of the thesis, these themes work to illustrate the key designs and patterns that were seen as fundamental to a Rangiwewehi way of viewing the world. Place and people, for instance, were affirmed as crucial to both the pedagogical and epistemological beliefs and practices maintained across generations. Similarly, the theme of survival was deemed a significant thread in comprehending the struggle and self-determination inherent in the tribe’s sense of identity and knowing. These themes reflect convictions shared across the iwi, highlighting the importance of understanding Ngāti Rangiwewehi by first listening to what they have to say about themselves and their curriculum.

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  • Population Genetics and Autecology of the Endemic Shrub Epiphyte Pittosporum cornifolium

    Clarkson, Fiona Marie (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    A comprehensive investigation of the population genetics and autecology of the endemic New Zealand shrub epiphyte Pittosporum cornifolium (Pittosporaceae) is presented. Pittosporum cornifolium has a wide geographic range and is well adapted to a variety of lifestyles namely terrestrial, rupestral, and more commonly, epiphytic. The primary habitats of P. cornifolium are lowland and coastal ecosystems which, in recent times (<0.6°C) restrict environmental distribution. Both genetic and autecological research was applied to determine levels of intra-specific divergence in cultivated P. cornifolium individuals from the Poor Knights Islands (outer Hauraki Gulf), which are morphologically distinct from mainland forms. The Poor Knights Islands individuals were the most genetically distinct as revealed by ISSR analysis, having higher pairwise levels of genetic distance than iii mainland populations as well as more unique loci. A single mutation in the sequence of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region was revealed in the Poor Knights Islands individuals, distinguishing them from mainland P. cornifolium and additional members of a monophyletic clade which have shared ITS sequences. Furthermore, P. cornifolium from the Poor Knights Islands have significant morphological and anatomical differences such as larger leaves and leaf tissue depths. Long term isolation on the offshore islands is likely to have had the most significant effect on this population divergence. The differences in the Poor Knights Islands individuals may warrant the delineation of a new subspecies or even species. However, a more comprehensive examination of the taxon across its mainland range, the Poor Knights Island group, and other northern offshore islands where the species is present is recommended to clarify current inferences. The results of this research have provided a framework for the development of species specific conservation and restoration strategies for P. cornifolium and reveal the importance of provenance and microhabitat (lifestyle) when sourcing seed for reintroduction projects.

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  • A comparison of buried andesites at Ngatamariki and Rotokawa geothermal fields, Taupo

    Vestman Andersen, Linda Christina (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Rotokawa and Ngatamariki geothermal systems are hosted by hydrothermally altered Quaternary andesitic, dacitic and rhyolitic volcanics resting on Mesozoic Torlesse greywacke basement, and covered by lacustrine sediments and surficial deposits. Andesitic lava and breccia (> 2 km thick) below 1 km depth at Rotokawa is an important production aquifer for geothermal power due to its interconnected fracture permeability. Exploration drilling at Ngatamariki has revealed andesite at several depth intervals, with an approximate age of 1.2 Ma for the shallow andesite lavas, interlayered with ~1 km of ignimbrite. Rotokawa andesite is a massive to flow-banded, fine-medium grained porphyritic lava with primary plagioclase (An51-82), clino- and orthopyroxene in an aphanitic groundmass. Accessory minerals are biotite and Fe-Ti oxides. The Ngatamariki andesite has primary plagioclase (An54-82) and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Intercalated breccia contains andesite, minor rhyolite and greywacke lithics in a fine grained matrix. Hydrothermal alteration is propylitic, albeit with minor potassic or argillic mineralogy resulting from variable conditions within the thermally-evolving reservoirs. The andesite is commonly veined and/or has a vuggy texture. XRF analysis, particularly plots of immobile element data, e.g. Ti vs. Zr, Y vs. Zr, has been used to fingerprint the hydrothermally altered volcanics, and infer the intensity of fluid-rock interaction. The TiO2/Zr ratio in Rotokawa andesite is 27-63 whereas in the Ngatamariki andesite it is 13-48. Chemical data, combined with inferred stratigraphic relationships suggest that Rotokawa andesites derive from an older, basaltic andesite composite cone volcano, compared to a younger dacite/andesite volcanic centre at Ngatamariki.

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  • Steroidal Glycosides of Cordyline australis

    Korkashvili, Tamar (2006)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The n-butanol extract of aerial parts of Cordyline australis demonstrated antifungal activity. n-Butanol and chloroform extracts of dried or fresh leaves of C. australis afforded a steroidal glycoside, which was identified as 5α-spirost-25(27)-en-3β-ol 3-O{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside}, saponin 1. This spirostanol glycoside showed strong antifungal activity towards Trichophyton mentagrophytes and some aspecific activity and cytotoxicity against MRC5 cell. The chloroform extract of fresh leaves of C. australis yielded a second new spirostanol glycoside which was identified as 5α-spirost-25(27)-ene-1β,3β-diol 1-{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fucopyranoside}, saponin 2. The n-butanol extracts of senescent leaves of C. australis afforded a third new spirostanol glycoside that was identified as 5α-spirost-25(27)-ene-1β,3β-diol 1-{O-β-D- fucopyranoside, saponin 3. A mixture of two isomeric flavonoid glycosides was isolated from dried leaves of C. australis and shown to be a ca 1:1 mixture of isorhamnetin-3-O-{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside}, 4 and isorhamnetin-3-O-{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside}, 5. Three other known steroidal glycosides, β-sitosterol glucoside, 6, prosapogenin A of dioscin, 7, and trillin, 8 were also isolated from the leaves of C. australis. The n-butanol extract of dried stems of C. australis afforded (25S)-5α-spirostane-1β,3α-diol 1-{O-β-D-glucopyranoside}, 9. This spirostanol glycoside showed moderate cytotoxicity against Herpes simplex type I virus (ATCC VR733) and Polio Virus Type I (Pfiser vaccine strain).

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