18 results for Undergraduate, 2005

  • Ngati Apa: Legally sound but bravely apolitical

    Dunlop, Jane (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    University of Otago department: Law.

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  • The hill of health : aspects of community at Waipiata Sanatorium 1923-1961

    Haugh, Susan Margaret (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    102 leaves, [21] p. of plates :ill., facsim., map, ports. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 101-102.

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  • Loving our national parks to death

    Mann, Amber (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iii, 91 leaves :col. ill., plan ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Māori Perspectives on the Foreshore and Seabed Debate: A Dunedin Case Study

    Suszko, Abby (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    On 19 June 2003, the Court of Appeal ruled that the Māori Land Court had the power to decide foreshore and seabed claims lodged by Māori and to determine ownership. The decision also ruled that the Crown’s assumption of sovereignty was radical and thus it did not extinguish Māori title to land, including the foreshore and seabed. Although not a revolutionary decision, the Court’s ruling launched the nation into a fierce debate, bringing up the issues of beach access and ownership, public interest, customary usage, rights and title, aboriginal, or native, title, Indigenous rights, ‘the public domain’, Crown authority and the Treaty of Waitangi. All these arguments became entwined with political considerations. The mainstream media widely broadcast claims that Māori would restrict access, alienate the foreshore and seabed and veto development, resulting in fear from many Pākehā that they had lost their right to go to the beach. The Government reacted severely, choosing to change the law so to place the foreshore and seabed in Crown hands. Although the mainstream media acknowledged that the majority of Māori were against the proposed legislation, the reasons for this were never explained. Through this dissertation I will show that there is a plethora of reasons for Māori dissension. I also argue that for Māori, the key issues in the debate are not those portrayed in the mainstream media.

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  • Dynamically modelling social and intellectual capital in the search for prolonged value creation

    Casey, Brian (2005-11)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    In Social capital, intellectual capital and the organizational advantage Janine Nahapict and Stanantra Ghoshal (1998b) explore how intellectual capital is created through the combination and exchange of existing intellectual resources, and how this process is mobilised through social capital. This in turn is demonstrated to be a source of organizational advantage. The approach outlined in this work encourages the use of Nahapiet and Cihoshal along with Kauffmann's NK model as the theoretical cornerstone for the development of empirical research. Agent based simulations based of Kauffman's NK model may capture and generalize the key properties of this value creation process. This approach offers very promising avenues for improving an understanding of the social processes, as characterized by nonlinearity, positive feedback and sense making; features, as stated, that are currently not captured by the traditional strategic management.

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  • Modelling Workflow Using Web Services

    Porteous, Katrina (2005-11-11)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The use of web services technology is becoming more widespread with many businesses wishing to provide services to their clients over the Internet. Although web services technology is currently the best method for providing services remotely over the Internet it does not provide any concept of state or any way to model workflow. This has resulted in new specifications to deal with these issues, namely WSRF and BPEL4WS. In order to effectively model certain types of workflow, such as that of the Chem-Search laboratory, there needs to be a method for integrating BPEL4WS and WSRF, so that stateful workflow can be modelled. This research proposed a method of integration using a proxy service to enable BPEL4WS to support WSRF that was evaluated by modelling the workflow of the laboratory. The results showed that the method enabled BPEL4WS to work with WSRF and provided a mechanism that ensured a client always had a valid endpoint reference to the WSRF web service. This research also raised some problems with the specifications and tools used to implement this method that would need to be resolved to ensure the widespread adoption and standardisation of these specifications.

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  • Social presence and communication quality in videoconferencing

    Hills, Aimee Louise (2005-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Three-dimensional videoconferencing tools are thought to be less artificial than conventional videoconferencing tools and therefore have the potential to support more complex business tasks. Social Presence serves as a measure of the naturalness of communication. However, a communications media that supports high Social Presence does not imply that the communication process within the media is of a high quality. This research evaluates Social Presence within two videoconferencing setups, a traditional `two-dimensional' interface and a newly emerging `threedimensional' virtual one. An initial study compares these with a face-to-face setup using two existing Social Presence measures and finds one to be sensitive enough to find variations in the Social Presence levels emitted This questionnaire is used in a second study along with items constructed from an extensive literature review to explore communication quality within each interface. A significant difference in the supported Social Presence was found. Initial thoughts on communication quality are also discussed.

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  • Relevance and reliability: A trade-off?

    Cocker, Antoinette L (2005-10-17)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    According to the Statement of Concepts, two qualitative characteristics that financial accounting information should possess are relevance and reliability. There is a long-held belief that there is a trade-off relationship between these qualities. However, very little empirical investigation has tested the presence of this relationship, and that which has found no empirical support for this. This dissertation investigates the correlation of interest groups’ perception differences between the relevance and reliability of historical cost and fair value measures. 397 participants from three interest groups; debt providers, equity providers, and statement preparers, were solicited for this sample, with 228 (57.4%) usable responses received. The convergence toward International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), and its preference for fair value, was utilised as the setting for this investigation. With the belief that there is a trade-off in relevance and reliability with the move from historical cost toward fair value, six topical asset classification examples were tested. Individual analysis of the three groups found a positive relationship, which was significant on almost all occasions, between the perceptions of relevance and reliability. While the results go against the long-held belief of a trade-off between relevance and reliability, the results are consistent with previous empirical findings in this area. These research results have implications for standard setters that advocate, and mandate, the use of historical cost which appears to provide information which is both less relevant, and less reliable.

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  • Activity-based costing in New Zealand: An assessment of ABC users and non-users in the New Zealand firm environment

    Moll, Sarah Elizabeth (2005-10-17)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation explores Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the New Zealand firm environment. A questionnaire is distributed to users and non-users of ABC, in order to determine the differences between these two groups in relation to the perceived advantages of ABC, organisational complexity, satisfaction with costing, and performance. The influence of top management support and whether a particular strategy is evident is also examined in relation to ABC users. The results indicate that ABC users or those considering an ABC adoption have a more optimistic perception of advantages realised from ABC than non-users. No particular strategy is employed by ABC users and it also apparent that not all companies consider ABC to be tied to their competitive strategy. It is also found that not all elements of complexity necessarily precede an ABC adoption. A significant difference in satisfaction with costing is indicated between ABC users and non-users who are considering or have considered and rejected ABC. Similarly, a statistically significant difference is found between the performance of ABC users and non-users when it is indicated that the benefits of ABC outweighed the costs. The results suggest that ABC is beneficial in the New Zealand firm environment. Exploring the extent of implementation and influences such as size and industry in future research will add to the understanding of ABC in the New Zealand firm environment.

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  • The role of respect in leadership

    Worthington, Amber (2005-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Many managers acknowledge respect in leadership as crucial in order to get the best out of staff. However, there are a number of managers who have yet to recognise the importance of respect in leadership processes and leader-follower exchanges. Therefore, the present study investigates the role of respect by examining the relationship between leadership and organisational outcomes, such as work-related attitudes and the impact respect has on influencing this relation. Two surveys were conducted in nineteen organisations in the cities of Auckland and Dunedin (New Zealand). The results of the surveys showed that respect moderated transactional leadership, such that, transactional leadership behavioural characteristics were associated with higher levels of follower job satisfaction when leaders treated staff with dignity and respect in interactions. The results extended the research on leadership and work attitudes by examining respect and its effect on leadership processes and work-related attitudes. This research serves as a step towards better understanding how leaders can further satisfy their followers, and improve their work-related attitudes by treating them with dignity and respect in exchanges. Additionally, the results provide a contribution to further understanding the conditions under which transactional leaders can be more effective in terms of their impact on follower work-related attitudes and organisational performance.

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  • Are poor countries above their steady-state income levels? – A time-series analysis

    Liu, Xiaoxiao (2005-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    This paper criticizes Cho and Graham's argument that poor countries converge from above their steady-state income levels, based on their misspecification of formulating the steady-state income by omitting the variation in the base period technology across countries when estimating steady-state income. This paper also questions the cross-country regression methodology, which generally ignores the changes in variables over time. A time-series approach is employed to analyse the long-run behaviour of actual and steady-state income levels for a group of seven developing countries, which are observed to be above their steady-states in Cho and Graham (1996). An error-correction-based-test is used to examine the existence of cointegration. The results suggest that these countries' actual and steady-state income per capita tend to move together over time, which is consistent with the Solow model's prediction.

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  • A sure thing a seemingly unrelated test of international trade models for New Zealand

    Allen, James (2005-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation empirically tests the extent to which three alternative trade theories explain the pattern of New Zealand's international trade. This is accomplished by nesting a gravity equation, the Heckscher-Ohlin model and Linder's overlapping demands hypothesis in an econometric model. The model is estimated separately for imports and exports over a system of 12 commodity groupings. Due to the similarity between the regressions over the 12 commodities, Zellner's (1962) Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE) estimation method is employed. The results indicate that, the gravity model has the most explanatory power and shows only weak support for the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem and the overlapping demands hypothesis.

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  • Performance of relational databases versus native XML databases

    Williams, Anne (2005-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The popularity of Extensible Markup Language (x.mii) has grown with the rise in use of the World Wide Web and it has become a standard means of data exchange. This development has created the need to store and manage XML documents efficiently and hence the creation of the Native XML Database (NXD). Claims have been made to support the efficiency of this technology with the storage and management of document-centric data over the prevailing Relational Database Management System(RDBMS). This research thus aims to discover evidence supporting the conclusion that there will be a significant difference in performance between a RDBMS and a NXD with the storage and management of document-centric data. Performance is based on the required execution time for a set of queries that implement the possible types of disk access. The query set is run on an instance of each database type and query-execution-time is collected and analysed to provide a measure of performance. This paper concludes there is a significant difference in performance between the database types and further concludes that performance, if based on query-execution time, is dependent on specific task.

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  • Explaining the geographical variation in firm births across industries in New Zealand

    White, Angus (2005-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Previous studies have shown that firm births are linked to productivity growth and that birth rates are high in New Zealand compared to many other OECD countries, largely as a result of low barriers to entry and low costs of starting up a firm. Research on the variation in firm birth rates across regions is still a relatively new and growing field with little work being done with regards to New Zealand or in considering differences between industries. This paper identifies factors that influence firm birth rates across New Zealand territorial authorities, and investigates how the effects of these factors vary across industries. Studies have investigated a range of characteristics that may affect the firm birth rates across regions. This paper uses mainly demographic and industry information to study the effect of growth in demand, agglomeration (urbanisation and industry specialisation), barriers to entry, input costs, market access, labour force characteristics and general economic conditions on firm birth rates across single-digit industry classifications. It is found that in general, industry density (a measure of the number of firms) and growth in demand are the main influences on firm births but a number of the other factors show differing influences depending on which industry is considerd. Reasons for why certain variables may affect particular industries differently are discussed along with potential areas for further research.

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  • Leader integrity: Development of the leader integrity scale based on a behavioural definition of integrity

    Woolley, Lydia (2005-10-31)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Integrity is a fundamental principle that contributes to ethical business practices. Integrity is a guiding principle for organisational values and practices. Leaders must model integrity so that it is valued in the organisation's culture. Empirical research focusing on is integrity limited. This is due to the absence of a definition of integrity that can be empirically tested, and the unavailability of a measurement instrument. This present study firstly defined integrity in behavioural terms, and secondly developed the Leader Integrity Scale to measure leader integrity. The internal, convergent, and discriminant validity of the Leader Integrity Scale was tested using a sample of management students. Participants completed a questionnaire that included the Leader Integrity Scale and other leadership and organisational scales. The results showed that the Leader Integrity Scale is a highly inter-correlated, unidimensional scale. Both convergent and discriminat validity between the Leader Integrity Scale and the other scales was found. The internal, convergent, and discriminant validity results formed the basis of reducing the Leader Integrity Scale down to a 24-items scale. Future directions and implications for leader integrity were discussed.

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  • The impact of the business case for sustainable development upon New Zealand organisations

    Simpson, Rebecca (2005-10-17)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Corporate social disclosure is the provision of information regarding the impact of an organisation upon the natural environment and society. There is no consensus in the literature as to why some organisations voluntarily provide this information although one explanation for this may be the business case for sustainable development (BCSD). The impact of the BCSD upon New Zealand organisations was assessed by comparing their corporate social disclosure and profitability over a four year period with organisations that do not adopt the BCSD. The impact of legitimacy and stakeholder theories upon the BCSD and the disclosure of organisations was also considered. An assessment was also made regarding the compliance of those adopting the BCSD with social and environmental legislation. The findings suggest that there is no difference, with regard to corporate social disclosure and profitability, between organisations who adopt the BCSD and those who do not. The disclosures made by the sample were also found, in some instances, to be consistent with the explanations of corporate social disclosure put forward by legitimacy and stakeholder theories. Furthermore, some organisations who have adopted the BCSD were found to have acted inconsistently with its philosophy by breaching employee-related legislation and making no disclosure of this. It appears that the BCSD has not been fully integrated into the activities of those who profess to adopt it. It is believed that until organisations take this step, their behaviour and disclosure of social and environmental information is unlikely to be improved.

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  • Corporate social disclosure: Effect of perceptions on support of environmental group members

    Aspinall, Rachal S (2005-10-17)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    This study investigates the relationship between the perception of organisational corporate social and environmental disclosure (CSD) held by environmental group members and their support for organisations. Due to the significant costs associated with the provision of CSD, it is important to examine what benefits may or may not ensue from CSD provision. A review of the literature revealed a lack of research examining the views of CSD held by stakeholders. A specifically developed questionnaire was sent to members of six environmental groups listed on the Green Pages web-site. In total, 36 questionnaires were returned, limiting the results of the study. A regression analysis was undertaken, which revealed no significant relationship between perception and support. A lack of knowledge of CSD appears to constrain respondents’ perceptions. However, a negative feeling towards CSD was received from a number of respondents.

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  • Molecular phylogenetics of Antarctic Sea spiders (Pycnogonida)

    Nielsen, Johanna Fønss (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, but available by request, use the feedback form to request access. Sea spiders, or pycnogonids, are a unique group of exclusively marine invertebrates that are found worldwide. A scarcity of pycnogonid research is reflected in the unclear position of this group with regards to the phylum Arthropoda and lack of certainty in their family-level phylogeny. Traditionally, the pycnogonid phylogeny has relied on the external morphological characters of temperate, shallow water species. The Antarctic sea spider fauna displays a high degree of endemism and a number of species have the potential to address several long-standing questions regarding the pycnogonid evolution. This research uses new sequence data from Antarctic species to provide the most complete molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of the Pycnogonida, and is the first study to formally test a number of alternative hypotheses on the interfamilial relationships of this group of organisms. The BioRoss 2004 pycnogonid collection was classified into 18 different OTUs (5 families & 10 genera) and used, in combination with publicly accessible sequences, to provide samples for this study. Partial regions of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and protein coding COI loci were sequenced for each dataset, and the concatenated data tested for incongruence using the Partition of Homogeneity test. The distance based Neighbour Joining and character based Maximum Likelihood tree-building algorithms were used to reconstruct the pycnogonid phylogeny for each locus independently and as a concatenated dataset. A series of alternative evolutionary hypotheses based on previous studies were examined via the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. The primary hypothesis examined was the cephalic appendage reductive trend, which implies that ancestral sea spider taxa possess the greatest complexity of anterior appendages. On all the individual locus trees the family Nymphonidae were the earliest diverged lineage of pycnogonids, although low resolution at the roots of the trees implies that the data are not strong enough to reject an alternative hypothesis of a basal Ammotheidae group. Pycnogonidae is not the most recently derived sea spider family and the cephalic appendage loss hypothesis is thus rejected. None of the phylogenies supported a close relationship between the Colossendeidae and Nymphonidae families and doubt is raised over the true identification of several GenBank sequences. Polymerous species do not form a combined, ancestral group but are instead more likely to represent recent divergences from three separate families. Strong evidence supports the placement of the transient Austropallene genus (Callipallenidae) at the base of the Nymphonidae family. This study, and ongoing work, has generated large amounts of new sequence data. This can be used in future pycnogonid phylogenetic research and/or in investigations on the highly contentious position of the Pycnogonida with regards to the phylum Arthropoda. A DNA Surveillance website has been created to assist in the molecular identification of pycnogonids from future benthic bio-discovery expeditions (http://www.dna-surveillance.auckland.ac.nz).

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