13,302 results for Masters

  • Customers' expectations of hotel green marketing: a New Zealand quantitative study

    Mat Yusof, Noor Amalina

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Tourists’ perceptions of destination impacts and environmental consequences of their visits to destinations likely play a central role in travel decision-making (Lee, Hsu, Han, & Kim, 2010) . Their demands for environmentally friendly products encourage hotels to react accordingly by participating in the ‘green movement’ and committing to green marketing strategies that require both financial and non-financial support. With a developing demand for environmentally friendly products and hotels, the purchasing of green products by customers should be increasing, but recently the actual purchasing of these products seems to have declined. Green marketing is proposed to neutralise negative perceptions towards green practices (Rex & Bauman 2007) This study therefore investigates customer perceptions of green marketing strategies and activities. Particularly, this study examines green marketing related activities with two main objectives: (1) explore hotel customers’ opinions of green marketing strategies and (2) explore hotel customer expectations of environmental best practices within green hotels. Focusing on the New Zealand context, this study aims to assist green hoteliers to better develop green marketing to improve such initiatives in the hotel industry. Customer perceptions are explored utilising the four Ps of the marketing mix: product, price, promotion and place. A quantitative case study approach to the research is used. In particular, a self-administered questionnaire was given to delegates who attended an environmental-related conference in Auckland in 2014. Respondents were expected to have informed knowledge about the environment and hotel green marketing programmes. This knowledge was expected to provide insights to help marketers develop better green marketing strategies. As explained in the results chapter, respondents acknowledged certain green marketing strategies as effective, neutral or ineffective. Effective strategies were those in which green products were seen as special, those that used internet technology to disseminate green initiatives to customers, where green practices were undertaken at the premises, where appropriate business partners were used, where environmentally friendly distribution channels (from vendors to customers) were used, and where the overall image was believed to encourage customers to purchase green products at a green hotel. The functionality of eco-labels in green promotions was perceived neutrally. Some respondents acknowledged the importance of these eco-labels as quality assurance, while others perceived them as uninteresting promotional strategies. The ineffective green marketing strategy was pricing strategy; respondents expressed their particular dislike of being charged extra for green products. The results also produced a surprise finding; in spite of viewing green products as special, respondents also believed green products may harm human health. In terms of green practices, generally respondents favoured tangible practices. However, they mostly preferred practices in which they could participate (e.g. recycling programmes, linen and towel re-use programmes), those which they were involved with at home (e.g. recycling programmes, linen and towel re-use programmes, using green cleaning products) and those which were convenient for them while staying at a hotel. These findings can assist hoteliers to review their current green marketing strategies and develop better ones to persuade green customers to purchase green products. In terms of the academic literature, results of this study were successful in their aim of adding new knowledge to the green marketing research area.

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  • Interactive evolutionary computation in design applications for virtual worlds

    Kruse, Jan

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Modern films, games and virtual reality are highly dependent on convincing computer graphics. Models of high complexity are a requirement for the successful delivery of many animated scenes and environments. While workflows such as rendering, compositing and animation have been streamlined to accommodate increasing demands, modelling of complex models is still a laborious and costly task. This research introduces the computational benefits of Interactive Genetic Algorithms to computer graphics modelling while compensating the negative effects of user fatigue, a commonly found issue with Interactive Evolutionary Computation. A multi-agent system is used to integrate Genetic Algorithms with computational agents and human designers. This workflow accelerates the layout and distribution of basic elements to form highly complex models. It captures the designer’s intent through interaction, and encourages playful discovery. A modelling pipeline integrating commercially available tools with Human-based Genetic Algorithms is implemented, and a Renderman Interface Bytestream (RIB) archive output is realized to provide easy adaptability for research and industry applications. Comparisons between Interactive Genetic Algorithms and Human-based Genetic Algorithms applied to procedural modelling of computer graphics cities indicate that an agent-based evolutionary approach outperforms a purely human-centric solution: More iterations are possible in less time, which ultimately leads to better results and a superior user experience. Based on initial testing, a range of suggestions for future investigation are given.

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  • Lighthouses of New Zealand: a bright tourism opportunity

    Berryman, Rebecca (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 133 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Tourism. Cover title. "August 1998" -- Cover.

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  • A stylish revolution : the fourth Labour government and information management

    Burke, Fay Ann (1992)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 190 leaves Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Political Studies.

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  • The Crown Minerals Act 1991 and the Resource Management Act 1991 : comprehensive and integrated management of mineral resources?

    Crang, Nicholas (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xvi, 158 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Law.

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  • Medication histories and the identification of adverse drug event-related hosptial admissions

    Cooke, Rachael Peart (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 190 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Educating girls for a healthier Cambodia: The impact of education on girls' health knowledge, attitudes, and practices

    Cousins, Kimberly C (2006)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Introduction In recent decades, studies from developing countries have shown that maternal education is strongly correlated with child health. Many government agencies and non-governmental organisations have used this evidence to emphasise the importance of educating girls and women as an effective means of improving population health in the long-term. The relationship between maternal education and child health, though evident in many studies, is still not clearly understood. The differences between educated women and non-educated women are also indicative of wider socio-economic, cultural, and environmental differences that suggest that educated and non-educated women may be more influenced by other factors besides whether or not they have been to school. Furthermore, the immediate impact of education on girls' health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours, which may eventually affect both maternal and child health, has often been overlooked by researchers. An investigation of health knowledge and practices of young women may offer further insight into the mechanisms which determine their future children's health. As a developing country, Cambodia's leading causes of mortality and morbidity are from communicable diseases. Many of the country's inhabitants have limited access to adequate sanitation and water, health facilities, and schools. Although many humanitarian organisations and government and non-government agencies are working to improve the situation in Cambodia, little research has been conducted to determine effective strategies to improve the present and future health and well-being of young Cambodians. Purpose The purposes of this study were to evaluate the impact of schooling on young Cambodian women's health knowledge, attitudes, and practices, as well as to evaluate the health impact of a specific programme of the Cambodian Arts and Scholarship Foundation (CASF) that provides scholarships to young women. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using face-to-face interviews following a piloted, structured questionnaire. Three comparison groups were identified: CASF scholarship recipients, non-CASF students, and out-of-school participants. Eligible participants were selected by local informants and interviewed in Khmer or Bunong. Additional information was collected during focus groups with local villagers and interviews with village chiefs. Results Between April and August 2005, data were collected from 82 face-to-face interviews, nine village focus groups, and four interviews with village chiefs, in three Cambodian provinces and Phnom Penh. In-school and out-of-school participants lived in substantially different environments, primarily because in-school participants were more likely to live in rural areas (94.0%) than out-of-school participants (30.0%). Residence was an important determinant for access to hygiene and sanitation facilities, which would affect health practices and outcomes. Health practices improved among in-school participants, both CASF and non-CASF, although in CASF students, these improved practices were not reflected in health outcomes. Despite being in school, CASF students had similar health outcomes to out-of-school participants as regards self-reported health state and recent diarrhoeal disease incidence. Health knowledge of out-of-school participants was better than in-school participants, particularly for tuberculosis transmission and prevention methods. However, better health knowledge did not necessarily lead to improved health practices. Conclusion Although hand washing and other health practices were better and more consistent in the in-school groups, the poor health of CASF students suggests that education and improved health practices may not be sufficient in improving young people's health. Any benefits that may arise from educating girls may be overshadowed by an unhealthy physical environment, such as lack of toilets in communities and schools, inadequate access to safe water, and poor air quality. Socio-economic status also plays a huge role in the health status of young women, which, in the short term, at least is not mitigated by schooling.

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  • From Wonder Woman to Aeon Flux : women heroes, feminism and femininity in post-war New Zealand

    Cullen, Lynda (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: v, 140 leaves ; 30 cm. Notes: "March 2007". University of Otago department: Anthropology. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Otago. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Amen I say to you: Faith, Understanding and Speaking the Truth in Matthew's Gospel

    Anderson, Carmen Esther (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The concept of telling the truth has, to date, received surprisingly scarce treatment within the area of biblical studies. This thesis makes a move towards filling that scholarly gap by addressing just one aspect of the broader issue. With the chosen context of the Gospel of Matthew, limited to the world of the text, and using a combination of literary and historical critical methods, this study draws back to primarily investigate the inner condition(s) required for successful truth-speaking in Matthew. It asks, “How are people able to tell the truth, as opposed to lie, according to Matthew's text?” To begin this process, “Righteousness: Outflow of Actions in the Context of the Kingdom” offers an introductory treatment of dikaiosunh and righteousness concepts in Matthew. A behavioural focus and Kingdom context are noted, and the Matthean approach of presenting actions (including speech) via the imagery of fruit and natural overflow of the heart is offered as vital to comprehending Matthean righteousness. Matthew 5:33-37 is discussed as a depiction of outflowing righteousness in the particular area of truth-speaking. On this groundwork, “Believing eis eme: Faith as the Right Response to Authority” then leads towards the 'how' by considering the oft-neglected notion of faith in Matthew. Jesus' God-sourced and inherent authority is discussed, as the one teaching and representing the Kingdom; the Greek amhn legw umin formula is analysed, too, as an illustration of Jesus' portrayal as one whose words are trustworthy and correct. Faith is confirmed as the right correlative not only to the authority of God the Father, which is assumed, but also to the authority of Jesus, the one who comes from God to fully live and speak in accordance with the righteousness of the Kingdom. A further, vital element of the truth-telling process appears in “Faith and Understanding: The Imagery of Vision and Hearing.” Via his favoured imagery of vision and hearing, Matthew ties together the two hugely important concepts of (1) faith, the role of which has been affirmed, and (2) understanding. Matthean examples of sensory imagery that relate to this pairing are highlighted for analysis, including that in the parables discourse of chapter 13. It is clearly demonstrated here that this Gospel text sees understanding as coming through faith commitment. Subsequently, faith and understanding are seen in practice in the text through “Following the Disciples: Tracking Our Theme in the Disciples' Journey.” The disciples are presented as the most beneficial focal point for the progressing argument; their story is explored and analysed as it pertains to the faith-understanding link, especially in their portrayal as oligopistoi, and concrete demonstration is given of their development and mixed success in this area – even in their final appearance in Matt 28. Having prepared the way by becoming familiar with and evaluating the disciples in general, the actions of Peter specifically are analysed in “Narrowing Down to Our Most Apt Example: Peter's Ability to Speak the Truth in 26:69-75.” Peter is argued to be a well-grounded Matthean representative of the disciples. Next, a positive example of truth-telling is provided in Jesus' approach to his trial (26:57-68), followed by a distinctly less favourable discussion of Peter's failure in the same (26:69-75). Analysis of Peter's “trial” draws together the argument to this point, and uncovers the entire faith-understanding-truth-telling activity at play: Peter's lack of faith and hence lack of understanding lead to a lack of ability to speak the truth. This study finally revisits the uncertain portrayal of the disciples in Matt 28, and briefly addresses what hope there is for them (and for Peter) as potential truth-speakers at the close of the text.

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  • What can secondary student teachers learn from a day in a primary school? The impact of a primary field observation in secondary initial teacher education

    Fielding, Karyn Ann (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This research examined the effects of a 1-day observation in a primary school for the 2012 (n = 68) and 2013 (n = 65) cohorts of secondary initial teacher education (ITE) students in New Zealand. Reflective journal entries on the field observation and 16 individual interviews yielded 5 themes: The value of an observational visit in a primary setting for secondary ITE students as a representation of practice (Grossman, Compton, Igra, Ronfeldt, Shahan & Williamson, 2009), learner development primary to secondary school transitions, enhancing pedagogical knowledge of group learning, and enhancing pedagogical knowledge of curriculum integration. This sample of secondary student teachers valued observing for a day in a primary school as an opportunity to: consider learner transitions; link theory, teaching techniques, and strategies covered at university to practice in the field; and, affirm career choice. For some secondary student teachers, a day observing in a primary school enhanced their pedagogical knowledge of group learning and curriculum integration. They gained a richer understanding of learner development and transitions from primary to secondary school, and a greater appreciation of the professional practice of teachers in another sector.

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  • Acute cardiac admissions after natural disasters - Insight from the Christchurch earthquakes

    Chan, Christina Wei-Hsin (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Introduction It is known that acute cardiovascular events can be triggered by external factors among susceptible individuals. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of acute cardiac events following psychosocial and environmental triggers such as warfare, national sporting events and natural disasters. Earthquakes are well documented to cause cardiac complications. This topic is perhaps the hardest to study due to the unpredictable nature of the disaster. Often, severe destruction of the infrastructure and medical facilities hinders stringent study methodology. Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital, the region’s only acute care hospital, was fortunate to have escaped major damage. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We sought to examine thoroughly the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations and their sequelae. We hypothesised that there would be an increase in overall chest pain admission, a surge of acute myocardial infarction and stress cardiomyopathy cases and that major earthquakes of different intensity, occurring at different times of the day would result in different cardiovascular presentation patterns. Methods Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 weeks prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non-cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and other. A sub-group analysis as well as a follow up study at 12 months was done for patients who presented with stress cardiomyopathy following the February 2011 earthquake. Results In the first 2 weeks following the early morning September earthquake, there was a significant increase in overall cardiovascular admissions (mean 75 admissions per week during the control periods, 120 admissions in week 1 and 100 admissions in week 2, p=0.003), ST elevation myocardial infarction (mean 5 cases per week during the control periods, 9 cases in week 1 and 11 cases in week 2, p=0.016), and non-cardiac chest pain (mean 29 cases per week during the control periods, 46 cases in week 1 and 36 cases in week 2, p=0.022). This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6-6.4) in 4 days compared to only 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44 – 2.62; p<0.05). At 12 months, a follow-up study of the 21 patients with stress cardiomyopathy triggered by the second earthquake showed 100% survival rate with the majority free from cardiovascular, other medical or psychological sequelae. Conclusion The early morning September 2010 earthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake, although smaller in Richter scale, was far more destructive compared to the first event given its shallow depth and closeness to the city centre. It caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy in an already vulnerable population that may have been sensitised by the first earthquake. Two major earthquakes of different intensity, occurring at different times differed in their effect on acute cardiac events. Patients who had stress cardiomyopathy as the result of earthquakes had excellent prognosis in the intermediate follow-up period.

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  • The influence of Gremlin-induced BMP inhibition and subsequent associated genetic interactions in Xenopus laevis limb development

    Keenan, Samuel Rhys (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The tetrapod limb is one of the most extensively studied organs within the field of developmental biology, due to its highly conserved development involving key molecular pathways (Jones et al. 2013). The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling cascade is an example of such important developmental pathway, known to induce apoptotic activity and skeletal element formation within developing limbs (Chen et al. 2004). Gremlin (grem1), a BMP antagonist, is known to regulate the fibroblast growth factor-sonic hedgehog (FGF-shh) signalling loop, which controls the early outgrowth and termination of tetrapod limbs, including Xenopus laevis (Christen et al. 2012; Zeller et al. 2009). As tetrapod limb development is a tightly controlled process, modification to associated gene expression can alter downstream signalling and subsequent limb development, giving rise to limb abnormalities (Jones et al. 2013). This project aims to investigate the genetic and developmental effects that ectopic grem1 overexpression has in X. laevis limb development, focused on abnormality development, and the expression intensity and distribution of specific BMP and limb pattern marker genes. Transgenic X. laevis containing a heat shock-inducible grem1 gene, were induced to ectopically overexpress grem1 at various limb development stages. Samples were allowed to develop, skeletal elements were counted, and resultant limb developmental effects were contrasted to wild type samples using cartilage and bone staining, and in situ hybridisation methods. Grem1 overexpression during stage 49 samples, where the hindlimb bud was within the early propagation phase, was shown to have the significantly highest abnormality diversity and proportions when compared to other limb development stages. This was possibly due to decreased limb BMP activity, and subsequent increased FGF (cell proliferation) and decreased sox9 (cartilage formation) activity, resulting in limb bifurcations and truncations, respectively. Significantly fewer digits developed in stage 49 limb samples, with digit IV having significantly fewer phalanges than other digits. Earlier stage grem1 overexpression resulted in more proximally located abnormalities, such as formation of ectopic limbs, showing a time-dependent effect of grem1 within limb development. The in situ hybridisation data showed grem1 overexpression to decrease specific BMP expression intensity; increase proximodistal limb axis FGF expression distribution; increase anteroposterior limb axis shh expression distribution; and increase chondrogenesis-associated sox9 expression distribution. These results concurred with a tetrapod limb developmental model based on chick and mouse data (Verheyden & Sun 2008; Zeller et al. 2009). In conclusion, this work summarised the tetrapod limb development literature, which detailed the importance of regulated grem1 and specific BMP pathway gene expression in regards to the complex normal limb development process in the amphibian model. It also demonstrated possible means of limb abnormality development amongst the tetrapod group, such as differences between serial and mirror bifurcations, which could be useful for experimental and clinical cases. The use of a heat shock technique to overexpress a gene of interest has been proven successful. Grem1 function within X. laevis when compared to chick and mouse models was similar based on relevant studies, but not identical, suggesting limb development needs many models rather than the more extensively researched chick and mouse models. The BMPs inhibited by grem1 were not exclusive to grem1, as they are also inhibited by other BMP inhibitors, but rather the binding efficiency and timing to specific combinations of BMPs differentiates BMP inhibitors.

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  • High-Rate Space-Time Block Codes in Frequency-Selective Fading Channels

    Chu, Alice Pin-Chen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The growing popularity of wireless communications networks has resulted in greater bandwidth contention and therefore spectrally efficient transmission schemes are highly sought after by designers. Space-time block codes (STBCs) in multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems are able to increase channel capacity as well as reduce error rate. A general linear space-time structure known as linear dispersion codes (LDCs) can be designed to achieve high-data rates and has been researched extensively for flat fading channels. However, very little research has been done on frequency-selective fading channels. The combination of ISI, signal interference from other transmitters and noise at the receiver mean that maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) requires high computational complexity. Detection schemes that can mitigate the signal interference can significantly reduce the complexity and allow intersymbol interference (ISI) equalization to be performed by a Viterbi decoder. In this thesis, detection of LDCs on frequency-selective channels is investigated. Two predominant detection schemes are investigated, namely linear processing and zero forcing (ZF). Linear processing depends on code orthogonality and is only suited for short channels and small modulation schemes. ZF cancels interfering signals when a sufficient number of receive antennas is deployed. However, this number increases with the channel length. Channel decay profiles are investigated for high-rate LDCs to ameliorate this limitation. Performance improves when the equalizer assumes a shorter channel than the actual length provided the truncated taps carry only a small portion of the total channel power. The LDC is also extended to a multiuser scenario where two independent users cooperate over half-duplex frequency-selective channels to achieve cooperative gain. The cooperative scheme transmits over three successive block intervals. Linear and zero-forcing detection are considered.

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  • Collateral exposure: the additional dose from radiation treatment

    Fricker, Katherine (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    For patients receiving radiation therapy, there is a risk of developing radiation induced carcinomas, especially if they have a long life expectancy. However, radiotherapy is not the only contributor of radiation exposure to healthy tissue. With the introduction of highly conformal treatment techniques comes the increase in pretreatment imaging necessary to accurately target tumour volumes and consequently, radiation exposure to healthy tissue. In this work the radiation dose delivered to radiosensitive organs from a number of treatment planning techniques was evaluated and the risk of radiation induced cancer was assessed. MOSFET detectors and Gafchromic film were used to measure the accumulative concomitant dose to the thyroid and contralateral breast from early stage breast carcinoma radiotherapy and to the contralateral testis from seminoma radiotherapy, with dose contributions from CT imaging for treatment planning, pretreatment imaging (CBCT) and treatment delivery peripheral dose. To the author's knowledge this is the first work investigating the total concomitant treatment related dose and associated risk to these treatment sites. Peripheral dose contributed the largest concomitant dose to the healthy tissue, measuring up to 0.7, 1.0 and 5.0 Gy to the testis, thyroid and contralateral breast, respectively. The highest testicular, thyroid and contralateral breast carcinoma risk was found to be 0.4, 0.2 and 1.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the risk of radiation induced carcinoma to the assessed radiosensitive tissues was found to be minimal, however, when considering treatment techniques and/or introducing pretreatment imaging protocols, the dose to the normal tissue should be kept as low as reasonably achievable.

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  • A correlational study of cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise

    Moore, Sara Louise (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Patients with an impaired reflexive cough response are at increased risk of pneumonia. This study examined the correlation between cough sensitivity to citric acid and radiographic features of airway compromise. Eighty patients referred for a radiographic assessment of swallowing at an acute hospital over an 8-month period participated in the study. Nebulised citric acid diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride was inhaled through a facemask at four concentrations to assess cough sensitivity. These data were then compared to Penetration Aspiration Scale scores based on radiographic swallowing studies. There was a statistically significant correlation between cough response/lack of response and the radiographic features of airway compromise; that is, patients who had a weak or absent response to inhalation of citric acid were also likely to aspirate silently during radiographic assessment. Sensitivity for identifying absent cough was found to be high at all 4 concentrations (0.750, 0.833, 0.941, 1.000), however specificity was consistently quite low (0.344, 0.456, 0.238, 0.078). The significant findings of this research suggest that clinicians adopting cough reflex testing into their clinical practice will have a reliable screen for silent aspiration at bedside. Clinicians will be able to identify patients who require instrumental assessment and are at high risk of pneumonia. This will likely, in turn, decrease length and cost of hospital admissions as well as decrease aspiration pneumonia related morbidities.

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  • God wills it? A comparison of Greek and Latin theologies of warfare during the Medieval period.

    Newman, Timothy John (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The history of the Church’s participation in, and attitudes towards warfare have been well-documented in several fields of research. The development of the doctrine of just war and the medieval crusades within Western Christianity, have been the subject of a considerable amount of scholarship. There has also recently been an increasing amount of research done by historians, theologians and political theorists comparing the status of warfare within the Christian and Islamic traditions. However, the current state of the historiography is focused almost entirely on Western Christianity, and does not address in any depth the attitudes toward warfare present in Eastern Christianity within the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages. This thesis seeks to address this historiographical imbalance by comparing the development of the Eastern and Western Church’s positions on warfare throughout the medieval period. The thesis examines the factors that led to the divergence of the two Churches’ attitudes towards warfare, and the development and impact of their differing theologies during the medieval period. It is argued that the fundamental point of divergence between the Eastern and Western Church’s attitude to warfare is linguistic and theological in nature. The linguistic differences between the Greek and Latin Churches, led to different theological interpretive frameworks regarding the subject of warfare. These different fundamental theological assumptions would lead the two Churches down different developmental paths and would prevent the development or acceptance of Western theories of just war and holy war in the Eastern Church.

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  • A home away from home? : the transitions of older people within two new zealand retirement villages.

    Hayward, Christine R (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores the experiences of retirement village residents as they move from an independent to a supported living environment within a retirement village. It focuses on residents’ perceptions of their transitions and adopts a qualitative approach to understand the nature of their transitions and the way in which they are experienced. A grounded theory framework is used in order to capture the meanings that participants apply to concepts such as home, and to the physical, social, personal and veiled spaces in which they live. The findings from the study reveal that as residents’ health fails, the impact of increasing dependence is such that their sense of social and personal autonomy is gradually eroded. The research also provides insights into residents’ expectations and fears surrounding end of life. In many ways the experiences of the residents in supported living environments do not differ greatly from those of residents in any aged care facility. One major finding of this research, however, is the debilitating impact on well-being that occurs as a consequence of these transitions from independent to supported living, taking place within one physical location – the retirement village – a physical space which promises prospective residents the opportunity for active and positive ageing.

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  • The effects of a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness intervention on the positive peer interactions of primary school aged children

    Mueller, Tara (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Research suggests that pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities are necessary for healthy child development and are prerequisites for interacting in the school classroom in ways that avoid disruption and distress. Children without pro-social skills struggle to engage in positive social interaction with peers and may respond disruptively to classroom challenges. Increasing concerns in schools regarding problem behaviour displayed by students such as kicking, hitting and talking out of turn have been reported in the research. These behaviours often lead to a disruptive classroom environment, negative peer interaction and, according to teachers, remain the most challenging aspect of classroom management. Schools typically deal with problem behaviour by implementing rules and expectations for desired student behaviour. While these expectation-focused approaches have shown some positive effects, they do not directly teach skills for positive interaction and effective self-management of emotions. Conflict resolution education and mindfulness programmes have shown positive effects for improved pro-social skills and self-regulatory abilities in children. This thesis describes a combined conflict resolution-mindfulness group intervention that was implemented in one primary school classroom with children aged between six and seven years. The intervention involved teaching children four skills for effective conflict resolution and self-regulation over a period of four weeks. Repeated measures and teacher ratings of positive and negative peer interaction were used to assess programme effects. A single case AB replication design was used. The repeated measures findings indicated no change in positive or negative peer interactions for all nine focus children. Teacher reports of behaviour related to positive and negative peer interaction for all children in the classroom showed good effects. Possible reasons for the lack of change in the repeated measures findings include the young age of the children and an insufficient number of sessions and skill practice opportunities.

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  • The state and income redistribution: a study of the social wage and taxation in New Zealand 1949-1975

    Reveley, J. W. C. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the role of the state in redistributing income between social classes in New Zealand during the years 1949-1975. It applies an innovative methodology, developed by E. Ahmet Tonak, to a set of data drawn from New Zealand's national accounts and estimates a quantity labelled 'net-tax', defined as the taxes that the working class cede to the state less the expenditure that the working class receives from the state in the form of a social wage. A detailed theoretical discussion precedes the empirical analysis. Insofar as Tonak's method requires that the social wage (the portion of state expenditure consumed by the working class) be identified as an empirical quantity, the argument that all taxes, and hence all state expenditures, originate from surplus value is confronted. The views of the main representatives of this contemporary school of thought are subjected to detailed scrutiny. They are rejected in favour of the views of a school which considers the portion of taxes funding the state expenditure that constitutes the social wage to originate in 'wages'. A model which theoretically 'grounds' the comparison of taxes paid to state expenditure received, effected in the remaining chapters of this study, is then formulated. In the empirical analysis, the empirical referent of the 'net-tax' concept is calculated for the years 1949-1975. The net-tax data set is then used to construct a transference ratio, which indicates the degree and direction of income redistribution effected by the state. The main finding to emerge is that, in all but one of the twenty-seven years surveyed in this study, the working class has surrendered more wealth in taxes to the state than it has received back from the state as a social wage. In light of these results, it can be concluded that the welfare state has not materially benefitted the working class in New Zealand. Moreover, insofar as income has consistently been redistributed from the working class to 'non-labour' (the capitalist class and the state itself), the state can be considered to owe the working class a debt in the amount of 3671.26 million (constant 1975) dollars.

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  • Shift happens? exploring the exception question in solution-focused therapy.

    Henson, Kay Jennifer (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Solution-focused therapy is appropriate for students in secondary schools as it works to revive children’s problem solving abilities. A key technique in solution-focused therapy involves asking the client the Exception Question, that is, inviting them to consider and talk about a time when their problem is or was less severe and dealt with in a satisfactory way. There is a scarcity of research exploring this technique from the client’s perspective. The aim of my study was to tell the stories of how students in a high school setting experience creative uses of the solution-focused, Exception Question. During the study, however, I found that this could not be researched without also including the way(s) that the use of Exception Questions influenced my counselling and ongoing learning as a counsellor. Solution-focused therapy was used in the counselling sessions and my research brought together students’ personal stories of their counselling experience and

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