2,321 results for Use commercially

  • An evaluation of seasonal variations in footwear worn by adults with inflammatory arthritis: a cross-sectional observational study using a web-based survey

    Brenton-Rule, A; Hendry, GJ; Barr, G; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Foot problems are common in adults with inflammatory arthritis and therapeutic footwear can be effective in managing arthritic foot problems. Accessing appropriate footwear has been identified as a major barrier, resulting in poor adherence to treatment plans involving footwear. Indeed, previous New Zealand based studies found that many people with rheumatoid arthritis and gout wore inappropriate footwear. However, these studies were conducted in a single teaching hospital during the New Zealand summer therefore the findings may not be representative of footwear styles worn elsewhere in New Zealand, or reflect the potential influence of seasonal climate changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate seasonal variations in footwear habits of people with inflammatory arthritic conditions in New Zealand. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using a web-based survey. The survey questions were designed to elicit demographic and clinical information, features of importance when choosing footwear and seasonal footwear habits, including questions related to the provision of therapeutic footwear/orthoses and footwear experiences. Results: One-hundred and ninety-seven participants responded who were predominantly women of European descent, aged between 46–65 years old, from the North Island of New Zealand. The majority of participants identified with having either rheumatoid arthritis (35%) and/or osteoarthritis (57%) and 68% reported established disease (>5 years duration). 18% of participants had been issued with therapeutic footwear. Walking and athletic shoes were the most frequently reported footwear type worn regardless of the time of year. In the summer, 42% reported wearing sandals most often. Comfort, fit and support were reported most frequently as the footwear features of greatest importance. Many participants reported difficulties with footwear (63%), getting hot feet in the summer (63%) and the need for a sandal which could accommodate a supportive insole (73%). Conclusions: Athletic and walking shoes were the most popular style of footwear reported regardless of seasonal variation. During the summer season people with inflammatory arthritis may wear sandals more frequently in order to accommodate disease-related foot deformity. Healthcare professionals and researchers should consider seasonal variation when recommending appropriate footwear, or conducting footwear studies in people with inflammatory arthritis, to reduce non-adherence to prescribed footwear.

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  • The ethics of predictive risk modelling in the Aotearoa/New Zealand child welfare context: child abuse prevention or neo-liberal tool?

    Keddell, Emily (2014-07-28)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The current White Paper on Vulnerable Children before the Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ) parliament proposes changes that will significantly reconstruct the child welfare systems in this country, including the use of a predictive risk model (PRM). This article explores the ethics of this strategy in a child welfare context. Tensions exist, including significant ethical problems such as the use of information without consent, breaches of privacy and stigmatisation, without clear evidence of the benefits outweighing these costs. Broader implicit assumptions about the causes of child abuse and risk and their intersections with the wider discursive, political and systems design contexts are also discussed. Drawing on Houston et. al. (2010) this paper highlights the potential for a PRM to contribute to a neo-liberal agenda that individualises social problems, reifies risk and abuse, and narrowly prescribes service provision. However, with reference to child welfare and child protection orientations, the paper suggests ways the model could be used in a more ethical manner.

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  • Foregone profit in the wine industry

    Neuninger, Rosemarie; Mather, Damien William; Duncan, Tara (2015-06-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Background and Aims: Wine awards are frequently used as extrinsic cues for wine categories. The aim of this paper is to show the forgone profit arising from failures to make optimal use of awards when positioning wine brands to consumer segments. Methods and Results: Four award statuses were tested: a well-known award, multiple awards, a fictitious award used as a control (an award without consumer trust) and, no award. Participants tasted eight wine samples: the first four without extrinsic cues; the next four used extrinsic cues with varying award status. Each sample was rated for liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Low-involvement consumers’ perceived liking and price willing to pay were improved by multiple (real gold) awards compared to high-involvement consumers. Conclusions: Trust in awards increased the price consumers were willing to pay for wine with an award. For high-involvement consumers who distrusted awards, multiple wine awards and fictitious awards negatively influenced perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Significance of the Study: This is the first study to report on the combined influence of wine awards and consumers’ sensory perceptions of wine on perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay.

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  • Protective socks for people with diabetes: a systematic review and narrative analysis

    Otter, S; Rome, K; Ihaka, B; South, A; Smith, M; Gupta, A; Joseph, F; Heslop, P

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Padded socks to protect the at-risk diabetic foot have been available for a number of years. However, the evidence base to support their use is not well known. We aimed to undertake a systematic review of padded socks for people with diabetes. Additionally, a narrative analysis of knitted stitch structures, yarn and fibres used together with the proposed benefits fibre properties may add to the sock. Assessment of the methodological quality was undertaken using a quality tool to assess non-randomised trials. From the 81 articles identified only seven met the inclusion criteria. The evidence to support to use of padded socks is limited. There is a suggestion these simple-to-use interventions could be of value, particularly in terms of plantar pressure reduction. However, the range of methods used and limited methodological quality limits direct comparison between studies. The socks were generally of a sophisticated design with complex use of knit patterns and yarn content. This systematic review provides limited support for the use of padded socks in the diabetic population to protect vulnerable feet. More high quality studies are needed; including qualitative components of sock wear and sock design, prospective randomized controlled trials and analysis of the cost-effectiveness of protective socks as a non-surgical intervention.

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  • Perceived barriers of New Zealand podiatrists in the management of arthritis

    Lansdowne, N; Brenton-Rule, A; Carroll, M; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background Rheumatic conditions can have a significant impact on the feet and requires effective management. Podiatric involvement in the management of rheumatic conditions has previously been found to be inadequate in a hospital-setting and no study has examined current trends across New Zealand. The aim was to evaluate the perceived barriers of New Zealand podiatrists in the management of rheumatic conditions. Methods A cross-sectional observational design using a web-based survey. The self-administered survey, comprising of thirteen questions, was made available to podiatrists currently practicing in New Zealand. Results Fifty-six podiatrists responded and the results demonstrated poor integration of podiatrists into multidisciplinary teams caring for patients with arthritic conditions in New Zealand. Dedicated clinical sessions were seldom offered (16%) and few podiatrists reported being part of an established multidisciplinary team (16%). A poor uptake of clinical guidelines was reported (27%) with limited use of patient reported outcome measures (39%). The majority of podiatrists expressed an interest in professional development for the podiatric management of arthritic conditions (95%). All surveyed podiatrists (100%) agreed that there should be nationally developed clinical guidelines for foot care relating to arthritis. Conclusions The results suggest that there are barriers in the involvement of podiatrists in the management of people with rheumatic conditions in New Zealand. Future studies may provide an in-depth exploration into these findings to identify and provide solutions to overcome potential barriers.

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  • National Household Survey of Energy and Transportation: Energy Cultures Two

    Wooliscroft, Ben (2015)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    Executive Summary Key findings: • A clear picture of the state of the energy efficiency of our housing stock, our household energy behaviours and our driving (and transport) behaviours has been collected. • Four clear clusters of energy consumers are identified: – The Energy Comfortable (23.7%) have less remedial (e.g. dehumidifier) energy use. They live in warm dry houses. – The Energy Poor (21.1%) not only have the lowest incomes, they also have the lowest number of energy efficiency household modifications and practise the least number of energy saving driving behaviours. – The Energy Average (24.6%) are exactly that, exceptional in very few attributes. There are significant opportunities for them to save energy. – The Energy Efficient (24.3%) earn a similar amount to the Energy Average and the Energy Comfortable but have power bills similar to the Energy Poor. • New Zealand’s housing stock is frequently not adequately insulated or efficiently heated • Many New Zealanders do not practise energy saving behaviours around the house, including behaviour as simple as turning off lights in un-occupied rooms. This research gives insight into the frequency with which behaviours are practised. • There is considerable opportunity to save money through efficient driving (most estimates are 15%) however many efficient driving behaviours are not practised by our sample. • The earthquake in Christchurch is clearly found in the results with regard to heating, transportation and traffic issues. • Poor energy behaviour in the house is strongly related to poor driving (from an energy point of view) and a low energy efficient house. • The results would suggest that a systems approach to improving energy consumption will reap the best rewards.

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  • Ideological choice in the gravestones of Dunedin's Southern Cemetery

    Edgar, Philip Gerard (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xxv, 136 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "December 1995."

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  • Satire and Dickens

    White, Richard (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    People have a fundamental need to feel good about themselves, and sometimes we can achieve this at the expense of others. If I can laugh at someone who does something stupid, or feel superior to someone who does something unjust, or rebel against an institution which violates some natural law, then so much the better for me. Essentially, this is why I read satire. Until recently this sort of approach does not seem to have appealed to literary critics - perhaps because it demeans their subject matter - but there are many essential human needs which are satisfied by a reader's imaginative response to satire, and there is nothing ignoble in that. Satire allows us to escape the constrictions that society places on us. When we read satire we can behave badly: we laugh at other people, cackle at their stupidity, and snigger at their pomposity or hypocrisy; we revenge ourselves upon people who have bored, annoyed, or cheated us. All of this misbehaviour is sanctioned by moral propriety, and by the figure who establishes what is proper and what is not, the satirist. It is the satirist who sets up little moral victories for us, made possible by satiric attack. However, when satire becomes part of a novel, it must there vie for ascendancy with other guises of the author. The satirist must compete with the moralist, the comic, or the sentimentalist, and when this happens the reader too must evaluate their satiric victories alongside the other emotions they feel when they read other parts of a novel. Charles Dickens has many such guises, and consequently he particularly challenges the reader to cope with many different responses. This is where satire becomes even more interesting, because the victories are tempered by other, perhaps more noble emotions. The novels of Dickens present the reader with a constant battle between good and bad: both the author's and the reader's.

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  • Evaluation of parameter uncertainties in nonlinear regression using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet

    Hu, W.; Xie, J.; Chau, Henry; Si, B. C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Background Nonlinear relationships are common in the environmental discipline. Spreadsheet packages such as Microsoft Excel come with an add-on for nonlinear regression, but parameter uncertainty estimates are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to use Monte Carlo and bootstrap methods to estimate nonlinear parameter uncertainties with a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. As an example, uncertainties of two parameters (α and n) for a soil water retention curve are estimated. Results The fitted parameters generally do not follow a normal distribution. Except for the upper limit of α using the bootstrap method, the lower and upper limits of α and n obtained by these two methods are slightly greater than those obtained using the SigmaPlot software which linearlizes the nonlinear model. Conclusions Since the linearization method is based on the assumption of normal distribution of parameter values, the Monte Carlo and bootstrap methods may be preferred to the linearization method.

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  • Model demonstrates functional purpose of the nasal cycle

    White, DE; Bartley, J; Nates, RJ

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Despite the occurrence of the nasal cycle being well documented, the functional purpose of this phenomenon is not well understood. This investigation seeks to better understand the physiological objective of the nasal cycle in terms of airway health through the use of a computational nasal air-conditioning model. Method: A new state-variable heat and water mass transfer model is developed to predict airway surface liquid (ASL) hydration status within each nasal airway. Nasal geometry, based on in-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is used to apportion inter-nasal air flow. Results: The results demonstrate that the airway conducting the majority of the airflow also experiences a degree of ASL dehydration, as a consequence of undertaking the bulk of the heat and water mass transfer duties. In contrast, the reduced air conditioning demand within the other airway allows its ASL layer to remain sufficiently hydrated so as to support continuous mucociliary clearance. Conclusions: It is quantitatively demonstrated in this work how the nasal cycle enables the upper airway to accommodate the contrasting roles of air conditioning and the removal of entrapped contaminants through fluctuation in airflow partitioning between each airway.

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  • Variation in the Yak calpastatin gene (CAST)

    Yang, G.; Zhou, Huitong; Hu, J.; Luo, Y.; Hickford, Jonathan G. H.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Calpastatin (CAST) is a specific inhibitor of calpain (calcium-dependent cysteine protease). This study investigated the potential for variation in yak (Bos grennies) CAST. PCR-SSCP analysis of exon 6 of yak CAST revealed three unique patterns (named A-C). Sequencing of the amplicons revealed two nucleotide substitutions. One substitution (c.398G/C) would nominally change the amino acid sequence (p.S133T) of yak calpastatin. The variant sequence A which carried c.398C was the most common in the yaks tested (95.1%). This is the first report that found yak CAST is variable, and as in pigs, sheep and cattle, this variation may affect animal production traits.

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  • Retinal development and ommin pigment in the cranchiid squid Teuthowenia pellucida (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida)

    Evans, AB; Acosta, ML; Bolstad, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The cranchiid Teuthowenia pellucida, like many deep-sea squid species, possesses large eyes that maximise light sensitivity in a nearly aphotic environment. To assess ontogenetic changes in the visual system, we conducted morphometric and histological analyses of the eyes using specimens from New Zealand collections. While the ratio between eye diameter and mantle length maintained a linear relationship throughout development, histological sections of the retina revealed that the outer photoreceptor layer became proportionally longer as the animal aged, coincident with a habitat shift into deeper, darker ocean strata. Other retinal layers maintained the same absolute thickness as was observed in paralarvae. Granules of the pigment ommin, normally located in the screening layer positioned at the base of the photoreceptors, were also observed at the outer end of the photoreceptor segments throughout the retina in young and mid-sized specimens. Early developmental stages of this species, dwelling in shallow waters, may therefore rely on migratory ommin to help shield photoreceptors from excess light and prevent over-stimulation. The oldest, deeper-dwelling specimens of T. pellucida examined had longer photoreceptors, and little or no migrated ommin was observed; we suggest therefore that short-term adaptive mechanisms for bright light conditions may be used primarily during epipelagic, early life stages in this species.

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  • Energy Behaviour of SMEs in New Zealand

    Walton, Sara (2015-03)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    ©  2015  The  Author  

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  • Reliable Individual Change in Post Concussive Symptoms in the Year Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Data From the Longitudinal, Population-based Brain Injury Incidence and Outcomes New Zealand in the Community (Bionic) Study

    Barker-Collo, S; Theadom, A; Jones, K; Ameratunga, S; Feigin, V; Starkey, N; Dudley, M; Kahan, M

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Objective: Post concussive syndromes (PCS) is common after mild-TBI, yet are not well studied on a population level. This study examined PCS symptoms, including reliable change over time in a population-based sample up to one year post-TBI. Methods: Prospective follow-up of 527 adults (≥16 years) with mild TBI (mTBI) and assessment data (Rivermead Post concussion Questionnaire; RPQ) at baseline, 1, 6, and/or 12-months post-TBI. Change in mean scores and clinically significant change across RPQ items for each person was calculated between assessment time points using a reliable change index (RCI). Results: While prevalence of all symptoms reduced over time, >30% of participants reported fatigue, slowed thinking, and forgetfulness 12-months postinjury. Using the RCI, <12% of individuals improved from baseline to 1-month, 50% from 1 to 6-months, and 4.2% from 6 to 12-months. Conclusions: Improvements in PCS post-mTBI were most obvious between 1 and 6-months, suggesting lengthy recovery trajectory. A third of patients experience residual cognitive problems 12-months following a mTBI, and while many individuals improve post-TBI, a large proportion remain stable or worsen.

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  • Daytime Napping Associated With Increased Symptom Severity in Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Theadom, A; Cropley, M; Kantermann, T

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Previous qualitative research has revealed that people with fibromyalgia use daytime napping as a coping strategy for managing symptoms against clinical advice. Yet there is no evidence to suggest whether daytime napping is beneficial or detrimental for people with fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study was to explore how people use daytime naps and to determine the links between daytime napping and symptom severity in fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: A community based sample of 1044 adults who had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome by a clinician completed an online questionnaire. Associations between napping behavior, sleep quality and fibromyalgia symptoms were explored using Spearman correlations, with possible predictors of napping behaviour entered into a logistic regression model. Differences between participants who napped on a daily basis and those who napped less regularly, as well as nap duration were explored. Results: Daytime napping was significantly associated with increased pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, memory difficulties and sleep problems. Sleep problems and fatigue explained the greatest amount of variance in napping behaviour, p < 0.010. Those who engaged in daytime naps for >30 minutes had higher memory difficulties (t = -3.45) and levels of depression (t = -2.50) than those who napped for shorter periods (< 0.010). Conclusions: Frequent use and longer duration of daytime napping was linked with greater symptom severity in people with fibromyalgia. Given the common use of daytime napping in people with fibromyalgia evidence based guidelines on the use of daytime napping in people with chronic pain are urgently needed.

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  • Architecture as a Catalyst for Activity

    Tungatt, Rory (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Many of New Zealand’s smaller town centres struggle to remain viable. A common issue for these declining public realms is the hollowing out of their city centres. Numerous factors may contribute to this problem. Issues such as a lack of access, connectivity and identity within the urban fabric, or instances of privatisation, where forums that were once public have now shifted to a digital interface. One of the challenges facing cities is the diminishing number of “civic” buildings and activity located in the town centre. The Indoor Community Sports Centre (ICSC) offers a partial remedy for this problem. Even with the merging and downsizing of Council’s and their funding, Territorial Authorities continue to invest in ICSCs. This thesis investigates whether these buildings can make a positive contribution to the public domain of town centres. New Zealand ICSC’s, more often than not, are simple shed-like buildings on the periphery of cities or town centres, predominantly occupying or adjacent to large park areas, sports fields or schools. This thesis examines whether the building type can be adapted to become an “urban” building, where it will have the opportunity contribute to a revitalised town centre. A design case study based on Upper Hutt identifies three key design criteria established from initial research of Sports Centres and best-practice Urban Design. These three criteria – breaking up mass, active edges from the outside and creating a dynamic connection – allow the ICSC to become part of the civic realm. The research concludes that an ICSC can be successfully integrated into an “urban” context. In the Upper Hutt case study, success depends on two broader design strategies. First, the ICSC should be located in an area where walkability, functionality and visual and physical connectivity will benefit the public domain. Second, the ICSC should be part of a mixed-use development, which exploits the building type’s inherent flexibility. This is achieved through combining a transport hub, another essential civic amenity, as well as other commercial programmes that provide occupancy during periods of disuse. The thesis shows how a carefully adapted ICSC can turn a somewhat disconnected, hollowed out town into a functional, integrated and walkable one. The redesigned facility does so by linking existing amenities, feeding city-fringe activity back into the city centre and projecting a consciousness of place.

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  • How does a music therapy student work to facilitate reminiscence and memory in dementia patients

    Sun, I-Chen (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study was prompted in response to increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision in improving quality of care for dementia patients. It is an exploration of the strategies to facilitate memory and reminiscence in persons with dementia, and considers the need for those preparing for end of life to recall identities, connect with family and others, and express feelings. This research is a qualitative study involving secondary analysis of clinical data from my clinical practice and identifies the strategies, techniques and procedures that I applied in my clinical work to stimulate preserved memory ‘islands’. The findings show that familiarity is central in enabling a remembering process, and music can have unique ways of accessing memory in people with limited cognitive and social abilities. Eight core categories of music therapy strategies were found to be helpful in enabling memory and reminiscence. This study includes examples of both individual and group music therapy. The objective of this study was to examine my music therapy practice, and potentially provide some beneficial ideas and insights to other music therapists working on memory and reminiscence with dementia patients.

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  • Improving Clustering Methods By Exploiting Richness Of Text Data

    Wahid, Abdul (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Clustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique, which involves discovering different clusters (groups) of similar objects in unlabeled data and is generally considered to be a NP hard problem. Clustering methods are widely used in a verity of disciplines for analyzing different types of data, and a small improvement in clustering method can cause a ripple effect in advancing research of multiple fields. Clustering any type of data is challenging and there are many open research questions. The clustering problem is exacerbated in the case of text data because of the additional challenges such as issues in capturing semantics of a document, handling rich features of text data and dealing with the well known problem of the curse of dimensionality. In this thesis, we investigate the limitations of existing text clustering methods and address these limitations by providing five new text clustering methods--Query Sense Clustering (QSC), Dirichlet Weighted K-means (DWKM), Multi-View Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MMOEA), Multi-objective Document Clustering (MDC) and Multi-Objective Multi-View Ensemble Clustering (MOMVEC). These five new clustering methods showed that the use of rich features in text clustering methods could outperform the existing state-of-the-art text clustering methods. The first new text clustering method QSC exploits user queries (one of the rich features in text data) to generate better quality clusters and cluster labels. The second text clustering method DWKM uses probability based weighting scheme to formulate a semantically weighted distance measure to improve the clustering results. The third text clustering method MMOEA is based on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. MMOEA exploits rich features to generate a diverse set of candidate clustering solutions, and forms a better clustering solution using a cluster-oriented approach. The fourth and the fifth text clustering method MDC and MOMVEC address the limitations of MMOEA. MDC and MOMVEC differ in terms of the implementation of their multi-objective evolutionary approaches. All five methods are compared with existing state-of-the-art methods. The results of the comparisons show that the newly developed text clustering methods out-perform existing methods by achieving up to 16\% improvement for some comparisons. In general, almost all newly developed clustering algorithms showed statistically significant improvements over other existing methods. The key ideas of the thesis highlight that exploiting user queries improves Search Result Clustering(SRC); utilizing rich features in weighting schemes and distance measures improves soft subspace clustering; utilizing multiple views and a multi-objective cluster oriented method improves clustering ensemble methods; and better evolutionary operators and objective functions improve multi-objective evolutionary clustering ensemble methods. The new text clustering methods introduced in this thesis can be widely applied in various domains that involve analysis of text data. The contributions of this thesis which include five new text clustering methods, will not only help researchers in the data mining field but also to help a wide range of researchers in other fields.

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  • Effective use of Technologies in the Classroom

    White, Annabelle (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Interdisciplinary Team Teaching to support 21st Century Learning Skills

    Buick, Danielle (2016)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    There is a need to reimagine education in the New Zealand secondary school context that better supports twenty-first century learning skills. Interdisciplinary team teaching provides a model of change that could enable schools to reimagine how education is delivered, how knowledge is created, and better exemplify and incorporate learning skills relevant to a rapidly developing world. This article explores primarily qualitative data drawn from research addressing interdisciplinary team teaching (ITT) that spans across primary to tertiary settings in a range of contexts. The findings from this research express why it is necessary to reimagine current education systems, the benefits and barriers of ITT, and what enables the successful implementation of ITT. If a school is able to negotiate the barriers and understand what is necessary to make it work then research suggests that ITT can provide a structural, pedagogical, and philosophical change that will enhance learning skills necessary for the twenty-first century world.

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