917 results for 2000

  • The collectors : Naval, Army and Air Intelligence in the New Zealand Armed Forces during the Second World War

    Tonkin-Covell, John (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines the performance of the intelligence collection organisations of the armed services of New Zealand during the Second World War. It considers the intelligence bodies of the Navy, the Army and the Air Force and looks at their growth, development and demise, and assesses their effectiveness as intelligence organisations. The question of how much New Zealand could be expected to achieve in the field of intelligence arises, not least because New Zealand was demographically small, had a long coastline and was geographically relatively remote. How much could New Zealand contribute to the Allied cause in intelligence terms is another issue, and what forms did any participation take? Were there lessons to be learned from the wartime experience (there were, but they went for the most part largely unheeded)? New Zealand, like other countries, had a fragmented approach to intelligence collection, making for a degree of complexity over a range of activity, despite the intelligence organisations being of modest size. The examination of the organisations in this thesis includes multi-service and multi-departmental dimensions along with the production of useful intelligence. Whether good use was made of intelligence collected is another matter. There was a substantial amount of liaison, contact and practice between departments of state as to various aspects of intelligence, the Organization for National Security and coastwatching being two notable areas. The overarching role and limitations of the Organization for National Security with regard to intelligence is explored, and the development of a combined intelligence centre examined. The participation of New Zealand signals intelligence organisations in the great Allied interception offensive is detailed, along with the mundane but fundamental task of coastal surveillance. The establishment and spectacular decline of the first local independent security service is traced. Both the intelligence and security aspects of the Army's operationally deployed units are covered, along with the growth of RNZAF air intelligence. The effectiveness of all of these organisations could hardly be expected to be uniform, and indeed it was not. Some bodies succeeded in their collection roles beyond expectations, others were reasonably effective, and two organisations failed dismally in different ways, for a number of reasons. If a pattern emerges at all, it is that small single service component-type intelligence sections collecting operational intelligence were the most effective New Zealand intelligence organisations. Operational focus and. operational requirements underlay the drive for successful collection. Most significant within the Allied context were the signals intelligence bodies. At the other end of the scale, larger co-operative interdepartmental New Zealand intelligence ventures failed to deliver projected results. New Zealand's armed forces had an interesting variety of intelligence contributions during the Second World War. Of these, the most effective organisations collected intelligence to meet directed operational requirements.

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  • Pavlova and pineapple pie : mixed parentage and Samoan-Pakeha identities in New Zealand

    Keddell, Emily (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 168 leaves :ill., forms ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Community and Family Studies

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  • Creative mourning: the AIDS Quilt Aotearoa New Zealand

    Brooke-Carr, Elizabeth (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xvii, 445 leaves :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Education. "November 2000".

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  • Falling branches, dying roots? : bank branch closure in small towns

    McKirdy, Callum Blair (2000)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iii, 140 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 134-140. University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • Customary international law in National Courts: a comparative analysis

    Bottermann, Uwe (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    88 leaves :maps (1 in pocket) plates ; 29 cm. Bibliography: p. 83-88. University of Otago department: Law. "October 2000"

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  • Pregnant with meaning: a Foucauldian analysis of foetal harm cases

    Keown, Rebecca Marie Paraska (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 114 leaves ; 30 cm.

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  • Beyond consensus : social learning in urban planning

    Hayward, Bronwyn Mary (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 294 leaves :col. ill., maps (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geography

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  • Sport tourism and the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: a New Zealand perspective

    Langley, Maurice Jason Lloyd (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 243 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 237-243. University of Otago department: Tourism.

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  • Inverse problems in astronomical imaging

    Johnston, Rachel Anne (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The imaging of astronomical objects is limited by atmospheric turbulence, which consists of layers of varying refractive index surrounding the earth. These refractive index fluctuations are a direct consequence of the warming and cooling of air and water vapour in the atmosphere. Wavefronts entering the atmosphere acquire phase distortions, which when propagated result in amplitude fluctuations known as scintillation. Hence the practical manifestation of the atmosphere is a degradation of the signals passing through it, for example it severely limits the resolution of images captured by ground-based telescopes. A variety of solutions, or inverse problems, have been proposed and trialed in the attempt to obtain the best possible images from astronomical telescopes. An orbiting telescope (for example the Hubble space telescope) is one solution. In this case light is captured before it is distorted by the atmosphere. Less expensive ground-based solutions include the post processing of short exposure images and real-time compensation using adaptive optics, both of which are investigated in this thesis. However, the success of an inverse problem lies in the accurate modelling of the processes that give rise to the corresponding forward problem, in this case the random refractive index fluctuations that characterise the atmosphere. Numerical simulation of atmospheric turbulence is achieved using phase screens in which the assumption of Kolmogorov statistics is often made. A previously presented method for modelling Kolmogorov phase fluctuations over a finite aperture, the midpoint displacement method, is both formalised and improved. This enables the accurate generation of atmospheric speckle images for the development and testing of post processing methods. Another aspect of the forward problem is the accurate simulation of scintillation, resulting from the propagation of phase distorted wavefronts. Commonly used simulation methods achieve this by assuming periodic boundary conditions. A technique for the accurate modelling and simulation of scintillation from an aperiodic Kolmogorov phase screen is presented. The more physically justifiable assumption of smoothness is shown to result in a propagation kernel of finite extent. This allows the phase screen dimensions for an accurate simulation to be determined and truncation can then be used to eliminate the unwanted spectral leakage and diffraction effects usually inherent in the use of finite apertures. Deconvolution methods are popular for the post processing of atmospheric speckle images to compensate for the effects of the atmosphere. Conventional deconvolution algorithms are applied when the distortion is known or well-characterised, whereas, blind deconvolution algorithms are used when the distortion is unknown. Conventional deconvolution techniques are not often directly applied to astronomical imaging problems as the distortion introduced by the atmosphere is unknown. However, their extension to blind deconvolution is straightforward and hence their development is valuable. The ill-conditioning of the deconvolution problem requires the addition of prior information, such as positivity, to enable its solution. It is shown that the conventional deconvolution problem can be reformulated as an equivalent quadratic programming problem. Consequently, an accelerated quadratic programming approach is applied and shown to be an improvement to an existing method used for enforcing positivity in deconvolution applications. The main algorithmic differences of the new method are implementation via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and guaranteed convergence to the constrained minimum. Blind deconvolution is also an interesting problem that may arise in many fields of research. It is of particular relevance to imaging through turbulence where the point spread function can only be modelled statistically, and direct measurement may be difficult. The extension of the quadratic programming method to blind deconvolution, combined with Tikhonov-Miller regularisation (energy constraints), smoothness constraints, penalty terms and statistical priors produced a series of new algorithms. The performance of these algorithms is illustrated on simulated astronomical speckle images. Ground-based adaptive optics (AO) technologies are an alternative to post processing methods and aim to compensate for the distortion introduced by the atmosphere in real-time. Knowledge of the vertical structure of the atmosphere combined with AO provides the potential for compensation over a wide field of view. However, the continually changing nature of atmospheric turbulence places strict requirements on techniques for determining the turbulence structure. The remote sensing of scintillation data to estimate this information is known as scintillation detection and ranging (SCIDAR). Application of SCIDAR methods to the capture and analysis of experimental data, as demonstrated in this thesis, highlighted a number of problems with the technique. Methods for overcoming these difficulties are discussed and demonstrated. Finally, alternative approaches to the estimation of atmospheric turbulence profiles and a proposed new technique are investigated.

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  • A musical ethnography of the Ruwatan performance in Central Java : tradition and change

    Susilo, Joko (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Ruwatan is the Javanese term that comes from the word ruwat, to cleanse or release from curse or misfortune. A ruwatan ceremony involves a sacred wayang kulit (shadow puppet) play that is performed as a form of exorcism for people (sukerta) who have fallen victim to personal disaster and are considered magically vulnerable to the evil god Bathara Kala. Ruwatan is an established, conservative tradition of performance on which current changes are working and will, in the future produce certain effects. Prior to the 1600s ruwatan were performed as paper scroll plays (wayang heber), but in 1630 wayang kulit became the accepted medium for ruwatan ceremonies. Wayang kulit ruwatan plays have been performed in Central Java for over three centuries. The cultural tradition of ruwatan survives in modern Java despite a rapidly changing society. Changes in education, politics, the economy, religious beliefs, social relations, moral beliefs and lifestyles influence the tradition of ruwatan. The adaptation and innovation of this cultural tradition has ensured its enduring meaning and function in a changing society. Various elements of the ruwatan ceremony have changed, including the duration of performance, the wayang figures used, the music of the performance, the number of sukerta people believed to be impure, the number and variation of offerings, the criteria for dhalang ruwat (ruwatan puppeteers) and the chants performed. The purpose of the dissertation is to examine not only the tradition of ruwatan that has remained largely unchanged over the last century, but also to describe the changes that have occurred in ruwatan ceremonies. 'Thick description' is the method of research used to scrutinise the various perspectives on ruwatan and perceptions of change. Geertz explains in his article 'Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture' (1973, 4) that thick description is "a' narrowed specified and theoretically more powerful concept of culture." The fieldwork in Indonesia involved interviews with several dhalang ruwat, traditional arts lecturers, ruwatan hosts, sukerta people, ruwatan audiences, and traditional arts students. The introductory chapter discusses the significance of wayang kulit performance in Central Java and provides definitions for the terms: wayang kulit, wayang purwa, ruwatan and ritual. The education of the dhalang, Javanese religions and the genres of wayang kulit performance are described. A section attends to social and cultural change in Central Java followed by a statement describing the argument of the writer. The final section of the chapter discusses the methodology used in the dissertation and provides a review of the literature followed by a statement of purpose. The second chapter examines the types of ruwatan performance, stories of ruwatan, stories of Bathara Kala, sukerta, criteria for dhalang ruwat, sacred offerings, chants, beliefs surrounding ruwatan performances, and the differences between ruwatan and all-night wayang kulit performances. The third chapter examines the three hour ruwatan performance of Ki. Toyo Carito. The following chapter discusses the diverse interpretations of ruwatan in Java. In chapter five change in ruwatan performance is discussed in relation to social and cultural change in Central Java. The concluding chapter examines the forces that have influenced the cultural arts including ruwatan performance in Central Java. The appendices include fieldwork questionnaires, the tonal systems of slendro and pelog, a description of patet, a certificate of puppetry, figures (photos of a ruwatan performance and wayang characters), genealogies of the gods and Javanese kings, a description of the gamelan instruments, maps of Java and a transcript of the ruwatan performance of Ki. Toyo Carito (22 August 1996). A video recording of the ruwatan performance of Ki. Toyo Carito is referred to in the text.

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  • "Have-nets and have-nots" - what determines internet access in New Zealand

    Smythe, M. (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Internet access and social issues: Various commentators overseas have speculated that access to the Internet is a dynamic force for social good, improving communication, education, employment, medical care, and political participation. This has come about due largely to the opportunities the Internet and other technologies seemingly represent to empower individuals. In addition there is an increasing amount of information becoming available only on the Internet. Consequently, issues of access to Information Technology and the Internet are becoming of increasing concern to policy-makers both in NZ and overseas, where terms such as “digital divide” and “information haves and have-nots” are appearing regularly in various media. At a recent Unesco conference is was stated that “Unesco could use its mandate of promoting access to information ...to define a universal right of access to the Internet with which member states would have to comply”(Pullar-Strecker, 1998).

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  • 80% of what? - a preliminary investigation of tutors' understanding of the 80% pass mark for DipBC modules

    Kennedy, D.; Ross, J. (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    “I don’t take an awful lot of notice of the 80% thing” Tutor comment. As new people are recruited to join the many teams of NDBC teaching staff throughout the country, “old timers” attempt to explain the concept of mastery that is supposed to form the basis of assessment procedures in the various modules. The concept is described in the NZQA approved document, commonly known as the Bluebook, which details the NDBC, and other, qualification requirements. In that document, a figure of 80% is suggested as a guideline pass mark for assessments which concern knowledge-based modules. This paper focuses on the meaning of that 80% guideline since, for many, both the explanation and the practice of assessing mastery provide a hurdle with an element of mystery. We attempt to unravel some of the mystery by examining what the current practice is in one Polytechnic and to suggest that our methods may be forcing a dumbing down of assessments which target the comprehension sections of modules. The descriptors for the diploma modules categorise the learning required for each module using the RCAP model. It seems that even with Recall sections some tutors have trouble relating the 80% to the assessment. The Application and Problem Solving areas have largely become the things we assess using assignments. This paper examines how the 80% pass mark is being applied to assignments and to the comprehension elements of various courses, for it is in these areas of cognitive processing that competency (or 80%of competency) is harder to establish particularly in areas of original, creative thought. The paper raises the question of honesty of assessment practices in terms of marking guides and suggests that we should be insisting on using both appropriate tools for generating valid evidence and appropriate means of judging student performance against a course’s learning outcomes, rather than trying to force pass marks to add up to 80%.

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  • Database design and the reality of normalisation

    Kennedy, D. (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    What is normalisation all about? Why do we teach it? How do we teach it? How can we explain normalisation to our students so that they will understand it? This paper presents a method of teaching normalisation that, experience has shown, students can understand. The paper also considers the broader questions of: ¨ Why is normalisation important? ¨ Where does it fit in the process of database design? ¨ How important is it in the “real world”? Database design can be done using an entity relationship diagram (ERD) - a top down approach or by normalisation of sets of data - a bottom up approach The question is, What do real database designers do? ¨ What methodologies do they use? ¨ How important is normalisation? ¨ What normalisation rules do they use i.e. how far do they take it? ¨ How important is denormalisation? This paper presents a summary of findings, from interviews with database designers, that should help us in our teaching of Database design.

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  • Aptitude testing as a predictor of success: the Christchurch experience

    Ross, J. (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Christchurch Polytechnic has used an aptitude test to aid selection of students since 1975 and its usefulness as a predictor of success has been informally debated regularly since that time. In recent years, it has been used to assist in the selection process but achievement of a poor test result has not necessarily been used to exclude a student from beginning study. This paper examines the results of aptitude tests over a period of three years, and the subsequent performance of those students who joined the Certificate in Business Computing (CBC) programme for full-time study. Aptitude Test results are examined by section (pattern matching, mathematical reasoning, logic, words) in an attempt to find out if any one section provides a better indicator of success than the rest. The measure of success used is based on achievement of passes in the nine modules undertaken by new CBC students in their first semester of study. Trends which are observed in this analysis suggest that at the Pass mark which has been used so far, the test does not give a valid indication of success or otherwise. Whether or not a student succeeds in their first semester is not significantly dependent on whether or not they Passed the Aptitude Test. When a higher pass mark is considered, then there is a small level of correlation between achievement of that mark in the test and subsequent success in CBC study. Results in the logic section of the test provide the best indicator but the figures show that many students who did not score well in that section were still able to succeed in their study. The ability to predict success or otherwise in CBC study by using scores achieved in the Aptitude Test as a critical indicator remains inconclusive.

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  • Workplace assessment: balancing the needs of student and organisation

    Wieck, M (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper compares the needs of the student and employer as they undertook a cooperative education project, completed during the last six months of a fulltime, three-year degree in business computing. Some apparent conflicts of interest were examined and ways to resolve these conflicts were explored using Alexander’s patterns framework. The study derives from experiences with the first two cohorts of the Bachelor of Business Computing (BBComp) at Christchurch Polytechnic, where students apply the knowledge and skills gained on the course to real challenges and opportunities presented to them by companies in a business computing environment. The respective outcomes are negotiated between student and employer before the project begins. The student must in addition meet the academic requirements of the Polytechnic; they submit a number of assessments both during and after the project’s completion. The employer’s focus is on producing a commercial product subject to typical constraints such as budget, quality and time. Conflict may arise when - despite the agreed outcomes - the exigencies of the commercial environment force changes upon the student, deflecting them from their original intent. The author has responsibility for the coordination of the student project and acts as arbiter for both parties.

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  • Practitioner Evaluation

    Gibbs, Anita (2000)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Practitioner evaluation: the idea that practitioners themselves undertake a systematic study of their own practice has been encouraged for a long time as an applied social work and health practice research strategy. It is viewed as an opportunity for practitioners to take advantage of the availability of information of data within their organisations; to reflect on the effectiveness of their work with clients without the need for a major research project; it is cost effective research; and it helps professionals bridge the gaps between research, practice and theory. In this piece I intend to outline what practitioner evaluation is, some opportunities and constraints of undertaking evaluative work, and consider some applications to social work practice; making a case throughout of the importance of practitioner evaluation as an ongoing and integrated activity into the daily lives of practitioners. Practitioners, incidentally, are not assumed to be only social workers: potentially a variety of statutory, voluntary and private welfare or care related staff may undertake practitioner evaluation.

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  • Affective Expressions of Machines

    Bartneck C (2000)

    Theses / Dissertations
    University of Canterbury Library

    Emotions should play an important role in the design of interfaces because people interact with machines as if they were social actors. This paper presents a literature review on affective expressions through speech, music and body language. It summarizes the quality and quantity of their parameters, their recognition accuracy and successful examples of synthesis. Moreover, a model for the convincingness of affective expressions, based on Fogg and Hsiang Tseng (1999), was developed and tested. The empirical data did not support the original model and therefore this paper proposes a new model, which is based on appropriateness and intensity of the expressions. Furthermore, the experiment investigated if the type of emotion (happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear and disgust), knowledge about the source (human or machine), the level of abstraction (natural face, computer rendered face and matrix face) and medium of presentation (visual, audio/visual, audio) of an affective expression influences its convincingness and distinctness. Only the type of emotion and multimedia presentations had an effect on convincingness. The distinctness of an expression depends on the abstraction and the media through which it is presented.

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  • The politics of privatizing water services : in theory and practice.

    Treliving, Victoria (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since the early 1980s, the phenomenon of privatization has quickly spread worldwide, changing the balance between the state and the market in favour of the latter. Its adoption questions and replaces the traditional roie of the state in providing and controlling certain public services. One formerly predominantly public service to be affected by privatization is piped water services, as it is commonly argued that private suppliers stimulate greater efficiencies and innovations than public suppliers. Most of those writing on this subject tend to focus narrowly on comparisons of public and private water companies in an attempt to argue that one or the other is best. Alternatively, some concentrate on the policy process through which privatization found favour. However, the thesis takes a very different approach to the analysis of privatizing water supplies, contributing to an area that has attracted little attention: its theoretical context and its implications for democratic politics. The aim of the thesis is to concentrate on, and extend, the types of assumptions - efficiency and innovation - inherent in arguments for privatization, thus providing a wide-ranging theoretical context in which to locate the privatization of water services. After discussing at some length exactly what comprises privatization, the thesis examines the theoretical foundations from which the policy originates. With reference to two case studies of privatization - Britain and Wales, which privatized water services in 1989, and New Zealand, which has not fully privatized its water, but is increasingly favouring more commercial practices - the thesis then illustrates how the theories have informed privatization in practice. The thesis concludes that privatizing water supplies . is an inappropriate extension of these theories because, first, they do not recognize the inherently non-commercial nature of water services and, second, because their implications for citizenship, and therefore democratic politics, are potentially very damaging.

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  • River Mouth Processes and Morphodynamics on a Mixed Sand-Gravel Beach

    Paterson, Adam Karl (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Where the Ashburton river meets the sea it is impounded by a mixed sand-gravel barrier, formed through littoral transport of sediment, causing a lagoon to form, locally referred to as hapua. From the hapua, discharge to the sea is maintained through small, ephemeral channels, which are unstable and are subject to morphological change in response to fluctuations in longshore transport of gravel and variations in river flow rate. There are few descriptions of the morphodynamics of these highly changeable features, particularly changes that occur over short time scales of hours to weeks. To investigate the patterns and processes involved in the migration of drainage channels, several new instruments were trialed. A methodology of was developed to provide estimates of longshore transport on a gravel beach using a Gravel Transport Sensor. Video camera technology was the primary tool used to study river mouth morphodynamics. The camera provided hourly images of the environment, enabling qualitative assessment using movies of the images to observe morphologic changes, and quantitative measurement of the migration of the channel. Measurements of river flow, wave climate and lagoon water levels were also gathered to investigate the relationships between the morphological response and the forcing factors. Results of the study showed that the ends of the channel behave differently, with the lagoon end remaining more stable than the seaward end. The seaward end is more exposed to the high wave energy prevalent along this coast. The wave climate, especially wave period and direction, were found to be predictors for the migration rate. The location of the seaward end is more variable due to the fluctuations in wave climate, differing from the lagoon end which is influenced predominantly by river flow rates. It has been found that the migration of the lagoon end occurs in 'steps', which are separated by raised gravel banks, the single persistent feature throughout the study. This stepping migration is driven primarily through episodic events such as high river flow or large wave events.

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  • Privacy and the Internet : how to rescue the fly from the tangled web?

    Alderdice, Joanna. (2000)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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