15 results for Undergraduate, 2004

  • Climate change and the water yield of snow tussock grasslands in the Upper Taieri Catchment

    Cameron, Janine (2004)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iv, 66 leaves :ill., facsim., maps, ports. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 63-66). University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • Management and allocation of fresh water in New Zealand:

    Bartrum, Lisa Cherie (2004)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    93 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 69-80). University of Otago department: Law.

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  • Domestic matters: The evolution of competitive balance in New Zealand rugby's national provincial first division

    Ryan, Michael (2004-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Previous literature on competitive balance in the First Division of the National Provincial Championship (NPC) has found the Division is becoming increasingly imbalanced. This dissertation extends the analysis of competitive balance in the NPC back to the inaugural competition (previous studies have only gone as far back as 1992) to ascertain if this increasing imbalance is a relatively recent phenomena or part of a longer term trend. We also investigate other dimensions of competitive balance that have not been studied before in the NPC context (specifically a temporal dimension, that is, the extent to which teams stay strong between seasons), using various economic and statistical tools. We show that one measure of competitive balance; the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, is sensitive to Division size changes, and therefore must be modified. This has been overlooked in the previous literature. Using our measures we generally find that the Division is becoming more imbalanced, although part of our analysis shows that this trend may have abated since the early 1990s. This backs up the Competitions Review's findings and therefore provides support for the New Zealand Rugby Union's planned changes to the competition.

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  • A bright shining line? :The use of Cournot modelling in submissions to the Commerce Commission regarding the proposed alliance of Air New Zealand and Qantas

    Willmott, Craig (2004-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    This study reviews the use of Cournot related models presented to the New Zealand Commerce Commission in relation to the proposed merger of Qantas and Air New Zealand. A model of quantity competition on the Christchurch—Brisbane route is then developed, and three scenarios are considered, including the merger of the two full service airlines and the role of Air New Zealand's ownership of Freedom Air. Key features of this model are the use of product differentiation and conjectural variations, the latter enabling the modelling of markets which are more (or less) competitive than basic Cournot theory would suggest.

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  • Variations in new firm formation rates: Analysis across New Zealand regions

    Wong, Jonathon (2004-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation investigates how regional characteristics affect new firm formation rates in 12 major labour market areas across New Zealand. Following from a series of studies across advanced market economies, panel data analysis with fixed and random-effects modelling is utilised to determine how a variety of regional factors such as unemployment, average household income and average firm size affect firm birth rates across 3 industry sectors: Manufacturing/building, service and retail/commercial trade. Results for New Zealand indicate that in general, firms are more likely to start up in regions with better access to unskilled labour, higher population density, higher population growth and a lower proportion of individuals with higher level qualifications.

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  • Automatic mood detection from electronic music data

    Johnston, Lincoln (2004-11-12)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Automatic mood detection from music has two main benefits. Firstly, having the knowledge of mood in advance can allow for possible enhancement of the music experience (such as mood-based visualizations) and secondly it makes 'query by mood' from music data-banks possible. This research is concerned with the automatic detection of mood from the electronic music genre, in particular that of drum and bass. The methodology was relatively simple, firstly sampling the music, and then giving a human pre-classification to the music (to use for training a classifier) via a point on a Thayer's model mood map. The samples then had low level signal processing features, mel frequency cepstral coefficient, psychoacoustic features and pitch image summary features extracted from them. These were then verified as useful via self organising maps and ranking via the feature selection techniques of information gain, gain ratio and symmetric uncertainty. The verified features were then used as training and testing (via cross-validation) data for a 3 layer perceptron neural network. Two approaches at feature extraction were used due to the first approach performing poorly at self organising map based cluster analysis. The mood classification scheme was then simplified to have four moods as opposed to 25. The main difference, however between the two approaches was based around different feature extraction window duration and different features. The second approach's features were used to train the neural network and the classification performed with classification accuracy rates no less than 84 %. Out of this research comes understanding of how one human's approximated perception can be captured and shows its use for determination of mood classifications from music.

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  • Design strategies for GUI items with touch screen based information systems

    Gleeson, Matthew (2004-11-12)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Touch screens are a popular method of interaction with information systems embedded in public kiosks and PDAs. Typical information systems are used on desktop PCs and therefore restricted to having a mouse as the selection device used to interact with the system. The purpose of this study is to investigate how effective a touch screen is in selecting typical GUI items used in information systems. A series of tests were completed involving multi directional point and select tasks. A mouse, being the standard selection device, was also tested so the results of the touch screen could be compared and evaluated against. The GUI items tested were a button, check box, combo box and a text box. The touch screen used was a 17" Magic Touch USB overlay. During the test, data relating to movement time, error rate and throughput were captured. The results showed that the touch screen overlay was not suitable in terms of selecting small targets with a size of 8mm or less. There was a significant difference between the touch screen and the mouse in terms of movement time and error rate. The touch screen overlay was 15% slower than the mouse and had a 61% error rate compared to the error rate of 2.7% for the mouse. There was no significant difference in throughput between a touch screen overlay and mouse. Both selection devices had throughput of 1.2 bps. User satisfaction relating to each device was evaluated using responses to a device assessment questionnaire, completed by each participant at the conclusion of the test. The mouse was rated easier to use and easier to make accurate selections with. Both results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The question regarding arm, wrist and finger fatigue was also statistically significant with the touch screen rated worse than the mouse. The report concludes with some practical implications of the study; namely that a touch screen overlay used only with a finger is not a practical selection device to use with typical information systems.

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  • Analysis of spatial distortions in a mental map using GPS and GIS

    Peake, Simon A J (2004-11-12)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Mental maps are a cartographic illustration of a person's internal representation of the spatial environment in which they live. They are often used to provide an insight into how different ethnic or social groups perceive their environment. A new method of measuring the distortions present in mental maps is developed and tested in this present project. A subject's true spatial environment is generated through the use of a global positioning system and compared with the subject's mental representation of their environment. The distortions of the mental maps are calculated by minimising the mental maps to a finite set of nodes and the difference between the mental map and the true spatial environment is calculated. A geographic information system is used to process and analyse the data. Results suggest distortions are apparent the further away subjects travel from their familiar environment, such as the immediate vicinity of their home. The data also indicates that there is an inherent scale at which mental maps operate.

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  • Disaster recovery planning: A New Zealand perspective

    Fitzsimons, Matthew (2004-11-12)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Disaster recovery planning is a cyclic process which has the goal of maintaining the availability of the information infrastructure, even in the event of a disaster. It is well documented that disaster recovery planning is important for organisations. It is, however, unclear if the business community is aware of this. As a result there is limited information on the acceptance of disaster recovery planning outside of the academic opinion, and even less within the New Zealand business community. This study attempts to remedy that, as it seeks to describe the state and opinions of disaster recovery planning within New Zealand. The study takes the form of a descriptive questionnaire which was delivered to 750 organisations, both privately owned companies and government departments were surveyed. The survey questioned organisations on three main categories pertaining to disaster recovery planning: cost of downtime, perceived importance of disaster recovery planning, and the state of disaster recovery planning within the organisation. It was found that New Zealand companies are better prepared than their American counterparts, with 75% of respondents having a disaster recovery plan. It was found that within New Zealand the perceived importance of disaster recovery planning is very high, this bodes well for the countries disaster preparedness.

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  • Money, medicine and mortality an empirical investigation into the link between health status and health care expenditure.

    Carson, Aaron (2004-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The purpose of this study was to investigate one possible cause for the recent rise OECD health care expenditures, namely the Sisyphus syndrome. In order for a Sisyphus syndrome to exist two dynamic relationships must hold. Firstly, health care expenditure (HCE) must be capable of increasing the life expectancy of the elderly. This is not necessarily guaranteed within developed nations because of the diminishing returns associated with HCE. To examine this, a health production function for a panel of 9 OECD nations over the period 1988 to 1998 was estimated. The first relationship was found to exist with HCE positively contributing to the life expectancies of the elderly (with a lag of five years) at the margin. Secondly, these increased life expectancies must extend the planning horizon of the elderly, encouraging the further consumption of HCE. In short, the Sisyphus syndrome predicts a cycle in which increased HCE will feed back upon itself. This was examined by estimating a HCE function. From this, no evidence was found to support the second relationship. Therefore the rising HCE in the OECD cannot be explained by a Sisyphus syndrome. Future studies should look to explore other avenues to explain rising HCEs.

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  • Factors influencing the adoption of wireless networks in New Zealand businesses

    Bryce, Stefan John (2004-11-12)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Wireless networking is a current topic in information science and the business world is beginning to adapt to this new technology. This study proposes to assess what percentage of New Zealand businesses have adopted wireless, and try to determine what the major influences are on companies adopting a wireless network. Based upon the literature review, suitable companies to target were determined and surveyed. This study questioned the top 500 businesses in New Zealand and 250 government agencies as to their wireless use, and what was, or is the major factor influencing their decision to adopt wireless networking. It also addressed the differences in perceptions of wireless between those companies that have adopted wireless, and those that have not. It was discovered that the most influential factor on businesses adopting wireless was security. Some of the other factors that influenced businesses decisions were cost, range and bandwidth. It was also discovered that of those companies that were concerned about security, there was a difference between the perceptions of wireless between those that have adopted wireless, and those that have not.

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  • Wireless communications: An analysis of wireless standards in the telecommunications business sector of New Zealand

    Hurley, Matthew Tremain (2004-11-12)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Wireless networking is making rapid inroads as a viable alternative to traditional wired networks for businesses where convenience and mobility is important for day to day operations. However, the improved convenience brings with it concerns for the confidentiality of information. This is because wireless network transmissions are easily accessible to outsiders. There is therefore a need for security mechanisms to stop intruders from accessing confidential business information. Currently there are wireless standards such as 802.11(a, b, and g), Bluetooth, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and General System for Mobile Communications (GSM), which have built in security features to secure wireless transmissions. These security features are currently employed in the wireless standards used by companies in the telecommunications sector of New Zealand. This dissertation reveals many of the flaws of these security features. This study was conducted to consider: (i) The prevalence of current wireless standards in the telecommunications business sector of New Zealand; (ii) The perceived security of these wireless standards by companies in the telecommunications sector of New Zealand; (iii) Whether the security features of these wireless standards are suitably sufficient to ensure secure wireless transmissions; and (iv) Whether there are any reasons for slowing, or even stopping, the influx of wireless networks in New Zealand. The study concludes that businesses in this sector will use wireless networks only where they have total confidence that the networks are secure.

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  • A cross-country investigation into the fundamental determinants of health status

    Jones, Michael (2004-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    A recent series of papers attempting to estimate the fundamental or deep determinants of cross-country income levels finds that the quality of institutions 'trumps' all other possible deep determinants. This dissertation employs a similar methodology to this literature in order to estimate the fundamental determinants of health status, another important measure of economic development. Two-stage least squares is used to estimate a static, parsimonious, cross-country regression model developed to evaluate the relative importance of geographical characteristics, institutions, religion, and ethnic diversity as deep determinants of three health indicators: life expectancy, infant mortality and child mortality. Institutional structure is found to be the most important deep determinant of cross-country health status. Countries that have a strong system of law, adequate property rights and sufficient checks against government expropriation, in general, have higher life expectancies and lower rates of child and infant mortality. This result appears to be robust to including religion and ethnic diversity variables in the regressions, to changes in the proxy variables for institutional quality and geography, and to alterations in the set of instrumental variables.

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  • Evaluating the supplementary road safety package: Models that count

    Irvine, Stephen (2004-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    In an attempt to lower the level of road trauma in New Zealand, the Land Transport Safety Authority introduced the Supplementary Road Safety Package (SRSP) in October 1995. The package consists of targeted speed and alcohol enforcement, and features graphic television advertising highlighting the consequences of unsafe driving. Over the first four years the campaign was allocated a budget of NZ$50.06 million and charged with reducing 80 fatalities, 450 serious injuries and 1600 minor injuries. Although a requirement of the package's approval was that it be thoroughly evaluated, no consistent conclusion has been drawn. Recognising the discrete and strictly positive nature of road trauma measures, this dissertation adds to the body of literature by adopting statistical modelling techniques specifically designed for the analysis of such count variables: The Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models. While the Poisson model finds a significant level effect on the number of serious injuries from the SRSP's introduction, no statistically significant effect is found using the more appropriate Negative Binomial model.

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  • Soil compaction : a direct consequence of dairy cattle treading

    Crawford, Diana J. (2004)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    84 leaves :illus., diagrs., (3 fold. in pocket), maps (1 fold. col. in pocket) ; 27 cm. Bibliography: p. 81-84. University of Otago department: Geography.

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