13,136 results for Masters

  • Capture and Activation of Carbon Dioxide Using Guanidine Superbases

    Bomann, Grace (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Due to its abundance and low-cost, carbon dioxide is a desirable C₁-building block within organic transformations. However, the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of CO₂ often necessitates preliminary activation before it can be inserted into organic molecules. This prompts the need for compounds that can effectively promote the activation of CO₂. This research investigates the capture and activation of carbon dioxide using a class of superbases that incorporate the bicyclic guanidine unit, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]-pyrimidine (hppH, 1). A series of compounds containing multiple hpp-units assembled around a phenyl ring scaffold were synthesized and investigated in the functionalization of CO₂. The work presented in this study has demonstrated the ability of protonated superbasic hppH derivatives to efficiently and effectively capture and activate carbon dioxide from ambient air to form the corresponding guanidinium bicarbonate salts. A series of optimization reactions was carried out, and showed that addition of substoichiometric concentrations of a proton source activates these guanidine compounds to their fully protonated cationic forms, and results in CO₂ capture through bicarbonate formation. A series of protonation studies were employed to fully characterize the cationic species. The tetraphenylborate and hydrochloride guanidinium salts were synthesized, isolated, and characterized by ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR spectroscopic analysis. Molecular structures of relevant crystals were obtained through single crystal X-ray diffraction. These structures revealed a complex hydrogen-bonding network within these ionic species, and showed efficient delocalization of the formal positive charge within the protonated guanidinium units. The guanidine superbases were implemented in a series of reactions attempting the functionalization of CO₂ and an alcohol to form corresponding alkylcarbonate products. However, the synthesis of these carbonate products was not achieved under the reaction conditions employed. This lack of success has been attributed to the hygroscopic nature of this class of compounds, resulting in the preferential capture of ambient water.

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  • Population Genetics of New Zealand Scampi (Metanephrops challengeri)

    Verry, Alexander (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A fundamental goal of fisheries management is sustainable harvesting and the preservation of properly functioning populations. Therefore, an important aspect of management is the identification of demographically independent populations (stocks), which is achieved by estimating the movement of individuals between areas. A range of methods have been developed to determine the level of connectivity among populations; some measure this directly (e.g. mark-recapture) while others use indirect measures (e.g. population genetics). Each species presents a different set of challenges for methods that estimate levels of connectivity. Metanephrops challengeri is a species of nephropid lobster that supports a commercial fishery and inhabits the continental shelf and slope of New Zealand. Very little research on population structure has been reported for this species and it presents a unique set of challenges compared to finfish species. M. challengeri have a short pelagic larval duration lasting up to five days which limits the dispersal potential of larvae, potentially leading to low levels of connectivity among populations. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic population structure of the New Zealand M. challengeri fishery. DNA was extracted from M. challengeri samples collected from the eastern coast of the North Island (from the Bay of Plenty to the Wairarapa), the Chatham Rise, and near the Auckland Islands. DNA from the mitochondrial CO1 gene and nuclear ITS-1 region was amplified and sequenced. The aligned dataset of DNA sequences was then used to estimate levels of both genetic diversity and differentiation, and examine demographic history. Analyses of population structure indicate that M. challengeri from the Auckland Islands region are genetically distinct from M. challengeri inhabiting the Chatham Rise, and those collected from waters off the eastern coast of the North Island. There appears to be gene flow among the sampling sites off the eastern coast of the North Island and on the Chatham Rise, but some isolation by distance was detected. These results indicate that some of these populations may be demographically uncoupled. Genetic diversity estimates combined with Bayesian skyline plots and demographic history parameters suggest that M. challengeri populations have recently undergone a size expansion. The genetic structuring between the Auckland Islands site and all others may be due to a putative habitat disjunction off the Otago shelf. In contrast, a largely continuously distributed population along the eastern coast of the North Island and the Chatham Rise most likely promotes gene flow as larvae can be transported limited distances by oceanic currents. Historical changes in climate may have influenced the patterns of present-day structure and genetic diversity of M. challengeri, by altering habitat availability and other characteristics of their environment. This study provides evidence that species which appear to have limited dispersal potential can still maintain connected populations, but there are situations where large breaks in suitable habitat appear to limit gene flow. The results of this study will help inform stock structure of the M. challengeri fishery, which will enable stock assessments to be more precisely aligned to natural population boundaries.

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  • Experience-driven heritage

    Du, Sian (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Within the Wellington region, there are a number of abandoned military fortifications which were designed as a coastal defence system to protect the harbour from Russian attacks in late 19th Century. Changing circumstances have meant that this coastal defence infrastructure network is no longer functional, and this research aims to bring it back to life. The site chosen for this research investigation is Watts Peninsula, which is enjoyed by only a limited number of the wider public who only visit a small part of the site. The great size and topography of the landscape makes it a serious challenge to manage let alone transform. This site therefore seems to be a great opportunity to explore the disciplinary challenge of how to bring coastal military fortification sites back to life? Traditionally, the way to bring coastal sites with abandoned fortifications back to life is by treating them as heritage projects. They are protected and sometimes developed as more or less significant tourist destinations that display the significance of military history and heritage. This approach tends to break up the landscape into key areas, with the minimal path system required to connect up the various heritage items and locations on the site. This typical approach severely limits the range and richness of experiencing potential of a site like Watts Peninsula. This thesis will approach this project by engaging with the countless experiences found within the existing landscape; stepping the normal heritage approach. Topography, slope, vegetation cover, aspect and views were found to produce a great range of effectively separately experienced patches or landscape-experience zones. This thesis sought to understand how the site produced the involuntary types of movement-experiencing that it did and how it differentiated itself into these experience-zones. The types of experiencing that the site produced seemed to have a great deal to do with the interaction of paths/movement through the various mosaic of experience-zones. The aim of the analysis was to discover the actual and potential ways that the site is differentiated into these experience-areas and the actual and potential movement experiences that could allow access to these areas. The design investigation would aim to maximise the number and variety of these movement and experience-zones. The resulting development would aim to spread a complex mosaic-network of experiencing across as much of the site as possible. This network would be intended to develop in a way where the great richness of possible experiences and the mystery of the site are both increased. The project would require significant funds and so a housing scheme on the southern edge of the site seemed the most obvious way to provide income for such a development. The intended housing development was designed to increase the local population who would have access to the site but hopefully in a manner where the housing would not seriously impact on views to, or the experiences and mystery of the site. Overall, the design development would be intended to transform this landscape into a destination for varieties of adventuring, exploring and experiencing on a remarkable landscape. With the help of the housing, the possibility of this being an urban adventuring destination and the network of paths and experiencing could then provide something of a way to make the heritage transformation of the fortifications themselves a viable prospect. The treatment of the fortifications has not been engaged with in this project. So, it can be said that this research has attempted to avoid the normal way that coastal military fortifications tend to be developed and proposed, instead, an experience-driven approach to the site and to heritage.

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  • Data deciphered: A visual migration of VFX

    Fordyce, Robert (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The visual effects industry is an interconnected network of migratory professionals that is in an on-going state of dynamism. The transient nature of industry contracts and the resultant economic impact of studio ebb and flow is a largely uncharted, yet highly phenomenological subject, within design discourse. In the absence of a reliable metric to quantify employee migration, previous theories in this field have been speculative and conjectural. However, the wealth of data inherent in employment-oriented social-media profiles and online crowd-sourced databases provides a new way in which to identify and analyse collective trends in industry migration. Data Deciphered: A Visual Migration of VFX reveals the geographical and demographic patterns in the postproduction services industry through the data visualization medium. Furthermore, it investigates the optimal way to comprehend, filter and relate the large volume of information that is the sector’s migration patterns. This thesis first amassed a dataset of 82,711 migratory employment records specific to professionals within the visual effects industry over the previous 35 years. It drew this information from the public-facing pages of both the LinkedIn and Internet Movie Database (IMDB) online Internet platforms. This collection has been subsequently used to drive a 3D visualization tool that was constructed within the Unity5 game engine. This study has revealed that, despite claims to the contrary, California continues to function as the central hub of the visual effects world and that the majority of industry professionals have been located there at some point throughout their employment histories. Furthermore, environment and matte-painting roles have been identified as the most migratory, while technician and code professions tend to be more static. Finally, skills analysis demonstrates that while proficiency in software packages and coding languages is prevalent within the industry, ultimately, the possession of these abilities has negligible impact upon migration frequency.

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  • Yoga Communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Examining Spirituality, Secularism, and Consumerism in the Wellington Yoga Industry

    Tilley, Ali Hale (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This ethnographic study looks at the Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) yoga industry, examining the ways that spirituality, secularism, and consumerism influence modern yoga practices. This study argues that people in New Zealand choose yoga practices for different ethical, physical, and social reasons, reflecting their diverse sociocultural values. More specifically, data gathered during fieldwork shows that the Wellington yoga industry contains at least three community subcultures, which I refer to as: 1) moral communities, 2) corporate communities, and 3) brand communities. This means that at the level of local culture, the NZ yoga industry represents a wide range of yoga practices, which in turn reflect the diverse needs, consumer expectations, and imagined ideals of resident populations. Interdisciplinary literature from Religious Studies, Sociology, and Consumer Marketing Research help analyze the complex connections between spirituality as a set of embodied practices, secularisation of yoga as a reflection of corporate culture, and consumerism as a set of desired customer experiences. Yoga in NZ is currently under-researched, making this study a starting point for further inquiry.

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  • Creta Capta: Late Minoan II Knossos in Mycenaean History

    Nash, Theodore (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Late Minoan (LM) II period at Knossos, c. 1470-1420 BC, represented a pivotal point in the history of the Aegean Bronze Age, but the full extent to which it shaped the following centuries has yet to be fully appreciated or studied. During this period, Mycenaeans from the mainland gained control of the palace of Knossos, an administrative centre hitherto unparalleled in their world. From the necessity of maintaining political control over an often hostile island, these Mycenaean dynasts were thrust into new roles, rulers of a palatial administration for the first time. Thus LM II Knossos can be viewed in its neglected aspect as a period of Mycenaean history, and the foundational phenomenon of the florescent Late Helladic III period – the birth of the Mycenaean palaces – can be placed within its proper historical context. The first Mycenaean experiment in palatial administration at LM II Knossos provided the model followed shortly after by the mainland polities, who in following this path to power dominated the Aegean for the next 200 years.

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  • Change in Physical Activity During Active Treatment of Cardiac Patients

    Tahana, Leon Winstone

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Sedentary secular, domestic, and recreational behaviour is a major risk factor (RF) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examines the quality of at-home physical activity (PA) and how it relates to physical fitness (PF) before and during 12 weeks of supervised cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in a group of medically referred cardiac patients. PA was measured with an accelerometer (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT), pre and post-CR, to determine if patient at-home PA behaviour changes during supervised CR. Cardiac patients’ (n=27), haemodynamic and morphological measurements were taken. Direct measurement of the volume of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was done with respiratory gas analysis during a submaximal cycle ergometer test to determine PF. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess whether exercise-induced improvement in cardiovascular and muscular capacity (CVaM-capacity) influences the relationships between stages of PF (pre vs. post-CR) and PA behaviour. Pre-CR power output and CVaM-capacity correlated moderately with overall at-home caloric expenditure per week (r=0.47 and 0.53). Calculated r2 values indicate that power output and peak oxygen consumption contribute between 22.1% and 28.1% to the variance of weekly PA energy consumption. At-home PA behaviour (volume and intensity) changed significantly (p≤0.001) after 12 weeks of supervised CR, with moderate and vigorous PA increasing, and sedentary, and light PA decreasing. Future CR research should consider how at-home PA behaviour and other RF inter-associations affect a patient’s cardiac health and CR effectiveness.

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  • Frenemy: The Friend Who Bullies

    Beard, Shannon (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this research was to look into the slang term frenemy, what it meant for adolescent girls and their friendships. Therefore, this research had three key objectives. The first objective was to define the word frenemy and to determine how young women recognise one. The second objective was to find out what types of bullying young women have experienced from frenemies and what impact that had on them. The last objective was to find out how the young women responded to the bullying and what things supported or undermined attempts to deal with the frenemy. Seven individual interviews were held with young women who had had a frenemy. The results gave an insight into the complex nature of what and who a frenemy can be. This study has shown that any friend can become a frenemy and use indirectly aggressive behaviours to bully. As female adolescents have highly intimate friendships, frenemies can be particularly effective in causing pain when they were once a ‘best friend’. When a target seeks help, she is most likely to go to other friends first or seek advice but not intervention from parents. The attitudes of school personnel towards indirect aggression among girls have resulted in failed attempts to stop the bullying.

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  • Korean High School English as a Second Language Learners??? L2 Repair in Classroom Contexts: A Longitudinal Study of Sequential Organization and Syntactic Characteristics

    Lee, Ha Rim (2017)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study builds on and extends previous research on conversational interaction and second language learning in formal pedagogical contexts in New Zealand high schools through a longitudinal investigation of repair. Theoretically, the project engages with concepts of repair and language learning within the field of Conversation Analysis (CA) and attempts to re-examine the relationship between learner repair and second language classroom contexts proposed by Seedhouse (2004). Methodologically, the research employs both a micro- and macro-analytic approach to spoken interaction data to explore the complexities of second language repair in terms of its sequential organization and syntactic characteristics, and to trace language change in pedagogic contexts overtime. The participants were seven Korean international students (intermediate proficiency level, age between 16-18) in high school English as second language classrooms in Auckland. An hour of students??? classroom interaction was recorded once every three weeks using a digital voice recorder over the course of a year. Additionally, the researcher conducted classroom observations and took field notes focusing on the pedagogy of the classroom activities. Lastly, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews and record participants??? stimulated recall comments. The classroom interaction data and stimulated recall comments were transcribed following the CA conventions. Findings from the study supported Seedhouse (2004) in that L2 repair is sequenced differently in pedagogic contexts in accordance with the pedagogic goals set by the teacher. More importantly, this thesis also adds to the previous study in that the speakers orientated to different aspects of the L2, especially L2 accuracy, by employing different types of repair sequences regardless of the pedagogic aim initially set by the teacher. It was also found that the speakers utilized the same repair trajectory to achieve different pedagogic and communicative purposes, depending on what they recognized as the trouble source and to whom the trouble source belonged. On the other hand, there was no notable change in the frequency of different repair types employed by the L2 learners over time. Rather, a particular repair sequence was consistently employed by the learners to achieve specific objectives: to maintain common understanding; to resolve one???s own linguistic problems; to ask for assistance in resolving one???s own linguistic problems; to assist resolving linguistic problems of their interlocutors, and to provide linguistic correction for their interlocutor. On a syntactic level, L2 repair was initiated and completed in restricted syntactic sites and the speakers employed a set of limited patterns of repair. Furthermore, the repairing segments employed by the speakers in all types of repair organization were not constituents on their own and therefore ???ungrammatical??? in the strictest sense. Based on the longitudinal observation of the focal participants??? self-initiated self-repair and the analysis of stimulated recall interview comments, it was argued that repair made during formulation of a syntactic constituent indicated the speakers started their turn before they completed planning the content of their utterance. On the other hand, repair initiated after a complete articulation of a syntactic constituent indicated the L2 learners monitored the grammatical accuracy of that particular syntactic constituent under repair. A close examination of repair before and after formulation of noun and verb phrases indicated that L2 learners in this study initiated self-repair at different points in formulation for different syntactic constituents and the patterns changed over time. The study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of how Korean international students deploy and develop their L2 resources in order to participate in second language communication through repair in the language they are learning and also make learning the focal concern of their interaction in pedagogic contexts. Theoretical and pedagogical suggestions for future research were also identified.

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  • Design Optimisation for 3D printed SLM objects

    Hill, Stephen Tane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A common misconception about additive manufacturing (3D printing) is that any shape can be made in any material at the press of a button. The reality is that each process and material requires distinct Computer Aided Design (CAD) files that need to be optimised to the physical limitations of the manufacturing process. This optimisation process can have significant effects on the designer’s aesthetic intentions. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is the new benchmark for functional 3D printed titanium designs where the optimisation process plays an important role in the outcome of the end product. The limitations imposed by the manufacturing process include build support material, heat transfer and post processing and designs are required to be optimised before the manufacturing process can commence. To date, case studies written on the SLM process have focused largely on engineering and functional applications in particular within the medical industry. However; this process has not been extensively studied from a visual and aesthetic industrial design perspective. This research will gather specific knowledge about the technical limitations involved in the Selective Laser Melting process and explore through a case study approach how a designer s intentions can be maintained or even enhanced when using this technology. With greater understanding of the SLM technology, the optimisation process may further provide positive outcomes to the designer by saving time, money and waste. This case study is built on an existing product design file as a base model. Refinements to the model were made based on findings from existing design research as well as digital and physical models. The existing design research was focused on challenges designers encounter using 3D printing technologies including SLM as well as the optimisation process. Models and design iterations were developed using Nigel Cross’s four step model of exploration, generation, evaluation and communication. By iteratively redesigning aspects of the model to conform to the SLM limitations, this study reviews opportunities for areas to reduce material without compromising the design intent.

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  • A Stand-Alone 'Self-Locking' Laser

    Cowdell, Carolyn (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation presents a stand-alone ’self-locking’ laser. The aim of the project was to develop a prototype of a ’self -locking’ laser that requires no user input, other than to turn the laser on. The prototype was developed to be used as a repump laser for laser cooling experiments; however, its design is aimed at a market of individuals who do not have the background skills required to lock a laser. The project uses a frequency modulated spectroscopy setup to obtain the sub-Doppler atomic spectrum of Rubidium, which is demodulated to obtain zero-crossing linear slopes at the exact points of each atomic transition and crossover transition. The frequency modulation for the spectroscopy setup, the signal analysis, as well as the automatic locking and re-locking of the laser is all implemented digitally using an Arduino open source microcontroller. The distributed feedback laser used for the design is fully characterized and the lock of the ’self-locking’ laser is analyzed in detail. The finished prototype has been used in a laser cooling experiment as the repump beam to investigate how it performs under real experimental conditions.

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  • The factors that influence the reestablishment of Podocarpus totara (totara) and Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (kahikatea) in a freshwater New Zealand wetland

    Waring, Stevie (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Wetlands are productive transitional lands between terrestrial and aquatic systems. They provide social, economic and cultural values, while providing valuable services such as carbon storage, water purification, flood abatement and biodiversity support. While wetlands only cover ~3% of the globe, they contribute up to 40% of these global renewable ecosystem services. Worldwide degradation of wetlands through urbanisation, conversion to agriculture and flood management schemes has resulted in a 50% loss of the worlds original wetlands, with New Zealand being one of the most extreme examples of this with >90% of the original extent of wetlands being lost. Wetlands unique hydrology results in distinct plant zonation and community composition and seedling survival is the primary factor that influences stand structure and community composition. However, restoring degraded wetlands is challenging because the alterations to the hydrology through filling or diverting water will impact the effect of physical, chemical and biotic environmental variables on native plant establishment. The use of facilitation in restoration through successional planting using nurse trees, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is common in restoration, however research into the effectiveness of these techniques in wetland systems is lacking. This thesis is comprised of two studies with aims to determine the factors that had the biggest impact on the survival and growth of kahikatea and totara in Wairio wetland and inform future restoration. Wairio wetland has large isolated remnant kahikatea trees, so my first study focused on how these established trees and a connection to fungal hyphae networks influenced the survival and growth of newly planted saplings. One sapling of each species was planted at the dripline of the remnant tree, and another sapling of each species was planted 2 metres from that point. Out of the 16 remnant kahikatea trees used, 8 were ‘disturbance’ plots where saplings were planted in 35μm mesh bags that excluded roots but fungal hyphae could penetrate, in slotted pots which were turned every 3 months. In the 8 remaining ‘undisturbed’ plots, saplings were planted into the ground. I assessed the influence of distance and disturbance on sapling survival and growth using a chi-square test of independence and general linear models. Results showed that kahikatea trees survived better than totara overall. The survival of totara was significantly reliant on a close proximity to the remnant kahikatea, and a connection with mycorrhizal networks. Kahikatea had greater biomass than totara, however they suffered strong conspecific competition with the remnant trees, with kahikatea saplings planted at the dripline having 51.28g greater biomass with regular disturbance of AMF mycelium. Kahikatea trees are light demanding species, and therefore growing under the canopy of a parent tree has a negative impact on kahikatea saplings growth. Knowing that kahikatea and totara trees respond differently to nurse trees and AMF, my second study focused on how nurse effects and AMF association changes with chemical, physical and environmental stressors. The survival and growth of 5-year-old kahikatea and totara trees, with or without a nurse across 10 blocks in Wairio wetland were analysed. At each tree, soil moisture and root available nutrients were measured and soil cores were taken to determine gravimetric soil moisture, reduction-oxidation reaction (redox), pH, soil carbon content and I counted the presence of AMF spores in two size classes. I assessed tree survival and growth against these variables using a chi-squared test of independence and general linear models. The results of this study showed that kahikatea survived better than totara trees in the very wet blocks, where no other species survived. Totara trees survived in the upland sites of the wetland and had better growth than kahikatea trees. Moreover, totara trees grew 24cm taller in the presence of a nurse tree, and were strongly positively associated with spore number. Nurse trees further benefitted totara trees by increasing plant available soil nitrate and potassium by almost double.

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  • Thoughts Become Things: A Grounded Cognition Approach to Imagery Use in the Power Clean

    Lindsay, Riki

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    While it is widely argued that personalised imagery scripts are beneficial to performers, theory and data to support this contention is sparse. The current study aims to address these issues by investigating: Firstly, what differences in content and description arise from the use of generic and personalised scripts aimed at improving performance in the Power Clean (PC). Secondly, if any differences are reflected in relevant kinematic measures. Sixteen resistance trained individuals were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: personalised imagery (PI), or generic imagery (GI). During baseline testing, participants performed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) PC along with a recall test which consisted of giving a personal description of the power clean. Personal descriptions of the PC were used to construct imagery scripts for the PI group. Scripts for the GI group were derived from a standard description of the PC obtained from an international level Olympic-Weightlifting coach and current literature on PC technique. Participants completed three PC training sessions per week and listened to an audio-recorded version of their given imagery scripts five times per week. At the end of the training period descriptions of the PC were compared along with kinematic and performance variables including; peak power (PP), peak force (PF), peak velocity (PV) at 80, 90 and 100% of the participants’ 1RM and horizontal bar displacement. There was a significant difference between post-test adjectives used between groups (ES=1.37±1.27). The PI group showed a meaningful increase (23.4 ± 7.8 to 31.1 ± 18.1) compared to a decrease in the GI group (14.6 ± 8.7 to 13.6 ± 7.8). At 100% testing load the PI group experienced changes to Dx2 and DxT which saw the bar caught closer to the participants’ centre of mass in post-testing. The PI group showed small to moderate improvements in PF (80 and 90%) and PV (100%). Findings suggest that PI scripts result in different descriptions of movements and that these differences are of benefit to performance.

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  • Breathing Therapy Air Delivery Unit: Simulation, Design and Development

    White, David Edward

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Although constant positive airway pressure therapy is currently the most effective form of non-invasive treatment to relieve obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, it has relatively low treatment compliance due to pressure related side effects. Existing commercial continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices rely on the combined airflow characteristics of both the air delivery unit and nasal mask vent to regulate treatment pressure. Fluctuation in mask pressure occurs however, due to patient breathing, presenting an opportunity to develop an alternative breathing therapy device capable of achieving dynamic control of mask pressure. Within this research, a computer model of a proposed patient breathing therapy device, based on characteristics of a prototype system, is developed to determine the breathing system air delivery requirements whilst operating under a simulated patient breathing load. This model initially utilises an idealised, zero order, air delivery unit behaviour, since this system element is yet to be built. A review of different types of air compressors is undertaken and the diaphragm type compressor selected as being best suited for practical implementation within the air delivery unit of the breathing system, based on constraints of air quality, available machining resource and materials. Thermodynamic design of the compressor is undertaken to determine physical dimensions and a range of actuation methods are reviewed, based on force and speed requirements. A speed controlled 3 phase AC induction motor is selected to actuate the compressor. The diaphragm compressor is built and tested under both steady state and dynamic conditions and proven capable of meeting the breathing system air supply for both air pressure and flow requirements. The air delivery unit within the model simulation, previously based on an idealised, zero order element, is characterised with the same dynamic behaviour as the prototype unit built, established during testing, and shown by simulation to meet the breathing system requirements under dynamic patient breathing load. Implementation of the air delivery unit within the completed prototype breathing system shows the mask pressure to fluctuate outside the desire pressure tolerance range; however, to remedy this situation, the compressor requires the development of an appropriate control scheme which is beyond the scope of this work.

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  • Identification of central mechanisms underlying statin-induced changes in consummatory behaviour in rats

    Isgrove, Kiriana (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Simvastatin is a cholesterol lowering statin whose adverse effects include an increase in appetite and, consequently, obesity. This is counterproductive to the otherwise beneficial outcomes of simvastatin on metabolic and cardiovascular health. The mechanisms underlying simvastatin-induced hyperphagia are unknown. This thesis investigated by using a laboratory rat model whether central mechanisms contribute to simvastatin-induced increase in appetite. First, the effect of intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered simvastatin on the energy-driven intake of ‘bland’ chow, and on reward-motivated consumption of palatable solutions, was determined. The data indicate that ICV simvastatin moderately increases ingestion of energy-dense chow, but it does not affect consumption of calorie-dilute and non-caloric palatable sucrose or saccharin solutions. It suggests that simvastatin acting directly at the brain level elevates intake of energy, while being ineffective in stimulating eating for reward. Surprisingly, rats injected ICV with this statin consume also significantly more water after water deprivation, which points to a relationship between centrally acting simvastatin and thirst-related processing. In the second part of this project, the effect of the orexigenic dose of ICV simvastatin on neuronal activation in consumption-related hypothalamic sites was investigated. Simvastatin elevated c-Fos immunoreactivity, which serves as a marker of neuronal activation, in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei, two sites that have a profound influence on the regulation of energy intake and energy balance, as well as affect water balance. It can be concluded that simvastatin increases intake of energy and of water, and that it likely exerts its action through the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei.

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  • The development and taste of fruit of gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. Var. chinensis "Gold3")

    Le Lievre, Danielle Evelyn (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The “Gold3” cultivar of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis “Gold3”) has proven to be capable of producing high yields, however, growers have also noted an increased risk of small fruit that have high acidity, low dry matter and poor flavour. This thesis investigated how fruit composition and flavour components develop in “Gold3” kiwifruit, and whether altering the carbohydrate supply using common orchard practises would influence the accumulation and partitioning of the flavour components (starch, sugars and acids) in fruit. Fruit from a “Gold3” orchard were sampled fortnightly, from anthesis through to harvest, from canes receiving five treatment combinations of leaf or fruit thinning and girdling. These treatments increased or decreased carbohydrate supply, either early or late in fruit development. Overall, the “Gold3” fruit demonstrated similar patterns of starch, sugar and acid accumulation to other A. chinensis cultivars, in particular the gold kiwifruit cultivar “Hort16A”, with slight differences in timings and peak concentrations. An altered carbohydrate supply to developing fruit strongly influenced their composition in unique ways. As expected fresh weight growth and starch accumulation responded positively to a period of high carbohydrate supply. Regulation of organic acids were shown to be more complex, with the concentrations of some acids responding inversely to increased carbohydrate supply. At eating ripe the fruit from lower carbohydrate supply had altered sugar: acid ratios, with increased total acid concentrations, as well as decreased sugar concentrations. To identify how these compositional changes affected the taste of fruit at eating ripeness, a controlled consumer sensory experiment was carried out with 78 inexperienced consumers. Fruit from the different treatments were all perceived as having acceptable flavours, despite the fruit having significant differences in the standard flavour determinants (DM, rSSC and TA). Consumers were able to detect differences in sugar and acid concentrations between treatments. Low carbohydrate supply treatments had significantly higher TA, citric acid and quinic acid concentrations, combined with lower °Brix, DM and sucrose concentrations at eating ripe. Consumers more closely associated these fruit with being more acidic and having more sour and under-ripe flavours compared to the treatments that received increased carbohydrate supply. Overall the results of the research support the hypothesis that “Gold3” kiwifruit are vulnerable to changes in composition due to changes in growing conditions, and that these changes influence flavour as perceived by consumers. These effects may be more pronounced in orchards where high crop loads, shading, or variation in leaf to fruit ratio between shoots create populations of even more carbon deficient fruit.

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  • The transferability of modern medical laboratory technology to Fiji

    Ranadi, Vilomena (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Medical technology has improved the health status of the population in developed countries. This has influenced the progress from intuitive medicine to precision medicine through the use of imaging, molecular biology and other diagnostic approaches that specifically identify the causes of disease. Such technology is not readily available in third world countries and as such medical technology transfer is crucial in developing nations, although this is a relatively complex process. The aim of this study is to investigate the requirement, appropriateness, management, as well as the estimated cost for establishing selected advanced diagnostic techniques at the Colonial War Memorial Hospital (CWMH), Suva, Fiji. The study investigates the presence of carbapenemase resistance in extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) septicaemia in Fiji in order to establish the need for the introduction of the CARBA NP; a rapid diagnostic tool for detecting carbapenemase resistant microorganisms. The study also examines current Histology and immunohistochemistry practises as well as the test assays utilized at CWMH. In particular, the study focusses upon laboratory processes that could be updated in order to promote conclusive pathological diagnosis, especially for breast cancer and lymphoma. Lastly, establishment costs and management strategies to support the transfer of these tools are examined. A mixed method approach, involving qualitative and quantitative research techniques, was undertaken to assess and analyse the current status of testing. Studies were also undertaken to provide evidence for the desirability of introducing the technologies based upon a perceived need, as well as fiscal aspects relating to establishment costs and on-going management expenses. Information was gathered through the examination of hospital records, interviews with strategic personnel and through laboratory attachments. Based on the results of the study, carbapenemase resistance was not detected in the ESBL septicaemia cases that were examined. However, it was revealed that 34.7% of these cases were treated with Meropenum (carbapenemase) which is known to promote the emergence of carbapenemase resistant micro-organisms if used inappropriately. In addition, 59.2% of ESBL septicaemia was acquired on the nineteenth day of admission, which reflects an apparent problem with infection control. Examination of the Histology and immunohistochemistry practises at CWMH showed that in many instances, standardised protocols were not followed. Analysis provided evidence as to the high level of breast carcinoma and lymphoma cases submitted to the laboratory for diagnosis. Of cases submitted, 40.3% were breast specimens, with 87.4% of these having a malignant diagnosis. Adequacy of pre-analytical fixation was observed in only 14% of modified radical mastectomy specimens. Additionally, 59.4% of breast cancers were ER/PR positive, while 26.7% were both ER and PR negative. The study also showed that 45.6% of breast cancers occurred in women below the age of 50 years. In view of the number of ER/PR negative cases - of which an unknown number were triple negative breast cancers - it was concluded that there is a need for establishing HER2 antibody testing in Fiji. Lymphoma was diagnosed in 15.4% of cases submitted to the laboratory. Of these 61.8% were in male patients, with extra-nodal lymphoma being seen in more than 50% of cases. Bcl2, CD10 and Ki67 antibodies were identified as being important modalities that could be introduced to assist in lymphoma diagnosis. It was further determined that the establishment costs and maintenance of these diagnostic tools was acceptable. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that there is need to transfer the identified diagnostic tests to bridge the diagnostic gaps at the CWMH laboratory. It was also shown that significant advances in patient management would be achieved through the introduction of the diagnostic tests highlighted in this study.

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  • Whisperer: A Study in Adaptation

    West, Brendan Robert (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It is becoming increasingly common in the modern theatre world for practitioners to be multi‐disciplinary. This thesis mates the skills of academia, scriptwriting, technical design and prop fabrication in order to create an adaption of H. P. Lovecraft’s The Whisperer in Darkness. In it, I investigate the methodology of adaptation and how it has, and can, apply specifically to the Gothic and Weird Fiction genres. Via study of other Gothic and Lovecraftian adaptions, I craft a script from The Whisperer in Darkness, including design specifications and specialist technical considerations. Many of these findings are explored through a practical staging of said script. It is strongly advisable for any reader of this thesis to first read the appendix.

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  • The international evolution of engineering consulting firms: A strategy-tripod perspective

    Krull, Anna (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research investigates the internationalisation of engineering consulting firms. The study draws on the elements of the strategy tripod (industry factors, resources and capabilities, and institutional factors) combined with the stages of the internationalisation process (motivation to internationalise, market selection, mode of entry, and subsequent market operations). The factors that influence this process are identified using a longitudinal single case study of a New Zealand based engineering consulting firm with 40 years of international experience. The research identifies the five phases through which the case firm passed during that period, and highlights the different strategies that were apparent. Some of these strategies emerged out of practical coping, supporting the notion of wayfinding found in recent strategy literature. Individual actors lead to an adjustment of the modes of operation. This in turn leads to the emergence of a new phase of strategic focus in the context of internationalisation. The results demonstrate how sector specific industry factors influence the initial motivation for internationalisation and the motivation for further expansion. The entrepreneurial spirit of individuals, autonomous acting, and formal and informal networks were identified as firm-specific resources and capabilities. These are shown to be key drivers for market selections and permanent establishment in foreign markets. Informal institutional pressures such as client relationships were also shown to be partially influential in terms of market selections. The strategic patterns that were identified were largely influenced by firm-level institutions that in turn were shaped largely by these enthusiastic individuals. Overall, the role of individuals is emphasised.

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  • Optimising capture methods for the evaluation of parasitoid wasp diversity

    Saunders, Thomas (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Parasitoid wasps are mega-diverse, ecologically dominant, but poorly studied components of global biodiversity. Despite their intensive application within pest management as biocontrol agents, little is known about native species. To understand their basic biology they must be collected in sampling programs. However, invertebrate surveys are increasingly subject to funding and time constraints that often preclude complete faunal inventories. In order to maximise the efficiency and reduce the cost of their collection, the application of optimal sampling techniques within a Rapid Biodiversity Assessment framework is proposed. Two sites in the Waitakere Ranges were sampled three times over the summer. An intensive sampling effort of 840 Malaise-trap-days over a three month period was used to determine the relationship between sampling effort and observed species richness. Rarefaction techniques and non-parametric estimators were used to predict true species richness and to evaluate the completeness of sampling. Results show that an intensive Malaise-trapping regime over the summer can capture two-thirds of parasitoid wasp species present. Sampling recommendations are provided to guide optimal usage of Malaise traps for both ecological studies and faunal inventories. Modern taxonomic methods are reviewed and a new species of parasitoid wasp is described, representing the first New Zealand species from the genus Lusius (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae). Morphological measurements confirm the new species represents a significant range expansion for the genus. Greater collaboration between ecologists and taxonomists is encouraged, in order to make more efficient use of resources, data, and expertise unique to each discipline. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between sampling effort and parasitoid wasp diversity in New Zealand. It shows that very high sampling effort fails to catch all species present. Parasitoid wasps are known to be keystone species that show promise as indicators of environmental quality and as surrogates for the diversity of other taxa. The development of optimal sampling strategies will therefore provide an important foundation for their future study.

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