1,754 results for 2005

  • New Zealand’s legal profession – at a cross-roads?

    Leslie, Nicola K (2005)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    What do you call 100 lawyers at the bottom of the ocean? 'A good start!' New Zealand's legal profession is an easy scapegoat for public criticism. Yet barristers and solicitors are a tightly regulated profession. This paper aims to understand and analyse the current climate within the legal services market in New Zealand. Why is our legal profession under such attack? It seems ironic that a profession which aspires to high ideals could be the subject of such criticism. Yet we rarely consider why such high standards are demanded of a profession. Chapter One will discuss the concept of a profession, and show whether the legal profession in New Zealand can retain such a position. If there is to be any answer to disparaging remarks about lawyers, we must identify and resolve the criticisms of lawyers in New Zealand. Chapter Two will discuss the criticisms directed at barristers and solicitors, to understand why public confidence in our legal profession may be threatened. Ironically the legal profession is subject to a number of different controls. Parliament, the Courts, the profession's own representative bodies at both a national and local level and individual clients all impact on lawyers' practise. Chapter Three will discuss how each institution has responded to the criticisms made of lawyers. Chapter Four will assess any resulting concerns of the profession which remain problematic. This paper will review the legal profession in New Zealand. For all those who practise as barristers and solicitors this is your collective reputation at risk. It is a review with which all lawyers should be particularly concerned. [Introduction]

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  • Effect of alcohol exposure in early gestation on brain development

    Li, Yuhong (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, has been extensively studied in the human. Animal studies show that alcohol exposure during very early development may result in severe brain damage, often incompatible with a postnatal life. However, for surviving offspring it is unknown whether they suffer long term brain damage. The final assembly of the mature brain results from a controlled balance between proliferation of glial and neuronal precursors and programmed cell death. The overall aim of the current study was to use a physiologically relevant mouse model to assess the acute and long-term effects of binge alcohol exposure on the early embryo, to simulate human pregnancy at the third week of gestation when pregnancy may be undetected. A number of paradigms were used to assess the acute dose-response effect, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) profile and the extent of cell death following alcohol exposure on gestational day (G) 7.5. The exposure paradigms were single binge IG6.5, IG4.5, IP4.5, or an extended binge IG4.5+, IG3.0+. Two control groups were Con6.5 and Con4.5+. Acute cell death was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), activated caspase-3 staining, and transmission electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was investigated using S-phase immuno-labeling, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) birthdating and immuno-detection (BrdU/anti-BrdU). The long-term effects were investigated at G18.5 and postnatal day (PN) 60. Unbiased stereological methods were used to assess the effect of ethanol exposure at G7.5 on neocortical volume, cell number and density of neurons, glial cells, and capillary cells at PN60. The first principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation resulted in acute apoptotic cell death in the ectoderm of the mouse embryo. Cell death was dependent on both peak BAC and the duration of elevated BAC. Significant increased cell death (TUNEL labeling) was observed in groups IG6.5 (9.43 ± 2.08%) and IG4.5+ (8.97 ± 2.12%) compared with control groups Con6.5 (2.14 ± 0.09%) and Con4.5+ (2.81 ± 0.36%). There was no significant increased cell death in ethanol exposed groups IG4.5 (3.43 ± 0.45%), IP4.5 (3.68 ± 0.67%), or IG3.0+ (1.72 ± 0.24%). TEM analysis revealed that cell death exhibited characteristics of the apoptotic pathway. The second principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation resulted in acute arrested proliferation in the ectoderm of the mouse embryo. The S-phase proliferation was significantly decreased within the whole ectoderm in the ethanol exposed group IG6.5 (45.58 ± 2.34%) compared with control group Con6.5 (62.08 ± 3.11%). The third principal finding of the present study was that binge ethanol exposure during gastrulation induced the long term effect of laminate disorganization in the neocortex. The incidence of abnormal lamination was 87.5% in IG6.5 compared with 16.7% in IG3.0+ and 14.3% in Con6.5. Although ethanol exposure increased embryonic reabsorption, decreased litter size, and increased abnormal offspring, neocortical volume, and the total number of neurons, glial cells, and capillary cells was not affected. The total number (10⁶) of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells respectively was 12.221 ± 0.436, 4.865 ± 0.167, and 2.874 ± 0.234 in IG6.5; 11.987 ± 0.416, 4.942 ± 0.133, and 2.922 ± 0.130 in IG3.0+; and 11.806 ± 0.368, 5.166 ± 0.267, and 3.284 ± 0.217 in controls, at PN60. These results provide important information pertinent to fetal outcome for those women who drink heavily in early pregnancy. The results also demonstrate the importance of the pattern of ethanol exposure and blood alcohol concentration in determining the magnitude of ethanol's teratogenic impact. Ethanol exposure on G7.5 that resulted in a high transient BAC, induced disorganized neocortical lamination, indicative of a permanent structural change. This disruption may result in altered neocortical function and requires further investigation.

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  • Environmental tolerances of resting stages of plumatellid bryozoans at Southern Reservoir, Dunedin, New Zealand

    Brunton, Michelle A (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Freshwater bryozoans grow at Southern Reservoir, a water treatment station in Dunedin, New Zealand fouling surfaces in the microstrainer hall and requiring expensive and time consuming maintenance. Preventing or minimising germination is a potentially useful way to control bryozoan infestation. Germination trials were conducted to assess the effect of temperature, dry storage, and various chemicals on floatoblast germination. Plumatella vaihiriae is newly described from Southern Reservoir. A second, as yet unidentified, Plumatellid species was discovered through the presence of floatoblasts (Plumatella n. sp.). Storing dry floatoblasts of Plumatella n. sp. decreased germination. Storing dry floatoblasts of P. vaihiriae for 63 days or more prevented germination entirely. Sodium hydroxide, acid clean in place (CIP) and sulphuric acid were most successful of those chemical treatments tested in preventing germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Exposure to alkaline CIP and a combination of CIP solutions decreased germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Pre-heating acid CIP to 35°C prevented germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Exposure to alkaline CIP solutions at temperatures of 35°C and 50°C increased germination of P. vaihiriae and Plumatella n. sp. floatoblasts. The zooid wall provided protection for floatoblasts of P. vaihiriae from exposure to acid CIP. On initial release from the zooid P. vaihiriae floatoblasts produced in winter and early summer are obligate dormants entering a diapausal state for at least three weeks. As summer approaches P. vaihiriae floatoblasts become thermos-quiescent and germinate once temperatures increase. Dunedin City Council (DCC) water department staff must adhere to strict cleaning policies when moving both people and equipment between Southern Water Treatment Station and other water treatment stations and reservoirs. P. vaihiriae and Plumatella n. sp. floatoblasts could better sustain the effects of an acid environment during transport within a vector such as a water bird more so if eaten whilst within the zooid and remaining within the zooid walls during transport.

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  • Current singularities at finitely compressible three-dimensional magnetic null points

    Pontin, D.I.; Craig, Ian J.D. (2005)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The formation of current singularities at line-tied two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D, respectively) magnetic null points in a nonresistive magnetohydrodynamic environment is explored. It is shown that, despite the different separatrix structures of 2D and 3D null points, current singularities may be initiated in a formally equivalent manner. This is true no matter whether the collapse is triggered by flux imbalance within closed, line-tied null points or driven by externally imposed velocity fields in open, incompressible geometries. A Lagrangian numerical code is used to investigate the finite amplitude perturbations that lead to singular current sheets in collapsing 2D and 3D null points. The form of the singular current distribution is analyzed as a function of the spatial anisotropy of the null point, and the effects of finite gas pressure are quantified. It is pointed out that the pressure force, while never stopping the formation of the singularity, significantly alters the morphology of the current distribution as well as dramatically weakening its strength. The impact of these findings on 2D and 3D magnetic reconnection models is discussed.

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  • Geophysical survey of the Paringa River valley, South Westland

    Kilner, Jeremy William (2005)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: [iv], 104 leaves : ill., maps ; 30 cm. + 1 CD-ROM (4 3/4 in.) and 1 map (folded). Notes: CD-ROM and map in pockets inside back cover. University of Otago department: Geology. Thesis (B. Sc. (Hons.))--University of Otago, 2005. Includes bibliographic references.

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  • Antarctic gateway cities & contemporary mobility : a comparative analysis of the two Antarctic gateway cities of Christchurch & Hobart

    Grace, Michael Russell Ian (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 45 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Tourism. "March 2005".

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  • Ngati Apa: Legally sound but bravely apolitical

    Dunlop, Jane (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    University of Otago department: Law.

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  • City pigeons : Kererū (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) in the urban Dunedin environment : abundance, habitat selection and rehabilitation outcomes

    Daglish, Lisa (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    viii, 180 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. Typescript. University of Otago department: Zoology.

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  • Children's insights into family discipline

    Dobbs, Terry Anne (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 155 leaves :ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 126-127. University of Otago department: Children's Issues Centre. "January, 2005".

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  • A stochastic computer simulation of island group colonisation by Rattus norvegicus in small near shore island systems : specifically Tia island and the Boat group

    Coutts, Shaun Raymond (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    212 leaves :port ; 30 cm. [Bibliography] : l.201-2121. January 2005'. University of Otago department: Zoology

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  • The dilemmas of displacement : revitalisation and gentrification in inner city Wellington, New Zealand

    Crack, Charlotte Emily (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    viii, 132 leaves :col. ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • The geochemical environment during rehabilitation of the Wangaloa opencast coal mine, Southeast Otago, New Zealand

    Baker, Michelle Amy (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 176 leaves :ill. (some col. and folded), maps (some col., 1 folded) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 132-137) University of Otago department: Geology.

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  • The construction of entrepreneurship in publicly-owned utilities in New Zealand: local and translocal discourses, 1999-2001

    Cardow, Andrew G (2005)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This research project examines how managers in local-government-owned business organisations justify their adoption of an entrepreneurial orientation and their interpretation of their role in entrepreneurial terms. To explore these justifications, interviews were conducted with the senior management of four local-government- owned business operations and one local council. They were: Metrowater, The Edge, Taieri Gorge Railway, Chatham Islands Council and Chatham Islands Enterprise Trust. These interviews were then analysed, utilising a critical discourse method. In addition, interviews were also conducted with senior managers in the Rotorua District Council and Taupo District Council who provided a sharp contrast to the former organisations and suggested a means by which the neo-liberal approach within the sector might be countered. Through speaking with the various local government business managers contacted for this project, I concluded that managers of local-government-owned business operations have a strong institutional identification with the private sector. This identity is so strong that many of the managers interviewed have rejected the very notion that they are public employees of any sort. The managers have adopted an entrepreneurial approach because they see this as essential to gain professional legitimacy with their peers in the private sector. This has caused them to place distance between themselves and the owners of the business that they manage (that is, the councils), and the local citizens they ostensibly serve, to the extent that they have described their job as providing goods and services to customers rather than providing services for citizens. I will show that the adoption of such an attitude is inappropriate when placed within the context of local-government-owned and operated business concerns. From the point of view of European settlement, New Zealand is a very young country, especially in the administrative sector. To provide a background to this project and to suggest the main lines of development of local government in New Zealand, I have included a prologue that outlines the history of local government in New Zealand.

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  • Recreation or preservation? : visitor conflict on the Hollyford Track

    Kleinlangevelsloo, Maree (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 197 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geography.

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  • The hill of health : aspects of community at Waipiata Sanatorium 1923-1961

    Haugh, Susan Margaret (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    102 leaves, [21] p. of plates :ill., facsim., map, ports. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 101-102.

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  • Informed preferences in forest-based land use planning in Indonesia : a methodological case study.

    Rahardja, Teguh (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Indonesia is large and rich in natural resources. Its forest extends over 60 per cent of the country's land and contains many other natural resources. There are many stakeholders, often with conflicting interests. The demands placed on the forest have resulted in declining quantity and quality of the forest lands. People have recognised the need for reviewing and improving the forest-based land use plan, and, in so doing, promoting the participatory approach rather than the traditionally centralistic one. This has been attempted, but there were difficulties in the participatory evaluation of land use options' impacts. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method to help forestry-based land use planning take into account stakeholders' preferences after considering land use scenario consequences. Based on the situation in Indonesia and existing options, this study adopted the mixed rational-participatory approach. The rational side was attempted by FOLPI simulation of land use scenarios. An interview survey of opinions suggested eight scenarios of varying emphases on the economic, ecological and social aspects, which were simulated in FOLPI with area and resource data of each land use. The results were graphs of land use changes and their economic, ecological and social impacts. The participatory aspect was promoted by Q methodology applications. Q was used to analyse respondents' sorts of a set of statements about different aspects of land use planning, and revealed the typology and preferences of stakeholders with regard to land use planning. Using verbal statements in such exercises discovered the typology and normative preferences, while using the FOLPI application graphs as the statements disclosed the positive preferences. In tandem, they provide useful information as inputs to stakeholder deliberations towards a new, rational, and acceptable land use scenario. This study, therefore, recommends a method to help forest-based land use planning stakeholders. The method includes FOLPI simulation of the broad-scoped land use scenarios, and Q applications both the conventional verbal way and the innovative graphical way.

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  • Advanced surface texturing for silicon solar cells

    Ganesan, Kumaravelu (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The multi-crystalline silicon (me-Si) solar cell is considered to be one of the most promising cells capable of achieving high efficiency at low cost and high reliability. Improving solar cells efficiency using low cost materials requires careful design considerations aiming to minimise the optical and electrical losses. In this work plasma texturing was employed to reduce optical reflections from silicon surfaces well below 1%. Plasma texturing is used to form light trapping structures suitable for silicon solar cells. Several plasma texturing methods are investigated and associated defects are analysed. Masked as well as mask-less texturing techniques are investigated. Conventional parallel plate Reactive Ion Elching (RIE), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma system are used to compare the plasma induced defects in silicon. The influence of various plasma etch parameters on plasma induced defect is investigated. A correlation between the minority carriers lifetime and surface area increased by texturing is established. Effective lifetime measurements using Quasi Steady State Photo Conductive (QSSPC) technique is mainly used to estimate the plasma induced defect in textured silicon substrates. Sinton lifetime tester is used to measure the effective lifetime of the substrates. The implied open circuit voltage is calculated from the lifetime data for textured substrates. In this work low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy is also used to analyse the defect caused by plasma on me-Si substrates. Photoluminescence (PL) data is obtained using the 514.5 nm line of an Ar⁺ laser as an excitation source. The luminescence is dispersed with SPEX 1700 spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled Germanium detector. Reflectance measurements are performed on textured surfaces usmg a purpose built integrating sphere attachment of a high accuracy spectrophotometer. Modelling is also performed using PV-optics software to compare the experimental and theoretical results. Finally, silicon solar cells are fabricated with measured efficiency around 18% . The efficiency is estimated from the I-V characteristics data obtained using a calibrated halogen lamp and a HP semiconductor parameter analyser. Spin-on-dopant source as well as solid diffusion source is used to form the ewitter junction of the solar cells fabricated on p-type silicon wafers. Multicrystalline silicon, CZ- silicon and FZ silicon wafers are used to fabricate solar cells in this thesis. The effect of single and double layer antireflection coatings on diffused reflections is also investigated.

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  • Furs to furriers in Dunedin, New Zealand, to 1940

    Tosh, Evan J. (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis chronicles the development of the fur trade in Dunedin from the 1870s to 1940. The fur trade in Dunedin started in response to the large numbers of rabbit skins and meat that were able to be marketed following the explosion in introduced rabbit numbers in the 1870s. Most rabbit traders diversified into buying and selling other products of the land, but a few became more involved in the fur trade, by concentrating on the rabbit trade or by diversifying into fur dressing and/ or manufacturing and retailing fur garments. Dunedin became the major source of skins for export, and also was home to the main fur processing factory, and largest fur garment manufacturing operation in the country. Government measures to foster local industries and employment through the use of protective tariffs are examined. The demand for fur garments and the protection of these tariffs aided the development of fur garment manufacturers from 1920 onwards. The controversy over whether the commercial use of rabbits hindered the policy of rabbit destruction is examined. Whilst the Government tried to encourage rabbit destruction it did not hinder the trade in rabbit meat or skins. This contrasts with the official attitude to opossums, as population increases were encouraged in order to build up a fur trades. But by the late 1920s it was realised that the opossum was actually damaging forests and had become a pest. Similar good ideas, such as introduction of the natural enemies of rabbits in the 1890s, such as ferrets and weasels, were also identified as environmentally disastrous in this period. During the depression fur prices dropped, and this affected trappers and skin dealers, but allowed manufacturers to produce a cheaper range of fur products to satisfy the continuing demand for fur. Fur prices increased after the depression, fur garments remained popular, and the fur trade continued to thrive. The fur manufacturers future was jeopardised in 1938 by crisis in New Zealand's foreign exchange situation. Quantitative import restrictions were introduced, and these initially included a ban on the import of raw and processed furs (as well as garments). The fur trade successfully lobbied, and were able to get some restrictions lifted on raw skins. However this coincided with the advent of New Zealand's involvement in the Second World War and the thesis ends with the fur trade waiting to see how it will be affected by the introduction of war time trade restrictions.

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  • Researching the toxicity of party pills

    Gee, P.; Richardson, S. (2005)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Party pill use is on the increase. A research study at Christchurch Hospital's emergency department is tracking the adverse reactions to ingestion of these substances, which in New Zealand are freely availabe to any one aged over 18.

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  • NESB students - COPing with BICT: one year on

    Nesbit, T.; McPherson, F. (2005)

    Conference paper
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the success of a special foundation programme that has been completed by some international students as their first semester’s study towards the Bachelor of Information and Communication Technologies degree at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology. The findings are useful for evaluating the ongoing use of the special foundation programme and will be of use to other members of the NACCQ sector who are using or considering using a similar foundation programme.

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