580 results for 1998

  • Telling our professional stories

    Alterio, Maxine (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    [6], 138 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Exploring educational efficiency in New Zealand primary and post-primary schooling, 1900-1945

    Frost, Anna Kathleen (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 83 leaves :col. ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. "March 31, 1998."

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  • Biology of the sea pen Pteroeides sp. in Fiordland, New Zealand

    Duncan, Joanne Claire (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    281 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliography. "August 1998". University of Otago department: Marine Science.

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  • In a field of their own : farm transfer and farmers' 'sense of place'

    Chapman, Craig Murray (1998)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    84 leaves, [14] leaves of plates :ill., ports. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 80-84). University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • Lighthouses of New Zealand: a bright tourism opportunity

    Berryman, Rebecca (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 133 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Tourism. Cover title. "August 1998" -- Cover.

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  • Geology of the southern portion of the Greenhills ultramafic complex

    O’Loughlin, Benjamin (1998)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Exposed along a three kilometre stretch of coastline on the southern extremities of the South Island, New Zealand are a suite of calc-alkaline to tholeiitic ultramafic and gabbroic rocks which form the southern portion of the Greenhills Ultramafic Complex (GUC). This complex consists of a layered series of dunite, wehrlite, olivine-clinopyroxenite and gabbro of Earliest Triassic age (247Ma), which intrude Lower Permian meta-sedimentary lithologies of the Greenhills Group. Accompanying the intrusion of the complex is a narrow contact metamorphic aureole which decreases rapidly in grade from pyroxene-hornfels facies metamorphism, directly adjacent to the body, to regional prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism, with distance from the contact. The layered series of the GUC is stratigraphically divisible into an upper gabbroic portion of both non-cumulate and cumulate gabbroic rocks, and a lower ultramafic portion of dunite, wehrlite and olivine-clinopyroxenite. The lower ultramafic portion shows well-developed accumulate structures and textures that are typical of stratiform cumulate intrusions. Widespread slumping in the layered series in addition to discrete zones of intense brecciation, faulting, and multiple phases of dyke injection indicate recurring conditions of instability during the evolution of the complex. Textural, mineralogical, and chemical evidence suggests that two gabbro suites comprise the upper gabbroic portion. Namely, a cumulate suite (Shipwreck Gabbro) that is closely related to the lower ultramafic portion, and a non-cumulate (Barracouta Point Gabbro) suite, which is thought to have crystallised from a mixed magma. Whole rock chemistry of the layered series indicates a clear magmatic fractionation trend through dunite to gabbro, consistent with chemical fractionation from a basaltic parental magma. This trend is characterised by a systematic decrease in magnesium content with a concordant increase in silica, aluminium, calcium, and alkalis. A similar fractionation trend is exhibited by the evolution of the primary mineral phases olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase through the layered series. The theory that the GUC may have been derived by dry partial melting of the mantle wedge is supported by the similarity in trace element chemistry between the GUC and N-type Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB). Similarly, the trace element chemistry correlates well with recent basalts and basaltic andesites from the Tonga-Kermadec Island Arc, indicating that present day active ocean-ocean island arc subduction zones may serve as closely representative models for the evolution of remnant arcs such as that inferred for the GUC. The development of a strong tholeiitic to calc-alkaline island arc chemistry in the GUC is typical for magmatic bodies throughout the Brook Street Terrane, which are thought to represent the remnant of an ancient island arc system. A comparison of chemistry between the GUC and that of the Blashke Islands Alaskan-type intrusion from SE Alaska, indicates that these two bodies have been de1ived by fractional crystallisation of a closely similar parental magma, and thus, the GUC can be classified as a Alaskan-type Intrusion. The Greenhills Ultramafic Complex was produced as the result of crystal settling during fractional crystallisation of a basaltic parental magma produced by dry melting of the mantle wedge in an ocean-ocean island arc subduction zone. Modification of the layered body by magmatic slumping, mingling and brecciation and faulting depict recurring conditions of instability within the pluton which is considered typical of island arc subduction zones.

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  • The impact of the Internet on small firms

    Martin, Ross A. (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Several researchers have designed frameworks to model and analyse impacts of the Internet on firms. This research takes one such framework aimed at small firms (Lymer et al., 1997b) and attempts to validate its usefulness by comparing it to similar and conflicting models, and by applying it to impacts collected from both the literature and from four case studies of small firms. The findings suggest that several changes to Lymer et al.'s (1997b) framework are necessary to make the model more effective and more practical for researchers and practitioners. A revised Internet impacts model is proposed that incorporates these changes. Preliminary evaluation has been performed on the revised model, resulting in the conclusion that the study makes a valuable contribution to the area of Internet research by significantly enhancing the usability and analytical usefulness of Lymer et al.'s (1997b) Internet impacts model.

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  • The nutrient and photosynthetic eco-physiology of Undaria pinnatifida, with applications to aquaculture

    Dean, Paul Robert (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xiii, 173 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Marine Science.

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  • A separate world? : the social position of the mentally ill in New Zealand society, 1945-1955

    Grant, Susannah (1998)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    69 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. Typescript (photocopy). "October 1998."

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  • An examination of East Polynesian population history

    Chapman, Patrick Maurice (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 252 p. :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "March 1998." University of Otago department: Anthropology.

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  • Stuck in the middle or clued up on both? Language and identity among Korean, Dutch and Samoan immigrants in Dunedin

    Johri, Roopali (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 332 p. :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "24 February 1998."

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  • Boarders, punks and ravers : an introduction to the history of commercialised rebellion

    Humphreys, Duncan Evan (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    ii, 109 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Modelling volcanic tsunamis

    Prasetya, Gegar Sapta (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Tsunamis generated by volcanic eruptions have caused about 25% of all deaths associated with volcano activity. The 1883 Krakatau eruption is one example of a fairly recent eruption that produced large tsunamis (-35 m) which caused a high death toll. Concern has also been raised by the potential tsunami generation of the Auckland Volcanic Field, and the impact of such events on the Auckland Region. Although the generation of tsunamis by volcanic eruptions is a major hazard, the processes of tsunami generation are poorly understood. A review of volcanic tsunamis identified 10 main mechanisms. Four of these - caldera collapse, debris avalanches, submarine explosions, and pyroclastic flows - have been suggested as the mechanisms producing the largest tsunamis. All four mechanisms have also been suggested as being responsible for the tsunamis produced by the Krakatau eruption. A combination of physical and numerical modelling was used to develop predictive tools to be applied to volcanoes in Indonesia and New Zealand. The physical modelling involved two main investigations: • A 3 dimensional scale model of the Straits of Sunda and Krakatau. This examined the nature of tsunamis produced by caldera collapse, submarine explosions, and water displacement by debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows. • A series of 2 dimensional simulations of the entrance of pyroclastic flows into the sea. A finite element numerical model was applied to the simulation of pyroclastic flow, maar formation and submarine explosion generation of tsunamis within the Auckland Volcanic Field. The physical and numerical model results indicate that large scale pyroclastic flows are probably the cause of the main 1883 Krakatau tsunamis. A tsunami wave can easily be generated by gravity flows entering the water, regardless of the slope. The wave properties depend on the relative densities of the flow and the receiving body, and the velocity of the flow. The angle of entry of the flow into the water determines the deposition pattern of sediment. The formation of the Calmeyers and Steers shallow area on Krakatau event 1883 was reproduced by the pyroclastic experiments using coarse sand and mud with steep entry angle ~ 60°). The more dilute upper component of the pyroclastic flow that traveled along the sea surface for up to 45 km and killed more than 1000 people at Katimbang, Sumatera Island can also be explained. The experiments showed that less dense material from the pyroclastic flow propagates near the water surface. This is even more likely if the material is hot and gas-rich. Physical and numerical model results showed that a single explosion cannot produce a high wave. If a super violent explosion did occur during the Krakatau event, then the water waves (tsunamis) that caused the devastating effect on the surrounding island coastal land were not caused by the direct transfer of explosive forces. Instead a sequence of one or more pyroclastic flows, or collapsing column in and around the Krakatau complex are the most likely mechanism causing the largest tsunami. Numerical modelling of the Auckland Volcanic Field examined 4 scenarios: • A series of submarine explosion; • Pyroclastic flows from Rangitoto Island; • Pyroclastic flows from Browns (Motukorea) Island; • Submarine explosion within the Tamaki Estuary. The first 3 scenarios produced regional effects, while the last was purely local event. It was also found that the efficiency of the submarine explosion mechanism was increased by using a sequence of smaller explosions, instead of one large explosion. However the timing between explosions was found to be critical; if the explosions are too close together or too far apart, the efficiency decreases. It is considered that the optimal timing will vary with water depth and explosive yield. The numerical modelling showed that volcanic tsunamis are not a major threat to Auckland. However under suitable conditions a volcanic eruption could produce moderately large tsunamis that generate strong currents.

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  • Groundwater contamination in the Heathcote/Woolston area, Christchurch, New Zealand

    Hertel, Ingrid (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Christchurch City (population 360,000) depends entirely on an underlying stratified, leaky, confined, artesian aquifer system to provide untreated water for its residents and industries. Concerns have been raised by the Canterbury Regional Council about brackish water entering the aquifer system in a localised area in the south-eastern part of the City (Woolston/Heathcote). Due to the coastal, urban, and geological, setting of the area several possible groundwater contaminant sources exist and needed to be investigated. These include: seawater, urban wastes, thermal groundwater, and connate seawater. A potentiometric survey carried out in the area, combined with water quality sampling, hydrogeological information from previous studies, and previously obtained water quality data, provided the basis for a conceptual model of groundwater contamination. Downward leakage of estuarine water through the confining layer appears to be the dominant contaminant source. In the past, the potential risk of seawater intrusion has been regarded as low for the Christchurch artesian aquifer system. The freshwater/seawater interface was considered to be located 40km offshore where the uppermost confined aquifer intersects with the sea at its submarine outcrop. To enhance the understanding of freshwater and saltwater flow dynamics of the aquifer system, a steady-state crosssectional finite-difference model along the coast of Christchurch has been constructed and calibrated. The modelling indicated that the location of the freshwater/seawater interface is dominated by leakage from the sea through the confining layer and not, as presumed before, by lateral inflow of seawater through the offshore outcrop. Consequently the interface location is to be expected much closer to the shoreline at approximately 3km offshore. Groundwater contamination in a localised area in Christchurch has demonstrated that the uppermost confining layer does not act as an effective barrier towards seawater intrusion where the hydraulic gradient between the sea and the aquifer is directed downward. A groundwater level and quality monitoring network, and a groundwater model specific to the study area, have been constructed to facilitate the future management of the resource. Immediate pumping restrictions are needed on 3 major abstraction wells to increase potentiometric heads that currently sit below sea level. An upward hydraulic gradient between the uppermost aquifer, the estuary, and the confining layer, is essential to protect the aquifer from ongoing downward leakage of saline contaminant sources. Ongoing monitoring of water levels and groundwater quality is recommended. This data will allow more refined modelling of management scenarios.

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  • The conceptual distinction between liabilities and equity : a new approach required

    Crook, Kimberley (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the conceptual distinction between liabilities and equity, in the context of business entities, by means of a literature review. It is shown that the conceptual distinction between liabilities and equity requires consideration of the underlying equity theory. Various equity theories are compared, including the entity, proprietary and residual equity theories, which each view liabilities and equity, and the distinction between the two, differently. In addition to these well-known equity theories, another equity theory is presented, that has received little specific attention as an equity theory in the literature, but nevertheless appears to have considerable support. This other theory is termed the noncompulsion equity theory for the purposes of this thesis. Despite the support from the accounting literature, it is shown that the non-compulsion equity theory appears to have little support from either the law or the economics literature. Given that accounting takes place in the wider legal and economic environment, this suggests that the non-compulsion equity theory may not be an appropriate basis for distinguishing between liabilities and equity. A review of the accounting conceptual statements reveals that they are inconsistent in their application of an underlying equity theory, because they use several equity theories rather than one, including the non-compulsion equity theory, which is adopted by the conceptual statements' definitions of liabilities and equity. A closer examination of the non-compulsion equity theory demonstrates that it is based upon inconsistent reasoning and questionable assumptions, suggesting that it is fundamentally flawed. This thesis concludes by rejecting the non-compulsion equity theory as a basis for distinguishing between liabilities and equity, suggesting that a new approach is required. The residual equity theory seems likely to provide a suitable alternative.

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  • Pay for performance in a management control context

    Williams, Michelle (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Otley et al. (1995) allege management accounting has become narrow in its focus and believe research is needed in broader areas. The areas of performance measurement and control have been suggested as a topic which warrants further management accounting research (Otley et al., 1995). Organisations are facing a very different environment to that of 20 years ago. Management accounting has failed to keep pace with these changes when designing management control systems (Otley, et al., 1995). Furthermore: "Resesarch from the UK and USA has shown that [performance measurement and control] is an area financial directors are the least satisfied with" (Haq, 1995, p. 20). The culture of a country must be considered when developing a compensation system. However, there has been a dearth of research on the topic of pay for performance in a New Zealand context and the decentralisation of the remuneration functions to individual business units. Consequently a case study was conducted at Business Unit A of the Christchurch City Council. This examined the process followed by Business Unit A to develop and implement a pay for performance system for their Unit. Prior to this research, these aspects of design and implementation have not been addressed in a New Zealand context. Despite the human bias possible when conducting case studies and other limitations, the body of knowledge surrounding pay for performance has been expanded and areas for future research recommended.

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  • The decomposition of woolscour and fellmongery sludges

    Williamson, Wendy May (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigated two industrial sludges, a woolscour sludge and a fellmongery sludge. The sludges represent material removed during the clarification of effluent arising, respectively, from the washing of greasy wool and the dehairing of sheepskins for leather manufacture. The aims of the study were to (i) determine the degree to which the wool scour and fellmongery sludges decompose, (ii) to describe the probable constraints upon sludge decomposition and (iii) to assess the likely consequences of sludge decomposition in a soil system. Most experiments were performed at a microcosm scale. The extent to which the woolscour and fellmongery sludges decomposed and the constraints upon their decomposition were determined using net-N mineralisation. An assessment of the consequences of sludge decomposition included leachable mineral N and an estimation of the amount of microbial biomass (MB) in sludge-amended soils. The MB was estimated using the fumigation-extraction method. Wool scour sludge mineralised only 9 % of its initial total N (i-TN) during decomposition at 22°C, however N mineralisation increased dramatically to 40 % i-TN when the sludge was incubated at 50 DC. Fellmongery sludge mineralised 52 % i-TN at 22°C, but showed no net-N mineralisation at 43 or 50°C. When the sludges were decomposed in an anaerobic atmosphere, the fellmongery sludge mineralised only 15 % i-TN after 108 days. Anaerobic conditions did not greatly affect the decomposition of woolscour sludge, which mineralised 5 % i-TN in 108 days. It is suggested that different pools of the soil MB were involved in the decomposition of the wool scour sludge and the fellmongery sludge. One of the consequences of the rapid decomposition of fellmongery sludge was the leaching of water-soluble mineral N. During the decomposition of surface-applied fellmongery sludge (at a rate equivalent to 350 kg N ha-¹) to leaching columns (5-cm x 15-cm height), 25 to 39 % of the applied N was leached as mineral N in 100 days. Most of the mineral N leached was present as nitrate (68 to 93 %), which exceeded 10 mg nitrate L-1 of leachate for 45 to 80 days. The amendment of soil with wool scour and fellmongery sludge, at a rate equivalent to 200-kg N ha-¹ and incubated in microcosms, caused a dramatic decrease in the MB, such that the level of MB was below detection using the fumigation-extraction technique after a year of soil incubation. When soil was amended with wool scour and fellmongery sludges in the field and the soil sampled ten months post-amendment, the MB had also decreased, although the effect was weaker than that seen in the microcosm study. In addition, less N was mineralised from wool scour and fellmongery sludges decomposing in their respective sludge-amended soil, than when decomposed in nonamended soils. Together, these results indicate that the application of woolscour and fellmongery sludges to soil has the potential to significantly impede nutrient cycling through the reduction of microbial function. Fellmongery sludge showed inconsistent results for its value as a fertiliser. On the one hand, fellmongery sludge-amended soil that had been heavily leached for 105 days prior to ryegrass seeds being planted, produced significantly more grass (165 mg (dry weight; dw)) than from the non-amended, leached control soil (106 mg (dw)), after 50 days of grass growth. The enhancement of grass growth was seen more strongly when already established ryegrass received a fresh application of fellmongery sludge, at a rate equivalent to 350-kg N ha-¹. In 20 days of grass growth, the amended soil produced 375 mg (dw) of ryegrass, whereas the non-amended soil produced 103 mg (dw). These results indicated that fellmongery sludge could provide nutrients that promoted the growth of ryegrass. However, on the other hand, ryegrass harvested from fellmongery sludge-amended soil was enriched with nitrate (5.9 % of the TN was nitrate for grass grown on the amended-soil but only 1.5 % from non-amended soil). The ryegrass growing on the soil re-amended with the fellmongery sludge all died after the 20 days harvest, whereas the grass on the non-amended columns continued to grow. In addition, cucumber seeds failed to germinate in the presence of fresh fellmongery sludge. Two case studies were carried out concurrently with this research. In the first, it was found that the long-term practice (> 15 years) of burying excess woolscour sludge in soil had decreased the MB-N of wool scour waste-amended soil from 4.0 % to 1.4 % of soil N. In the second case study, it was found that mixtures of woolscouring and fell mongering wastes that had received 90 days of composting treatment were unsuitable media in which to grow cucumber seedlings, which indicated that the composting treatment of these wastes had been unsuccessful. The unsuccessful formation of compost during these trials was considered to be due, mainly, to technical problems.

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  • Calendar 1998

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1998)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Shrink-wrap licences, mass market software and de facto intellectual property

    Belt, Karen (1998)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The wisdom of Salomon? : the tort duties of directors of one-person companies

    Barker, Susan D. (1998)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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