14,011 results for Masters

  • Dynamic Risk Factors and their Utilisation in Case Formulation: A New Conceptual Framework

    Palmer, Lauren (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The social pressure on policy makers and clinicians working with sexual offenders to reduce recidivism is extreme. A result of this pressure is the amount of research investigating risk-related features that has surged over the last few decades. Risk assessment has progressed from unstructured clinical judgement to development of risk factors that correlate with recidivism to predict levels of risk, and more recently, to forensic case formulation. This thesis concentrates on two key issues with forensic case formulation that has been largely neglected thus far. First, forensic case formulations rely heavily on the use of dynamic risk factors as causes of offending. The concern is that dynamic risk factors are composite constructs not causal mechanisms. Second, forensic case formulation models do not explain how to use an offender’s information and their risk factors to hypothesise about the cause of their offending leading to issues of reliability. To address these issues, the RECFM consists of five phases that guides clinicians on how to appropriately use forensic case formulation. The Risk Etiology Case Formulation Model (RECFM) aims to incorporate a reconceptualised version of dynamic risk factors using an Agency Model to identify the interaction of agent and context that causes offending behaviour. By using the RECFM, treatment can be targeted to the individual and their specific causes of offending, which will lead to better results in reducing recidivism. The aim of this thesis is to provide a forensic case formulation model is comprehensible for clinicians and that targets the causes of offending.

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  • Development of a career and competency framework for Occupational Health Nurses working in New Zealand using participatory action research

    Howard, Stella Mary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This participatory action research (PAR) study was undertaken to review the New Zealand Competencies for Practising as an Occupational and Environmental Health Nurse (2004) document and develop an integrated career and competency framework for nurses working in the field of occupational health. The 2004 competency document needed to be reviewed to ensure Occupational Health Nurses (OHNs) have up-to-date guidelines for the skills and knowledge required by businesses to support and promote the health and wellbeing of the workforce, as well as enabling OHNs to identify their training requirements and career planning. Eight OHNs (including myself) from Christchurch over a 10-month period applied a PAR approach to this qualitative study. The nurses actively engaged in the project from research design to dissemination so linking theory and practice. Achieving the aims and objectives required collaboration, democratic participation, joint decision making, sharing resources, gaining knowledge, and empowerment. The study had six phases. Recruitment of the OHNs occurred during the first phase and in the second phase information was collected through a questionnaire gaining awareness of the OHNs role within the workplace. This information stimulated the first action cycle inquiry. During the third phase data was collected from transcripts of the PAR group meetings. The fourth phase was reflection of the PAR theoretical process of the study. This reflection included understanding what occurred leading to the turning points and what sustained the PAR group. From this phase, evolved phase five, formation of a sub-PAR group, and phase six of the study when the original PAR group reconvened and four subsequent meetings were held concluding the study in May 2015. The study provides contribution to PAR by showing importance of the time commitment of homogenous co-researchers, and role of primary researcher. A number of areas were identified by the nurses as important skills and knowledge areas for occupational health nursing. Areas include fitness for work, health promotion, risk assessment, legislation and standards, leadership and management skills, research and professionalism. These skills and knowledge topics were then expanded and applied into the career framework from competent to expert nurse. The final participatory cycle involved distributing the framework to the New Zealand Occupational Health Nurses Association to complete the review. The outcome of this research is an integrated occupational health nursing competency and career framework which has been disseminated nationally to New Zealand OHNs waiting for feedback. It is expected that the framework will raise the profile of OHNs within New Zealand, and the vital contribution they make to the public health strategy and supporting businesses to apply employment legislation.

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  • Reliability and Discriminative Ability of Badminton Specific Change of Direction Testing

    Paterson, Samuel John

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    As one of the fastest sports in the world, the agility component of badminton is crucial in maximising performance. Agility involves two components, the perceptual and decision making component and the physical change of direction (COD) component. COD assessments most often include a single temporal measure, which provides a measure of the COD ability that in most cases inadequately informs programming for COD enhancement in badminton athletes. As an alternative, the multi-faceted badminton specific assessment (BSA) battery has been proposed, which includes the following nine measures: height, body mass, leg length, eight site sum of skinfold, frontal split hip flexibility, sagittal split hip flexibility, vertical counter-movement jump (V-CMJ), multi- directional lunge test (MDLT) and multi-directional cyclic COD test (MDCT). The overall purpose of this thesis was to develop a BSA and to establish which measures best predict overall badminton performance. In study one (Chapter 3), the reliability of two newly designed tests (MDLT and MDCT) was assessed. The MDLT (change in the mean = 0.33-6.78%; TE = 0.03-0.11 s; ICC = 0.55-0.96) and MDCT (change in the mean = 0.12-5.87%; TE = 0.05-0.20 s; ICC = 0.57-0.98) were confirmed to be reliable. In study two (Chapter 4), the purpose was to establish which components of the BSA best predict COD and overall performance in badminton. The best predictors of COD performance were the MDLT (female – r = 0.58; male – r = 0.57), frontal split hip flexibility (F – r = -0.72, M – r = -0.36), eight site sum of skinfold (F – r = 0.65) and V-CMJ (M – r = - 0.49). The BSA was most effective in predicting badminton ability in female athletes; specifically the MDLT (r = 0.59), height (r = 0.51) and V-CMJ (r = -0.48). These findings suggest that the following BSA measures may be utilised to effectively assess the following anthropometric characteristics and performance qualities in badminton athletes: height, leg length, eight site sum of skinfold, frontal split hip flexibility, V-CMJ, MDLT and MDCT. The MDLT may also be replaced by a single forward lunge to assess horizontal neuromuscular capability based on the very large to near perfect correlations (r > 0.75, p < 0.001) between all MDLT directions. To further enhance the diagnostic potential of the MDCT, four consecutive cycles in a single direction may be implemented to better utilise elastic energy of the stretch shorten cycle and mimic the repetitive COD nature of badminton.

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  • Assessment of the Opportunity of Modern Cable Yarders for Application in New Zealand

    Campbell, Thornton (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study examined the opportunity of implementing modern yarder machinery to increase the productivity and worker safety of cable logging operations within New Zealand. Cable yarding equipment used in New Zealand is generally based on designs from pre-1980 with the majority of the machines built around that time in the Pacific Northwest, USA. New yarder designs have a number of features that may give them an advantage, including being; smaller, quieter, more fuel efficient, safer and more ergonomic to operate. These benefits can be of even greater value as the forest industry transitions from predominantly larger scale commercial plantations, to a significant proportion of woodlot scale operations. Field studies ranging from three to five day of duration were carried out on three new machines believed to have potential in New Zealand; the Active 70 at two locations in the central North Island region of New Zealand, the Koller 602h in the Gisborne region of New Zealand and for comparison the Koller 507 in Austria. The studies focussed on assessing productivity and ergonomic advantages. Productivity was measured with a time and motion study and the potential ergonomic advantages were assessed using choker-setter heart rates and machine noise emissions. The time and motion study found a productivity level for the Active 70 of 23.5m3/SMH with a utilisation rate of 65% at site one and 24.5m3/SMH at a utilisation rate of 76% for site two. The productivity for the Koller 602h was 21.0m3/SMH at an utilisation rate of 55% and 7.9m3/SMH for the Koller 507 at an utilisation rate of 55%. Productivity was deemed to be negatively impacted by poor site conditions for the Active 70 and Koller 507, and utilisation was low for the Koller 602h which was mainly attributed to the lack of crew experience with the new machine. Choker-setter heart rate results showed choker-setters to be working at the level of ‘hard continuous work’ (‘relative heart rate at work’ over 30%, but less than 40%). In this study the motorised carriage used at the first Active 70 study site offered no ergonomic advantages over the traditional North Bend system at the second site. Decibel analysis found that the modern equipment was significantly quieter, resulting in smaller zones in which hearing protection is required. In particular, the Koller K602hrecorded 70dB at 5 meters during operation, well below the 85dB level that is common recognised as the decibel threshold for hearing damage. During these case studies the machines all operated below the average New Zealand productivity rate of 26.3m3/SMH and no clear ergonomic advantage was established for the choker-setters. As such these machines are not likely to out-compete existing machinery choices in either productivity or choker-setter work rate. However, cost-benefit analyses were not possible because of limited information about operating cost and the absence of truly comparable settings. Advantages such as the advanced control systems and lower noise levels, while still achieving respectable productivity figures, indicate that they are viable alternatives for New Zealand cable yarding if applied correctly.

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  • The impact of heavy metals on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Christchurch's urban waterways

    Eden, Jason Scott (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The urbanisation of a catchment results in substantial changes to associated waterways. These effects, known as the “urban stream syndrome” can include flashier hydrographs due to stormwater inflows, altered geomorphology, and increased inputs of sediment, nutrients, and toxicants. Metal pollution of rivers and streams is an area of significant concern for management of freshwaters, and urban runoff is recognised as an increasingly relevant source of metals. Heavy metals can to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates, and can impact community structure and abundance. To investigate the influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrate community composition, I compared invertebrate community composition over a gradient of heavy metal pollution within Christchurch City’s urban waterways. I also investigated the survival of three taxa, the mayfly Deleatidium spp., the caddisfly Pycnocentria spp., and the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum in short-term in situ mesocosm experiments in six streams of varying metal contamination. CCA analysis identified that sediment bound metals, dissolved metals, and impervious surface area were the three most significant environmental factors explaining invertebrate community structure. Stepwise regression analysis of invertebrate community metrics and indices identified metals bound to the sediment to be among the prevailing factors in explaining invertebrate community composition across my study sites. The results of my mesocosm experiments suggest that heavy metal contamination could be rendering more impacted streams uninhabitable to relatively sensitive taxa (such as Deleatidium and Pycnocentria). However, over the seven day time frame of my mesocosm experiment, conditions in moderately polluted streams did not appear to directly affect survival of Deleatidium significantly more than conditions in streams containing natural populations of the mayfly. Knowledge of relevant stressors is key to the management and rehabilitation of urban streams. My results suggest that heavy metals are likely a key stressor on many invertebrate communities in Christchurch’s urban waterways. While rehabilitation of streams in Christchurch’s heavily urbanised areas can improve attractiveness and societal value, unless stormwater inputs and associated pollutants are mitigated an improvement in biological communities seems unlikely.

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  • A comparison of MDMA (Ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (Methylone) in their acute behavioural effects and development of tolerance in rats

    Davidson, Mark L. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone), the β-ketone analogue of the popular party drug MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, “ecstasy”), is a relatively new designer drug that is reported to have similar subjective effects and psychopharmacological properties to MDMA. However, unlike MDMA, little is known about the acute behavioural effects or the effects of repeated use of this drug. The goal of the current thesis was to investigate the behavioural effects of methylone and compare these to the effects of MDMA using an animal model. The second aim was to determine whether there was evidence of behavioural sensitisation or tolerance to methylone with repeated exposure. To achieve this, 108 male and female PVG/c hooded rats (6M and 6F per group) were administered various doses of MDMA or methylone (2.5, 5, 8, 12mg/kg), or saline vehicle (i.p.). The behavioural effects of these drugs were examined 20 m later, including horizontal locomotor activity, rearing behaviour, and central occupancy of an open field, anxiety behaviours in a light/dark box, and working memory in a novel object recognition task. The results showed that MDMA and methylone administration produce similar, but not identical, behaviours. Methylone was shown to produce greater psychostimulant effects, while MDMA produced more toxic effects. Female rats demonstrated greater psychostimulant effects than males, while males had higher rates of lethality. In order to assess the effects of repeated drug use, one week after binge-type drug administration of MDMA or methylone (5 mg/kg for 3 doses every 1h on 2 consecutive days), open field and light/dark box testing was repeated following a further 5 mg/kg challenge of drug. There was no evidence of locomotor sensitisation in the open field, although females showed sensitisation in rearing activity. These findings suggest that methylone may produce less toxic, but more stimulant, effects than MDMA. Methylone may therefore be a cocaine-MDMA mixed psychostimulant, both in a psychopharmacological and a behavioural sense.

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  • "Don't Go for Humiliation." Mainland Chinese Cyber Nationalism Versus Visitation to Hong Kong

    Liu, Yang

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Nationalism is always seen as a ?double-edged sword? for governing a nation. In the 1990s, Chinese cyber nationalism emerged and has developed at an increasing pace. The history of anti-America, anti-Japan and anti-France has witnessed its strong and dark power in the international economy, especially in the tourism industry. As more and more Mainland Chinese visit Hong Kong, the difference in politics, culture and economy, as well as Hong Kong?s special status as a Special Administrative Region of China, has cultivated and prospered Chinese cyber nationalism towards Hong Kong. Meanwhile, nationalistic arguments by ?angry youth? were frequently observed on the Internet. Recent years have seen the reduction of Mainland Chinese visitors to Hong Kong, making it no longer the Chinese most favoured destination. Since tourism is one of the pillar industries in Hong Kong, and Mainland China is the biggest tourist market, it is essential to investigate the connection between increasing Chinese cyber nationalism towards Hong Kong and its impact on Mainland tourists travelling to Hong Kong. This study was designed to examine the relationship between Chinese cyber nationalism and its impact on potential tourists? pre-visit behaviour. Based on Planned Behaviour theory, a quantitative content analysis was adopted to investigate the emotion and intentions involved in the text comments made by online users. A dual approach of both computer-assisted tools and human coding was employed to analyse the massive text data derived from Sina Weibo and ensure the accuracy and validity of the results. Altogether 545 Hong Kong-Mainland incident reports and 495,811 text comments were retrieved and analysed. Correlation tests were conducted to test the strength of the association between Chinese cyber nationalistic sentiment and contemporaneous mainland tourist arrivals in Hong Kong. It is clear that Chinese cyber nationalism has different levels of negative impact on potential tourists? attitudes and travel intentions towards Hong Kong, depending on the types of Hong Kong-Mainland incidents. Mainland tourist arrivals in Hong Kong moderately and negatively correlate with Chinese cyber nationalism, but are significantly and negatively correlated with long-term accumulated Chinese cyber nationalism.

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  • The Perceptions of Teachers Surrounding the Potential of iPads in Early Childhood Education (ECE)

    Almashaileh, Yasmeen

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Qualitative case study is chosen as a method for this research to examine the potential of iPad use in early childhood education from the teachers' perspectives. The researcher utilized a convenience sample of four registered early childhood teachers who agreed to participate in the study. They were using iPads in their classrooms at an early childhood center within a suburb in the Auckland region in New Zealand. The researcher collected the qualitative data via semi-structured interviews by interviewing the four teachers who participated in the study on an individual basis. The interviews included open-ended questions and lasted for less than 60 minutes, depending on the teachers? available time. Inductive analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data gathered in this research. The findings showed that the early childhood teachers? had clear perceptions about the potential of using the iPad in the early childhood setting. In addition, they had clear perceptions about the benefits of using iPads in an early childhood setting. Their perceptions identified that iPads could be used as an instructional tool, as well as a learning tool, to support both the teachers? practices as well as the children?s learning. The findings also indicated that, according to the teachers, the use of the iPad in the classroom was somewhat challenging. The teachers perceived there are certain issues involved in using the iPad in an early childhood setting. These challenges are mainly related to iPad use and management in the centre. Nevertheless, they agreed that using the iPad is helpful as it provides the opportunity for more independence and democracy in learning. Moreover, the findings indicate that early childhood teachers should re-examine the way children learn and the way in which the early childhood education (ECE) workforce organises their learning environments to include digital devices in a meaningful way.

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  • Seismic Anisotropy at the Hikurangi Subduction Margin

    Wilson, Thomas (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    To determine the stress state in the southern North Island of New Zealand, we use shear wave splitting analysis to measure seismic anisotropy and infer the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress directions (Shmax) in the crust. We use data recorded by 44 temporary seismometers deployed as part of the Seismic Array Hikurangi Experiment, and from six permanent stations from the national GeoNet network. Using 425 local earthquake events recorded across the 50 stations we made 13,807 measurements of the two splitting parameters, φ (fast direction) and δt (delay time). These measurements are compared to SHmax directions obtained from previous focal mechanism studies (SfocalHmax), and stresses due to the weight of topography (SgravHmax). Generally there is good agreement between the alignment of SfocalHmax, SgravHmax, and the mean φ measured at each station. We also find a∼ 90◦ change in the trend of φ in the Wairarapa region for stations across the Wairarapa Fault trace. Based on the variation of φ, we divide the study region into three regions (West, Basin, and East), whose bounds approximately coincide with the Wairarapa and Dry Creek faults. We find the average φ of the West region average agrees with previous anisotropy studies, which were undertaken within the bounds of the West region on the Tararua array. Also, we use our delay time measurements to estimate a 3.7±1.2% strength of anisotropy in the overriding Australian Plate, which agrees with the 4% crustal anisotropy measured previously. There is close alignment of the region average φ of the West and East regions, which also agrees with the deep splitting measurements previously obtained. There is no significant difference between the mean φ and Sgravhmax for the West and Basin regions; however, we find a difference of 31± 19.5◦ for the East region. We argue that this difference is due to tectonic loading stresses being sufficiently large in the East region to cause the total stress field to deviate from the gravitational stress field.

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  • Communicating a Culture of Peace in Aotearoa New Zealand: The vision of Peace through Unity

    Paterson, Meredith (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Narrative politics reframes how we cultivate knowledge in the academy, foregrounding the voices of research subjects and their relationships with researchers to re-embed scholars in the social world. Narrative affects the reader’s emotional capacities and fosters empathic understanding, encouraging a more human engagement with figures that have been made threatening, as Elizabeth Dauphinée explores in The Politics of Exile and Richard Jackson in Confessions of a Terrorist. Narrative politics is concerned with the question of how academics respond to the violence of war and whether the analytical tools of the social sciences are an adequate response to the human horror of war. The narratives of peace people are particularly compelling in the way they challenge the assertions of the dominant culture of wider society and the discipline of IR. Aotearoa New Zealand has a rich history of grassroots peace movements and activities that have influenced wider society. However, their stories are not well recorded in the dominant narrative of state institutions or academia. Peace Activist Elsie Locke published Peace People, a broad historical survey of peace activism from pre-European Maori to 1975. Maire Leadbeater brings the account up to 2013 in Peace, Power and Politics. All accounts emphasise that ordinary people were at the heart of activities, organisations and movements for peace. One of these ‘ordinary’ people left out of Locke and Leadbeater’s accounts is Gita Brooke, co-founder of the Whanganui-based charitable trust, Peace through Unity [PTU]. As a self-identified ‘peace person,’ Brooke has written much about their work and been involved in peace activities in Aotearoa NZ since the 1980s. Narrative politics provides a lens in IR to explore the story of Gita Brooke as co-founder of PTU. I show the contribution PTU has made and continues to make to a culture of peace in Aotearoa New Zealand and as a worldwide network, explored through the themes of education for global citizenship, transformation through thought-work, and responsibility for local action. It examines how PTU’s vision of a culture of peace has been communicated through the organisation’s newsletter, Many to Many, through its involvement with the United Nations as an accredited NGO, and through its local activities. Using archival sources, data from interviews and a content analysis of the newsletter, and complemented by the lens of and insights from the discourse of narrative politics, this study suggests that PTU provides a space for critical self-reflection in the pursuit of peace that challenges the thought/action binary of institutionalised NGOs. The deterritorialised publication, Many to Many, connects peace people through a networked area of mutual agreement that is inclusive, educative and transformative.

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  • EEG evidence for the effective proactive control of emotional distraction

    Murphy, Justin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Recent behavioural studies using an emotional flanker task have found that task-irrelevent emotional images are more distracting than neutral images under infrequent, but not frequent, distractor conditions.It has been proposed the effective control of distraction in the high distractor frequency condition may be due to a shift to a proactive control strategy, whereby a potential distraction is anticipated and minimised in advance. However, although it is well established that proactive control is effective at reducingneutral distraction, it is not yet clear whether emotional distraction can be effectively proactively controlled. In this thesis, I used EEG to measure pre-stimulus indices of proactive control in order to determine whether proactive control is responsible for the effective control of emotional and neutral distraction in the high distractor frequency condition, as well asto examine whether proactive control differs according whether a neutral or emotional distraction is anticipated.In addition to replicating the previous behavioural findings, posterior EEG alpha was found to be tonically suppressed in the high compared to low distractor frequency condition, strongly supporting the hypothesis that proactive control was engaged in the high distractor frequency condition. By contrast, there was no difference in phasic alpha suppression (i.e., the drop in alpha in response to fixation onset) between conditions, indicating that the more effective control of distraction in the high frequency distractor conditions was due to a sustained proactive control strategy, rather than greater trial-by-trial preparation to attend to the target. In addition, no alpha lateralisation was found, indicating the mechanisms by which distraction was proactively controlled did not include the preparatory suppression of expected distractor locations. Finally, tonic alpha did not differ according to the expected distractor valence, but phasic alpha suppression was more pronounced when negative, compared to neutral or positive, distractors were expected, independent of distractor frequency condition. This suggests proactive control was also used to some extent in the low distractor frequency condition, but more importantly also provides initial evidence that the proactive control of negative distraction may be unique. Taken together, my findings provide compelling evidence that emotional distraction can be effectively proactively controlled. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms by which this occurs, and whether the proactive control of emotional distraction is particularly effortful.

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  • Evaluating methane outputs from an area of submarine seeps along the northern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    Higgs, Benjamin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Collated global marine surveys have documented large volumes of gaseous methane able to escape from deeply-buried deposits into global oceans as seeps. Seeps are evident where permeable faults and fracture networks allow for the upward transportation of methane from buried deposits into the water column as plumes of rising bubbles. Seep bubbles dissolve the majority of their constitutive methane into the surrounding water column as they rise; however there is evidence of more-prominent seeps transferring undissolved methane through the water column and into the atmosphere. Due to the biologic origins of methane, the global distribution of buried methane de-posits is highly varied and difficult to predict. High uncertainties in seep locations have resulted in all previous estimations of the global proportion of atmospheric methane attributed to seeps to have very large associated errors. These are mainly due to large extrapolations over global oceans based on findings from surveyed seep fields. A 2014 NIWA research voyage saw the discovery of an abundant seep field situated at uncharacteristically shallow water depths (150–300 m below sea level) along the raised continental shelf of the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. In comparison to other globally documented seep fields, the Hikurangi Margin seeps are numerous (estimated between 585 and 660 surveyed seeps) and cover a large area (∼ 840 km²). Prior to the discovery of this seep field, there was only evidence of 36 seeps along the entire Hikurangi Margin. Acoustically surveyed bubble-rise paths of newly discovered seeps also show evidence of seeps extending the entire height of the water column. The large number of shallow flares present in the abundant seep field represent the potential for considerable amounts of gaseous methane outputs. To further investigate these seeps, NIWA voyages TAN1505 and TAN1508 that took place in June and July of 2015 employed a range of scientific equipment to analyse features of the rising seep bubbles. Part of these investigations involved the video recordings of rising seep bubbles from the seafloor as well as acoustically surveying rising bubbles using a singlebeam and multibeam echsounder. We have used video and acoustic data sets to create multiple tools and computational techniques for better assessing features of seeps. We have developed photogrammetric tools that can be used in Matlab to compute bubble-size distributions and bubble-rise rates from still frames of underwater video footage. These bubble parameters have then been combined with singlebeam recorded flare profiles to calculate the flux of emitted methane at the seafloor. These calculations were carried out using the FlareFlow Matlab module, devised by Mario Veloso. To assess the number of seeps in a multibeam surveyed region, we have created vertically-summed intensity maps of the obtained water column data. Summed-intensity maps display localised high-amplitude features, indicative of seeps. Seep indicators have been used to (1) map the distribution of seeps of the surveyed Hikurangi Margin, (2) assess the total surveyed seep count, and (3) identify regions where seep concentrations are particularly high. We have combined methane fluxes from analysed seeps with regional seep-distribution maps to approximate the rate at which gaseous methane is escaping from the seafloor across the seep field. Extrapolating seep emissions over the surveyed area approximates 0.99×10⁵ ±0.64×10⁵ m³/yr of undissolved methane is being released across the seep field. Using models of methane preservation, combined with staggered depth models of flares, we have approximated that ∼ 0.2% of the methane emitted at the seafloor is able to reach the atmosphere.

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  • Clustering and Classification in Fisheries

    Fujita, Yuki (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This goal of this research is to investigate associations between presences of fish species, space, and time in a selected set of areas in New Zealand waters. In particular we use fish abundance indices on the Chatham Rise from scientific surveys in 2002, 2011, 2012, and 2013. The data are collected in annual bottom trawl surveys carried out by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). This research applies clustering via finite mixture models that gives a likelihood-based foundation for the analysis. We use the methods developed by Pledger and Arnold (2014) to cluster species into common groups, conditional on the measured covariates (body size, depth, and water temperature). The project for the first time applies these methods incorporating covariates, and we use simple binary presence/absence data rather than abundances. The models are fitted using the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance of the models is evaluated by a simulation study. We discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the EM algorithm. We then introduce a newly developed function clustglm (Pledger et al., 2015) in R, which implements this clustering methodology, and perform our analysis using this function on the real-life presence/absence data. The results are analysed and interpreted from a biological point of view. We present a variety of visualisations of the models to assist in their interpretation. We found that depth is the most important factor to explain the data.

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  • Incorporating refuge floors in a network model : fire engineering research report : a project.

    Glasgow, Daryn (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The modern urban landscape in many of the world's largest cites is increasingly becoming the domain of tall, super-tall and mega-tall buildings. These present designers and architects with a myriad of unique and challenging issues as a result of putting very large numbers of people at very high elevation, remote from their final exit to street level. One feature of such buildings which is designed to provide some efficiency to the egress solution, as well as improve life safety by giving occupants a location of relative safety which they can evacuate to in the event of an emergency, is the fire isolated refuge area or level within the building. EvacuatioNZ is a computer based network evacuation model being developed by the University of Canterbury. This research report covers the development of functionality within this model in which refuge areas and levels can be incorporated in the egress solution. The research offers a range of proposed functions and carries out some simple verification of their incorporation to a point where it is considered that the required functionality is working correctly. The work then takes this newly incorporated functionality and applies it to a real-life design case study - Signature Tower, proposed in the Jakarta CBD, on which the author is the lead fire and life safety engineer. This 111 level tower (638 m) and its potential design population of over 21,000 occupants pushes EvacuatioNZ to its limits and identifies a number of areas for computational improvement in the model itself. As part of the case study, the EvacuatioNZ model was compared to the commercial STEPS evacuation model developed by Mott MacDonald Ltd, which is being used for the Signature Tower design. At the macro level the EvacuatioNZ model simulated longer evacuation times compared to STEPS in predicting the performance of the egress solution. This was identified as primarily due to the handling of stair and door flow rates between the two models. At smaller scales within the geometry though (such as evacuation of individual floors), the two models produced very similar results. This comparative study featured no validation of these results against real evacuation data. The model also demonstrates its value as a tool in the early stages of design, being easy to set up and agile enough to allow constant design change. Improvements in processing efficiency and therefore runtime will make it even more valuable as iterative design 'experimentation' or even Monte Carlo style analysis could be undertaken to explore key elements of the egress solution.

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  • Identifying the Characteristics of Usability That Encourage Prolonged Use of an Activity Monitor

    Dhawale, Poonam Pushkar

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Together with the use of rapid prototyping techniques and efforts to reduce the production cost, wearable and mobile electronic devices brought to the market faster than ever, with less time spent on actual usability testing of these devices for prolonged use. Due to this, the usability lifespan of such electronic devices has reduced significantly where consumers might be moving or upgrading on to using newer electronic devices more often than they really need to. Therefore, this paper focuses on identifying key characteristics of usability that may encourage prolonged use of an activity-monitoring device. Secondary goal was to observe and record any user acceptance and/or usability issues that may arise from using an activity monitor over a prolonged period. In this research, an intensive study was undertaken using ethnographic methods of enquiry to improve the rigor of the study. In general, ethnography rests upon participant observation, a methodology whereby the researcher spends considerable time observing and interacting with a social group. The researcher analyzed the face-to-face interviews? video recordings and collected field notes repeatedly according to the coding rules devised using open-coding methodology. Later on, the researcher formed a generic thematic analysis based schema to analyze the coded data. In this thesis, the researcher has successfully conducted the research and identified six usability characteristics that played crucial role in encouraging prolonged use of an activity-monitoring device among adult users in New Zealand. These six identified characteristics of usability were display screen, lightweight, long battery life, multipurpose, social engagement and easy to carry/wear. In addition, this thesis covers the observed user acceptance and usability issues that may have arisen from using an activity monitor over a prolonged period.

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  • Leaving a Trail - Revealing heritage in a rural landscape

    Rodgers, Maria (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    ‘Leaving a Trail – revealing heritage in a rural landscape’ investigates how landscape architecture can reveal heritage and connect Māori and Pākehā to the land and to the past in rural Aotearoa New Zealand. Our rural landscapes contain rich and varied stories, which, if interpreted and made stronger by being linked together, have the potential to create cultural and recreational assets as well as tourist drawcards. A starting point for this research based in South Wairarapa was the six sites identified by the Wairarapa Moana Management Team as sites for development. The first design ‘hunch’ remained the touchstone of the project. With the six Wairarapa Moana Wetlands Park sites forming an ‘inner necklace’ the aim of this project became creating an ‘outer necklace’ of revealed heritage sites, a heritage trail. This thesis was inspired by the depth of Māori connection to the land. Māori consider the natural world is able to ‘speak’ to humans. The method chosen for this design research is based on landscape architect Christophe Girot’s ‘Four Trace Concepts in Landscape Architecture’. Girot is interested in methods and techniques that expand landscape projects beyond the amelioration of sites towards the reactivation of the cultural dimensions of sites. As part of this research is to enable connection with the cultural dimensions of sites, or to ‘hear the site speak’, his method was chosen as a starting point. It was adapted and shaped by previous experience and the experience of this research to form a new method, ‘Four Listening Acts in Landscape Architecture’. Through such methods landscape architects can grow their relationship with the land and so better design with the land and for the landscape and its people. After research, the sites were chosen and grouped into four major routes, Māori, Pākehā settlement, natural system and military, so as to appeal to people with a variety of interests. Of the twenty six trail sites most are already marked and eleven are unmarked. Research into how to reveal these unmarked sites saw three different approaches used. Sites with spaces had their essence intensified to become places. Other sites had objects designed for them directly related to the landscape. The significance of the rest is shown with numbered markers. These three different methods of revealing a site’s significance are threaded together into a series, a necklace, creating a trail that contributes a cultural, recreational and tourist resource to South Wairarapa.

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  • Costing the cold: Connecting fuel poverty & supplier switching in Wellington, New Zealand

    McLean, Sam (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Fuel poverty describes the inability of households to afford adequate energy services, such as space heating. In New Zealand, where 25% of households are estimated to be ‘fuel poor’, high electricity prices in a restructured electricity market have an important influence on fuel poverty. However, the ability of the New Zealand Government to regulate these high electricity prices is constrained. Consequently, there is a strong reliance on consumers to switch energy suppliers, which promotes competitive prices and in turn regulates the price of electricity. In contrast to energy efficiency improvements, switching offers fuel poor households a low-cost opportunity to improve the short-term affordability of energy services. Yet, switching is suggested to not benefit fuel poor households who are in most need of affordable energy. This thesis explored the relationship between fuel poverty and supplier switching in Wellington, New Zealand through a geographic lens. First, a new approach to identifying fuel poverty in New Zealand was applied. Using geographic information systems (GIS), a fuel poverty index was calculated to identify fuel poverty in Wellington at meshblock level. Spatial analysis of the index revealed the complexity of identifying fuel poverty and the extent to which the spatial distribution of fuel poverty in Wellington is shaped by the city’s colonial history. The index was then used to identify survey participants through which a survey was conducted exploring Wellington households’ switching behaviours. In a competitive market, consumers are expected to switch according to economically rational behaviours. However, switching behaviours in the survey sample were influenced by factors other than these economically rational behaviours. Integrating the findings of this thesis supports suggestions that switching is not benefiting the fuel poor. Finally, this thesis sheds light on the extent to which an understanding of the geography of fuel poverty can be applied towards improving the effectiveness of policy and equitable outcomes for fuel poor households.

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  • Radical Detours: A Situationist Reading of Philip K. Dick

    Raba, Andrew (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In this project I read four Philip K. Dick novels against the writing of the Situationist International (SI). In doing so, I seek to disrupt two critical trends that arguably impede Dick criticism: the depoliticization of Dick and the lack of focus on his style. Through reading his work against the politics of the SI, Dick’s own radical politics can be defined and reaffirmed. I make the case that Dick is a writer predominantly concerned with politics and ideology over and above philosophy and ontology. Secondly, I argue that the political power of Dick’s work is inseparable from his avant-garde style; in particular, his frequent use of what the Situationists termed détournement. With revolutionary politics and avant-garde aesthetics in mind, I re-examine the canonical novels Martian Time-Slip and Ubik, and redeem two of Dick’s neglected novels, The Game-Players of Titan and Galactic Pot-Healer.

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  • Path to Accessibility: The current state of disability access in Aotearoa New Zealand museums

    King-Wall, Riah (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Museology posits museums and galleries as institutions entwined with issues of social justice and political responsibility. The relationship between museums and their communities is the founding aspect of this theoretical and practical framework. ‘Path to Accessibility’ explores the ways museums and galleries around Aotearoa New Zealand are engaging with communities of people with disabilities, consulting both with representatives from the disability sector and cultural organisations from around the country. This dissertation addresses a current gap in the literature available on how New Zealand museums are adapting to the needs of these audiences; a shift that is necessary given one in four New Zealanders identifies as having lived experience of disability. It also forges a valuable contribution to the field of museum studies by drawing on theory such as audience development and visitor research, and utilising emancipatory research frameworks from disability studies, as well as conducting original research on an under-examined topic. The research comprised a multi-method approach to ensure credibility. Focus group and interview stages collected the experiences and viewpoints of existing museum visitors with disabilities. This provided a foundation on which to create a nationwide survey of 41 museums and galleries. The survey explored multiple aspects of disability access, including physical ingress, inclusive exhibition design, tailored public programming, digital accessibility, and levels of disability representation in staff and management positions. The findings of this research project reveal that museums and galleries in Aotearoa New Zealand are for the most part considering disability access in some way. However, actioning related initiatives is often limited to achieving minimum legislative requirements rather than approaching it comprehensively as part of wider audience development strategies. The analysis of data gathered puts forward a number of suggestions around improving practice in New Zealand museums, central to which is establishing relationships with communities of people with disabilities and their advocacy groups to ensure long-term sustainability. These recommendations have global applicability for museum practice as comparative overseas studies demonstrate strong similarities to the New Zealand context.

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  • Crawling to connectivity? The direct-developing journey of the spotted whelk (Cominella maculosa)

    Dohner, Melanie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The exchange of individuals between populations influences demographic connectivity on the ecological scale and genetic connectivity on the evolutionary scale. In some circumstances there are similarities between demographic and genetic connectivity, but in others there are differences. Whenever genetic differentiation is found between populations demographic uncoupling can also be inferred, but when gene flow is found there is uncertainty about whether populations are demographically connected or not. Marine invertebrates typically have large population sizes and many opportunities for dispersal. However, species that have limited planktonic dispersal power are often characterized by genetically and demographically discrete populations that exhibit an isolation-by-distance (IBD) pattern of gene distribution. Alternative methods of dispersal, such as rafting or drifting, produce departures from this expected pattern for species lacking planktonic larvae. Examining genetic patterns at fine geographic scales can identify key dispersal barriers and may give clues to alternative dispersal methods influencing large scale processes. The endemic, direct-developing spotted whelk, Cominella maculosa, is found in the intertidal rocky shores throughout most of New Zealand. This distribution makes it ideal for studying a species expected to exhibit low realized dispersal by crawling and is unlikely to experience dispersal by rafting. The first aim of this study was to investigate genetic patterns between two genetically distinct populations along the Wairarapa Coast of the North Island to determine if a barrier to dispersal was present or if the expected IBD pattern was observed. The second aim was to determine the likelihood of individual hatchlings undertaking long distance dispersal by drifting in the water column. The mitochondrial DNA COI gene was sequenced using 324 whelk samples collected at seven sites along 125 km of Wairarapa shoreline. No significant level of genetic isolation-by-distance or discontinuity in haplotype distribution was observed. Instead, two sites in the middle of the region form a contact area where the dominant northern and southern haplotypes coexist. To investigate dispersal by drifting in the water, three experimental trials were conducted with hatchlings obtained from field-collected egg capsules. When subjected to wave forces, or deposited directly in flow, hatchlings remained suspended and were carried a short distance. However, hatchlings circulated in currents and left for a longer period (12 hours) were rarely found drifting after this period. These trials indicate that wave dislodgement and local flow regime may result in small-scale displacement of hatchlings, but long-distance dispersal by drift is unlikely. Plankton sampling was also conducted at two sites with four nearshore traps. The rare capture of a related Cominella virgata hatchling supports the finding that hatchlings can be dislodged, but prolonged drift cannot be inferred. The findings from this study support the assumption that crawling is the dominant dispersal mechanism for C. maculosa. Crawling between sites best explains the blending of haplotypes in the middle of the Wairarapa and the genetic differentiation between populations. Crawling-mediated connectivity is unlikely to occur at the ecological scale; therefore populations are expected to be demographically isolated. The results of this research support the general findings in the literature that populations of direct developing species are often demographically isolated and have low levels of genetic connectivity.

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