5,516 results for Share

  • A cost-effective electric vehicle charging method designed for residential homes with renewable energy

    Lie, TT; Liang, X; Haque, MH

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

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  • An evaluation of seasonal variations in footwear worn by adults with inflammatory arthritis: a cross-sectional observational study using a web-based survey

    Brenton-Rule, A; Hendry, GJ; Barr, G; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Foot problems are common in adults with inflammatory arthritis and therapeutic footwear can be effective in managing arthritic foot problems. Accessing appropriate footwear has been identified as a major barrier, resulting in poor adherence to treatment plans involving footwear. Indeed, previous New Zealand based studies found that many people with rheumatoid arthritis and gout wore inappropriate footwear. However, these studies were conducted in a single teaching hospital during the New Zealand summer therefore the findings may not be representative of footwear styles worn elsewhere in New Zealand, or reflect the potential influence of seasonal climate changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate seasonal variations in footwear habits of people with inflammatory arthritic conditions in New Zealand. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using a web-based survey. The survey questions were designed to elicit demographic and clinical information, features of importance when choosing footwear and seasonal footwear habits, including questions related to the provision of therapeutic footwear/orthoses and footwear experiences. Results: One-hundred and ninety-seven participants responded who were predominantly women of European descent, aged between 46–65 years old, from the North Island of New Zealand. The majority of participants identified with having either rheumatoid arthritis (35%) and/or osteoarthritis (57%) and 68% reported established disease (>5 years duration). 18% of participants had been issued with therapeutic footwear. Walking and athletic shoes were the most frequently reported footwear type worn regardless of the time of year. In the summer, 42% reported wearing sandals most often. Comfort, fit and support were reported most frequently as the footwear features of greatest importance. Many participants reported difficulties with footwear (63%), getting hot feet in the summer (63%) and the need for a sandal which could accommodate a supportive insole (73%). Conclusions: Athletic and walking shoes were the most popular style of footwear reported regardless of seasonal variation. During the summer season people with inflammatory arthritis may wear sandals more frequently in order to accommodate disease-related foot deformity. Healthcare professionals and researchers should consider seasonal variation when recommending appropriate footwear, or conducting footwear studies in people with inflammatory arthritis, to reduce non-adherence to prescribed footwear.

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  • GREEN Grid Choice Modelling preliminary report

    Williams, John Richard (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

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  • The ethics of predictive risk modelling in the Aotearoa/New Zealand child welfare context: child abuse prevention or neo-liberal tool?

    Keddell, Emily (2014-07-28)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The current White Paper on Vulnerable Children before the Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ) parliament proposes changes that will significantly reconstruct the child welfare systems in this country, including the use of a predictive risk model (PRM). This article explores the ethics of this strategy in a child welfare context. Tensions exist, including significant ethical problems such as the use of information without consent, breaches of privacy and stigmatisation, without clear evidence of the benefits outweighing these costs. Broader implicit assumptions about the causes of child abuse and risk and their intersections with the wider discursive, political and systems design contexts are also discussed. Drawing on Houston et. al. (2010) this paper highlights the potential for a PRM to contribute to a neo-liberal agenda that individualises social problems, reifies risk and abuse, and narrowly prescribes service provision. However, with reference to child welfare and child protection orientations, the paper suggests ways the model could be used in a more ethical manner.

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  • Foregone profit in the wine industry

    Neuninger, Rosemarie; Mather, Damien William; Duncan, Tara (2015-06-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Background and Aims: Wine awards are frequently used as extrinsic cues for wine categories. The aim of this paper is to show the forgone profit arising from failures to make optimal use of awards when positioning wine brands to consumer segments. Methods and Results: Four award statuses were tested: a well-known award, multiple awards, a fictitious award used as a control (an award without consumer trust) and, no award. Participants tasted eight wine samples: the first four without extrinsic cues; the next four used extrinsic cues with varying award status. Each sample was rated for liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Low-involvement consumers’ perceived liking and price willing to pay were improved by multiple (real gold) awards compared to high-involvement consumers. Conclusions: Trust in awards increased the price consumers were willing to pay for wine with an award. For high-involvement consumers who distrusted awards, multiple wine awards and fictitious awards negatively influenced perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Significance of the Study: This is the first study to report on the combined influence of wine awards and consumers’ sensory perceptions of wine on perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay.

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  • Copyright Payments in Eighteenth-Century Britain, 1701–1800

    Fielding, David; Rogers, Shef (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Understanding the Etiology of Electoral Violence: The Case of Zimbabwe

    Fielding, David (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent theoretical and empirical work indicates that incumbent governments are likely to attempt to influence election outcomes by violent means (rather than by bribery and fraud) when their level of popular support is relatively low. However, evidence also suggests that in some countries electoral violence can be quite easy to thwart through peaceful means. This may seem surprising when the incumbent has control over an extensive and well-equipped state security apparatus. The analysis of Zimbabwean data in this paper suggests an explanation: the incumbent prefers to avoid the direct involvement of the state security apparatus when intimidating voters (perhaps because such involvement would undermine the incumbent’s legitimacy abroad), and relies instead on informal groups with very limited organizational capacity. One consequence in Zimbabwe is that the intimidation is heavily focused in places where the incumbent is relatively popular, ceteris paribus.

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  • Does Charity Begin at Home or Overseas?

    Knowles, Stephen; Sullivan, Trudy (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We conduct a field experiment to analyse whether a representative sample of the population has a preference for giving money to an international development charity or to a charity helping families in need in the home country. The majority of participants reveal a preference for giving to the local charity, rather than the international development charity. Participants were given the option of commenting on why they chose the charity they did, and we conduct a qualitative analysis of these responses. We also analyse quantitatively whether participants’ individual characteristics are correlated with the choice of charity.

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  • Characterisation of rhizobia associated with New Zealand native legumes (Fabaceae) and a study of nitrogen assimilation in Sophora microphylla

    Tan, Heng Wee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Many legume species have the capacity to fix atmospheric N₂ via symbiotic bacteria (generally termed “rhizobia”) in root nodules and this can give them an advantage under low soil N conditions if other factors are favourable for growth. There are four genera of native legumes, on the main New Zealand (NZ) islands. These are the closely related Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, within the tribe Sophoreae: all are capable of nodulation. Little work has been done on the genotypic characterisation and host-range specificity of the rhizobia associated with NZ native legumes. Moreover, the ability of native legumes to assimilate soil N in comparison with their N₂ fixation has not been assessed. The primary objectives of this research were to 1) more fully characterise the rhizobia associated with the four genera of NZ native legumes, including their ability to cross nodulate different species and 2) assess the ability of Sophora microphylla to assimilate soil N in comparison with its N₂ fixation. Gene sequencing results indicated that the bacterial strains isolated from NZ native legumes growing in natural ecosystems in the current and previous studies were of the genus Mesorhizobium. Generally, the Carmichaelinae and Sophora species were nodulated by two separate groups of Mesorhizobium strains. Ten strains isolated from the Carmichaelinae showed 16S rRNA and nifH similar to the M. huakuii type strain, but had variable recA and glnII genes, novel nodA and nodC genes and the seven strains tested could produce functional nodules over a range of Carmichaelinae species but did not nodulate Sophora species. Forty eight strains isolated from Sophora spp. showed 16S rRNA similar to the M. ciceri or M. amorphae type strains, variable recA, glnII and rpoB genes and novel and specific nifH, nodA and nodC genes which were different from those of the Carmichaelinae strains. Twenty one Sophora strains tested were able to produce functional nodules on a range of Sophora spp. but none nodulated C. australis. However, eighteen of the twenty one strains produced functional nodules on Cl. puniceus. These results indicate that, in general, the ability of different rhizobial strains to produce functional nodules on NZ native legumes is likely to be dependent on specific symbiosis genes. Clianthus puniceus appears to be more promiscuous in rhizobial host than the other NZ native legumes species tested. Generally, strains isolated from NZ native Sophora spp. from the same field site grouped together in relation to their “housekeeping” gene sequences and ERIC-PRC fingerprinting banding patterns. Most strains were able to grow at pH 3 – pH 11 but only one showed phosphorus solubilisation ability and none showed siderophore production. The strains showed differences in their ability to promote the growth of S. microphylla under glasshouse conditions. DNA-DNA hybridisation tests indicated that strains isolated from New Zealand native Sophora spp. are of several new Mesorhizobium species. The ability of S. microphylla to utilise soil NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in comparison with its N₂ fixation was assessed under glasshouse conditions. N₂ fixing (nodulated) plants showed substantially greater growth and tissue N content than those relying solely on NH₄NO₃, NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺ up to the equivalent of 200 kg N ha⁻¹ and N limitation is likely to have been the major cause of reduced growth of non-N₂ fixing (non-nodulated) plants. NO₃⁻ levels were negligible in plant tissues regardless of NO₃⁻ supply, indicating that virtually all NO₃⁻ taken up was assimilated. Thus, there appears to be a limitation on the amount of NO₃⁻ that S. microphylla can take up. However, it is possible that S. microphylla could not access NO₃⁻ in the potting mix and further work is required using different substrate and more regular NO₃⁻ applications to confirm this. Plants showed NH₄⁺ toxicity symptoms at 25 kg NH₄⁺-N ha⁻¹ and above. Nitrate reductase activity was not detected in roots or leaves of mature S. microphylla in the field: all plants were nodulated. Overall, the two major findings of this research are 1) NZ native legumes are nodulated by diverse and novel Mesorhizobium species and 2) S. microphylla seedlings have limited ability to utilise soil inorganic N. Important future work based on the results obtained in this research is discussed.

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  • Incunabula in Special Collections, University of Otago Library

    Kerr, Donald (2010)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Special Collections, University of Otago Library, houses 42 examples of pre-1501 early printed books that represent 15th century printmanship from Italy, German, Switzerland, and France. There is one highly unusual English sample: four binding fragments printed by William Caxton, and John Lettou, about 1480 and bound in a 1481 edition of Nicolas de Lyra’s Commentaria in bibliam (no.7). There is a selection of printers, ranging from Johann Amerbach, Peter Drach, Ulrich Han, and Georg Husner to Anton Koberger, Aldus Manuitus, Johann Mentelin, and Johannes Trechsel. Operating from European towns such as Basel, Speyer, Rome, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Venice, Strassburg, and Lyon, their productions reflect their expertise and resources in this burgeoning industry. Typefaces, style, and quality of printing and bookmaking also vary. Indeed, the collection contains items that are typographical masterpieces (no. 7); others are downright pedestrian. Barring one book in German and another in Latin and Greek, all of the other books are in Latin, the predominant language for the printed word before 1500. Given that most of the books are tied to established bibliographies, the descriptions attached are brief. However, the descriptions are grounded in the books at Otago, especially to condition and provenance. There has been some modernization of letters. References used follow the catalogue listing, as do printer and location indexes. Images accompany most entries, offering a brief glimpse of the book and its make-up. They highlight bindings, decorations such as woodcut initials and illustrations, title-page samples, rubrications, typefaces, colophons and printer’s devices, and provenance and bibliographical information (often on endpapers). Notable highlights include Liber chronicarum (The Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493), Boccaccio’s De genealogiae deorum gentilium, an encyclopedia of pagan gods, a book of medical aphorisms translated from Arabic in to Latin (1484), the Aldine printing of Institutiones Graecae Grammaticae (1497), and a leaf of the Nuremberg Bible, printed by Anton Koberger, 1483. The prime purpose of this descriptive list is to raise the awareness of the existence of these books in New Zealand (and at the University of Otago, Dunedin) and encourage scholarly use in them. Like their vellum counter-parts, the medieval manuscripts, these survivors of a bygone age have their own distinct beauty and specific usefulness, be it textual or physical. They stand as very useful resources, especially to Early Modern scholars. Special thanks to Dr Christopher de Hamel (Parker Library, Cambridge); John Goldfinch (British Library); Dr Falk Eisermann (State Library, Berlin); Klaus Graf (University of Freiburg), Michael Laird (Texas), Bettina Wagner (Bavarian State Library, Munich); and Anthony Tedeschi (University of Melbourne Special Collections). No list is without flaws. To this end, feedback is appreciated, either through email, letter, or in person. I welcome comments and suggestions.

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  • Robert Graves: Poeta 1895-1985. Works by Robert Graves in Special Collections, University of Otago Library

    Kerr, Donald (2012)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    On the headstone that marks his grave at Deyá, Marjorca, there is the simple: ‘Robert Graves Poeta 1895-1985’. And it was this aspect that attracted Charles Brasch, editor, patron and poet, to the works of Graves, calling him ‘among the finest English poets of our time, one of the few who is likely to be remembered as a poet.’ Indeed, not only did Brasch collect his own first editions volumes written by Graves, but he encouraged the University of Otago Library to buy more. Thanks to Brasch, Special Collections at the University of Otago now has an extensive collection of works (poetry, novels, essays, children’s books) by him. Born at Wimbledon in 1895, Graves had an Irish father, a German mother, an English upbringing, and a classical education. Enlisting in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, Graves faced the horrors of World War I. He was wounded by shrapnel, left for dead and later able to read his own obituary in The London Times. In 1929, he penned Goodbye To All That, his war-time autobiography which gave him success and fame. And aside from his regular output of poetry books, he wrote historical novels such as I Claudius (1934) and Claudius the God (1934), The White Goddess (1948), the heady study on matriarchal worship and poetry that in the sixties became a source book for readers of the Whole Earth Catalog, and the very successful The Greek Myths (1955). By 1975, effectively the end of his writing career, he had written a total of some 135 books, including The Golden Fleece (1944), Seven Days in New Crete (1949), his critical The Crowning Privilege (1956) and Oxford Addresses on Poetry (1964), and Collected Poems of 1975. If nothing else is claimed for him, this unkempt (thick curly hair, broken nose, an irregular face), honest, independent, sometimes truculent, unorthodox romantic wrote for a living and to support himself as a poet. The Robert Graves Collection in Special Collections consists of first and second editions, signed limited publications, reprints, translations, and illustrative editions, all of which reveal the full scope and range of topics that Graves dealt with. They also reflect his sheer industry. And there is the all-important poetry, at first about the war, then to the three loves of his life: Nancy Nicholson, Laura Riding, and Beryl Pritchard. The collection is by no means complete, and when possible volumes will be added to it. To date, there are no manuscripts.

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  • Generation Y Mobilities: Full Report

    Hopkins, Debbie; Stephenson, Janet (2015-04-29)

    Report
    University of Otago

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  • Generation Y Mobilities: Highlights

    Hopkins, Debbie; Stephenson, Janet (2015-04-29)

    Report
    University of Otago

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  • Protective socks for people with diabetes: a systematic review and narrative analysis

    Otter, S; Rome, K; Ihaka, B; South, A; Smith, M; Gupta, A; Joseph, F; Heslop, P

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Padded socks to protect the at-risk diabetic foot have been available for a number of years. However, the evidence base to support their use is not well known. We aimed to undertake a systematic review of padded socks for people with diabetes. Additionally, a narrative analysis of knitted stitch structures, yarn and fibres used together with the proposed benefits fibre properties may add to the sock. Assessment of the methodological quality was undertaken using a quality tool to assess non-randomised trials. From the 81 articles identified only seven met the inclusion criteria. The evidence to support to use of padded socks is limited. There is a suggestion these simple-to-use interventions could be of value, particularly in terms of plantar pressure reduction. However, the range of methods used and limited methodological quality limits direct comparison between studies. The socks were generally of a sophisticated design with complex use of knit patterns and yarn content. This systematic review provides limited support for the use of padded socks in the diabetic population to protect vulnerable feet. More high quality studies are needed; including qualitative components of sock wear and sock design, prospective randomized controlled trials and analysis of the cost-effectiveness of protective socks as a non-surgical intervention.

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  • Perceived barriers of New Zealand podiatrists in the management of arthritis

    Lansdowne, N; Brenton-Rule, A; Carroll, M; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background Rheumatic conditions can have a significant impact on the feet and requires effective management. Podiatric involvement in the management of rheumatic conditions has previously been found to be inadequate in a hospital-setting and no study has examined current trends across New Zealand. The aim was to evaluate the perceived barriers of New Zealand podiatrists in the management of rheumatic conditions. Methods A cross-sectional observational design using a web-based survey. The self-administered survey, comprising of thirteen questions, was made available to podiatrists currently practicing in New Zealand. Results Fifty-six podiatrists responded and the results demonstrated poor integration of podiatrists into multidisciplinary teams caring for patients with arthritic conditions in New Zealand. Dedicated clinical sessions were seldom offered (16%) and few podiatrists reported being part of an established multidisciplinary team (16%). A poor uptake of clinical guidelines was reported (27%) with limited use of patient reported outcome measures (39%). The majority of podiatrists expressed an interest in professional development for the podiatric management of arthritic conditions (95%). All surveyed podiatrists (100%) agreed that there should be nationally developed clinical guidelines for foot care relating to arthritis. Conclusions The results suggest that there are barriers in the involvement of podiatrists in the management of people with rheumatic conditions in New Zealand. Future studies may provide an in-depth exploration into these findings to identify and provide solutions to overcome potential barriers.

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  • National Household Survey of Energy and Transportation: Energy Cultures Two

    Wooliscroft, Ben (2015)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    Executive Summary Key findings: • A clear picture of the state of the energy efficiency of our housing stock, our household energy behaviours and our driving (and transport) behaviours has been collected. • Four clear clusters of energy consumers are identified: – The Energy Comfortable (23.7%) have less remedial (e.g. dehumidifier) energy use. They live in warm dry houses. – The Energy Poor (21.1%) not only have the lowest incomes, they also have the lowest number of energy efficiency household modifications and practise the least number of energy saving driving behaviours. – The Energy Average (24.6%) are exactly that, exceptional in very few attributes. There are significant opportunities for them to save energy. – The Energy Efficient (24.3%) earn a similar amount to the Energy Average and the Energy Comfortable but have power bills similar to the Energy Poor. • New Zealand’s housing stock is frequently not adequately insulated or efficiently heated • Many New Zealanders do not practise energy saving behaviours around the house, including behaviour as simple as turning off lights in un-occupied rooms. This research gives insight into the frequency with which behaviours are practised. • There is considerable opportunity to save money through efficient driving (most estimates are 15%) however many efficient driving behaviours are not practised by our sample. • The earthquake in Christchurch is clearly found in the results with regard to heating, transportation and traffic issues. • Poor energy behaviour in the house is strongly related to poor driving (from an energy point of view) and a low energy efficient house. • The results would suggest that a systems approach to improving energy consumption will reap the best rewards.

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  • The Archives of Joseph William Mellor (1869-1938): Chemist, Ceramicist & Cartoonist

    Smith, Romilly (2015)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Joseph William Mellor (1869-1938) was an Otago graduate who became a ceramicist, a cartoonist, and, more importantly, a famous chemist. Indeed, his single-handed effort to complete his 16 volume definitive work A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry (1922-1937), which amounted to over 15,000 pages and 16 million words, has never been equalled. From very humble beginnings and self-initiated study, Mellor obtained a place at the University of Otago, and then won a scholarship to study for a research degree at Owens College, Manchester. He then moved to Stoke-on-Trent, where he became principal of the Technical College (now part of Staffordshire University). During the First World War, Mellor’s research was directed towards refractories, high-temperature ceramics relevant to the steel industry and thus the war effort. It was for this work that he was offered a peerage, which he turned down. In 1927 he was elected to the Royal Society for work related to ceramics, the only other being Josiah Wedgwood in the eighteenth century. Mellor retained a boyish sense of humour all his life, and he was dubbed by colleagues the ‘Peter Pan of Ceramics’. He was also a skilled cartoonist and his Uncle Joe’s Nonsense (1934) contains a collection of humorous stories illustrated with clever pen sketches. Just before Mellor died in May 1938, he received a C.B.E.

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  • Panoptic reality : a review of Citizenfour

    Tunnicliffe, Craig (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Movies, and perhaps more importantly documentary movies, need to be separated into good documentaries and important documentaries. Citizenfour would then fall squarely in this second category, and require viewing for its import rather than its simulation. Citizenfour documents the days preceding and during the release of information gained by Edward Snowden, which exposed the depth of surveillance activities conducted by the NSA and other security agencies. Directed by Laura Poitras and reporting by Glenn Greenwald, the film documents the process of information release, the technological capability of the spying agencies, and the person (Snowden) behind the release of this information. ...This film and its subject matter are important. They highlight the reality of information accessibility, the surveillance that is currently occurring, the scope and depth of this activity, and government’s complicity in this activity. Jeremy Bentham described a perfect prison where those who thought they were being watched modified their behaviour accordingly. Snowden, facilitated by Poitras and Greenwald, demonstrates in Citizenfour that this prison has already been built, and is present every time we log on to a computer system. For those involved in social change, a risk is that the threat of observation may change behaviour. This needs to be resisted.

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  • A Report on the Community Development Conference 2015

    Stansfield, John; Masih, Abishhek (2015-05-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The Community Development Conference 2015 was an effort by the Department of Social Practice at Unitec and Community Development practitioners to bring together practitioners, academics and students to share their knowledge, research and stories about community development. Thirty-­‐five completed feedback forms were received - summary included.

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  • Communicating social change : politics and immigrants

    Cruickshank, Prue (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Immigration is a complex, dynamic global phenomenon which impacts irrevocably on both immigrants and the receiving society. Immigration policies, reflecting governments’ political and economic intentions, significantly influence successful immigration and settlement. Immigrants’ success in meeting governments’ and their own expectations are influenced by the political, economic, regulatory and social conditions of the host society they enter. Developing communication strategies to prepare a population for a change in immigration policies would be advantageous for social cohesion. However, the introduction of radical economic change intended to restructure business and society at the same time was not conducive to smooth, social immigrant integration. This paper explores the communication dimensions of an immigration policy set within the context of national political and economic restructuring. It does this by tracing the process and impact of the introduction of neo-liberal policies on New Zealand society without prior political debate. The economic and social consequences of neo-liberal reforms affected the reception and opportunities encountered by newly arrived business immigrants. To contextualise the discussion, the effects of neo-liberal policies on the New Zealand economy and society, including its immigrant communities, are traced from their inception in the 1980s through the 1990s. Introducing an economic and political change process which enables people to connect and participate, requires leaders who can articulate a vision to persuade people it is in their best interests to incorporate the change (Shockly-Zalabak, 2009). An opportunity for political debate on the impending neo-liberal changes arose during the 1994 New Zealand election campaign but was deliberately ignored (Jesson, 1999). An unexplained change in the social contract potentially creates a sense of betrayal and unfocused anger (D’Aprix, 1996). Subsequently, as the neo-liberal structural reforms were introduced, communities reacted in confusion, anger and scepticism.

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