13,615 results for Masters

  • Cellular and molecular mechanisms of salinity acclimation in an amphidromous teleost fish

    Lee, Jacqueline Amanda (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is an amphidromous fish species that is able to successfully inhabit a variety of salinities. Using an integrated approach this thesis has characterised for the first time the physiological characteristics that facilitate acclimation in inanga. Structural studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) revealed freshwater-acclimated inanga have a high density of apical pits and freshwater-type mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) that can facilitate ion absorption from the hypo-osmotic environment. In seawater, inanga remodel their gills by increased proliferation of seawater-type MRCs to facilitate ion secretion in the hyper-osmotic environment. Concentration-dependent sodium (Na+) kinetic analysis revealed that at a whole body level, inanga regulate Na+ using a saturable, high affinity, low capacity uptake system which makes them extremely adept at extracting Na+ from very dilute freshwater environments. In fact inanga displayed an uptake affinity (Km) of 52 ± 29 µM, which is one of the lowest ever recorded in freshwater fish. The sodium/potassium ATPase transporter (NKA) is central to Na+ regulation within the gill. In high salinties inanga displayed increased NKA activity (6.42 ± 0.51 µmol ADP mg protein-1 h-1) in an effort to excrete the excess Na+, diffusively gained from the hyper-osmotic environment. This increase in NKA was most likely a reflection of the proliferation of NKA-containing MRCs. The NKA activities seen in freshwater- and 50% seawater-acclimated inanga were similar (2.54 ± 0.19 and 2.07 ± 0.22 µmol ADP mg protein-1 h-1 respectively) to each other suggesting the inanga gill is capable of supporting ion regulation in brackish waters without a significant increase in NKA activities, and the energetically-expensive changes in gill structure and function that accompany such a change. Molecular investigation of NKA isoform expression using quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that inanga displayed salinity-induced changes in the expression of the three α NKA isoform variants investigated. Isoform α1a exhibited a pattern consistent with an important role in freshwater, confirming results from other fish species. While it is generally accepted that α1b isoform is the predominant NKA isoform in seawater, inanga did not display this pattern with a freshwater dominance seen. None of the salinity-induced changes could quantitatively explain the increased NKA activity in seawater suggesting that different isoforms may convey different activities, that there is also regulation of NKA at a post-transcriptional level, and/or other isoforms or subunits may have a significant role. The importance of the osmoregulatory hormone cortisol and prolactin is widely accepted and inanga were treated with cortisol, prolactin and a combination of the two in an effort to further elucidate their role. NKA activity and NKA isoform expression were assessed but no specific patterns were deduced, except for a decrease in both NKA activity and isoform expression in 100% seawater-acclimated inanga treated with cortisol and prolactin. The reasons for this decrease were not evident, although the impact of stress induced by the injection protocol was likely to be a confounding factor. The development of a new confocal-based technique in this study was able to describe, for the first time, intracellular sodium levels ([Na+]i) as a function of salinity in an intact euryhaline fish gill cell. Using the fluorescent Na+ indicator dye CoroNa Green this study demonstrated the ability of inanga gill cells to maintain [Na+]i in the face of environmental change. Freshwater-acclimated inanga displayed basal [Na+]i of 5.2 ± 1.8 mM, with 12 ± 2.3 mM and 16.2 ± 3.0 mM recorded in 50% seawater- and 100% seawater-acclimated cells, respectively. Low [Na+]i is advantageous in hypo-osmotic environments as it provides a gradient between the cell and the blood which is essential for generating electrochemical gradients cell volume regulation and other cellular homeostatic mechanisms. A slightly elevated [Na+]i seen at the higher sanities would help minimise the diffusive gradient for passive influx from the environment which would be of benefit in hyper-osmotic environments. Upon salinity challenge 50% seawater cells were equally adept at maintaining a constant [Na+]i at any salinity, suggesting these cells are have the necessary constituents to regulate Na+ in both lower and higher salinities. This novel LSCM approach is advantageous relative to existing transport models as it will allow the observation of cellular ion transport in real time, within a native filament structure displaying functional interaction of different cell types. The extreme ion uptake characteristics of the inanga and their amenability to in situ confocal-based studies demonstrated in this study, confirm inanga as a valuable model species for future research. 

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  • Investigating the Enigmatic Orbit of the Suspected 2.5 MJ Planet in the Nu Octantis Binary System

    Dallow, Andrew Thomas (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ν Octantis is a spectroscopic binary with a semi-major axis and period of 2.55 AU and 2.9 years, respectively. Ramm et al. (2009) discovered a 52 ms^(-1) radial-velocity (RV) perturbation with a period of 417 days in this system. All evidence, both photometric and spectroscopic, suggests the perturbation is the result of a 2.5 MJ planet orbiting the primary star. However, when assuming a “normal” prograde coplanar orbit, celestial mechanics predicts this orbit is unstable, contradicting the observed stability. Simulations by Eberle and Cuntz (2010) showed a retrograde orbit for the planet to be stable for at least 10^7 years. In this thesis, we performed a 10^8 -yr simulation of the retrograde orbit, and found it remained stable. Simulations over a range of planetary semi-major axes, eccentricities, and primary/secondary masses showed that stable retrograde orbits are not possible past a semi-major axis of 1.315 +/- 0.092 AU . Therefore, planetary retrograde orbits are most likely inherently more stable than prograde orbits owing to the absence of stability at known mean-motion resonances. Eccentricity simulations showed that the period of the planet's dominant eccentricity variation is related to the planet's semi-major axis by a second order exponential. However, retrograde orbits tend to have longer eccentricity periods than prograde orbits at the same semi-major axis. There is also evidence that this eccentricity period is connected to the orbital stability. By fitting a keplerian to both Ramm et al. (2009) and current radial velocities, the period of the ν Octantis binary was determined to be 1050.04 +/- 0.02 days with an eccentricity of 0.2359 +/- 0.001 . The planetary orbital solution for just the data reduced in this thesis gave a period of 416.9 +/- 2.1 days and an eccentricity of 0.099 +/- 0.015 , with an RMS scatter of 9.6 ms^(-1). Therefore, the orbital elements are within 1σ of the Ramm et al. (2009) elements. Assuming a retrograde coplanar orbit about the primary star then the planet has a mass of M_pl = 2.3 M_J and a semi-major axis of a_pl = 1.21 +/- 0.09 AU.

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  • Intervention for emotion knowledge and behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities.

    Randall, Aimee (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Children with impaired emotion knowledge are likely to also experience difficulties with social skills (Bukato, 2008) and internalising and externalising behaviour problems (Trentacosta & Fine, 2009, Fine et al, 2003). Given that children with developmental disabilities are both at risk of developing behaviour problems (Roberts & Lawton, 2001), and may have impairments in emotion knowledge (Wishart et al, 2007, Kasari et al, 2001, Sinzig et al, 2008; Bal et al, 2010), teaching emotion knowledge skills is likely to be beneficial in helping to ameliorate the risks faced by these children, for developing behaviour problems. The research question investigated in this study was; can using an adapted version of the PATHS programme with children and adolescents aged between 9 and 18, who have developmental disabilities, improve both their emotion knowledge and their behaviour problems? Four participants were recruited, aged between nine and 18 who had developmental disabilities, one of whom served as a pilot participant. The intervention was carried out in the participants’ homes, with two one hour-long sessions a week. The measurements used included the Vineland-II, a behaviour diary and the Emotion Knowledge Test (EKT) - designed specifically for this research by the researcher. All participants included in the main study made improvements on the sentence-labelling task but not on the photograph-labelling task of the EKT. Participants 2 and 4 improved in regards to the number of problem behaviours displayed each week, Participant 3’s problem behaviours did not occur often enough to determine whether improvements had been made. Participant 2 improved on both of the Socialisation and Maladaptive Behaviour domains of the Vineland-II, Participant 3 improved on the Socialisation domain and Participant 4 improved on the Maladaptive Behaviour Domain, however all improvements made were small. The results indicate that there may be promise with using the PATHS programme with children with developmental disabilities, in one-to-one settings. However this research involved several limitations, such as the reliability and sensitivity of the measures used and the short length of the baseline and intervention periods. More research is needed in this area, as there are many possible social, emotional and academic benefits for these children, using the skills taught in the PATHS programme.

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  • The English of Māori speakers: changes in rhythm over time and prosodic variation by topic.

    Vowell, Bianca (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates the rhythm and mean pitch of the English of Māori speakers. Recordings are analysed from speakers who have varying degrees of fluency and socialisation in Māori. The rhythm and mean pitch of their English language recordings are measured and analysed in order to address two questions. The first part addresses the question, ‘Has the distinctive syllable-timed rhythm of modern Māori English developed from the mora-timed rhythm of the Māori language?’ Changes in the rhythm of the English of Māori speakers are measured over time. The rhythm of these speakers is then compared with age-matched Pākehā English speakers. The results show that the distinctive syllable-timed rhythm has indeed developed from the mora-timed rhythm of the Māori language and the use of this rhythm is related to the degree of Māori identity felt by the speaker. The second part is also concerned with prosody and addresses the question, ‘Are rhythm and mean pitch influenced by topic?’ This is investigated by topic tagging the recordings and comparing the rhythm and mean pitch of each tagged section of speech. Two sets of topic tags are used; Set One has tags representing five categories (Subject, Referent, Location, Time and Attitude) and Set Two has only one tag per topic. The results suggest that mean pitch is not influenced by topic but is higher in sections of quoted speech than in regular speech. The subtle variations observed in rhythm are highly individualised and are influenced most strongly by the referent of the topic and the degree of affinity felt towards that referent.

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  • Evaluating the Significance of Framing in Public Diplomacy: A Case Study of American, Chinese and Vietnamese News Frames

    Cox, Whitney Elen (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    News frames represent the way an issue is processed and presented by the media. As such, news frames have great influence over public opinion and could therefore be useful in controlling a country’s image abroad. This study builds upon existing literature and theories in an attempt to bring scholarship closer to an understanding of what frames are most likely to be effective for use in public diplomacy by identifying what frames and frame types currently influence audiences internationally. Specifically, The study examines what structures are commonly used to frame international issues, what frame content may not be accepted by a foreign audience and the extent to which elites control the local framing competition. This thesis uses both a framing discourse analysis and a content analysis to evaluate news stories from American, Chinese and Vietnamese outlets as well as American elites. The results found that while elites appear to control the general direction of framing in a country, American journalists are willing to suggest other frames as long as they enhance the drama of the narrative. However, this storytelling imperative is not likely to cross a line into questioning the legitimacy of the media’s home country, indicating that such challenging messages should be avoided in public diplomacy. Frequency of frame structure (conflict, responsibility and consequence) use was also identified, and a positive correlation found between privately owned media and use of consequence frame types. Given the less antagonistic nature of these frame structures, they may be extremely effective in public diplomacy communications - as long as the right consequence is emphasised. It is hoped that these findings will aid scholars and practitioners of public diplomacy in identifying effective ways to communicate messages across countries, and that it will strengthen the argument for the role of ‘listening’ in public diplomacy.

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  • An Investigation into the Fantasy Proneness Construct

    Gilmour, Lucy Patricia (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Evidence that an instrument measures what it purports to measure is essential to empirically study the given construct. Despite this fact, little attention has been made to investigate the validity of the Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings (ICMI) and the Creative Experiences Questionnaires (CEQ) - instruments that purport to measure the fantasy proneness construct. In assessing the validity of fantasy proneness measures, the aim of the current study was unique, in that, no known study had conducted a factor analysis of scores on the ICMI, CEQ and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) separately and simultaneously in the same study. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 223) from a large New Zealand University completed six questionnaires measuring fantasy proneness, imagery, dissociation, personality and desirable responding. Separate factor analysis results suggested a three factor solution for ICMI scores accounting for 22.60% of the total variance, a six factor solution for CEQ scores accounting for 42.93% of the total variance, and a three factor solution for DES scores accounting for 81.31% of the total variance. Simultaneous factor analysis results on factor scores of the ICMI, CEQ and DES revealed that dimensions of fantasy proneness loaded on two factors, whereas dimensions of dissociation loaded distinctively on a separate factor. The findings from this study suggest that there is less dimensional overlap between fantasy proneness and dissociation than has been suggested in the recent literature. Findings of this study also suggest that conclusions based on the overall scales of fantasy proneness may be limited and potentially misleading.

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  • Investigating Differences of Parental Involvement in Secondary Education across Child Gender, Ethnicity, and Year Level

    Roberts, Katie Ann (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Parental involvement is widely considered to be an important part of the educational process throughout the years of schooling. However, few studies have discussed parental involvement at the secondary level, which is the focus of this thesis. The Parental Involvement in Secondary Education Questionnaire (PISEQ) was created to measure the type and level of parental involvement in children’s secondary education, and the degree of differences in parental involvement across gender, age, or ethnicity. The PISEQ includes both quantitative measures based on Likert scales and qualitative items to allow for more personalized and idiosyncratic responses. Individual subscales include Parent Communication, Parent Event Participation, Parent Facilitation of Study Environment, and Parental Involvement with School Work, School Facilitation of Parental Involvement, and School Communication with Parents. The PISEQ was administered to 163 parents (83.4% female) of a co-educational Decile 7 high school (years 9-13) in Christchurch, New Zealand. Parent participants were primarily of Pakeha/New Zealand European ethnicity (83%; 6% Asian; 5.4% Other Ethnic Group; 3% Pacific Islander; and 2% Maori) with mean age of parents 46.5 years (S.D. = 6.3). Results showed no differences between child gender groups for all parental involvement measures. As a group, ethnic minority parents were more involved with their child’s homework than Pakeha/European New Zealand parents. In addition, across the entire sample, parents of older children were less likely to facilitate a home study environment and assist with homework. Qualitative data showed that parents felt that the school communicated well, yet specific types and content of communication required development. Suggestions for improvement of parental involvement at secondary school level were discussed.

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  • Factors limiting invertebrate recovery during stream restoration

    Roberts, Kimberley Jessica (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Many stream restoration projects, as part of returning a degraded ecosystem to a healthier state, aim to restore aquatic invertebrate populations. Unfortunately, many attempts only „beautify‟ streams without achieving improvements in biodiversity. Lack of connectivity of a restoration site to a regional species pool may explain some failures. I tested this by collecting larval and adult aquatic insects from an agriculturally impacted Canterbury high country stream to evaluate connectivity of the regional species pool. The stream was surrounded by high-quality habitat in an adjacent National Park. Surrounding streams contained diverse assemblages of aquatic insects, but processes in the environment and limitations of in-stream habitat meant their adults did not always arrive at the target. In addition, oviposition habitat for hydrobiosid caddisflies was added to sections of stream and compared to un-manipulated control sections to test oviposition site limitation. The addition of oviposition habitat led to more hydrobiosid egg masses in comparison to control reaches. However, oviposition was also limited by in-stream habitat conditions, particularly the abundance of fine sediments. Sedimentation is a common pollutant in streams and is linked to decreases in habitat, food resources, and invertebrate populations. Moreover, common restoration methods, such as riparian management, have little success at reversing already high sediment levels, and are therefore insufficient to bring improvements to in-stream communities or sought-after habitat conditions. Therefore, after determining sediment was restricting sensitive invertebrate recovery at Riversdale Stream, by adding patches of high quality habitat I experimentally compared the factorial effects of sediment flushing and channel narrowing on sediment removal. Treatments improved habitat and prompted recovery of sensitive invertebrates, but an interactive effect where both flushing and channel narrowing combined created the most improved habitat conditions and the greatest improvements of invertebrate communities. Thus, while habitat improvements are an important part of restoration, features limiting species recovery such as connectivity and sedimentation, are particularly important.

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  • Evaluating the Use Of A Virtual Reality Patient Simulator an An Educational Tool In An Audiological Setting

    Sanderson, Elizabeth Anne (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is currently an international shortage of Audiologists (McIntyre, 2010). Audiology is a professional degree undertaken at a postgraduate level at most universities around the world. Students have training in anatomy and physiology, hearing aids, cochlear implants, electrophysiology and acoustics; combined with a clinical component to the course. The clinical component is undertaken throughout the entirety of the course and involves a mixture of observation and supervised clinical practice in a variety of settings. Clinical training often begins with students crowded around a single piece of equipment, such as an audiometer for testing puretone-hearing thresholds or by pairing up and simulating a hearing loss. This process creates time and access constraints for students as it restricts their ability to practice performing audiometry, particularly if there is a shortage of equipment, and also limits their exposure to a wide variety of hearing loss pathologies. The potential for universities worldwide to use Virtual Reality and Computer Based Simulations to provide Audiology students with basic clinical skills without relying on extensive support from external clinics warrants further investigation. In particular, it needs to be determined whether Audiology students value these simulations as a useful supplement to their clinical training, and whether the use of these simulations translates into measurable improvements in student abilities in real clinical placements. A computer based training program for Audiology students developed at the Human Interface Technology Lab (HITLAB) New Zealand is evaluated in this study as an educational tool at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The present study aims to determine if a sample of twelve first year Audiology students felt their interactions with Virtual Patients improved their ability to interact with clients and perform masking which is often part of a basic audiometric assessment for a patient with hearing loss. The study measures the students’ competency in performing masking in puretone audiometry on the Virtual Patient and then on a patient in a real-world setting to see whether the Audiology Simulator training tool improved the student’s basic audiometry skills (a training effect) and whether these skills were maintained after a period of four weeks (a maintenance effect). Statistical analysis is applied to determine any training and maintenance effects. Students also gave subjective feedback on the usefulness of the simulator and suggestions for ways in which it could be improved. Results indicated that there was no statistically significant training effect between students that had used the Audiology Simulator and those that hadn’t. Once all students had used the Virtual Patient there was an overall maintenance effect present in that student’s scores stayed the same or improved even for those students who had not used the Virtual Patient for a period of time. Students overall reported that they found the Virtual Patient to be ‘Moderately Useful’ and had many recommendations for ways in which it could be improved to further assist their learning.The present study indicates that computer based simulation programs like the Virtual Patient are able to present and simulate realistic hearing losses to an acceptable level of complexity for students studying in the field of audiology and that the Audiology Simulator can be a useful and complementary training tool for components of audiological clinical competence, such as puretone audiometry and masking.

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  • Superconductive Effects in Thin Cluster Films

    Grigg, John Antony Hugh (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this thesis, the superconductive and superresistive properties of thin percolating films of lead nanoclusters are presented. The samples were created by depositing clusters from an inert gas aggregation cluster source onto substrates held at either room temperature or 10K. Observations of the characteristic behaviours of the samples were made through R(T ) and V (I) measurements. Several interesting features were observed - smooth and discrete steps in the R(I) curves, hysteresis between increasing and decreasing bias currents, and non-zero resistances at superconducting temperatures. Explanations are proposed in terms of theoretical models of several phenomena - phase slips, phase slip centres and hotspots - which have seen little prior application to percolating systems in literature.

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  • Reconstruction of the 01 February 1814 eruption of Mayon Volcano, Philippines

    Mirabueno, Maria Hannah Terbio (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Mayan Volcano's eruption on 01 February 1814 is considered as the volcano's most violent eruption episode, devastating five towns in the southern slopes of the volcano and killing at least 1,200 people. The deposits of the 1814 eruption are mainly distributed on the southern slopes of the volcano. The primary volcanic succession consists of, from bottom to top, tephra fall deposit, lower ignimbrite, pyroclastic surge deposit and upper ignimbrite. Two post-eruption lahar units were also recognized in the field area. The tephra fall unit, although not observed in direct contact with any of the other primary deposits, was distinguished based on petrologic and geochemical similarities with the lower ignimbrite and pyroclastic surge deposit. The lower ignimbrite and the overlying pyroclastic surge deposit are both scoriaceous, and are similarly bombs-rich; the surge deposit is distinguished by its characteristically good sorting. In contrast, the upper ignimbrite contains abundant angular altered clasts derived from pre-eruption deposits. All the primary deposits are interpreted to have been derived from an eruption column that was generated by multiple explosive eruptions occurring in close succession. This column initially generated the tephra fall. Discrete phases of column collapse produced the succession of lower ignimbrite, pyroclastic surge deposit and upper ignimbrite. The wide dispersal, composition and textural characteristics of the pyroclastic surge indicate that it was generated by a discrete phase of an eruption column collapse. The upper ignimbrite is the deposit from a density current produced during the cessation of the eruption that was accompanied by partial collapse of the crater wall. The 1814 deposits are predominantly composed of basaltic andesite, with minor more acidic andesite. Petrographic texture and contact relationships, bimodal distribution of plagioclase, and variation in glass composition indicate mixing of two magmas. A geologic model for the 1814 eruption is proposed in which an intermediate andesite magma residing in a small, shallow chamber beneath Mayan was intruded by a comparably larger magma of basaltic andesite composition. The resulting magma mixing may have triggered the explosive eruption of 1814.

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  • Telephone counselling service evaluation : an evaluation of the Dunedin Emergency and Citizens' Advice Service Inc. development of a reliable records system, extraction of service-operation statistics, and community survey appraisal of the service.

    Dixon, Brian Gordon (1981)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 96, [10] leaves :ill., plans ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Psychology. Includes appendices.

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  • A voice of her own : Ethel Smyth and early feminist musicology

    Emerson, Helen Katrine (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    viii, 180 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Music.

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  • Conceptions of motherhood and how they affect the way surrogacy is viewed and regulated

    Ericsson, Deborah Nancy (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    viii, 99 leaves :ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "25 March 1999"

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  • "Body snatching" in contemporary Aotearoa/New Zealand : a legal conflict between cultures

    Brandt, Bettina (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The main purpose of this thesis is to consider whether legal sanctions would be capable of deterring the practice of "body snatching," and, if so, whether the law should be reformed in New Zealand to clarify the legal situation of ownership in, and burial of, a dead body. The project will involve an analysis of existing law, proposed law changes, tikanga Māori, and comparative law elements. It will examine and synthesise primary and secondary legal sources, including relevant case law and statutory law. More specifically, the research aim is to provide an explanation of the legal aspects of the "body snatching" issue within Aotearoa/New Zealand, as it occurs within bicultural Māori and Pākehā families. [Extract from Introduction]

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  • Planning a safe city for women

    Brewster, Karen E. (1994)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 256 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • Family inclusive teamwork in mental health : collaborative working partnerships between the patient, family and staff, especially focussed on an acute adult mental health service in Dunedin

    Criglington, Ivan Murray (2006)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xxii, 141 leaves, 33 l;eaves of plates :col. ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 138-140) University of Otago department: Social Work and Community Development.

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  • Technological change at Hayes Engineering Works, Oturehua, New Zealand

    Edwards, William G (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: vii, 109 leaves: ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm. Notes: "1 September 2008". University of Otago department: Anthropology. Thesis ( M. A.)--University of Otago. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Satire and Dickens

    White, Richard (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    People have a fundamental need to feel good about themselves, and sometimes we can achieve this at the expense of others. If I can laugh at someone who does something stupid, or feel superior to someone who does something unjust, or rebel against an institution which violates some natural law, then so much the better for me. Essentially, this is why I read satire. Until recently this sort of approach does not seem to have appealed to literary critics - perhaps because it demeans their subject matter - but there are many essential human needs which are satisfied by a reader's imaginative response to satire, and there is nothing ignoble in that. Satire allows us to escape the constrictions that society places on us. When we read satire we can behave badly: we laugh at other people, cackle at their stupidity, and snigger at their pomposity or hypocrisy; we revenge ourselves upon people who have bored, annoyed, or cheated us. All of this misbehaviour is sanctioned by moral propriety, and by the figure who establishes what is proper and what is not, the satirist. It is the satirist who sets up little moral victories for us, made possible by satiric attack. However, when satire becomes part of a novel, it must there vie for ascendancy with other guises of the author. The satirist must compete with the moralist, the comic, or the sentimentalist, and when this happens the reader too must evaluate their satiric victories alongside the other emotions they feel when they read other parts of a novel. Charles Dickens has many such guises, and consequently he particularly challenges the reader to cope with many different responses. This is where satire becomes even more interesting, because the victories are tempered by other, perhaps more noble emotions. The novels of Dickens present the reader with a constant battle between good and bad: both the author's and the reader's.

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  • Determining the feasibility of a translocation by investigating the ecology and physiology of the threatened Hochstetter's frog (Leiopelma hochstetteri)

    Easton, Luke (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Habitat modification is one of the largest threats to amphibians worldwide, yet research investigating habitat modification impacts and management responses is often limited. Consequently, there is a necessity to address such issues, particularly for rare Hochstetter’s frog (Leiopelma hochstetteri) populations that inhabit mature pine plantations in New Zealand. Fortunately, small populations at Torere Forest (Bay of Plenty, North Island) have received conservation attention following concerns over future pine harvesting. Possible management options are still in their infancy, but it is likely that a mitigation translocation via assisted colonisation will be required, even though a large-scale translocation for Hochstetter’s frogs has not occurred before. Orokonui Ecosanctuary (Dunedin, South Island) was selected as a potential translocation site primarily because future global warming scenarios suggest that southern regions may become more favourable for Hochstetter’s frogs than in their northern current distribution. However, the current cool climate at Orokonui Ecosanctuary is a concern as studies have concluded that Hochstetter’s frog populations are strongly associated with warm climates that frequently reach 20˚C or more. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were to investigate how Hochstetter’s frog populations and individuals are influenced by a modified environment and to assess whether a translocation to Orokonui Ecosanctuary is indeed feasible regarding identifying suitable areas of habitat and the effect of a cool climate on frogs. In order to address these aims, this study examined population parameters and individual fitness, and the resource selection of Hochstetter’s frogs between mature pine plantations and native forests, followed by identifying suitable areas of habitat in Orokonui Ecosanctuary. The quality of the thermal environment at Torere Forest and Orokonui Ecosanctuary was also measured, along with the thermal preference and physiology of captive frogs exposed to cool temperatures. Overall, there were no differences in population parameters and individual body condition between the habitats, which suggested that mature pine plantations may not negatively affect populations and might even provide essential habitat. As for resource selection, the most important resources used by Hochstetter’s frogs were cobble habitat and logs, particularly in pine plantations. These resources were available in Orokonui Ecosanctuary, thus suitable areas of habitat were predicted to be present. However, results from the lab suggested that the thermal environment at Orokonui Ecosanctuary may be thermally challenging for Hochstetter’s frogs, particularly considering captive frogs mainly preferred temperatures between 15.3 - 20.9 ˚C (central 50%) and were unable to digest slaters in cool conditions. Digestion of crickets and locusts did occur however, whilst temperatures were reduced during the acclimation period. Furthermore, gut retention times and weights increased in cool conditions, which highlighted that temperature largely influences these physiological responses. Nevertheless, studies have shown that Hochstetter’s frogs may exhibit thermoregulatory behaviour to optimise the thermal environment. Such behavioural responses are useful as Hochstetter’s frogs often inhabit shallow substrata where thermal conditions are possibly near or at equilibrium with cold temperatures during winter. Moreover, given their generalist diet and often low proportions of slaters ingested, results from this study suggest that energy uptake may occur during winter and that digestion of major dietary components might not be largely affected by cold temperatures. A translocation to Orokonui Ecosanctuary therefore seems feasible, but further investigations are necessary. Further, management tools such as long-term monitoring, trial transfers, and continued stakeholder support are essential for conserving the Hochstetter’s frog populations in Torere Forest. In doing so, the management of these populations will provide a foundation for the future conservation of this threatened species, especially regarding translocations that are yet to occur.

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