13,998 results for Masters

  • Services for women with female genital mutilation in Christchurch : perspectives of women and their health providers

    Hussen, Marian Aden (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Abstract In recent decades there has been increased immigration to New Zealand of women from East Africa. These countries have the highest prevalence rates (between 90-97%) of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) worldwide. FGM therefore has become part of the care experience of some New Zealand health providers. Information on FGM is available on the New Zealand Ministry of Health website. This study captures the experience of a group of East African women in Christchurch who have undergone FGM and given birth in Christchurch Hospitals. Two focus groups, each with ten women, were held so that women could talk about their health services experience. A narrative approach was adopted, listening to their stories in order to explore, to gain insight and to understand how these women felt during reproductive and antenatal care, childbirth and after childbirth. Interviews with three health providers sought their experiences of caring for women with FGM. The study identifies diverse potential explanations with the focus group members telling their stories and identifying issues related to FGM. Several short case histories are presented to illustrate these experiences. The thematic analysis reported four themes: satisfaction with clinical care, concern about infibulation, barriers to knowledge for women, and problems of cross-cultural communication. Health providers reported similar issues, with themes related to their own clinical experience, knowledge gaps, and need for greater cultural understanding and communication. These themes reflect the journey of the East African women with FGM in Christchurch and the challenges faced by them and their providers. This research recommends that women with FGM receive more education and support to manage their relationships with the health system and their own health. Health providers need continuing education and further support in the psychosocial, psychological and physical health needs of East African women living in Christchurch. Service outcomes should be evaluated.

    View record details
  • Neighbourhoods of Phylogenetic Trees: Exact and Asymptotic Counts

    de Jong, Jamie Victoria (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A central theme in phylogenetics is the reconstruction and analysis of evolutionary trees from a given set of data. To determine the optimal search methods for the reconstruction of trees, it is crucial to understand the size and structure of neighbourhoods of trees under tree rearrangement operations. The diameter and size of the immediate neighbourhood of a tree has been well-studied, however little is known about the number of trees at distance two, three or (more generally) k from a given tree. In this thesis we explore previous results on the size of these neighbourhoods under common tree rearrangement operations (NNI, SPR and TBR). We obtain new results concerning the number of trees at distance k from a given tree under the Robinson-Foulds (RF) metric and the Nearest Neighbour Interchange (NNI) operation, and the number of trees at distance two from a given tree under the Subtree Prune and Regraft (SPR) operation. We also obtain an exact count for the number of pairs of binary phylogenetic trees that share a first RF or NNI neighbour.

    View record details
  • When Terra is no longer Firma: Enabling wellbeing by helping children to be reflective, relational and resilient learners

    Jamieson, Sandra (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis focuses attention on the ongoing effects of the earthquakes on children in Christchurch. It identifies the learning and behavioural difficulties evident in an increasing number of students and cautions the use of the word 'resilient' to describe children who may be just managing. This assumption has a significant impact on the wellbeing of many Christchurch children who, disaster literature warns, are likely to be under-served. This thesis suggests that, because of the scale of need, schools are the best place to introduce practices that will foster wellbeing. Mindfulness practices are identified as a potential tool for ameliorating the vulnerabilities experienced by children, while at the same time working to increase their capabilities. This thesis argues that, through mindful practices, children can learn to be more reflective of their emotions and respond in more considered ways to different situations. They can become more relational, having a greater understanding of others through a deeper understanding of themselves, and they can build resilience by developing the protective factors that promote more adaptive functioning. This thesis identifies the strong links between mindfulness and the holistic wellbeing concept of Te Whare Tapa Whã and a Mãori worldview. Strong links are also identified with the vision, values and key competencies of the New Zealand Curriculum and 21st Century learners. Both short and long term recommendations are made for the introduction of mindfulness practices in schools to enhance the wellbeing of children.  

    View record details
  • Transaction cost implications of two approaches to forests in climate change policy: New Zealand and California

    Chiono, Anton A. (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand and California present an opportunity to assess how two different designs for incorporating forests in climate policy affect transaction costs for participants in the forest sector. Forests play a prominent role in achieving the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction goals established by each policy. In New Zealand, the forest sector provides an important option for domestic GHG emissions reductions in an economy where opportunities in other sectors, like agriculture and energy, may be limited. In California, offsets from forests are projected to have the greatest technical potential of any approved offset project type, and will be an important option for reducing the costs of compliance in regulated sectors. This research investigates the different approaches taken by New Zealand and California, the circumstances surrounding each policy, and the transaction cost implications for forest participants under each programme.

    View record details
  • Kia ora, Fairy Tale

    Kayes, Anne Margaret

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The Tui Street Tales is a collection of stories for children aged approximately nine to twelve years. The stories take place in Tui Street, where two boys realise that fairy tale themes are running through the mysteries occurring in their street. They, along with other Tui Street children, set out to solve these mysteries. Contemporary issues facing children today are explored, such as divorce, cyberbullying, parental death and environmental pollution. Archetypal expectations are often subverted, as characters forge their own paths. The New Zealand setting is often a character itself and influences events and characters. The exegesis accompanying this thesis explores how the European fairy tale has both influenced and been influenced by society and culture throughout history. It explores how, over the last fifty years in particular, writers have re-written fairy tales not only as a vehicle for social change, but to restore them to something more like their original selves. It also explores how elements of the traditional fairy tale have appeared and might yet appear in a modern New Zealand context. This research both enriched and informed the process of writing The Tui Street Tales. [NOTE: The novel: "The Tui Street Tales" is embargoed until the Feb-17 2018]

    View record details
  • Topographies of the self: a community of others

    Plumb, Alex

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This multi-channel video project attempts to amplify questions about the psychological interplay between the subject depicted, the site of performance, and how the work unfolds in interaction with the viewer. By working in the space between the real and the imagined; the familiar and the unknown, an ambiguous other emerges. The work investigates a different type of rhythm - one that un-notices the seemingly normal everyday act, whilst drawing out the psychic dimensions that surround it. By amplifying this rhythm through a heightened filmic environment, the work aims for a moment of varying perspectives: a moment that continuously fails to arrive or cohere but is in an ongoing state of formation and exchange. This on-going tease or promise of unity and/or stability attempts to question the way the subject-viewer constructs a perspective of normalcy within the mundane.

    View record details
  • Examining the nature of interpersonal coach- athlete dyads between New Zealand national respresentative female football players and national head coaches

    Woolliams, Dwayne

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this research is to better understand the nature of the coach-athlete relationships within New Zealand Football’s National Female under 17s, Under 20s and the Senior Women’s team (the ‘Football Ferns’). The coach-athlete relationship plays a pivotal role in the coaching process and both parties form close relationships with a high degree of interdependence. Better Sport Psychology has had less to say about the contexts and significant external determinants within the intrapersonal factors are seen to vary; amongst these is the coach. This study adopts a constructivist approach that draws upon a theoretical framework as proposed by Jowett and colleagues (Jowett, 2009; Jowett & Meek, 2000; Jowett & Cockerill, 2003; Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2004) exploring multiple interdependent relationships with coach- athlete dyads. A mixed- method approach will be facilitated in this study to combine both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The participants consisted of a purposive sample of approximately 67 New Zealand national representative female football players and their respective head coaches. Quantitative research was facilitated by implementing a 22 item Coach Athlete Questionnaire (CART-Q) to investigate the nature of the inter-relationship constructs of Closeness (emotions), Commitment (cognitions), Complementarity (behaviours) and Co-orientation (perceptual consensus) in the coach-athlete dyad. Descriptive statistics and magnitude based analysis was undertaken to identify key variables which were followed up in qualitative interviews. Qualitative data was gathered by facilitating a small number of semi structured interviews to examine the nature of critical similarities and differences between CART-Q constructs and the performance context of interest in more depth and using thematic analysis. The findings of this study indicate that there are significant similarities and difference in the perceptions of athlete- coach dyadic relationships and these can be viewed with the premise that the uniqueness of high performance sport in New Zealand shapes the contextual nuance of the athlete- coach relationship.

    View record details
  • Top management team members' perception of executive servant-leadership and their work engagement: impact of gender and ethnicity

    de Villiers, Daniel

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this thesis project is to test whether executive servant-leadership behaviour predicts the work engagement of top management team members at publicly listed companies in New Zealand. It further tests the effects of gender and ethnicity as moderating variables on the relationship between top management team members’ perception of executive servant-leadership behaviours and their work engagement. The Executive Servant-leadership Scale and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used as measures in this project. These were administered in the format of a structured questionnaire to identified top management team members of organisations listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange, more specifically the NZX All Index that comprises only domestic securities listed and does not include foreign listed or dual listed securities. The results confirm that executive servant-leadership behaviour by Chief Executive Officers of publicly listed companies in New Zealand significantly predicts the work engagement of top management team members. It further confirms that neither gender nor ethnicity demonstrate a moderating effect on this relationship, for the sample used in the research.

    View record details
  • Sedimentology and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Paparoa Coal Measure Lacustrine Mudstones

    Cody, Emma-Nell Olivia (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Potential lacustrine source rocks have been recognised in several Cretaceous syn-rift basins including the producing Taranaki Basin, but have not been officially recognised from drill core and seismic data. The late-Cretaceous Paparoa Coal Measures contain three lacustrine mudstone formations which outcrop in several localities and have been extensively drilled for coal mining. These formations are considered to be an easily accessible analogue for late-Cretaceous lacustrine source rocks in New Zealand and also provide valuable information regarding syn-depositional tectonics and basin formation during the late-Cretaceous. Stratigraphic columns and isopach maps were constructed from field work and drill hole descriptions and results showed variations in lithofacies across the basin. The western side of the basin is characterised by sandy lithofacies, abundant proximal turbidites and debris flows. The transition to a sub-aerial environment is marked by thick conglomerate and meter wide rip-up clasts. The central and eastern sections of the basin show massive mudstone, distal turbidites, low energy fluvial sandstones and thin, discontinuous coal. Isopach maps constructed from drill hole data identified three NNE – SSW oriented lakes with lacustrine sediment of up to 180m thick truncated by the eastern Roa – Mt Buckley Fault Zone. It was determined fault control during deposition was to the west and the basin extended further than its current location. Revisions to isopach models highlighted a lack of change in basin orientation during deposition of the Paparoa sediments. Plate reconstructions combined with direct evidence from the basin indicate formation of the Paparoa Coal Measures could have occurred in either a rift or transtensional basin. The mudstones were geochemically assessed for hydrocarbon potential using a Source Rock Analyser (SRA). Preliminary analysis of the three mudstones has shown TOC values ranging from 1.0 to 4.5 wt.%, HI values ranging from 68 to 552 mHC/gTOC and Tmax results show the mudstones to range in maturity from immature to late – mature. A sample from the Waiomo Formation has excellent potential for oil generation and the low maturity results for the Goldlight Formation make it a potential shale gas resource. These results have shown the potential for hydrocarbon bearing lacustrine source rocks to exist in the Greymouth Coalfield. In addition, revisions have been made to basin formation which should be considered. Due to the availability of data from the Paparoa lacustrine source rocks, they should be used as an accessible analogue for Taranaki and other Late Cretaceous basins.

    View record details
  • Accounting for the business start-up experiences of Afghan refugees in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Najib, Hedayatullah (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand is rapidly becoming a strongly multicultural society with nearly one in four of its citizens born overseas (Statistics New Zealand, 2006). Immigrants enter New Zealand under many different classifications, such as skilled migrants, entrepreneurs, investors, and refugees. Finding employment and a means of survival in their new society is an undeniable challenge for most, if not all, of these immigrants and people from refugee backgrounds. Some of them find employment in established Kiwi organisations while others establish their own businesses and become entrepreneurs. A review of the literature revealed that there has been considerable research on entrepreneurial behaviours of immigrants and refugees in general, but little is known about the experiences of entrepreneurs from refugee backgrounds in New Zealand, specifically Afghan entrepreneurs and how their experiences differ from their counterparts who came to New Zealand from other countries. This qualitative research project studies Afghans (N=23) from Christchurch who established their own businesses and the sense they have made of their experiences, both as refugees and as business owners. It also briefly compares the major findings with those of their refugee counterparts from other countries (N=6) to see if there are any major differences between the two groups’ start-up experiences in New Zealand. Participants were selected from those in the Afghan community in Christchurch who are from a refugee background, using a snowballing technique. The comparison group consisted of six refugees from Zimbabwe, Somalia, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Sri Lanka. The findings of this study have been categorised into two parts. The first part discusses the initial experiences of the participants in New Zealand society, how they settled into New Zealand, what strategies they used to integrate into their new society, how they financed their lives in New Zealand, and eventually how they became economically independent. The second part of the findings discusses the motivators behind the participants’ business start-ups, the types of businesses that they established and how these businesses assisted them as a gateway to other business ventures or activities. This section further investigates the challenges the refugees faced during their business start-up stage and the strategies they adopted to address these challenges. The data indicated that, while the Afghan refugees faced many challenges in establishing their own businesses, three were of particular importance to them. These were (1) financial challenges (2) licensing requirements and (3) English language ability for obtaining business licenses. These were different from the comparison group because of the different industries the two groups of business owners chose to start. This research presents a very important finding. When participants’ experiences were examined to see how they account for personal and business success it was clear it is the social fabric of a collectivist and religious way of life and the associated sense of obligation to support each other that are the most significant factors shaping Afghan refugees’ business start-up behaviour. These factors led them to guide and mentor each other towards economic security and a lifestyle that fitted well with their family and religious obligations and self-identity. In addition to showing how Christchurch Afghan refugees’ business start-ups were used as a means to meet their social objectives, this research and the model that emerged from it offer unique insights into three key drivers: economic security, lifestyle–enterprise fit, and self-identity. These factors, together with age and family circumstances, shaped the decisions associated with starting businesses in New Zealand to determine the pathway chosen. The findings of this research are important as New Zealand is opening its doors to more refugees and very little is known about more recent refugee groups like those from Afghanistan. The findings provide a rich and unique contribution to refugee entrepreneurship and enterprise development literature in New Zealand and a model that could be used as a framework for further studies on the subject by those agencies that support refugees and their business start-up ventures as well as government agencies dealing with refugee resettlement and employment.

    View record details
  • Literature of the Holocaust perpetrator. A comparative literary analysis of Jonathan Littell's "The Kindly Ones" with German Väterliteratur (Father literature).

    Schnippering, Claudia (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Undoubtedly the historical settings and aspects of the Nazi Holocaust have been examined for many decades. Research has focused much on the victims of the Holocaust. However, the examination of the perpetrators of the Nazi Holocaust continues to cause anxiety and controversy. In my thesis I examine what possible constraints are imposed on authors/narrators and also readers by the sensitive and explosive subject of the representation of Holocaust perpetrators. I compare four texts of German Väterliteratur with Jonathan Littell’s “The Kindly Ones” to examine the questions of aesthetics and ethics in the literary representation of Holocaust perpetrators, and if we can deduce their motives and motivations from these representations. The examination of these Holocaust perpetrator representations is an important contribution to our understanding of the past as well as a contribution to the formation of public cultural memory and identity. All of the examined narratives form part of a continuously growing body of literary expressions of the Holocaust perpetrator and highlight a distinct obligation to the history they narrate – be it fictional or real. My research includes a comparative literary analysis of authentic narratives featuring fictional perpetrators in order to find meaning in these representations that enable the reader to form not only a connection with a dark part of the German past but also with post-war and post-unification debates on the representation of the Holocaust. It also demonstrates a recognition that Holocaust perpetrators are as multifaceted and multidimensional as the narratives they occupy. My thesis is not an exhaustive compilation but rather forms a small sample discussion that enables the reader to emphasise the Holocaust perpetrator. The narratives representing Holocaust perpetrators in contemporary literature serve to transmit history into the future as part of public and personal memory discourse, and the remembrance of history.

    View record details
  • An Investigation into the Habitat Requirements, Invasiveness and Potential Extent of male fern, Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott, in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Ure, Graeme Alfred (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The vegetation of New Zealand has undergone extreme changes during the period of European settlement, with not only forest clearance but a deliberate attempt to replace the native vegetation with species from Europe and later from other parts of the world. Garden escapes continue this process to the current day. Several European ferns that have been introduced to New Zealand gardens have subsequently escaped. At the time of writing D. filix-mas is the most obvious and probably the most abundant in the rural areas of Canterbury having been observed in a wide range of habitats from suburban to farm, to forests both plantation and montane and in shrublands. This thesis investigates some of the ecology of D. filix-mas and explores its potential as a weed detrimental to New Zealand’s indigenous ecosystems. An extensive literature review revealed that in the Northern Hemisphere D. filix-mas grows over a wide range of climates, vegetation types and soils. However the literature review did not clearly show the forest light conditions under which D. filix-mas grows nor could the Northern Hemisphere experience in deciduous woodlands and coniferous forests be directly carried over into New Zealand’s podocarps, evergreen hardwood and evergreen beech forests. An experiment was designed to investigate tolerance to shade and field data was collected at several sites across North Canterbury for subsequent investigation with ordination and standard statistical methods. Records from around New Zealand were collated and used to generate a map of potential extent using the Land Environments New Zealand dataset. Positive growth was achieved under all shade treatments including the heaviest at 96% shade. However the field data suggests that under some of the lowest light availability D. filix-mas does not grow. In the field D. filix-mas is found in diverse habitats with a preference for sheltered sites with more southerly than northerly aspects. Interpretation of the ordination output combined with knowledge of the sites suggests that D. filix-mas is mostly associated with degraded sites and sites of past disturbance. Regenerating kanuka is a reliable place in which to find D. filix-mas but relatively natural beech forest is not. D. filix-mas can potentially grow over much of the South Island particularly in drier areas and can be invasive following disturbance and when grazing is removed, making it a potential problem for indigenous forest restoration efforts.

    View record details
  • Mathematical modelling of solute transport in a heterogeneous aquifer

    Dommisse, James Phillip (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study provides a contribution to the understanding of parsimony and predictive uncertainty in the context of groundwater solute transport modelling. The study is unique because the modelling was undertaken using tracer test data from a heterogeneous artificial aquifer whose structure was known to a very high level of detail. The aquifer structure was based on a ‘real life’ Canterbury Plains alluvial aquifer (in New Zealand). Parsimonious principles were applied by starting with a simple analytical model that assumed homogeneity then progressively adding heterogeneity using numerical models with varying degrees of parameterisation complexity. The results show that increased complexity did not necessarily make the model better at replicating the tracer test data. For example, the outputs from a numerical model that represented heterogeneity using a zone based approach based on the recorded distribution of all 2,907 blocks that comprised the artificial aquifer was little different to a simple numerical model that adopted a homogenous distribution and included a single value of dispersion. Parameterisation of numerical models using ‘pilot points’ provided the most complex representation of heterogeneity and resulted in the best replication of the tracer test data. However, increasing model complexity had its disadvantages such as decreasing parameterisation uniqueness. The contribution to predictive uncertainty from model parameters and observations was assessed using a linear approach based on Bayes theorem. This approach has been applied to other groundwater modelling studies, but not to solute transport modelling within Canterbury Plains alluvial aquifers or to an artificial aquifer. A unique finding was the reduction in predictive uncertainty along the groundwater flow path. This finding correlated well with the numerical model outputs which showed closer fits to the observation data near the end of the aquifer compared to those near the top of the aquifer where the tracer was injected. Physical solute transport processes were identified and described as part of the modelling. These included the increase in dispersivity with travel distance and the spatial distribution of the aquifer hydraulic properties. Analytical modelling was a useful tool in identifying physical processes, aquifer characteristics and the variation in aquifer hydraulic properties both spatially and with depth. An important finding was the value of undertaking multiple modelling approaches. This is because each approach has its own advantages and disadvantageous and by comparing the results of different approaches, the true facts about the aquifer system are made clearer.

    View record details
  • The palynology of the Ohai coalfield, Southland

    Warnes, Malcolm D. (1988)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Upper Cretaceous Morley Coal Measures in the Ohai Coalfield are one of three non-marine formations constituting the Ohai Group. In the past, seam correlation has generally been carried out using lithological criteria, however due to dramatic thinning and splitting of seams, associated faulting, and abrupt facies changes uncertainties in coal seam correlation have frequently arisen. In order to minimize lithostratigraphic uncertainties Couper (1964) pioneered a palynological zonation which demonstrated the potential of palynology for coal seam correlation. However, Couper's early work has proved unreliable and is in need of further refinement. Recent drillholes incorporating almost fully cored sequences of the Morley Formation have permitted further palynological examination of the coal measures. Nine drillholes were selected and 140 samples taken, at 10 metre intervals, for palynological analyses. The Morley Coal Measures are unconformably overlain by the Beaumont Coal Measures. This important boundary, though difficult to detect lithologically, is readily defined on palynological grounds. Biostratigraphic subdivision of the Morley Coal Measures was investigated by the application of three quantitative techniques. These entailed the construction and analysis of: (1) Standard pollen diagrams based on relative abundances of selected taxa and groups of taxa; (2) Pollen diagrams zoned by the numerical method of cluster analysis; (3) Ratios of selected taxa of recurrent and variably high frequency. Technique (1), involving relative abundance patterns of key taxa and groups of taxa was successful in providing a basis for subdivision of the Morley Coal Measures into three pollen zones, two interzonal units and two unzoned units. The three pollen zones were, in stratigraphically descending order: The Nothofagus kaitangata acme zone, the SPPA assemblage zone, and the Tricolpites reticulatus acme zone. Techniques (2) and (3) were, in all practicality, unproductive, although results suggested that, with refinement, cluster analysis could aid the zonation of pollen diagrams.

    View record details
  • An examination of employees' observations and informal information in a distressed organisation : the case of Fortex Group Limited

    Tobin, Scott Mylrea (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A review of previous qualitative corporate distress research reveals that non-managerial employees appear to have been overlooked as a potential source of information on a failed company. Yet assertions by Argenti (1976a) and an analysis of Altman's (1983) and McBarnet, Weston and Whelan's (1993) research indicates that employees can potentially observe the symptoms of distress. However, Argenti (1976a) reported that employees could only observe the non-financial systems of distress, and that they could not determine that an organisation was distressed. McBarnet et al's (1993) research and a pilot case study indicated otherwise. The pilot study also found that employees had access to the informal communication network, or grapevine, and an informal accounting information system (IAIS). McBarnet et al (1993) report that informal information may assist employees to detect problems or unusual events within a company. Consequently, this research sought to clarify the anomaly between Argenti's assertions and McBarnet et al's (1993) and the pilot study's findings, determining the problems or concerns that employees observed in a company before. it collapsed, and whether these observations could cause employees to believe that a company was distressed before it failed. The research also examined whether information from an IAIS and/or the grapevine contributes to employees' observations and opinions in a distressed company. A single case study of a failed organisation was conducted. The subject was Fortex Group Limited, a South Island meat-processing company. The findings challenged and extended previous beliefs regarding employees' observations in a distressed company, indicating that they may not only observe the symptoms of distress, but also observe the defects and mistakes which cause, and contribute to, failure. Moreover, from the symptoms observed, the employees recognised that the company was distressed. The research also established preliminary links between the grapevine, IAISs, employees' observations and corporate distress. Each area was identified as an alternative source of information which could potentially assist the early detection of corporate distress. Despite limitations, this research increases the body of knowledge in these areas, and recommends directions for future research.

    View record details
  • Sentience: 3D printed living products

    Rewiri-Chrastecky, Tahi (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is a research through design based investigation that explores the possibility of creating three dimensional (3D) products that are tactilely responsive, in an attempt to discover whether 3D printing technologies can be utilized to generate contemporary products that adapt, evolve and develop features synonymous with living organisms. It looks at the possibility of sentient, 3D printed products and explores the potential that these objects have to interact with both the user and their surrounding environment. It also looks into the possibilities for 3D printed processes to allow for materials to better reflect the sensory and information processing capabilities of digital interface technologies. By placing a series of iterative design experiments within a contextual background this thesis not only explores what is currently possible, but theorizes about what could be possible in the future, when current technological and material limitations have been surpassed. Essentially, this thesis focuses on answering one underlying question: can 3D printing be utilized to create a product that appears to be alive.

    View record details
  • Reducing the food stealing and pica of a young adult with multiple disabilities in respite care.

    van Eyk, Corrina Joanne (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem behaviours occur in approximately 10 to 15% of individuals with intellectual disabilities and these behaviours most often include aggression and self-injury. Families who support young adults with multiple disabilities and problem behaviour at home often experience costs to their psychological, physical, financial and emotional wellbeing. Respite care evolved to allow families short breaks from care giving and to support families in looking after their family members at home. Furthermore, problem behaviour severely limits opportunities for individuals with multiple disabilities to interact adaptively with their environments and develop positive behaviour skills that increase the possibility of living independently in their adult years. The present study aimed first to demonstrate the utility of functional analysis of problem behaviour in respite care, and then, to reduce food stealing and pica exhibited by a young adult with multiple disabilities attending a respite care centre. Following a functional analysis that indicated food stealing and pica had the probable function of hunger reduction, two positive behaviour support plans were developed. These interventions, conducted at the respite centre three days a week by centre staff, involved strategies to teach the participant to sign “eat” in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) to gain access to food and increase accessibility of food in the environment to reduce pica. The results showed that introducing the NZSL sign reduced food stealing to near zero within three weeks and pica was eliminated following the combined approach of functional communication training and antecedent manipulation. Use of the communicative sign was maintained at follow-up and food stealing remained at near zero, while pica remained at zero one-month following the intervention.

    View record details
  • Exploring the Relationship Between Chocolate Cake-Related Guilt, Eating, and Individual Differences

    Castaneda Castellanos, Paola Maria (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Food and eating are often associated with both positive and negative emotions: pleasure and enjoyment, and also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to have both adaptive and maladaptive consequences on health behaviours. The present study aimed to further explore the relationship between a default association of guilt with a ‘forbidden’ food item (i.e., chocolate cake) and healthy eating behaviours, attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioural control. Individual difference variables (self-control, self-compassion, and neuroticism) and stress were also examined in relation to guilt. This study investigated the influence of a default guilt association on hypothetical and actual food choices. The findings suggest that food-related guilt can have both adaptive and maladaptive consequences on healthy eating behaviours and on individual difference variables. Individuals with chocolate cake-guilt associations reported healthier eating intentions and higher perceived behavioural control in relation to healthy eating. Those with guilt associations did not report more positive attitudes toward healthy eating nor higher self-control. They reported lower levels of self-compassion and higher levels of neuroticism and perceived stress. In regard to a hypothetical food choice, no differences were found between those with guilt or celebration associations. With one exception, guilt did not have adaptive effects during a taste test in regard to sweet and savoury food intake and post-eating guilt. Self-control appeared to be a protective factor from the maladaptive effects of guilt: self-control moderated the relationship between a guilt association and healthy eating intentions and savoury food intake. The overall findings from this research indicate that an alternative approach to promoting healthy eating and living should be considered.

    View record details
  • Do individual differences interact with lexical cues during speech recognition in adverse listening conditions?

    Kerr, Sarah Elizabeth (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose: This thesis examines the effect of listener characteristics (i.e., cognition and vocabulary) and language-based factors (i.e., lexical frequency and phonological similarity) on speech recognition accuracy in adverse listening conditions. Method: Fifty listeners (40 females and 10 males) aged 18-33 years and with normal hearing (puretone thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL, 0.25-8 kHz) participated. They completed a speech perception experiment, which required listeners to repeat back non-sensical English phrases presented at a variety of signal-to-noise ratios (-5, -2, +1, and +4 dB SNRs). In addition, all listeners undertook assessments of vocabulary knowledge (PPVT-IV) and cognition (WAIS -IV). The primary dependent variable was individual content word recognition accuracy, and results were analysed using binomial mixed effects modelling. Results: Listeners demonstrated variability in their speech recognition abilities, and their vocabulary and cognitive scores. Statistical analysis revealed that listener-based factors affected word recognition. Listeners with faster processing speed and larger working memories exhibited higher word recognition accuracy. Surprisingly, listeners with higher non-verbal intelligence scores exhibited lower word recognition accuracy. Vocabulary knowledge interacted with SNR, such that as the listening conditions became more favourable, listeners with larger receptive vocabularies identified more words correctly. Similarly, main effects were also present for language-based factors. The more phonologically distinct a word was, the more likely it was to be correctly identified; higher frequency words were more likely to be accurately recognised. In addition, higher frequency words were identified more accurately at higher SNR levels. Finally, listener- and language-based factors interacted. The positive effect of working memory on word recognition was reversed as word frequency increased; on the other hand non-verbal intelligence’s negative influence on word recognition was reversed as word frequency increased. Conclusion: In the current cohort, listener and language-based factors interacted in the process of word recognition in noise. These results provide an insight into the underlying speech recognition mechanisms in adverse conditions. Further understanding of how these listener differences affect an individual’s speech processing may lead to the development of improved signal processing techniques and rehabilitation strategies.

    View record details
  • “This journey has definitely changed me”: An ethnographic narrative exploring disabled peoples’ lives through embodied experiences and identity negotiation

    Sait, Callan (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Following calls from both disability studies and anthropology to provide ethnographic accounts of disability, this thesis presents the narratives of nine people living with disability, focusing on what disability means to them, how it is incorporated into their identities, and how it shapes their lived experiences. While accounts of disability from disability studies often focus on the social model of disability (Shakespeare 2006) and emphasise social stigma and oppression (Goffman 1967, Susman 1994), anthropological accounts often emphasise the suffering and search for cures (Rapp and Ginsburg 2012) that is assumed to accompany disability. Both approaches have their benefits, but neither pay particularly close attention to the personal experiences of individuals, on their own terms. By taking elements from both disciplines, this thesis aims to present a balanced view that emphasises the lived experiences of individuals with disability, and uses these experiences as a starting point for wider social analysis. The primary focus of this thesis is understanding how disability shapes an individual’s identity: what physical, emotional, and social factors influence how these people are perceived – by themselves and others? Through my participants’ narratives I explore how understandings of normal bodies and normal lives influence their sense of personhood, and investigate the role of stigma in mediating social encounters and self-concepts. Furthermore, I undertake a novel study of the role of technology in the lives of people living with disability. My work explores how both assistive and non-assistive (‘general’) technologies are perceived and utilised by my participants in ways that effect not just the physical experience of disability, but also social perceptions and personal understandings of the body/self. I argue that although the social model of disability is an excellent analytical tool, and one which has provided tangible benefits for disabled people, its political nature can sometimes lead to a homogenisation of disabled experiences; something which this thesis is intended to remedy by providing ethnographic narratives of disability, grounded in the embodied experiences of individuals.

    View record details