1,024 results for 2001

  • Reconstruction of the 01 February 1814 eruption of Mayon Volcano, Philippines

    Mirabueno, Maria Hannah Terbio (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Mayan Volcano's eruption on 01 February 1814 is considered as the volcano's most violent eruption episode, devastating five towns in the southern slopes of the volcano and killing at least 1,200 people. The deposits of the 1814 eruption are mainly distributed on the southern slopes of the volcano. The primary volcanic succession consists of, from bottom to top, tephra fall deposit, lower ignimbrite, pyroclastic surge deposit and upper ignimbrite. Two post-eruption lahar units were also recognized in the field area. The tephra fall unit, although not observed in direct contact with any of the other primary deposits, was distinguished based on petrologic and geochemical similarities with the lower ignimbrite and pyroclastic surge deposit. The lower ignimbrite and the overlying pyroclastic surge deposit are both scoriaceous, and are similarly bombs-rich; the surge deposit is distinguished by its characteristically good sorting. In contrast, the upper ignimbrite contains abundant angular altered clasts derived from pre-eruption deposits. All the primary deposits are interpreted to have been derived from an eruption column that was generated by multiple explosive eruptions occurring in close succession. This column initially generated the tephra fall. Discrete phases of column collapse produced the succession of lower ignimbrite, pyroclastic surge deposit and upper ignimbrite. The wide dispersal, composition and textural characteristics of the pyroclastic surge indicate that it was generated by a discrete phase of an eruption column collapse. The upper ignimbrite is the deposit from a density current produced during the cessation of the eruption that was accompanied by partial collapse of the crater wall. The 1814 deposits are predominantly composed of basaltic andesite, with minor more acidic andesite. Petrographic texture and contact relationships, bimodal distribution of plagioclase, and variation in glass composition indicate mixing of two magmas. A geologic model for the 1814 eruption is proposed in which an intermediate andesite magma residing in a small, shallow chamber beneath Mayan was intruded by a comparably larger magma of basaltic andesite composition. The resulting magma mixing may have triggered the explosive eruption of 1814.

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  • Using academic research methodologies to improve the quality of teaching: A case study

    McEwan, W. (2001)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    A contract for the European Space Agency (ESA) was carried out by the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, to study the performance of the protocols (particularly TCP/IP) used within the ESA funded CODE satellite communication system (Fairhurst, Ord et al. 1993; Fairhurst, McEwan, et al. 1993; Fairhurst, et al. 1994). As part of that study, data was collected from the routers connected to the VSAT terminal equipment using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The analysis of data gathered from that experiment, and the later comparison of some of the methodologies used, formed part of a M.Sc. Engineering by research thesis published by the author of this paper (2000). The present paper does not particularly concern itself with the results of the above research. Rather, it is intended to illustrate that the experimental methodologies, devised for a leading academic research project undertaken at postgraduate level, can at times be later used to improve the quality of teaching and research at degree level and below. This is contrary to the common but ill-conceived notion that such academic research is overly esoteric and thus somehow unrelated and of no benefit to the more down-to-earth realities of general teaching. Within this paper some of the practical details of the methodology used in the CODE experiment will be described. This will include the hardware internetwork configurations used during both the “live” satellite data communication link (an expensive resource) and a similar configuration using a “Satellite Link Simulator (SLS)” during the majority time when the live link was unavailable. Following the model of the above research, the School of Computing at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT) has recently begun work on the creation of an in-house data communications research and teaching laboratory. Although this is in its early stages of formation this presentation will show that parts of its design are derived directly from the above CODE experiments. In addition, some software simulations used in the CODE experiments will be briefly described along with our plans for using similar software simulations in student research project work.

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  • Health assessment and its relationship to nursing practice in New Zealand

    Milligan, K.; Neville, S. (2001)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Health assessment has been an integral component of nursing education in Australia for over a decade. New Zealand has only recently embarked down this path and might benefit from the Australian experience. This article will discuss health assessment in the context of three issues currently topical in nursing in New Zealand. The issues are annual registration based on evidence of competence to practice, a review of undergraduate curricula, and the development of nurse practitioner/advanced nurse practitioner roles. The meaning of the concept ‘health assessment’ is also clarified in order to provide consistency as new initiatives in nursing are currently being developed.

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  • What do pigs and chickens have to do with eCommerce

    Nesbit, T. (2001)

    Conference paper
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    In a world where more organisations are embracing eCommerce or eBusiness or eSomethingelse, there are an increasing number of eFailures as well. This paper looks at what it means to be successful in eCommerce and in particular the management skills that are needed for eCommerce organisations to be innovative and successful. The findings are based on a review of literature and the interview of a senior manager in an eCommerce organisation in New Zealand, and will be able to be used as the basis for a questionnaire to be distributed to a wider sample of organisations. The paper concludes by drawing a parallel between our understanding of the nature of pigs and chickens, and the characteristics of successful eCommerce organisations.

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  • Performance evaluation and capacity planning of corporate networks: a pilot study of methodologies and trends

    Asgarkhani, M.; Ward, B.; Kennedy, D. (2001)

    Conference paper
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    During the past few years we have witnessed a staggering growth in computer networks. Internet and digital business have had a profound effect on our day-to-day lives. This paper discusses our findings in regards to the challenges that IT departments have had to face - in particular, that of ongoing network performance evaluation and capacity planning. Our findings are the result of a pilot study that was conducted within a number of Christchurch based organisations. Issues such as user involvement, service level agreements, reactive or proactive planning have been addressed, as have tools, techniques and methodologies.

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  • Patterns: lust for glory

    Wieck, M. (2001)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Pattern frameworks have emerged as a powerful if not yet pervasive tool for the continuous improvement of software authorship, teaching, business administration and building design. The concept of somehow storing proven solutions to repeating problems in a readily-retrievable form has enormous appeal to professionals in all walks of life. While there have emerged some excellent templates for the creation of effective patterns there are a number of alternatives that each offer something to attract different pattern users. This paper reviews those observed so far, considers their features and attempts to recommend a preferred version or versions in the light of developed criteria.

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  • The X files - an XML Xperience

    Kennedy, D.; Lance, M. (2001)

    Conference paper
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    XML – eXtensible Markup Language. A way to markup a document for content. A standard for data interchange that is being used for B2B transactions. XML is designed for use with data-centric documents. Williams et al, 2000 describe a method for mapping a RDBMS structure to an XML DTD. A non-trivial realworld example was selected, that of course outlines. A RDBMS was designed for course outlines and the structure mapped to a DTD. The DTD plus a sample document was initially validated using Internet Explorer. It was further checked using an on-line validator. The DTD was subsequently revised in line with guidelines for good XML.

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  • Responses to censorship issues at Auckland Public Library 1920-1940

    Walker, Pauline Jean (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This report examines how historical responses to censorship issues have influenced the development of contemporary intellectual freedom ideology through an analysis of censorship challenges and responses at Auckland Public Library during the years 1920-1940. Sociological theories related to the development of public libraries and to the development of librarianship as a profession are considered. The Remarque case of 1929 is identified as a pivotal moment in the development of contemporary intellectual freedom ideology among New Zealand librarians. Three key conclusions are made. Some librarians in New Zealand during the 1920s and 1930s saw censorship as part of their role. There was tension between a public expectation that entertaining fiction should be provided by the public library and the librarian's belief that the public library's primary purpose was education and cultural advancement. Although there was some opposition to librarians as censors, New Zealand librarianship had not yet advanced towards a definite understanding that the public library should be for all. This is evidence that New Zealand librarianship was developing in much the same way as its British and American counterparts, who at this time were also negotiating the librarian's role in selection and censorship issues.

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  • Effects of constant incubation regimes on eggs and hatchlings of the egg-laying skink, Oligosoma suteri

    Hare, Kelly Maree (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The conditions under which reptilian eggs are incubated affect survival probability and physiological attributes of the progeny. The egg-laying skink, Oligosoma suteri, is the only endemic oviparous lizard in New Zealand. No controlled laboratory incubation had previously been undertaken, and thus no information was available on the requirements for successful captive incubation. I studied the effects of incubation regime on the eggs and hatchlings of O. suteri to four months of age. Oligosoma suteri eggs (n = 174) were randomly distributed among three constant incubation temperatures (18°C, 22°C and 26°C) and two water potentials (-120 kPa and -270 kPa). Hatching success and hatchling survival were greatest at 22°C and 26°C, with hatchlings from 18°C incubation suffering from physical abnormalities. Incubation regime and maternal influence did not affect sex of individuals, with equal sex ratios occurring from each incubation treatment. Hatchlings from the 22°C and -120 kPa incubation treatments were larger, for most measurements, and warmer incubation temperatures resulted in increased growth rates. Juveniles from 22°C and 26°C and individuals with greater mass per unit length (condition index) sprinted faster over 0.25 m. Sprint speed was positively correlated with ambient temperature. At four months of age sprint speed decreased in 18°C individuals and individuals incubated at 26°C and -270 kPa compared to their performance at one month. The results suggest that the most successful captive incubation regime for O. suteri is 22°C and -120 kPa. This study also shows that temperature-dependent sex determination does not occur in O. suteri, but that fitness traits are influenced by incubation temperature.

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  • Urban Maori art : the third generation of contemporary Maori artists : identity and identification

    Rennie, Kirsten (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kia u ki tou kawai tupuna, kia matauria ai, i ahu mai !we i hea anga ana koe ko hea Trace out your ancestral stem, so that it may be known where you come from and in which direction you are going. The intention of this thesis is to examine and interpret the artistic careers and practice of University of Auckland Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Lisa Reihana (1987), Brett Graham (1989), and Michael Parekowhai (1990), and University of Canterbury Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Shane Cotton (1989) and Peter Robinson (1989). These urban artists are from a third generation of contemporary Maori artists, and they have been selected for this study because they represent a phenomenon within the New Zealand arts establishment. Graduating within three years of one another, they have instantly and successfully mapped out their artistic careers, rapidly rising in status nationally, and internationally, over the past decade. An examination of how contemporary Maori art has been defined by Maori and Pakeha critics and artists, and who is legitimised as Maori artists, presented as the debate between an essentialist and a post-modern, post-colonial argument, frames the context for this survey of identity and identification. The thesis investigates a contemporary Maori art movement: presenting a whanau of artists who form an artistic and educational support network of contemporaries, that whakapapa back to the Tovey generation - the kaumatua artists, influential in the work of Shane Cotton (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi), Brett Graham (Ngati Koroki Kahukura), Michael Parekowhai (Nga-Ariki/Te Aitanga, Rongowhakaata) Lisa Reihana (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi, Ngai Tu), and Peter Robinson (Kai Tahu). The artistic whanau now includes Cotton, Graham, Parekowhai, Reihana and Robinson who in turn influence and support their third generation peers, subsequently informing the artistic practice of the fourth generation of contemporary Maori artists, and forming a vital link in the continuation and development of the contemporary Maori art movement. The sesquicentenary of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1990 raised the question, once again, of how we identify as a nation, specifically, is there a New Zealand bicultural identity? The historically familiar focus on forming a partnership between the tangata whenua and Pakeha continued to be of importance for the nation as it approached the end of the millenium. The issue for New Zealand, as a country populated by a diverse range of migrant and locally born peoples, more recently, has become less concerned with 'creating' a bicultural identity and more interested in visually representing a multicultural nation. The last decade of the second millenium (1990 - 2000), is the main focus of this study because each one of the five artists profiled is conscious of speaking between two cultures, and they utilise their artistic works as the vehicle through which to investigate their Maoritanga and their bicultural reality. In a global climate of an increased awareness involving the rights of indigenous peoples, the third generation of contemporary urban Maori artists, the thesis will argue, became cultural ambassadors both nationally and internationally, their work an institutionally acceptable bicultural fusion of Pakeha and Maori concerns. The easy facility with which they negotiate between these two worlds makes them a pivotal generation in any study of contemporary Maori art. This thesis aims to reveal the changing and sometimes controversial face of contemporary Maori art, establishing the necessity for this change, revealing where the artists position themselves as a result of their geographical location within New Zealand, and in terms of their own connection to their Maori heritage and knowledge of their whakapapa, investigating issues of identity and identification.

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  • Formulations of New Zealand identity : re reading Man alone, The bone people and Once were warriors.

    Stachurski, Christina (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    John Mulgan's Man Alone (1939), Keri Hulme's the bone people (1983) and Alan Duffs Once Were Warriors (1990) are considered in terms of developments in settler acculturation. These three novels' contents and implications can be thought of as marking distinct stages in the general formulation and experience of collective Pakeha identity through cultural discourse: the late colonial disregard and distancing of Maori; the anti-colonial embrace of the Maori as a means of claiming indigeneity; and the stage of internal de-colonisation in which Maori are once again cast as other and scapegoated. My study focuses upon personal identity in tandem with collective identity, as representations of race and/or ethnicity are commonly enmeshed with constructions of sex, gender and sexuality (as well as what can loosely be called geography) in these novels. As a part of this process, I test in particular the thesis that the various versions of Maoriness represented in Man Alone, the bone people and Once Were Warriors are a crucial factor in these novels' cultural significance for Pakeha. At the same time, I focus upon the ways in which these various versions of Maoriness signify both the concept "Pakeha" - or otherwise - and complexities within Pakeha.

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  • Reporting financial performance : a conceptual analysis

    Zheng, Geng (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Reporting financial performance is among the most difficult and vexing questions faced by accounting standard-setters around the world. The group of international accounting standard setters, known as G4+ 1, has released two special reports on reporting financial performance over the last three years: Reporting Financial Performance-Current Development and Future Directions written by Todd Johnson and Andrew Lennard (Johnson and Lennard, 1998) and Reporting Financial Performance-A Proposed Approach written by Kathryn Cearns (Cearns, 1999). Given the current importance of G4+ 1 in the international accounting standards setting process, the proposals made in these two reports have important implications for future accounting practices in respect of reporting financial performance. Therefore it is important to understand and examine the conceptual basis of the proposals made in the two reports for its consistency and validity. The purpose of this research is to examine the income concepts underlying the proposals. It is conducted by a way of literature review. Several theoretical concepts of income have been identified and compared with the details of the proposals made in the reports. The four concepts of income identified are: the concept of service value income, the concept of business venture income, the concept of comprehensive income and the concept of value added income. The results of the examination show that, at the overall level, both reports have adopted an approach to reporting financial performance that is consistent with the concept of comprehensive income. At the detailed level, it seems that the concept of service value income has been adopted for developing the proposed performance statement. Based on this finding, this research discusses the inconsistencies between the underlying income concepts identified and the appropriateness of adopting the concepts. To the extent that the inconsistencies are concerned, this research paper also provides suggestions for possible resolutions.

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  • An organisation theory perspective on choice of franchising form

    Floyd, Callum (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research addresses the issue of diversity of organisational forms in franchising, which despite its prevalence, is poorly understood. The research focuses on the choice between three categories, consisting of five common types, of franchising: single-unit franchising, direct multi-unit (sequential franchising and area development) and indirect multi-unit (area representation and subfranchising) franchising forms. The thesis presents and tests a contingency model that explores the influence of environmental (munificence, complexity and dynamism) and task (task complexity) uncertainties on choice of franchising form. Six factors were operationalised to represent environmental and task uncertainties. These factors included demand size and growth (environmental munificence), demand dispersion and heterogeneity (environmental complexity), intensity of rivalry (environmental dynamism) and task complexity (task uncertainty). A multi-case study research strategy was conducted to test the contingency model. The strategy involved interviews with founders, other franchisor executives and franchisees, and also considered documentation and direct observations. The sample comprised a heterogeneous selection of seven New Zealand founded franchise systems. Companies were theoretically selected to ensure all five types of franchising were represented. The findings illustrated general support for the thesis that environmental and task uncertainties do influence choices made between alternative franchising forms. Most companies adopted types of franchising that were consistent with expectations derived from the model. Importantly, however, the overall fit was not neat and conclusive. The explanatory power of individual factors varied and in some situations form choices occurred contrary to expectations. This research produced further important findings. The qualitative methodology employed helped uncover five further drivers of franchising form choice. These additional factors related to individual choice and the firm, and included incentives, growth aspirations, need for control, resource constraints and franchisee aspirations. The findings also confirmed that no one factor or theory was sufficient to explain form choice, and the factors important in one company's decision might have little relevance to another's. Consequently, multiple perspectives were necessary to understand the decisions made by franchisors.

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  • How could family group conferences be used as decision-making forum for custody and access decisions under the Guardianship Act 1968?

    Aeschlimann, Sabine. (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Recognising prisoner's rights : the physical treatment of prisoners in New Zealand

    Berry, Fiona. (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • From Hawke to Rekohu : an analysis of the recommendations of the Waitangi Tribunal

    Becher, Natalie. (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Redundancy post Employment Contracts Act 1991 : an analysis of the effect of the Employment Relations Act 2000 on redundancy law

    Ballara, Guido. (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Parliamentary privilege vs. constitutional supremacy : Berenger v Jeewoolal [1999] 2 MR 172

    Dunn, Nicholas Christopher. (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Finding the faith : surface bargaining and communication in the Employment Relations Act

    Benefield, Ainsley. (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Aviation regulation : how safe is enough?

    Cranston, Amy. (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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